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Sample records for jose cabrera npp

  1. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Ondaro, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  2. NPP Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  3. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  4. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  5. NPP Prelaunch Webcast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The NPP Pre-Launch Webcast looks at NASA’s upcoming NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission. NPP represents a critical first step in building the next-generation of Earth-observing satellites. T...

  6. Rio San Jose Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the II residential properties that compose the Rio San Jose Radiation Site located in Laguna, Mesita, Paraje, and Seama, Pueblo of Laguna located in Cibola County, New Mexico.

  7. Jose Vasconcelos, Philosopher-Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Paul Martin

    Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959), a major figure of modern Mexican education, also was instrumental in the development of the field of librarianship in Mexico. This research paper presents Vasconcelos' philosophy of librarianship through a detailed study of his writings and a review of major secondary sources. Relying solely on the subjective…

  8. Jose Vasconcelos, Philosopher-Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Paul Martin

    Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959), a major figure of modern Mexican education, also was instrumental in the development of the field of librarianship in Mexico. This research paper presents Vasconcelos' philosophy of librarianship through a detailed study of his writings and a review of major secondary sources. Relying solely on the subjective…

  9. Joint Optics Structures Experiment (JOSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Founds, David

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the JOSE program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate active vibration suppression techniques for Directed Energy Weapons (DEW). DEW system performance is highly influenced by the line-of-sight (LOS) stability and in some cases by the wave front quality. The missions envisioned for DEW systems by the Strategic Defense Initiative require LOS stability and wave front quality to be significantly improved over any current demonstrated capability. The Active Control of Space Structures (ACOSS) program led to the development of a number of promising structural control techniques. DEW structures are vastly more complex than any structures controlled to date. They will be subject to disturbances with significantly higher magnitudes and wider bandwidths, while holding higher tolerances on allowable motions and deformations. Meeting the performance requirements of the JOSE program requires upgrading the ACOSS techniques to meet new more stringent requirements, the development of requisite sensors and acturators, improved control processors, highly accurate system identification methods, and the integration of hardware and methodologies into a successful demonstration.

  10. Joint Optics Structures Experiment (JOSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founds, David

    1987-06-01

    The objectives of the JOSE program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate active vibration suppression techniques for Directed Energy Weapons (DEW). DEW system performance is highly influenced by the line-of-sight (LOS) stability and in some cases by the wave front quality. The missions envisioned for DEW systems by the Strategic Defense Initiative require LOS stability and wave front quality to be significantly improved over any current demonstrated capability. The Active Control of Space Structures (ACOSS) program led to the development of a number of promising structural control techniques. DEW structures are vastly more complex than any structures controlled to date. They will be subject to disturbances with significantly higher magnitudes and wider bandwidths, while holding higher tolerances on allowable motions and deformations. Meeting the performance requirements of the JOSE program requires upgrading the ACOSS techniques to meet new more stringent requirements, the development of requisite sensors and acturators, improved control processors, highly accurate system identification methods, and the integration of hardware and methodologies into a successful demonstration.

  11. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    The Satellite Operations Facility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is seen here minutes before the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    Dr. Kathy Sullivan, center, Deputy Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and former NASA astronaut is interviewed by a local television network at NOAA's Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland, Md. after the successful launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. NPP Satellite Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-28

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, left, watches the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Center on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. U.S Congresswoman Donna Edwards, D-Md., is seen next to Garver. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  15. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  16. NPP and the Earth System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

  17. Intraspecific variation in the energetics of the Cabrera vole.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Frías, Elena; García-Perea, Rosa; Gisbert, Julio; Bozinovic, Francisco; Virgós, Emilio

    2015-12-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an intensively topic studied in ecophysiology for the purpose of understanding energy budgets of the species, variations of energy expenditure during their diary activities and physiological acclimatization to the environment. Establishing how the metabolism is assembled to the environment can provide valuable data to improve conservation strategies of endangered species. In this sense, metabolic differences associated to habitats have been widely reported in the interspecific level, however little is known about the intraspecific view of BMR under an environmental gradient. In this study, we researched the effect of the habitat on metabolic rate of an Iberian endemic species: Iberomys cabrerae. Animals were captured in different subpopulations of its altitudinal range and their MR was studied over a thermal gradient. MR was analyzed through a Linear Mixed Model (LMM) in which, in addition to thermal effects, the bioclimatic zone and sex also influenced the metabolism of the species. The beginning of thermoneutrality zone was set on 26.5°C and RMR was 2.3ml O2g(-1)h(-1), intermediate between both bioclimatic zones. Supramediterranean subpopulations started the Tlc earlier (24.9°C) and had higher RMR than the mesomediterranean ones (26.9°C). The thermal environment together with primary productivity conditions could explain this difference in the metabolic behaviour of the Cabrera voles.

  18. NUCLEOPORINS NPP-1, NPP-3, NPP-4, NPP-11 and NPP-13 ARE REQUIRED FOR PROPER SPINDLE ORIENTATION IN C. ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Aaron; Askjaer, Peter; Piano, Fabio; Mattaj, Iain; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Nucleoporins are components of the nuclear pore, which is required for nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. We report a role for a subclass of nucleoporins in orienting the mitotic spindle in C. elegans embryos. RNAi-mediated depletion of any of five putative nucleoporins npp-1, npp-3, npp-4, npp-11, and npp-13 leads to indistinguishable spindle orientation defects. Transgenic worms expressing NPP-1::GFP or NPP-11::GFP show GFP localization at the nuclear envelope, consistent with their predicted function. NPP-1 interacts with the other nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid assays suggesting that the proteins affect spindle orientation by a common process. The failed orientation phenotype of npp-1(RNAi) is at least partially epistatic to the ectopic spindle rotation in the AB blastomere of par-3 mutant embryos. This suggests that NPP-1 contributes to the mechanics of spindle orientation. However, NPP-1 is also required for PAR-6 asymmetry at the two-cell stage, indicating that nucleoporins may be required to define cortical domains in the germ line blasotmere P1. Nuclear envelope structure is abnormal in npp-1(RNAi) embryos but the envelope maintains its integrity and most nuclear proteins we assayed accumulate normally. These findings raise the possibility that these nucleoporins may have direct roles in orienting the mitotic spindle and the maintenance of cell polarity. PMID:16325795

  19. Nucleoporins NPP-1, NPP-3, NPP-4, NPP-11 and NPP-13 are required for proper spindle orientation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schetter, Aaron; Askjaer, Peter; Piano, Fabio; Mattaj, Iain; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2006-01-15

    Nucleoporins are components of the nuclear pore, which is required for nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. We report a role for a subclass of nucleoporins in orienting the mitotic spindle in C. elegans embryos. RNAi-mediated depletion of any of five putative nucleoporins npp-1, npp-3, npp-4, npp-11, and npp-13 leads to indistinguishable spindle orientation defects. Transgenic worms expressing NPP-1::GFP or NPP-11::GFP show GFP localization at the nuclear envelope, consistent with their predicted function. NPP-1 interacts with the other nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid assays, suggesting that the proteins affect spindle orientation by a common process. The failed orientation phenotype of npp-1(RNAi) is at least partially epistatic to the ectopic spindle rotation in the AB blastomere of par-3 mutant embryos. This suggests that NPP-1 contributes to the mechanics of spindle orientation. However, NPP-1 is also required for PAR-6 asymmetry at the two-cell stage, indicating that nucleoporins may be required to define cortical domains in the germ line blastomere P1. Nuclear envelope structure is abnormal in npp-1(RNAi) embryos, but the envelope maintains its integrity, and most nuclear proteins we assayed accumulate normally. These findings raise the possibility that these nucleoporins may have direct roles in orienting the mitotic spindle and the maintenance of cell polarity.

  20. San Jose, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Jose, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  1. An Interview with Jose Eustaquio Romao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordao, Clarissa Menezes

    2007-01-01

    In anticipation of the European Union (EU) Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008, Clarissa Menezes Jordao interviewed Jose Eustaquio Romao, Director of the Paulo Freire Institute in Brazil. Her edited translation of that interview is presented here. In the interview Romao, guided by the legacy of Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, discusses the…

  2. The "Autos" of Jose de Anchieta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    College faculty who teach writing courses might find an examination of early religious literature helpful when trying to explain "writing for an audience" or "audience awareness" to their students. The Jesuit priest who preached to and wrote for the Indians in Brazil during the early colonial period, Jose de Anchieta, is a…

  3. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  4. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    NPP Instruments are: (1) well understood thanks to instrument comprehensive test, characterization and calibration programs. (2) Government team ready for October 25 launch followed by instrument activation and Intensive Calibration/Validation (ICV). NPP Data Products preliminary work includes: (1) JPSS Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) team ready to support NPP ICV and operational data products. (2) NASA NPP science team ready to support NPP ICV and EOS data continuity.

  5. College Success and the Black Male. San Jose City College, San Jose, California. Research Report #128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Percy; And Others

    In 1992, a study was conducted at San Jose City College (SJCC) and Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to examine the fourth semester persistence rates of black male students and to investigate the effect of SJCC athletic and athlete academic support programs on persistence. Study findings included the following: (1) new full-time (NFT)…

  6. NPP: Why Another Earth-Observing Satellite?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NPP will soon be NASA's newest Earth-observing satellite. To showcase how NPP will be used for both understanding the health of our planet now -- as well as how things might change in the future --...

  7. RadNet Air Data From San Jose, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Jose, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed.

  9. Jose de Escandon--Colonizer of Nuevo Santander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hubert J.

    Jose de Escandon's colonization work in the present Mexican state of Tamaulipas and the lower Rio Grande valley forms an essential part of the Spanish northern borderlands. Many of the land grants in the area, ranching, and some of the present day agricultural industries originated with the colonization projects initiated by Escandon, who proved…

  10. JOSE, Jupiter orbiting spacecraft: A systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A brief summary of the mechanical properties of Jupiter is presented along with an organizational outline of the entire JOSE program. Other aspects of the program described include: spacecraft design, mission trajectories, altitude control, propulsion subsystem, on-board power supply, spacecraft structures and environmental design considerations, and telemetry.

  11. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nucleoporins NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20 are required for HCP-4 nuclear import to establish correct centromere assembly.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge; Stear, Jeffrey H; Saumweber, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Centromeres form a chromosomal platform for the assembly of the kinetochores, which are required for orderly chromosome segregation. Assembly of both centromeres and kinetochores proceeds by a step-by-step mechanism that is regulated in time and space. It has been suggested that the regulated nuclear import of centromeric proteins is involved in this process. We show that the knockdown of nucleoporins NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects early steps in centromere formation and sister centromere resolution, and results in severe chromosomal defects in the early embryo. These phenotypes mirror the knockdown phenotype of HCP-4 (an ortholog of mammalian CENP-C), a key factor for centromere formation and inner kinetochore assembly. HCP-4 is present in the cytoplasm during interphase. It is imported into nuclei and assembled in centromeres during prophase. Following the knockdown of NPP-10, NPP-13 and NPP-20, HCP-4 remains in the cytosol throughout prophase due to stalled import. In prometaphase and later mitotic stages after breakdown of the nuclear envelope, HCP-4 is not incorporated into centromeres. These results indicate that correct timing of the availability of HCP-4 by nuclear import is essential.

  13. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  14. NPP VIIRS Geometric Performance Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  15. Genetic structure of La Cabrera, Spain, from surnames and migration matrices.

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Blanco Villegas, María José; Pettener, Davide

    2007-12-01

    The genetic structure of La Cabrera (province of Léon, Spain), a highly isolated and inbred population (alpha3 = 0.00482), is analyzed by applying multivariate methods (nonmetric multidimensional scaling, Mantel test, Monmonier's algorithm) to different biodemographic data sets. Isonymy, parent-offspring migration (total, males, females), and marital migration matrices were obtained from 5,714 marriages recorded in 37 parishes (clustered in 4 municipalities) between 1880 and 1989. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationships between the genetic and geographic structures of the area. Endemicity values (diagonal of parent-offspring migration matrices), calculated for both sexes at two hierarchical levels (parishes and municipalities), show that female mobility follows the virilocal migration model at the higher (municipalities) level and the uxorilocal model at the parish level. Analysis of isonymy and parent-offspring migration matrices shows high correspondence between the genetic structure and geographic location of the parishes. In fact, the main reproductive barriers, constructed using Monmonier's algorithm, generally coincide with geographic barriers, highlighting increasing isolation patterns from northwest to southeast. Moreover, the analysis of isonymous relationships, which are influenced by earlier population movements, identifies three parishes whose outlier positions are explained by historical-cultural or geographic reasons. The positive and highly significant values (0.32 < or = r < or = 0.51;p < or = 0.001) given by the Mantel tests underline the dependence of the genetic structure on geographic distance. In confirmation of the endemicity results, the lowest correlation value (r = 0.32) is given by the female migration matrix. When the outlier parishes are omitted from the analysis, the correlation between isonymy and geographic distance increases from 0.35 to 0.46, and the values from the other migration matrices remain unchanged. In

  16. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  17. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  18. NPP Runs the Gauntlet of Environmental Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NPP is lowered into the thermal vacuum chamber. Once inside the Iron Maiden (visible in the lower left) is fitted in place. Then air is pumped out of the chamber and temperature extremes are applied to replicate orbit conditions. Credit: Ball Aerospace The NPP satellite sits surrounded by 144 rock concert speakers. They're stacked in a circle 16 feet high in a testing room at Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colorado. As engineers set up for the environmental test, Pink Floyd's song "Money" plays gently in the background. The music stops. The room clears. Then the sound engineer wearing earplugs and headphones in the control room next door flips a switch. Slowly, the noise of thousands of pounds of exploding rocket fuel builds louder and louder until it blasts the satellite at a deafening 143.6 decibels -- loud enough to cause serious damage and pain to unprotected ears. "I was outside the building when they did the full level acoustics," says Glenn Iona, NPP Chief Engineer at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "and I could feel the ground shaking." To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/npp-testing.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. NPP After Launch: Characterizing ATMS Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. Although several teams from the government and the instrument contractor will be assessing and characterizing the performance of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) sounding suite, the NASA NPP Science Team will be paying particular attention to the aspects of these sensors that affect their utility for atmospheric and climate research. In this talk we discuss relevant aspects of ATMS and our post launch analysis approach.

  20. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of the Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cribb, J.W.; Lewis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, located in the NW Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, is a heterogeneous intrusive complex composed of a zoned ultramafic-mafic core surrounded by tonalite and diorite. The batholith intrudes metasbasaltic rocks of the Duarte Complex of early Cretaceous age. The ultramafic-mafic core consists of peridotite, olivine-pyroxenite, pyroxenite, and augite-hypersthene gabbro-norite. Pyroxenites and gabbro-norites exhibit large scale interlayering and small scale layering involving a regular variation in the proportions of ortho- and clinopyroxene. Tonalities and diorites are mafic to leucocratic, some being porphyritic. Petrographic types include hornblende, hornblende-pyroxene, hornblende-biotite, and muscovite-biotite types. Aplites are abundant. Intrusive relations suggest that ultramafic-mafic complex is the oldest intrusive phase, and was partially amphibolitized during later intrusion of the felsic rocks. Ultramafic-mafic rocks contain 43-54% SiO/sub 2/ and MgO ranges from 8-45%. Trace and REE in these rocks are relatively depleted. Tonalitic rocks range in SiO/sub 2/ from 53-76%, with K/sub 2/O varying from 0.15-2.9%. In addition, they are LREE enriched. A small Eu anomaly is best explained by fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. Trends shown by Rb-Sr data suggest that fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase, that is high level fractionation, is the important factor in controlling chemical variation in the tonalites.

  2. Antimicrobial phenylpropanoids from the Argentinean highland plant Parastrephia lucida (Meyen) Cabrera.

    PubMed

    D'Almeida, Romina E; Alberto, María R; Quispe, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María I

    2012-07-13

    The Argentinean highland plant Parastrephia lucida (Meyen) Cabrera is used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory crude drug. To relate the antimicrobial effect of the crude drug with the constituents of the active fractions and traditional use. Assay-guided isolation of the methanol (MeOH) plant extract was carried out using bacteria and yeasts as target organisms. Both ATCC and local strains were included in the study. The antimicrobial fractions and compounds were detected by bioautographic assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract and fraction were determined and compared with reference antibiotics. Fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. From the MeOH extract of the plant, assay-guided isolation of the antimicrobial constituents led to 12 phenylpropanoids and two simple phenolics. Most of the compounds occurring in the active fractions were E-caffeoyl or E-cinnamoyl esters including prenyl and phenethyl derivatives. The MIC values of the most active fractions ranged between 12.5 and 200 μg/mL against reference strains and local isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial effect found in the crude drug was associated with mixtures of phenylpropanoids, including prenyl and phenethyl esters of caffeic and cinnamic acids. The results support at least in part the traditional use of the plant as local antiseptic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Residence time and Posidonia oceanica in Cabrera Archipelago National Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfila, A.; Jordi, A.; Basterretxea, G.; Vizoso, G.; Marbà, N.; Duarte, C. M.; Werner, F. E.; Tintoré, J.

    2005-07-01

    Flushing time and residence time are studied in a small inlet in Cabrera National Park, Western Mediterranean Sea. Flushing time is studied using ADCP in situ data. Observed flushing time data are compared with the simulations from a three-dimensional coastal ocean numerical model. Residence time is assessed using virtual lagrangian particles and studying the number remaining within the analyzed domain. Results show a good agreement between observations and modeling estimations of the flushing time (i.e. 6 days from the ADCP data and 5.6 days from the numerical model). Residence time estimations yield a broad range of values, from 1 h in the Bay to over 30 days depending also on the horizontal and vertical position where particles were released. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model for the Port yields a value of 8.7 days. Results obtained for the residence time appear to have a determinant impact over the meadows of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, present inside the Port. Recirculation patterns and complex flows in coastal environments create a non-uniform distribution of the areas of accumulation of non-conservative properties that indicate that residence time concept is the correct approach when studying the impact of water transport over biological communities.

  4. Calibration support for NPP VIIRS SDR assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Wu, Aisheng; Sun, Junqiang; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2010-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the instruments included in the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), which is a joint mission between NASA and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO). The NPP provides a bridge between the current Earth Observing System (EOS) and future NPOESS missions by testing the pre-operational on-orbit system and providing risk reduction for key NPOESS instruments. The VIIRS exploits design concepts of advanced sensors, such as the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and development of data products on the NASA EOS. It is designed to provide continuity of global observations of land, ocean, cloud, and atmospheric parameters, called Environmental Data Records (EDRs), for real-time meteorological operations and long-term climate change research. This paper provides a brief overview of the VIIRS instrument on-orbit radiometric calibration and characterization activities supported by the NASA NPP Instrument Calibration and Support Element (NICSE). The NICSE is part of the Science Data Segment (SDS) within the NASA NPP program. This paper focuses on the capability and responsibility of NICSE, the tool development for post-launch calibration, and activities to assess sensor performance through the use of its On-board Calibrators (OBCs), as well as to independently verify the quality of VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs).

  5. I Can Do That: Lorena Mata--San Jose Public Library, CA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article details the work of Lorena Mata of the San Jose Public Library. Fresh out of library school, Lorena Mata has already made a mark on her community. At the San Jose Public Library (SJPL) she conducts public Internet classes in Spanish and English and gives quarterly English and Spanish-language presentations at neighborhood academies.…

  6. Nuclear Science in the Undergraduate Curriculum: The New Nuclear Science Facility at San Jose State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, A. Campbell

    1979-01-01

    The following aspects of the radiochemistry program at San Jose State University in California are described: the undergraduate program in radiation chemistry, the new nuclear science facility, and academic programs in nuclear science for students not attending San Jose State University. (BT)

  7. Nuclear Science in the Undergraduate Curriculum: The New Nuclear Science Facility at San Jose State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, A. Campbell

    1979-01-01

    The following aspects of the radiochemistry program at San Jose State University in California are described: the undergraduate program in radiation chemistry, the new nuclear science facility, and academic programs in nuclear science for students not attending San Jose State University. (BT)

  8. I Can Do That: Lorena Mata--San Jose Public Library, CA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article details the work of Lorena Mata of the San Jose Public Library. Fresh out of library school, Lorena Mata has already made a mark on her community. At the San Jose Public Library (SJPL) she conducts public Internet classes in Spanish and English and gives quarterly English and Spanish-language presentations at neighborhood academies.…

  9. La Biblioteca Latino Americana: User Survey (San Jose Public Library). Studies in Librarianship No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, James C.; And Others

    To assist a neighborhood committee in applying for federal funding of a bilingual/bicultural library with a distinct Latin American emphasis, a student research group from San Jose State University designed and administered a bilingual questionnaire to a stratified sample of 400 households in the Gardner District of San Jose, California. The…

  10. San Jose/Evergreen Community College District: Governing Board's Strategic Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Jose/Evergreen Community Coll. District, San Jose, CA.

    This report presents San Jose/Evergreen Community College District Governing Board's Strategic Master Plan. This report summarizes the district's mission statement, goal statements, and board priorities. The San Jose/Evergreen Community College District is committed to providing open access and opportunity for success to its multi-ethnic…

  11. 75 FR 11939 - Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. (ISSI); San Jose, CA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. (ISSI); San Jose, CA; Notice of... Silicon Solution, Inc., San Jose, California. The petitioner has requested that the petition be withdrawn...

  12. La Biblioteca Latino Americana: User Survey (San Jose Public Library). Studies in Librarianship No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, James C.; And Others

    To assist a neighborhood committee in applying for federal funding of a bilingual/bicultural library with a distinct Latin American emphasis, a student research group from San Jose State University designed and administered a bilingual questionnaire to a stratified sample of 400 households in the Gardner District of San Jose, California. The…

  13. 77 FR 74458 - Enterysys Corporation, with Last Known Addresses of: 1307 Muench Court, San Jose, CA 95131 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ..., San Jose, CA 95131 and Plot No. 39, Public Sector, Employees Colony, New Bowenpally 500011... Muench Court, San Jose, California 95131, and Plot No. 39, Public Sector, Employees Colony, New... Court, San Jose, CA 95131 and Plot No. 39, Public Sector, Employees Colony, New Bowenpally...

  14. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.; Andreas, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Given a launch date for the NPP spacecraft on the near horizon and the need for users to become familiar with NPP environmental products, this paper will provide an overview of all the products generated by the IDPS and provided to NOAA’s Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) for public distribution. It will discuss each of the 25 NPP EDRs in detail, including a description of the EDR, its size, coverage, measurement range, and expected uses.

  15. Jpss System Architecture Npp to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Trumbower, G.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA in the 1330 local time of ascending node (LTAN) orbit. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) was launched into the 1330 LTAN orbit on October 28, 2011, and carries advanced sensors which will be featured on JPSS. It serves as a bridge mission and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the POES. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in 2017. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD is operating in the 1730 LTAN orbit. The DoD is developing the Defense Weather Satellite Follow-on (WSF) system which will continue in the 1730 orbit. NASA is developing the Common Ground System (CGS) with the capability to process data from both the JPSS and WSF constellations. The CGS will be operated by NOAA. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers as well as remote terminal users.

  16. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel

  17. Expression of NPP1 is regulated during atheromatous plaque calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Yvonne; Hartmann, Simone; Torsello, Giovanni; Horstmann, Rüdiger; Seifarth, Harald; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mutations of the ENPP1 gene encoding ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) are associated with medial calcification in infancy. While the inhibitory role of matrix proteins such as osteopontin (OPN) with respect to atherosclerotic plaque calcification has been established, the role of NPP1 in plaque calcification is not known. We assessed the degree of plaque calcification (computed tomography), NPP1 and OPN localization (immunohistochemistry) and expression (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 45 patients undergoing carotid endatherectomy for significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery and in normal arteries (N= 50). We correlated NPP1 and OPN expression levels to the degree of plaque calcification, to pro-atherogenic factors and statin therapy. NPP1 was demonstrated in the base and in the shoulder of atherosclerotic plaques. Compared to normal arteries and non-calcified plaques, in calcified plaques NPP1 mRNA was decreased (P < 0.0001). OPN mRNA levels were up-regulated in carotid atheroma. NPP1 and OPN expression levels positively correlated with the degree of plaque calcification (R= 0.54, P= 0.00019 and R= 0.46, P= 0.017, respectively) and with risk factors of atherosclerosis. Expression of the calcification inhibitor NPP1 is down-regulated in calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Our correlation data point to a counter-active mechanism, which in the end turns out to be insufficient to prevent further progression of calcification. PMID:20015201

  18. Investigation of TFE collector insulation of thermionic NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Y.V.; Vasilchenko, A.V.; Lapochkin, N.V.; Tzetzhladze, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Various configurations of thermionic fuel element (TFE) collector insulation of thermionic nuclear power plant (NPP) have been considered. The results of the experimental studies of collector insulation samples are presented. Their serviceability and high insulating characteristics which meet the requirements of high-voltage thermionic NPP have been shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. An Improved Method for NPP Estimation in Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Feng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic monitoring of vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) is of great importance for better understanding the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. By analyzing the dependence of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on cosine of solar zenith angle and clearness index (Kt), an efficient all-sky model was introduced for estimating PAR under various sky conditions. As a key variable in NPP estimation, light use efficiencies were also improved by considering the stress factors of temperature/humidity for different types of vegetation. Seasonal and interannual variations of NPP in Wuhan, China from 2001 to 2010 were then investigated using MODIS products and ground meteorological data. The results showed that NPP increased slightly from 2001 to 2005 and decreased from 2005 to 2010; annual mean NPP was about 502 gCm-2a-1. Significant differences in NPP values for different vegetation types were also found: evergreen broadleaf vegetation produced the highest annual NPP value of 1016.7gCm-2a-1, and annual grass vegetation had the lowest mean value of 448 gCm-2a-1. This study will improve our basic understanding of carbon cycling process in the study area and the proposed model will be useful for other regional NPP estimations in the world.

  20. Racial Turmoil at San Jose State: The Incident of the 1967 University of Texas at El Paso vs. San Jose State Football Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronopoulos, Themis

    This paper analyzes the 1967 protest by San Jose State College (California) black student athletes against racial discrimination. It claims that the discrimination they experienced was grounded in pervasive racism at that college and eventually had a long term symbolic and concrete effect on black students and higher education. Harry Edwards, a…

  1. Differential reproductive pattern in a rural Spanish region (La Cabrera, León): Consequences for potential natural selection.

    PubMed

    Villegas, María José Blanco; Fuster, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    La Cabrera (northwest Spain), the study area, during most of the period examined (1880-1969) was characterized by high inbreeding levels and internal subdivision, which probably favoured the action of genetic drift and genetic differentiation. Indices regarding potential selection based on variables related to the reproductive pattern of reconstituted families with complete reproductive cycles (n = 1498) were analysed. A traditional demographic context, characterized by a reduction of mortality resulting in the remarkable increase of number of survivors to reproductive age, is distinguished from a recent context in which survival was similar (approximately 89%) and the fall of mortality and natality proportional. In general, fertility differentials (I(f)) and martality differentials (I(m)) have similar values. Regarding temporal variation, I(m) reduces systematically, with maximum value corresponding to the first decade (1880-1899, I(m) = 0.493) and minimum to the last (1950-1959, I(m) = 0.149). I(f) remains rather stable throughout most of the period studied (1880-1939, I(f) 0.6), increasing slightly in the later decade (1950-1959, I(f) = 0.694). During the years considered, the reproductive pattern in La Cabrera provided an optimal number of offspring by maintaining a balance between high fertility and high pre-reproductive mortality. Despite relaxation of natural selection, it was observed that biological and environmental factors remained active, resulting in high neonatal mortality. However, differential fertility variability, probably reinforced by persistent inbreeding and by the Wahlund effect, explains the differential gene transmission better than does mortality.

  2. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  4. Suomi-NPP VIIRS unscheduled lunar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Fulbright, Jon P.

    2016-10-01

    Lunar observations by the Suomi-NPP instrument VIIRS are scheduled on a nearly monthly basis at a phase angle of approximately -51 degrees. The lunar images acquired during scheduled observations have been used for radiometric calibration stability monitoring of the reflective solar bands, band-to-band registration characterization, modulation transfer function derivation and electric crosstalk examination. A satellite roll maneuver is usually necessary for the Moon to be viewed by VIIRS detectors, which results in the loss of approximately 20-minute science data during the period. Without any scheduling, the Moon has also been regularly observed when it intrudes the field of view of the instrument's space view port. Since the launch of Suomi-NPP in late 2011, nearly 200 unscheduled lunar observations have been made with complete lunar images captured by at least two spectral bands. These observations are made at a larger phase angle from -45 to -90 degrees and libration angle range than the scheduled lunar observation. In this paper, the strategies and methodologies of lunar calibration developed for scheduled lunar observations are applied to these unscheduled lunar observations, with necessary adaptation to account for the differences in data format. The result from the unscheduled lunar observations are provided, with the focus of it comparison with the results from scheduled lunar observations as well as solar diffuser (SD) calibration. Overall, the long-term trends of these results agree with each other and the trends from the un-scheduled lunar calibration show more fluctuation. For radiometric calibration, the difference between the lunar calibration and SD calibration strongly depends on phase angles and libration angles. If the VIIRS measurement is accurate, this indicates that the lunar irradiance reference for the radiometric calibration, modeled by the USGS robotic lunar observatory (ROLO), carries systematic error that changes with these photometric

  5. 78 FR 40691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, California; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, California; Application for Reorganization...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board by the City of San Jose, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 18, requesting authority... Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally docketed on July 1, 2013. FTZ 18 was approved by the Board on...

  6. 77 FR 21527 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA Application for Reorganization Under...) by the City of San Jose, grantee of FTZ 18, requesting authority to reorganize the zone under the... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on April 4, 2012. FTZ 18 was approved by the...

  7. 76 FR 31954 - San Jose Water Company; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... which the PRVs are placed, carries water from the city's water treatment plant and is part of the San Jose public drinking water system. The water supplied to the water treatment plant comes from three... Energy Regulatory Commission San Jose Water Company; Notice of Declaration of Intention and...

  8. Fire Risk Analysis for Armenian NPP Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Poghosyan, Shahen; Malkhasyan, Albert; Bznuni, Surik; Amirjanyan, Armen

    2006-07-01

    Major fire occurred at Armenian NPP (ANPP) in October 1982 showed that fire-induced initiating events (IE) can have dominant contribution in overall risk of core damage. Probabilistic Safety Assessment study for fire-induced initiating events for ANPP was initiated in 2002. Analysis was performed for compartments fires in which could result in failure of components which are necessary for reactor cold shutdown. Analysis shows that main risk from fire at ANPP is conditioned by fire in cable tunnels 61-64. Meanwhile fire in confinement compartments don't have significant contribution to overall risk of core damage. The exception is so called 'confinement valves compartment' (room no.A-013/2) fire (more than 7.5% of CDF) in which fire could result in the loss of coolant accident with unavailability of primary makeup system, which directly leads to core damage. Detailed analysis of this problem that is common for typical WWER-440/230 reactors with no hermetic MCPs and recommendations for solution are presented in this paper. (authors)

  9. Lessons learnt from Ignalina NPP decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    NAISSE, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1. of May 2004, the Republic of Lithuania became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; - On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement, the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objective of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit. (author)

  10. Moisture Separator Reheater for NPP Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Jun; Kasahara, Jiro

    This paper introduces the development of the current model Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) for nuclear power plant (NPP) turbines, commercially placed in service in the period 1984-1997, focusing on the mist separation performance of the MSR along with drainage from heat exchanger tubes. A method of predicting the mist separation performance was devised first based on the observation of mist separation behaviors under an air-water test. Then the method was developed for the application to predict under the steam conditions, followed by the verification in comparison with the actual results of a steam condition test. The instability of tube drainage associated with both sub-cooling and temperature oscillation might adversely affect the seal welding of tubes to tube sheet due to thermal fatigue. The instability was measured on an existing unit to clarify behaviors and the development of a method to suppress them. Both methods were applied to newly constructed units and the effectiveness of the methods was demonstrated.

  11. NPP/NPOESS Joint Government SSPR Contractor Calibration and Validation program: system perspective, cooperative strategy and path to NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottman, Brian T.; Mussetto, Michael S.; McCarthy, James K.; Emch, Pamela G.; Shipley, Scott T.; St. Germain, Karen; Mango, Stephen A.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    2004-09-01

    The overall objective of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Joint Government Shared System Performance Responsibility (SSPR) Contractor Calibration Validation (CalVal) Program is to ensure the environmental data products meet the system specification, and satisfy the users and scientific community. Work spans all program phases, from pre-launch sensor characterization and data prduct verification to on-orbit calibration verification/data product validation and long-term data product quality monitoring/maintenance. A cooperative approach is in place to leverage expertisxe throughout the program-developer, government-customer and users, and scientific community. Draft Calibration and Validation Plans are in development and NPP pre-launch activities are under way. This paper provides an NPP/NPOESS Cal Val Program system perspective, describes the cooperative strategy, and summarizes progress and planned activities to ensure a successful NPP mission.

  12. San Jose/Evergreen Community College District: Information Systems Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Jose/Evergreen Community Coll. District, San Jose, CA.

    This report presents the San Jose/Evergreen Community College District information systems technology plan. It outlines the following five global objectives: (1) develop an information technology infrastructure to support and facilitate administration, instruction, and student services; (2) establish electronic communications as the basis for…

  13. Maintaining Large and Small Corporate Websites: San Jose City College's Website Administration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Lucy

    The report describes San Jose College's (California) two Web site management and design programs, and provides employment information and job market analysis for the field. The College's Web Site Administration and Web Application Solutions programs offer classes designed to give students the necessary skills in administering a Web site and in…

  14. San Jose Unified School District Health & Safety Guide for Facilities and Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide from the San Jose Unified School District describes recommended procedures to promote and maintain a healthy and safe school environment during maintenance, modernization, or construction. Guidelines are presented in the following areas: (1) construction safety; (2) communication; (3) material selection; (4) heating, ventilation, and…

  15. Afternoon College: A Self-Contained Afternoon Scheduling Approach at San Jose City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, William; And Others

    In fall 1992, San Jose City College (SJCC) in California developed Afternoon College to determine if afternoon hours could be scheduled effectively by offering a coherent block of transfer courses. Afternoon College was designed to offer the college's entire 39 units of general education in a 1- or 2-year rotation. Project goals included the more…

  16. Comparisons among Three Diverse Cities: San Jose, California, Seattle, Washington, and St. Louis, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Barbara R.

    Although some comparisons among three diverse cities were made, the three cities were selected precisely because they represented diverse clusters of urban problems. San Jose, California, was the scene of very rapid growth for more than a decade. St. Louis, Missouri, on the other hand, contained the prototypical problems of a declining central…

  17. Satellite Animation Shows Hurricane Maria and Post-Tropical Storm Jose

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-23

    This animation of NOAA's GOES East satellite imagery from Sept. 21 at 7:45 a.m. EDT (1145 UTC) to Sept. 23 ending at 7:45 a.m. EDT (1145 UTC) shows Jose becoming a post-tropical storm winding down near New England while Hurricane Maria moved over Puerto Rico and toward the Bahamas.

  18. Satellite Animation Sees Category 4 Hurricane Irma and Jose, Katia Landfall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-09

    This animation of NOAA's GOES East satellite imagery from Sept. 6 at 9:45 a.m. EDT (1345 UTC) to Sept. 9 ending at 10:15 a.m. EDT (1415 UTC) shows Category 4 Hurricane Irma approaching south Florida and Category 4 Hurricane Jose approach the northern Leeward Islands. Meanwhile, Hurricane Storm Katia made landfall and dissipated in eastern Mexico.

  19. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  20. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  1. A Transpacific Voyage: The Representation of Asia in Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi's "El Periquillo Sarniento"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagimoto, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This essay seeks to explore the representation of Asia in Jose Joaquin Fernandez de Lizardi's "El Periquillo Sarniento" (1816), which is often considered the first novel produced in Latin America. Although many scholars have examined the picaresque element as well as the nationalist aspect of the novel, the Asian presence in Fernandez de…

  2. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Mutnuru, R. K.; Neukaeter, Erwin; Bitterli, Beat

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  3. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  4. Suomi NPP OMPS limb profiler initial sensor performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaross, Glen; Chen, Grace; Kowitt, Mark; Warner, Jeremy; Xu, Philippe; Kelly, Thomas; Linda, Michael; Flittner, David

    2012-11-01

    Following the successful launch of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA OMPS Limb team began an evaluation of sensor and data product performance in relation to the original goals for this instrument. Does the sensor design work as well as expected, and can limb scatter measurements by NPP OMPS and successor instruments form the basis for accurate long-term monitoring of ozone vertical profiles? While this paper does not address the latter question, the answer to the former is a qualified Yes given this early stage of the mission.

  5. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  6. Multi-scale evaluation of ISIMIP biome models against NDVI and MODIS NPP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Zhao, Fang; Zeng, Ning; Asrar, Ghassem; Reyer, Christopher; Ostberg, Sebastian; Francois, Louis; Tian, Hanqin; Chnag, Jinfeng; Nishina, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) is commonly used for understanding the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in carbon cycle. The global NPP, highly variable over space and time, cannot be directly observed, therefore, satellite based observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used as a proxy to understand and monitor the NPP dynamics. In this study, we used a combination of most recent NDVI and modeled NPP data for the period 1982-2012, to study the role of terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle under the prevailing climate conditions. We found that in general there is good agreement between the spatial patterns and global seasonal cycles between observed NDVI and modeled NPP values. Simulated NPP values also generally agree with MODIS NPP spatially, and temporally, MODIS NPP falls within the model spread of NPP values. Despite of the general agreement in the trends of global total NDVI, MODIS NPP and modeled NPP, considerable spatial differences are found, and the ensemble mean of the models often agrees better with the spatial patterns of observed NDVI and MODIS NPP than individual models.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  8. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  9. Regional and Satellite Data on NPP: Comparison, Estimation and Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvaev, Andrey; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Ivanova, Yuliya

    Changes that take place nowadays in planet climatic system are acknowledged fact. The doubts and disagreements arise about the questions on mechanisms and the causes of changes. Majority of researches suppose that the reason is in the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. Our investigation is directed to studying the carbon fluxes in forest ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The data from the longstanding measurements of the trees morphometric parameters at the Ermakov region of Krasnoyarsk territory were used for computation. The obtained data of territory NPP was analyzed and compared with the data obtained from remote probing that were computed by means of the well-known global production efficiency model (GloPEM). Detail investigation of forest ecosystems NPP in situ makes us able to estimate the NPP value space monitoring quality. Also the results obtained can be used for verification of the biosphere model both on the study of the NPP dynamics level and in future for the working up the possible scenarios of climatic changes.

  10. Evaluation of MODIS NPP and GPP products across multiple biomes.

    Treesearch

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Stith T. Gower; Steve W. Running; Maosheng Zhao; Marcos H. Costa; Al A. Kirschbaum; Jay M. Ham; Scott R. Saleska; Douglas E. Ahl

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of daily gross primary production (GPP) and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution are now produced operationally for the global terrestrial surface using imagery from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. Ecosystem-level measurements of GPP at eddy covariance flux towers and plot-level measurements of...

  11. Software to Compare NPP HDF5 Data Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, Chiu P.; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Ruley, LaMont T.

    2013-01-01

    This software was developed for the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment. The purpose of this software is to compare HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format) files specific to NPP and report whether the HDF5 files are identical. If the HDF5 files are different, users have the option of printing out the list of differences in the HDF5 data files. The user provides paths to two directories containing a list of HDF5 files to compare. The tool would select matching HDF5 file names from the two directories and run the comparison on each file. The user can also select from three levels of detail. Level 0 is the basic level, which simply states whether the files match or not. Level 1 is the intermediate level, which lists the differences between the files. Level 2 lists all the details regarding the comparison, such as which objects were compared, and how and where they are different. The HDF5 tool is written specifically for the NPP project. As such, it ignores certain attributes (such as creation_date, creation_ time, etc.) in the HDF5 files. This is because even though two HDF5 files could represent exactly the same granule, if they are created at different times, the creation date and time would be different. This tool is smart enough to ignore differences that are not relevant to NPP users.

  12. Progress in Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ancius, Darius; Krenevicius, Rimantas; Kutas, Saulius; Chouha, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the Lithuanian legal framework regarding the nuclear safety in Decommissioning and Waste Management, and the progress in the Decommissioning Programme of the unit 1 of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). INPP is the only nuclear plant in Lithuania. It comprises two RBMK-1500 reactors. After Lithuania has restored its independence, responsibility for Ignalina NPP was transferred to the Republic of Lithuania. To ensure the control of the Nuclear Safety in Lithuania, The State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) was created on 18 October 1991, by a resolution of the Lithuanian Government. Significant work has been performed over the last decade, aiming at upgrading the safety level of the Ignalina NPP with reference to the International standards. On 5 October 1999 the Seimas (Parliament) adopted the National Energy Strategy: It has been decided that unit 1 of Ignalina NPP will be closed down before 2005, The conditions and precise final date of the decommissioning of Unit 2 will be stated in the updated National Energy strategy in 2004. On 20-21 June 2000, the International Donors' Conference for the Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP took place in Vilnius. More than 200 Millions Euro were pledged of which 165 M funded directly from the European Union's budget, as financial support to the Decommissioning projects. The Decommissioning Program encompasses legal, organizational, financial and technical means including the social and economical impacts in the region of Ignalina. The Program is financed from International Support Fund, State budget, National Decommissioning Fund of Ignalina NPP and other funds. Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP is subject to VATESI license according to the Law on Nuclear Energy. The Government established the licensing procedure in the so-called 'Procedure for licensing of Nuclear Activities'; and the document 'General Requirements for Decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP' has been issued by VATESI. A

  13. NPP training simulators in Hungary experience in development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Janosy, J.S.

    1996-11-01

    The construction of the only NPP in Hungary - the Paks NPP - started in 1975. The four units of VVER-440/213 were connected to the grid in 1982, 1984, 1986 and 1987. During the construction no simulator has been delivered with the power plant. Moreover, there were no state-of-art simulators in Central and Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union; not for the given type, not for civil use. The only simulator for the VVER-440 existing that time was made for the Loviisa NPP in Finland. This plant is not very similar to the Paks NPP; moreover, the pressure suppression system in the hermetical part of the primary circuit, the instrumentation and control systems, the main control room and the secondary circuit are completely different. Anyway, the training of Paks operators on this simulator was out of question - regardless the similarity problems. The design of the Paks NPP was made in the Soviet Union, therefore not too much design information was available in Hungary. During the creation of simulation models the authors had to rely mostly on common theory and measured performance. Besides the efforts to create a basic principle, full-scope replica and compact simulators there was a great need to use verified codes with more detailed models for better understanding the behavior and for evaluation of the safety. Thanks to these great efforts, the simulators were expanded to evaluate the performance of the trainees, for simulation of SBLOCA and LBLOCA events; the authors are checking and validating the operational procedures; soon they start the design of the functions of a new reactor protection system and they participate in international efforts to deliver training simulators to other VVER-440 power plants. The paper gives an overview of all these activities, referring to some key publications for each of them.

  14. Physiologic and pathologic functions of the NPP nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family focusing on NPP1 in calcification.

    PubMed

    Terkeltaub, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The catabolism of ATP and other nucleotides participates partly in the important function of nucleotide salvage by activated cells and also in removal or de novo generation of compounds including ATP, ADP, and adenosine that stimulate purinergic signaling. Seven nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase NPP family members have been identified to date. These isoenzymes, related by up conservation of catalytic domains and certain other modular domains, exert generally non-redundant functions via distinctions in substrates and/or cellular localization. But they share the capacity to hydrolyze phosphodiester or pyrophosphate bonds, though generally acting on distinct substrates that include nucleoside triphosphates, lysophospholipids and choline phosphate esters. PP(i) generation from nucleoside triphosphates, catalyzed by NPP1 in tissues including cartilage, bone, and artery media smooth muscle cells, supports normal tissue extracellular PP(i) levels. Balance in PP(i) generation relative to PP(i) degradation by pyrophosphatases holds extracellular PP(i) levels in check. Moreover, physiologic levels of extracellular PP(i) suppress hydroxyapatite crystal growth, but concurrently providing a reservoir for generation of pro-mineralizing P(i). Extracellular PP(i) levels must be supported by cells in mineralization-competent tissues to prevent pathologic calcification. This support mechanism becomes dysregulated in aging cartilage, where extracellular PP(i) excess, mediated in part by upregulated NPP1 expression stimulates calcification. PP(i) generated by NPP1modulates not only hydroxyapatite crystal growth but also chondrogenesis and expression of the mineralization regulator osteopontin. This review pays particular attention to the role of NPP1-catalyzed PP(i) generation in the pathogenesis of certain disorders associated with pathologic calcification.

  15. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  16. Mapping and analysing cropland use intensity from a NPP perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas; Fetzel, Tamara; Haberl, Helmut; Kroisleitner, Christine; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Meeting expected surges in global biomass demand while protecting pristine ecosystems likely requires intensification of current croplands. Yet many uncertainties relate to the potentials for cropland intensification, mainly because conceptualizing and measuring land use intensity is intricate, particularly at the global scale. We present a spatially explicit analysis of global cropland use intensity, following an ecological energy flow perspective. We analyze (a) changes of net primary production (NPP) from the potential system (i.e. assuming undisturbed vegetation) to croplands around 2000 and relate these changes to (b) inputs of (N) fertilizer and irrigation and (c) to biomass outputs, allowing for a three dimensional focus on intensification. Globally the actual NPP of croplands, expressed as per cent of their potential NPP (NPPact%), amounts to 77%. A mix of socio-economic and natural factors explains the high spatial variation which ranges from 22.6% to 416.0% within the inner 95 percentiles. NPPact% is well below NPPpot in many developing, (Sub-) Tropical regions, while it massively surpasses NPPpot on irrigated drylands and in many industrialized temperate regions. The interrelations of NPP losses (i.e. the difference between NPPact and NPPpot), agricultural inputs and biomass harvest differ substantially between biogeographical regions. Maintaining NPPpot was particularly N-intensive in forest biomes, as compared to cropland in natural grassland biomes. However, much higher levels of biomass harvest occur in forest biomes. We show that fertilization loads correlate with NPPact% linearly, but the relation gets increasingly blurred beyond a level of 125 kgN ha-1. Thus, large potentials exist to improve N-efficiency at the global scale, as only 10% of global croplands are above this level. Reallocating surplus N could substantially reduce NPP losses by up to 80% below current levels and at the same time increase biomass harvest by almost 30%. However, we

  17. Ignalina NPP Unit 2 Gas Gap Probabilistic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgita Simaityte Volskiene; Augutis, Juozas; Uspuras, Eugenijus

    2006-07-01

    One of the factors limiting RMBK service life is the closure of the gas gap between the pressure tubes and the graphite masonry. The objective of the present work is to develop a mathematical model for Unit 2 of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) reactor, in Lithuania, which estimates the probability of the presence of a gas gap for different periods of operation. The calculations are based on collected data of graphite and pressure tube diameters and burn up measurements in period 1983-2005. There were no performed enough measurements for Unit 2, but big amount of statistical data was available for Unit 1. Therefore Unit 1 data properties were analyzed and constructed model was applied for INPP reactor Unit 2. The main analysis results are gas gap existence probabilities evaluation and the issued channel measuring strategies for the next planed preventive maintenance period for Ignalina NPP. (authors)

  18. Performance of the NPP CrIS Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emch, P. G.; Farrow, S. V.; Gu, D.; Wang, C.; Hagan, D. E.; Sabet-Peyman, F.

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the first Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flight instrument and its data product performance. Together with ATMS, the CrIS sensor is a critical payload for National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) providing temperature and moisture profiles, and will first fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission, the risk reduction flight for NPOESS. NPOESS is the next generation weather and climate monitoring system for the Department of Defense and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), being developed under contract by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. The NPP flight sensor has recently completed thermal vacuum, electro-magnetic interference, and vibration testing. By the time of the presentation, the sensor sell-off is expected to have been completed as well. An overview of the sensor, the FM1 measurement performance, and details of the retrieval algorithms will be provided in this presentation.

  19. Radioecological Investigations of the Area around the Belene NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, Hr.; Balabanov, N.; Marinova, S.; Zaprianova, P.; Nedeva, P.; Blagoeva, E.; Philipov, M.; Gustova, M.; Maslov, O.

    2010-01-21

    The report presents the results from research of contents of U and Th in soil samples from the region of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The report presents the investigations for sorption of U in the system soil-water from region. The report presents similarly the results for the natural radiation background--about 0,14 muSv/h, for the investigated region.

  20. Air pollution from aircraft operations at San Jose Municipal Airport, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of air pollution discharged by arriving and departing aircraft at the San Jose Municipal Airport was estimated. These estimates were made for each one hour interval of a summer weekday in 1977. The contributions of both general aviation (personal and business aircraft) and certified air carriers (scheduled airliners) were considered. The locations at which the pollutants were discharged were estimated by approximating the flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft. Three types of pollutants were considered: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.

  1. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  2. 2015 Summer Series - Dr. Jose Funes - A Cosmic End: From the Earth to the Universe

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-23

    Throughout history, humans have used religion and science to explain the world, the universe and the origin of life. Our future lies in our ability to understand Earth and the universe beyond. At times, these may have been seen as two different camps, polarizing the methodology by which we study where we came from and where we are going. Will all life end with Earth, or is life a common phenomenon in the universe? Father Doctor Jose Funes provides an insight on cosmology from the Vatican.

  3. Metal content in seston from the San Jose Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, M.N.; Esteves, J.L. ); Sastre, V.; Santinelli, N. )

    1989-09-01

    Seston is formed by a living fraction (plankton) and a dead fraction (tripton). Plankton are capable of concentrating large quantities of heavy metals from seawater, and this provides an entry into the marine food web. Tripton also accumulate metals by adsorption on its inorganic particles or by affinity with organic materials. There is information about metal content in mollusks and sediments from the Patagonian coast, but no data are available for seston. In this report the authors present baseline levels of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni in seston from the San Jose Gulf, a semiarid area with no human-industrial settlement on its coast.

  4. ISS Pass Over Hurricane Jose and Hurricane Irma 9/8/17

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-08

    The International Space Station passed over two major Atlantic hurricanes on Friday, Sept. 8. First, the station flew approximately 250 miles over Hurricane Jose at approximately 10:10 a.m. EDT while the Category 3 storm was in the Atlantic just east of the Caribbean. One orbit of the Earth later, the station flew over Hurricane Irma at approximately 11:40 a.m. EDT. The powerful Category 4 storm had already brought destructive wind and rain to islands across the Caribbean and is forecast to impact the Florida peninsula.

  5. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  6. Integrating the Clearance in NPP Residual Material Management

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Lamela, B.

    2008-01-15

    Previous Experiences in decommissioning projects are being used to optimize the residual material management in NPP, metallic scrap usually. The approach is based in the availability of a materials Clearance MARSSIM-based methodology developed and licensed in Spain. A typical project includes the integration of segregation, decontamination, clearance, quality control and quality assurance activities. The design is based in the clearance methodology features translating them into standard operational procedures. In terms of ecological taxes and final disposal costs, significant amounts of money could be saved with this type of approaches. The last clearance project managed a total amount of 405 tons scrap metal and a similar amount of other residual materials occupying a volume of 1500 m{sup 3}. After less than a year of field works 251 tons were finally recycled in a non-licensed smelting facility. The balance was disposed as LILW. In the planning phase the estimated cost savings were 4.5 Meuro. However, today a VLLW option is available in European countries so, the estimated cost savings are reduced to 1.2 Meuro. In conclusion: the application of materials clearance in NPP decommissioning lessons learnt to the NPP residual material management is an interesting management option. This practice is currently going on in Spanish NPP and, in a preliminary view, is consistent with the new MARSAME Draft. An interesting parameter is the cost of 1 m3 of recyclable scrap. The above estimates are very project specific because in the segregation process other residual materials were involved. If the effect of this other materials is removed the estimated Unit Cost were in this project around 1700 euro/m{sup 3}, this figure is clearly below the above VLLW disposal cost of 2600 euro. In a future project it appears feasible to descend to 839 euro/m{sup 3} and if it became routine values and is used in big Decommissioning projects, around 600 euro/m{sup 3} or below possibly could

  7. Key Features of the Deployed NPP/NPOESS Ground System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, G.; Grant, K. D.; Mulligan, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather/environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). NPOESS satellites carry sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical data of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)/NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products/records (EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the US government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with NPP and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command & telemetry segment is the Command, Control & Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPP/NPOESS missions from control & status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally-distributed ground assets needed to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day satellite commanding & state-of-health monitoring, and delivery of Stored Mission Data to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to system subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health & status and data communications with external systems and between the segments. The C3S & IDPS segments were delivered & transitioned to

  8. Calculating the carbon emissions associated with San Jose's Green Vision goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E. C.; Prada, L.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the City of San Jose adopted a Green Vision that includes 10 measurable goals, which aim to promote job growth in clean tech and preserve the environment. The goals include a 50% reduction of per capita energy use, a 100% diversion of waste from landfill, a 100% recycling or reuse of wastewater, and the building or retro fitting of 50 million square feet of green buildings. While there are clear benefits from these initiatives, it is unclear how these changes will affect emissions of greenhouse gases and what contribution the Green Vision will have on the total carbon emissions of the city. Using San Jose as a case study this work will first estimate citywide baseline carbon emissions using data from the last decade. We then will describe efforts to compute the change in carbon emissions associated with each of the city’s green vision goals. The intention of this work is to develop a set of metrics that other cities and institutions can use to better quantify the carbon emissions associated with their current and future ‘green’ initiatives.

  9. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and paleontology of lower Eocene San Jose formation, central San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G.; Smith, L.N. )

    1989-09-01

    The lower Eocene San Jose Formation in the central portion of the San Juan basin (Gobernador-Vigas Canyon area) consists of the Cuba Mesa, Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members. Well log data indicate that, from its 100-m thickness, the Cuba Mesa Member thins toward the basin center and pinches out to the northeast by lat. 36{degree}40'N, long. 107{degree}19'W. The Regina Member has the most extensive outcrops in the central basin, and it decreases in sandstone/mud rock ratio to the north. The Llaves and Tapicitos Members occur only at the highest elevations, are thin due to erosion, and are not mappable as separate units. Well log data and 1,275 m of measured stratigraphic section in the Regina, Llaves, and Tapicitos Members indicate these strata are composed of approximately 35% medium to coarse-grained sandstone and 65% fine-grained sandstone and mud rock. Sedimentology and sediment-dispersal patterns indicate deposition by generally south-flowing streams that had sources to the northwest, northeast, and east. Low-sinuosity, sand-bedded, braided( ) streams shifted laterally across about 1 km-wide channel belts to produce sheet sandstones that are prominent throughout the San Jose Formation. Subtle levees separated channel environments from floodplain and local lacustrine areas. Avulsion relocated channels periodically to areas on the floodplain, resulting in the typically disconnected sheet sandstones within muddy overbank deposits of the Regina Member.

  10. How does your crystal grow? A commentary on Burton, Cabrera and Frank (1951) ‘The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces’

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The key ideas presented in the classic paper ‘The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces’ by W. K. Burton, N. Cabrera and F. C. Frank, published in Philosophical Transactions A in 1951, are summarized and put in the context of both the state of knowledge at the time of publication and the considerable amount of work since that time that has built on and developed these ideas. Many of these developments exploit the huge increase in the capabilities of computer modelling that complement the original analytic approach of the paper. The dearth of relevant experimental data at the time of the original publication has been transformed by the application of increasingly sophisticated modern methods of surface science. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750141

  11. Migration matrices and surnames in populations with different isolation patterns: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines), Val di Sole (Italian Alps), and La Cabrera (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Calboli, Federico C F; Blanco Villegas, Maria José; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Marcello G; Paoli, Giorgio; Cavicchi, Sandro; Pettener, Davide

    2006-01-01

    Biodemographic methods are widely used to infer the genetic structure of human populations. In this study, we revise and standardize the procedures required by the migration matrix model of Malécot ([1950] Ann Univ Lyon Sci [A] 13:37-60), testing it in large historical-demographic databases of 85 populations from three mountain valleys with different degrees of isolation: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines, 21 parishes), Val di Sole, (Italian Alps, 27 parishes), and La Cabrera (Spain, 37 parishes). An add-on package (Biodem) for the R program is proposed to perform all calculations. Results from migration matrices are compared with those obtained from isonymic relationships. Migration and isonymy matrices are derived from 22,781 marriage records. Matrices are analyzed using a nonlinear isolation-by-distance (IBD) model and multivariate techniques (multidimensional scaling, Procrustes rotation, and cluster analysis). Microdifferentiation levels (F(ST)) from the migration data agree with the observed inbreeding values: higher values are found in La Cabrera (F(ST) = 0.0082), the most isolated population; Val di Lima (F(ST) = 0.0015) and Val di Sole (F(ST) = 0.0012) have lower values due to the larger parish population sizes and greater mobility. Temporal changes of F(ST) and IBD are analyzed using the migration matrix approach. The populations show a marked decline in F(ST) values in time, together with increased population mobility and emigration rates. In all three valleys, marital migration and isonymy yield similar results, suggesting that geographic distance is the most important factor structuring the populations. However, isonymy shows a lower correlation with geographic distance than migration matrices do. This difference can be attributed to the differing sensitivity of the methods for past migration events, and to genetic drift.

  12. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Global pattern and differentiation by major biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bondeau, A.; Schloss, A.L.; Kaduk, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Annual and seasonal net primary productivity estimates (NPP) of 15 global models across latitudinal zones and biomes are compared. The models simulated NPP for contemporary climate using common, spatially explicit data sets for climate, soil texture, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Differences among NPP estimates varied over space and time. The largest differences occur during the summer months in boreal forests (50??to 60??N) and during the dry seasons of tropical evergreen forests. Differences in NPP estimates are related to model assumptions about vegetation structure, model parameterizations, and input data sets.

  13. Suomi NPP VIIRS spectral characterization: understanding multiple RSR releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave; Costa, Juliette

    2012-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was successfully launched on October 28, 2011, beginning the on-orbit era of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). In support of atlaunch readiness, VIIRS underwent a rigorous pre-launch test program to characterize its spatial, radiometric, and spectral performance. Spectral measurements, the subject of this paper, were collected during instrument level testing at Raytheon Corp. (summer 2009), and then again in a special spectral test for VisNIR bands during spacecraft level testing at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (spring 2010). These spectral performance measurements were analyzed by industry (Northrop Grumman, NG) and by the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) subgroup of the Government team, (NASA, Aerospace Corp., MIT/Lincoln Lab, Univ. Wisconsin) leading to releases of the S-NPP VIIRS RSR characterization by both NG and the Government team. The NG RSR analysis was planned to populate the Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) that support the various VIIRS operational products, while the Government team analysis was initially intended as a verification of the NG RSR product as well as an early release RSR characterization for the science community's pre-launch application. While the Government team deemed the NG December 2010 RSR release as acceptable for the "at-launch" RSR characterization during the pre-launch phase, the Government team has now (post-launch checkout phase) recommended for using the NG October 2011 RSR release as an update for the LUTs used in VIIRS SDR and EDR operational processing. Meanwhile the Government team RSR releases remain available to the community for their investigative interests, and may evolve if new understanding of VIIRS spectral performance is revealed in the S-NPP post-launch era.

  14. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Cepcek, S.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  15. Rethinking Technology Heaven: New Cutting-Edge San Jose School Seeks a Balance in Its Third Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Amy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the experience of administrators, teachers, and students in the first two years of Silver Oak Elementary School, a new school with technology-rich classrooms in San Jose, California. Highlights technology planning, problems resulting from technology use, parent involvement, teacher technology training, district envy, and teachers…

  16. 78 FR 37791 - In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes-Martinez, Inmate Number #85993-279, CI Adams County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Jose Guadalupe Reyes-Martinez, Inmate Number 85993-279...-Martinez (``Reyes-Martinez'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Reyes- Martinez was convicted of knowingly...

  17. Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) and the Formation of the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malet, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) was an applied chemist and a prominent member of the Roman Catholic organization, Opus Dei, who played a crucial role in organizing the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC), the new scientific institution created by the Franco regime in 1939. The paper analyses first the formative years in…

  18. San Jose Unified School District, 2010-2013: Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Practice around College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kless, Lambrina

    2013-01-01

    In 2012-2013, leaders and staff of the San Jose Unified School District (SJUSD) focused on accomplishing the district's new mission: to aggressively pursue solutions to close the opportunity gap and ensure that all students leave SJUSD with twenty-first-century skills, prepared to participate in a global society. The district's participation in…

  19. Estimated natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose upstream from the pueblos of Acoma and Laguna, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of surface and ground water, which began about 1870 in the upper Rio San Jose drainage basin, has decreased the flow of the Rio San Jose on the Pueblo of Acoma and the Pueblo of Laguna. The purpose of this study was to estimate the natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose that would have entered the pueblos if no upstream water development had taken place. Estimates of natural flow were based upon streamflow and precipitation records, historical accounts of streamflow, records of irrigated acreage, and empirically-derived estimates of the effects on streamflow of Bluewater Lake, groundwater withdrawals, and irrigation diversions. Natural streamflow in the Rio San Jose at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Acoma is estimated to be between 13,000 and 15,000 acre-feet per year, based on 55 years of recorded and reconstructed streamflow data from water years 1913 to 1972. Natural streamflow at the western boundary of the Pueblo of Laguna is estimated to be between 17 ,000 and 19,000 acre-feet per year for the same period. The error in these estimates of natural streamflow is difficult to assess accurately, but it probably is less than 25 percent. (USGS)

  20. Jose Vasconcelos--A Man for All the Americas. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hubert J.

    Due to his dissatisfaction with the Diaz government, Jose Vasconcelos joined the revolutionary leader Francisco Madero, who along with other rebel leaders, brought an end to the Diaz regime in 1911. Vasconcelos shared the successes and misfortunes that followed Diaz's overthrow. When the Madero government came to an abrupt end in 1913, Vasconcelos…

  1. Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) and the Formation of the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malet, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) was an applied chemist and a prominent member of the Roman Catholic organization, Opus Dei, who played a crucial role in organizing the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC), the new scientific institution created by the Franco regime in 1939. The paper analyses first the formative years in…

  2. Jose Vasconcelos--A Man for All the Americas. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hubert J.

    Due to his dissatisfaction with the Diaz government, Jose Vasconcelos joined the revolutionary leader Francisco Madero, who along with other rebel leaders, brought an end to the Diaz regime in 1911. Vasconcelos shared the successes and misfortunes that followed Diaz's overthrow. When the Madero government came to an abrupt end in 1913, Vasconcelos…

  3. Rethinking Technology Heaven: New Cutting-Edge San Jose School Seeks a Balance in Its Third Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Amy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the experience of administrators, teachers, and students in the first two years of Silver Oak Elementary School, a new school with technology-rich classrooms in San Jose, California. Highlights technology planning, problems resulting from technology use, parent involvement, teacher technology training, district envy, and teachers…

  4. Health hazard evaluation report no. HHE-80-094-840, Ford Motor Company, San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.; Whorton, D.

    1981-03-01

    In March 1980 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a health hazard evaluation at Ford Motor Co., San Jose, CA. The request originated from an employee's concern for potential health effects, both short and long term, to approximately 60 workers from carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, ozone, dibutyl phthalates, and oil mist. The jobs evaluated were: Truck and Passenger Tow-In Operators, Road Test Operators, Start-Up Operators, Top-Off Operators, and Hood Adjustors. The health concerns mentioned in the request were lung damage, emphysema, petrochemical sensitivities, upper respiratory tract irritation, and heart disease. To evaluate these problems, NIOSH conducted an industrial hygiene and medical evaluation. Personal and area environmental samples were obtained during May and July 1980. Exhaust and make-up ventilation systems, as well as information collected from personal interviews with the employees, were also evaluated. The medical evaluation consisted of reviewing medical and personnel records and interviews.

  5. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    PubMed

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens.

  6. Estimation of Explosion Energy Yield at Chernobyl NPP Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Sergey A.; Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    The value of the 133Xe/133mXe isometric activity ratio for the stationary regime of reactor work is about 35, and that for an instant fission (explosion) is about 11, which allowed estimation of the nuclear component of the instant (explosion) energy release during the NPP accident. Atmospheric xenon samples were taken at the trajectory of accident product transfers (in the Cherepovetz area); these samples were measured by a gamma spectrometer, and the 133Xe/133mXe ratio was determined as an average value of 22.4. For estimations a mathematic model was elaborated considering both the value of instant released energy and the schedule of reactor power change before the accident, as well as different fractionation conditions on the isobaric chain. Comparison of estimated results with the experimental data showed the value of the instant specific energy release in the Chernobyl NPP accident to be 2·105-2·106 J/Wt or 6·1014-6·1015 J (100-1,000 kt). This result is matched up to a total reactor power of 3,200 MWt. However this estimate is not comparable with the actual explosion scale estimated as 10t TNT. This suggests a local character of the instant nuclear energy release and makes it possible to estimate the mass of fuel involved in this explosion process to be from 0.01 to 0.1% of total quantity.

  7. FEASIBILITY AND EXPEDIENCE TO VITRIFY NPP OPERATIONAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    LIFANOV, F.A.; OJOVAN, M.I.; STEFANOVSKY, S.V.; BURCL, R.

    2003-02-27

    Operational radioactive waste is generated during routine operation of NPP. Process waste is mainly generated by treatment of water from reactor or ancillaries including spent fuel storage pools and some decontamination operations. Typical process wastes of pressurized water reactors (PWR or WWER) are borated water concentrates, whereas typical process wastes of boiling and RBMK type reactors are water concentrates with no boron content. NPP operational wastes are classified as low and intermediate level waste (LILW). NPP operational waste must be solidified in order to ensure safe conditions of storage and disposal. Currently the most promising solidification method for this waste is the vitrification technology. Vitrification of NPP operational waste is a relative new option being developed for last years. Nevertheless there is already accumulated operational experience on vitrifying low and intermediate level waste in Russian Federation at Moscow SIA ''Radon'' vitrification plant. This plant uses the most advanced type induction high frequency melters that facilitate the melting process and significantly reduce the generation of secondary waste and henceforth the overall cost. The plant was put into operation by the end of 1999. It has three operating cold crucible melters with the overall capacity up to 75 kg/h. The vitrification technology comprises a few stages, starting with evaporation of excess water from liquid radioactive waste, followed by batch preparation, glass melting, and ending with vitrified waste blocks and some relative small amounts of secondary waste. First of all since the original waste contain as main component water, this water is removed from waste through evaporation. Then the remaining salt concentrate is mixed with necessary technological additives, thus a glass-forming batch is formed. The batch is fed into melters where the glass melting occurs. From here there are two streams: one is the glass melt containing the most part of

  8. Responses of net primary productivity (NPP) in Xinjiang to climate changes from 1981-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Slusser, James R.; Cao, Mingkui; Qi, Jiaguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhan, Xiwu; Ma, Yingjun

    2004-01-01

    In the last several decades, the responses of vegetation to global changes at regional and global scales have been studied with many mathematical models primarily driven by point meteorological observations. In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) of Xinjiang, China is simulated using the GLObal Production Efficiency Model (GLO-PEM) which is a semi-mechanistic model of plant photosynthesis and respiration and driven entirely by satellite observations. With the available satellite observation data acquired from NOAA"s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the seasonal and inter-annual changes of NPP in the Xinjiang area are analyzed for the time period of 20 years from 1981 to 2000. Large spatial variability of NPP is found in this area. The temporal trends of NPP in different regions of the area differed significantly. However, for the whole area the mean annual NPP decreased in the 1980s and increased in the 1990s. Seasonal variations of NPP are large and inter-annual changes are moderate. The correlations between the simulated NPP and the precipitation and temperature suggested that precipitation and temperature played major roles in the variations of NPP.

  9. The ratio of NPP to GPP: evidence of change over the course of stand development

    Treesearch

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2001-01-01

    Using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Fenno-Scandia as a case study, we investigate whether net primary production (NPP) and maintenance respiration are constant fractions of gross primary production (GPP) as even-aged mono-specific stands progress from initiation to old age. A model of the ratio of NPP to GPP is developed based on (1) the...

  10. Comparative analysis of NPP changes in global tropical forests from 2001 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, S.; Li, X.; Wu, W.

    2017-02-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is the difference between total photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP) and total plant respiration in an ecosystem. NPP is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in global climate research. Tropical forests, distributed mainly in Central Africa, Central and South America, and Southeast Asia, are among the most important ecosystems on earth. They are very important to analyses of the global carbon budget and to the projection of future climatic changes. In this study, we analyzed and compared the temporal and spatial changes of NPP within the three dominant areas of tropical forest from 2001 to 2013 by using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We found that Central and South America has the highest annual mean NPP, statistically, while the average NPP shows an increasing trend both in Central and South America and Central Africa but a decreasing trend in Southeast Asia.

  11. Multilevel modeling of NPP change and impacts of water resources in the Lower Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiming; Zhan, Jinyan; Jiang, Qun'ou; Yuan, Yongwei; Li, Zhihui

    Net primary productivity (NPP) lays the foundation for provision of various ecosystem services, and understanding the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP is of great significance to formulating appropriate management measures to guarantee the sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. This study analyzed the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP in the lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. First, NPP was estimated with the C-FIX model, and then the multilevel model was used to analyze the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP during 2000-2008. Finally decomposition analysis was used to further analyze the contribution of influencing factors to NPP change during 2000-2008. The average NPP increased by approximately 9.07% during 2000-2008, and results of the multilevel model indicate that both the socioeconomic variables and demographic variables are useful in explaining NPP change. In particular, coefficients of rainfall and evapotranspiration which represent the water availability reached 0.0456 and 0.2956, respectively. Results of decomposition analysis suggested that the water availability played an important role in increasing NPP, with a contribution rate of 44.17%, and it is necessary to carry out some policies that can promote the water use efficiency to increase NPP under the background of climate change and intensified human activities. There are some uncertainties in the results of this study, but these results still can provide valuable reference information for the water resource management to increase the ecosystem service supply in the lower Heihe River Basin.

  12. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  13. NPP VIIRS Early On-Orbit Geometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna; Montano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched in October, 2011. The instrument geometric performance includes sensor spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The geometric performance is an important aspect of sensor data record (SDR) calibration and validation. In this paper we will discuss geometric performance parameter characterization using the first seven-month of VIIRS' earth and lunar data, and compare with the at-launch performance using ground testing data and analysis of numerical modeling results as the first step in on-orbit geometric calibration and validation.

  14. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  15. Comparison of Forest and Tundra Ecosystems Npp with Remote Sensing and Ground Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yuliya; Ovchinnikova, Nataly; Kryazhimskiy, Fedor; Maklakov, Kirill

    2012-07-01

    In this study we compared two models for NPP estimate: an estimate based on satellite data and an estimate based on biomass calculation for tundra in the Yamal Peninsula and for forest ecosystems at the West Sayan Mountains. Ground NPP estimates were done for the same study areas which made it possible to identify the most significant parameters, specific to each model, that affect the estimates. The main difficulty in NPP-related studies is that current NPP values in an ecosystem cannot be determined exactly. Estimates, however, are feasible, and they can be made using a variety of methods. Thus, it seems important to see the ways in which these methods are different from each other and to find out how close the resulting values are. If these are dissimilar, the parameters used to make NPP estimates should be compared in order to identify the stage that can give rise to defects and errors, and to under- and overestimates. In this study we estimated NPP using the following two approaches: NPP calculation based on ground-truth measurements, such as calculation of plant phytomass on the studied area based on morphometric measurements (height, stem diameter, crown volume, etc.) and variations in this phytomass over a certain time period. NPP calculation based on satellite remote sensing data, using the data of satellite spectral channels and the data on underlying terrain. In this study we used MODIS/TERRA 8-day composite images, namely MOD09A1 and MOD11A2, with the spatial resolution 500 m and 1 km, respectively, obtained from EOS Data Gateway. Different models evaluate NPP using different physical values, with dissimilar temporal and spatial distributions. The NPP values evaluated by two models differ inherently. We used both of the models: GLO-PEM end MODIS-NPP. The study area is situated in the south of the Krasnoyarskii Krai, at the West Sayan Mountains, where the Institute of Forest SB RAS has been conducting observations since 1960. In this area altitudinal

  16. Substrate-Dependence of Competitive Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Sarkar, Soumya; Bhattarai, Sanjay; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; De Jonghe, Steven; Stephan, Holger; Herdewijn, Piet; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E.

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase type 1 (NPP1) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. Its major substrate is ATP which is converted to AMP and diphosphate. NPP1 was proposed as a new therapeutic target in brain cancer and immuno-oncology. Several NPP1 inhibitors have been reported to date, most of which were evaluated vs. the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl 5′-thymidine monophosphate (p-Nph-5′-TMP). Recently, we observed large discrepancies in inhibitory potencies for a class of competitive NPP1 inhibitors when tested vs. the artificial substrate p-Nph-5′-TMP as compared to the natural substrate ATP. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitors of human NPP1 generally display substrate-dependent inhibitory potency. Systematic evaluation of nucleotidic as well as non-nucleotidic NPP1 inhibitors revealed significant differences in determined Ki values for competitive, but not for non- and un-competitive inhibitors when tested vs. the frequently used artificial substrate p-Nph-5′-TMP as compared to ATP. Allosteric modulation of NPP1 by p-Nph-5′-TMP may explain these discrepancies. Results obtained using the AMP derivative p-nitrophenyl 5′-adenosine monophosphate (p-Nph-5′-AMP) as an alternative artificial substrate correlated much better with those employing the natural substrate ATP. PMID:28261095

  17. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation. San Anselmo School, San Jose, California, April 1981-March 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkala, P. A.

    The San Anselmo School is a one story brick elementary school building in San Jose, California. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 70% of the space heating and 72% of the cooling load. It is equipped with 3740 square feet of evacuated tube collectors, a 2175 gallon tank for heat storage, a solar supplied absorption chiller, and four auxiliary gas fired absorption chillers/heaters. The measured solar fraction of 19% is far below the expected values and is attributed to severe system control and HVAC problems. Other performance data given for the year include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also tabulated are monthly performance data for the overall solar energy system, collector subsystem, space heating and cooling subsystems. Typical hourly operation data for a day are tabulated, including hourly isolation, collector array temperatures (inlet and outlet), and storage fluid temperatures. The solar energy use and percentage of losses are also graphed.

  18. Seismic imaging of a slope stability mitigation project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treece, B.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were obtained along a transect through a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California. Deep soil mixing involves the simultaneous injection of a cement slurry while rotating augers advance vertically down through the subsurface material, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the treated area. Seismic data were used to analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation procedure, approximately one month after the completion of the deep soil mixing project. Repeated accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) impacts provided the seismic source at each geophone location. Seismic arrivals were recorded with 40-Hz vertical-component geophones, spaced at 3-m intervals. All shots were recorded on all channels. This shooting geometry was designed to produce tomographic refraction (velocity) and reflection (CDP stacks) images from a yet to be mitigated area into the mitigated area, along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The acquired data were generally of good quality, with shots propagating the entire length of the profile. An initial analysis of the data shows an increase in seismic velocity in the treated areas compared with non-treated areas, and a relative seismic velocity increase with curing time for soil-cement elements. Future surveys will be collected to further constrain strength increases with time, and to correlate calculated rates of strength with other subsurface data.

  19. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  20. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-08

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal–hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal–hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  1. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  2. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  3. Use of artificial intelligence methods for systems of environmental monitoring in NPP region

    SciTech Connect

    Barbashev, S.V.; Verkhovetsky, N.A.; Maslov, O.V.

    1993-12-31

    Conception of complex ecological environmental monitoring in NPP region, including control function , is presented. The outlook for the design of an expert system to be utilized in the monitoring is described.

  4. Assessment of NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Products: Hope and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Gene; Barnes, Robert A.; Franz, Bryan; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne d.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) provided substantial scientific input to the NPP project regarding the use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to create science quality ocean color data products. This work has culminated into an assessment of the NPP project and the VIIRS instrument's capability to produce science quality Ocean Color data products. The VOST concluded that many characteristics were similar to earlier instruments, including SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. Though instrument performance and calibration risks do exist, it was concluded that programmatic and algorithm issues dominate concerns. Keywords: NPP, VIIRS, Ocean Color, satellite remote sensing, climate data record.

  5. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. Data collection - JPSS satellites continue the POES data collection instruments that relay in situ data and observations from remote transmitters. These instruments relay data from remote, unmanned stations including wind, temperature and salinity readings from ocean buoys, which allow for the monitoring of the ocean. These instruments are also used to track wildlife. Search and rescue - JPSS will continue the search and rescue instruments on POES that

  6. Consistency of CERES Radiances and Fluxes from Aqua and Suomi-NPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Wenying; Liang, Lusheng; Miller, Walter; Loeb, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP have been providing data products critical to advancing our understanding of the effects of clouds and aerosols on radiative energy within the Earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument consists of a threechannel broadband scanning radiometer. The scanning radiometer measures radiances in shortwave (SW, 0.3-5 micron), window (WN, 8-12 micron), and total (0.3-200 micron) channels. The longwave (LW) component is derived as the difference between total and SW channels. These measured radiances at a given sun-Earthsatellite geometry are converted to outgoing reflected solar and emitted thermal TOA radiative fluxes by using CERES scene-type dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). The CERES instruments must remain radiometrically stable and correctly inter-calibrated to accurately capture changes in Earth"s radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales. This presentation will focus on comparisons between collocated radiance measurements from CERES instruments on Aqua and on Suomi-NPP. As we do not have a set of ADMs that is constructed specifically for the CERES instrument on Suomi-NPP, CERES Aqua ADMs are used to invert fluxes from radiance measurements on Suomi-NPP. But the CERES Aqua footprint size is smaller than the CERES Suomi-NPP footprint size and the scene identifications provided by MODIS and VIIRS can also be different from each other. Will using Aqua ADMs for Suomi-NPP flux inversion increase the flux uncertainty? We will examine the deseasonalized flux anomaly time series using Aqua data alone and using combined Aqua and Suomi-NPP data. We will also present a simulation study to assess the Suomi-NPP flux uncertainty from using Aqua ADMs for the flux inversion.

  7. Consistency of CERES radiances and fluxes from Aqua and Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Liang, L.; Miller, W. F.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP have been providing data products critical to advancing our understanding of the effects of clouds and aerosols on radiative energy within the Earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument consists of a three-channel broadband scanning radiometer. The scanning radiometer measures radiances in shortwave (SW, 0.3-5 μm), window (WN, 8-12 μm), and total (0.3-200 μm) channels. The longwave (LW) component is derived as the difference between total and SW channels. These measured radiances at a given sun-Earth-satellite geometry are converted to outgoing reflected solar and emitted thermal TOA radiative fluxes by using CERES scene-type dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). The CERES instruments must remain radiometrically stable and correctly inter-calibrated to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales. This presentation will focus on comparisons between collocated radiance measurements from CERES instruments on Aqua and on Suomi-NPP. As we do not have a set of ADMs that is constructed specifically for the CERES instrument on Suomi-NPP, CERES Aqua ADMs are used to invert fluxes from radiance measurements on Suomi-NPP. But the CERES Aqua footprint size is smaller than the CERES Suomi-NPP footprint size and the scene identifications provided by MODIS and VIIRS can also be different from each other. Will using Aqua ADMs for Suomi-NPP flux inversion increase the flux uncertainty? We will examine the deseasonalized flux anomaly time series using Aqua data alone and using combined Aqua and Suomi-NPP data. We will also present a simulation study to assess the Suomi-NPP flux uncertainty from using Aqua ADMs for the flux inversion.

  8. Fruit development, not GPP, drives seasonal variation in NPP in a tropical palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M N V; Jourdan, C; Sileye, T; Braconnier, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Saint-Andre, L; Dauzat, J; Nouvellon, Y; Epron, D; Bonnefond, J M; Berbigier, P; Rouziere, A; Bouillet, J P; Roupsard, O

    2008-11-01

    We monitored seasonal variations in net primary production (NPP), estimated by allometric equations from organ dimensions, gross primary production (GPP), estimated by the eddy covariance method, autotrophic respiration (R(a)), estimated by a model, and fruit production in a coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plantation located in the sub-tropical South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. Net primary production of the vegetative compartments of the trees accumulated steadily throughout the year. Fruits accounted for 46% of tree NPP and showed large seasonal variations. On an annual basis, the sum of estimated NPP (16.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) and R(a) (24.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) for the ecosystem (coconut trees and herbaceous understory) closely matched GPP (39.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)), suggesting adequate cross-validation of annual C budget methods. However, seasonal variations in NPP + R(a) were smaller than the seasonal variations in GPP, and maximum tree NPP occurred 6 months after the midsummer peak in GPP and solar radiation. We propose that this discrepancy reflects seasonal variation in the allocation of dry mass to carbon reserves and new plant tissue, thus affecting the allometric relationships used for estimating NPP.

  9. Suomi-NPP VIIRS aerosol algorithms and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John M.; Liu, Hongqing; Laszlo, Istvan; Kondragunta, Shobha; Remer, Lorraine A.; Huang, Jingfeng; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2013-11-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) spacecraft was launched in October 2011. The instrument has 22 spectral channels with band centers from 412 nm to 12,050 nm. The VIIRS aerosol data products are derived primarily from the radiometric channels covering the visible through the short-wave infrared spectral regions (412 nm to 2250 nm). The major components of the VIIRS aerosol retrieval process are data screening, land inversion, ocean inversion, suspended matter typing, and aggregation. The primary data product produced is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record. A higher resolution AOT intermediate product is also produced. These AOT products and their corresponding retrieval algorithms are described in detail, including theoretical basis, retrieval limitations, and data quality flagging. Preliminary evaluation of the data products has been undertaken by the VIIRS aerosol calibration/validation team using Aerosol Robotic Network ground-based observations to show that the performance of AOT retrievals meets the requirements specified in the Joint Polar Satellite System Level 1 requirements.

  10. Derived Land Surface Emissivity From Suomi NPP CrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Presented here is the land surface IR spectral emissivity retrieved from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) measurements. The CrIS is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011. We describe the retrieval algorithm, demonstrate the surface emissivity retrieved with CrIS measurements, and inter-comparison with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) emissivity. We also demonstrate that surface emissivity from satellite measurements can be used in assistance of monitoring global surface climate change, as a long-term measurement of IASI and CrIS will be provided by the series of EUMETSAT MetOp and US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. Monthly mean surface properties are produced using last 5-year IASI measurements. A temporal variation indicates seasonal diversity and El Nino/La Nina effects not only shown on the water but also on the land. Surface spectral emissivity and skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth's environment. CrIS spectral emissivity are retrieved and compared with IASI. The difference is small and could be within expected retrieval error; however it is under investigation.

  11. Radiation dose optimization in the decommissioning plan for Loviisa NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, R.; Eurajoki, T.

    1995-03-01

    Finnish rules for nuclear power require a detailed decommissioning plan to be made and kept up to date already during plant operation. The main reasons for this {open_quotes}premature{close_quotes} plan, is, firstly, the need to demonstrate the feasibility of decommissioning, and, secondly, to make realistic cost estimates in order to fund money for this future operation. The decomissioning for Lovissa Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (2{times}445 MW, PWR) was issued in 1987. It must be updated about every five years. One important aspect of the plant is an estimate of radiation doses to the decomissioning workers. The doses were recently re-estimated because of a need to decrease the total collective dose estimate in the original plan, 23 manSv. In the update, the dose was reduced by one-third. Part of the reduction was due to changes in the protection and procedures, in which ALARA considerations were taken into account, and partly because of re-estimation of the doses.

  12. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  13. Radiation exposure to marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 μGy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 μGy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 μGy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 μGy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 μGy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 μGy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEAR's (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 μGy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant.

  14. S-NPP OMPS Nadir In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Flynn, L. E.; Niu, J.; Grotenhuis, M.; Beck, C. T.; Beach, E.; Zhang, Z.; Tolea, A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the results of in-flight characterization of the S-NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) charge-coupled device (CCD) performance during the first nearly three years of the OMPS mission in orbit. Data from OMPS's three two-dimension CCD arrays have been collected to characterize in-flight detector behaviors. Our results show that offset, gain, and dark current rate trends remain within sensor requirement limits. System linearity performance trends are stable. The distribution of individual pixel dark rates is slowly growing as expected from pre-launch analyses. The current in-flight dark and linearity calibration corrections provide Sensor Data Records (SDRs) with insignificant error after correction of less than an average of ~0.1% in the Earth radiance retrieval. The instrument optics is less stable than predicted leading to intra-orbit wavelength scale variations as the temperature gradients vary across the instrument. Measurement-based estimates of these effects are as large a ±0.02 nm and are used to make corrections to within +-0.005 nm on a granule by granule basis. Examination of reflectivity, aerosol and ozone EDRs provide evidence of absolute calibration errors with a significant cross track variation. A soft calibration adjustment is under development to remove them.

  15. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Iversen, Colleen M; Medlyn, Belinda; McMurtrie, Ross; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  16. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  17. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; Efremova, Boryana; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    When illuminated by the Sun, the onboard solar diffuser (SD) panel provides a known spectral radiance source to calibrate the reflective solar bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on the Suomi-NPP satellite. The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) degrades over time due to solar exposure, and this degradation is measured using the SD stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM acts as a ratioing radiometer, comparing solar irradiance measurements off the SD panel to those from a direct Sun view. We discuss the design and operations of the SDSM, the SDSM data analysis, including improvements incorporated since launch, and present the results through 1000 days after launch. After 1000 days, the band-dependent H-factors, a quantity describing the relative degradation of the BRDF of the SD panel since launch, range from 0.716 at 412 nanometers to 0.989 at 926 nanometers. The random uncertainty of these H-factors is about 0.1 percent, which is confirmed by the similar standard deviation values computed from the residuals of quadratic exponential fits to the H-factor time trends. The SDSM detector gains have temperature sensitivity of up to about 0.36 percent per kelvin, but this does not affect the derived H-factors. An initial error in the solar vector caused a seasonal bias to the H-factors of up to 0.5 percent. The total exposure of the SD panel to UV light after 1000 orbits is equivalent to about 100 hours of direct sunlight illumination perpendicular to the SD panel surface.

  18. An Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS Calibration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multi-orbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper pro-vides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  19. Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at the Armenian NPP - 12462

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A.; Gondakyan, Y.; Stepanyan, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed contaminant transfer dynamics model for radionuclide in geosphere and biosphere medium. The model describes the transport of radionuclides using full equation for the processes of advection, diffusion, decay and sorption. The overall objective is to establish, from a post-closure radiological safety point of view, whether it is practical to convert an existing radioactive waste storage facility at Armenian NPP, to a waste disposal facility. The calculation includes: - Data sources for: the operational waste-source term; options for refurbishment and completion of the waste storage facility as a waste disposal facility; the site and its environs; - Development of an assessment context for the safety assessment, and identification of waste treatment options; - A description of the conceptual and mathematical models, and results calculated for the base case scenario relating to the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway and also precipitation especially important for this site. The results of the calculations showed that the peak individual dose is < 7 E-8 Sv/y arising principally from I-129 after 700 years post closure. Other significant radionuclides, in terms of their contribution to the total dose are I-129, Tc-99 and in little C-14 (U- 234 and Po-210 are not relevant). The study does not explore all issues that might be expected to be presented in a safety case for a near surface disposal facility it mainly focuses on post- closure dose impacts. Most emphasis has been placed on the development of scenarios and conceptual models rather than the presentation and analyses of results and confidence building (only deterministic results are presented). The calculations suggest that, from a perspective the conversion of the waste-storage facility is feasible such that all the predicted doses are well below internationally recognized targets, as well as provisional Armenian regulatory objectives. This conclusion applies to the disposal

  20. Shallow Subsurface Resistivity Profiles Across the San Jose Fault As It Transects the Cal Poly Pomona Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantrapornlert, K. J.; Polet, J.; Colin, H.

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault located in the San Gabriel Valley in Southern California. The 1988 (M4.6) and 1990 (M5.2) Upland earthquakes have been attributed to this fault and it has been suggested that it is capable of producing a magnitude M6.0-6.5 earthquake. Sections of the fault are considered to run through the campus of California State Polytechnic University, Pomona as inferred from a 2001 geotechnical engineering report (Geocon, 2001). As it cuts across the campus, the geotechnical engineering report concluded that it has a reverse component of motion. Ascertaining the precise location of the San Jose fault traces on campus is crucial as the university plans its future buildings. Resistivity surveys were conducted across several suggested traces of the fault. The surveys consisted of 24 electrodes in a Wenner electrode configuration with an electrode spacing that varies between 1-5m. An IRIS Instruments Syscal KID switcher unit provided the power source and data recording hardware. The data was processed using IRIS Prosys II software suite before using Geotomo's Res2Dinv software to obtain 2D images of subsurface resistivity for these profiles. A total of 23 surveys were conducted throughout the campus. Surveys were performed before and after rainfall to compensate for the variation of water content and its effect on resistivity. Preliminary results indicate shallow, north-dipping contrasts in resistivity across many of the areas where the fault was previously identified in the Geocon 2001 report. More data will be analyzed to present an enhanced understanding of the San Jose fault in the vicinity of the Cal Poly Pomona campus at AGU.

  1. Learning from eponyms: Jose Verocay and Verocay bodies, Antoni A and B areas, Nils Antoni and Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath neoplasms composed almost entirely of Schwann cells and are diagnosed histopathologically by the presence of singular architectural patterns called Antoni A and Antoni B areas. These were described first in 1920 by the Swedish neurologist Nils Antoni. The Antoni A tissue is highly cellular and made up of palisades of Schwann cell nuclei, a pattern first described in 1910 by the Uruguayan neuro-pathologist Jose Verocay and are known as Verocay bodies. This article describes the structure and appearance of Verocay bodies and Antoni A and B areas with a brief biographical introduction of the men who described these patterns. PMID:23189261

  2. Observations of basin ground motions from a dense seismic array in San Jose, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.; Carver, D.; Cranswick, E.; Bice, T.; Sell, R.; Hanson, S.

    2001-01-01

    We installed a dense array of 41 digital seismographs in San Jose, California, to evaluate in detail the effects of a deep sedimentary basin and shallow sedimentary deposits on earthquake ground motions. This urban array is located near the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley and spans the Evergreen sedimentary basin identified by gravity data. Average station spacing is 1 km, with three stations initially spaced 110 m apart. Despite the high-noise urban environment, the stations of the array successfully triggered on and recorded small local earthquakes (M 2.5-2.8 at 10-25 km distance) and larger regional events such as the M 5.0 Bolinas earthquake (90 km distance), M 4.6-5.6 earthquakes near Mammoth Lakes (270 km distance), M 4.9-5.6 events in western Nevada (420 km distance) and the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake (590 km distance). Maps of spectral ratios across the array show that the highest amplitudes in all frequency bands studied (0.125-8 Hz) are generally observed at stations farther from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Larger spectral amplitudes are often observed above the western edge of the Evergreen Basin. Snapshots of the recorded wavefield crossing the array for regional events to the east reveal that large, low-frequency (0.125-0.5 Hz) arrivals after the S-wave travel from south to north across the array. A moving-window, cross-correlation analysis finds that these later arrivals are surface waves traveling from the south. The timing and propagation direction of these arrivals indicates that they were likely produced by scattering of incident S waves at the border of the Santa Clara Valley to the south of the array. It is remarkable that the largest low-frequency phases at many of the valley sites for regional events to the east are basin surface waves coming from a direction about 70 degrees different from that of the epicenters. Basin surface waves emanating from the eastern edge of the valley are also identified by the cross

  3. Impacts of seasonal climate on net primary productivity (NPP) in Xinjiang, 1981-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Slusser, James; Qi, Jiaguo; Zhan, Xiwu; Ma, Yingjun

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT This study presented the temporal and spatial variation patterns of the seasonal NPP, temperature and precipitation. The NPP simulated by using the GLO-PEM. A semi-mechanistic model of plant photosynthesis and respiration driven entirely by the satellite observations was combined with climate data in Xinjiang of China over the past 20 years to study the impact of seasonal climate changes on the seasonal NPP. The higher correlation coefficients between the seasonal NPP and the corresponding seasonal temperature and precipitation over the past 20 years happened in the areas covered with forest lands, grasslands, oasis and croplands in the northern and southern foothills of Tianshan Mountain, Iili River Valley, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin. In these areas, the vegetation growth was greatly influenced by interannual changes of seasonal temperature and precipitation. The spatial patterns of the correlation coefficients in Xinjiang showed that the higher correlation coefficients between seasonal NPP and seasonal temperature and precipitation in 1990s than in 1980s. With the increased temperature and precipitation, the areas of grasslands and oasis in Xinjiang were expanded over the last 20 years.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Lorentz Barrel and Drum, San Jose, California (first remedial action), September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-25

    The 5.4-acre Lorentz Barrel Drum (LB and D) site is located in San Jose, California, about 0.25 mile from San Jose State University. The site lies directly above a major source of potable ground water in the south San Francisco Bay area, with three public water-supply-well fields within one mile of the site. In 1947 the Lorentz family began a drum-recycling operation on 10.5 acres of land at the site. Drums containing residual aqueous wastes, organic solvents, acids, oxidizers, caustic residues and oils were received for recycling. Sometime between 1968 and 1971 the discharge was diverted to a sanitary sewer, and investigations indicate that this discharge occurred until 1984. Since 1981 several investigations have revealed soil and ground water contaminated with numerous metals, organics, and PCBs. This remedial action will address the offsite contaminated shallow ground water. The selected Expedited Response Action for this site includes: onsite ground water pump and treatment using ozone/UV for organic removal and ion exchange for nickel removal, with discharge of treated water to a local creek.

  5. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  6. Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol

  7. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  8. Nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability prediction (NPP/MPRP) effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors committed during maintenance activities are potentially a major contribution to the overall risk associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP). An NRC-sponsored program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is attempting to develop a quantitative predictive technique to evaluate the contribution of maintenance errors to the overall NPP risk. The current work includes a survey of the requirements of potential users to ascertain the need for and content of the proposed quantitative model, plus an initial job/task analysis to determine the scope and applicability of various maintenance tasks. In addition, existing human reliability prediction models are being reviewed and assessed with respect to their applicability to NPP maintenance tasks. This paper discusses the status of the program and summarizes the results to date.

  9. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zweifler, Laura E; Patel, Mudita K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wimer, Helen F; Millán, Jose L; Somerman, Martha J; Foster, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected. PMID:25504209

  10. NPP1, a Phytophthora-associated trigger of plant defense in parsley and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fellbrich, Guido; Romanski, Annette; Varet, Anne; Blume, Beatrix; Brunner, Frédéric; Engelhardt, Stefan; Felix, Georg; Kemmerling, Birgit; Krzymowska, Magdalena; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-11-01

    Activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense against attempted microbial infection is mediated through the recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors. Previously, we have identified a peptide fragment (Pep-13) within a 42-kDa cell wall transglutaminase from various Phytophthora species that triggers a multifacetted defense response in parsley cells. Many of these oomycete species have now been shown to possess another cell wall protein (24 kDa), that evoked the same pattern of responses in parsley as Pep-13. Unlike Pep-13, necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) purified from P. parasitica also induced hypersensitive cell death-like lesions in parsley. NPP1 structural homologs were found in oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria, but not in plants. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the intact protein as well as two cysteine residues to be essential for elicitor activity. NPP1-mediated activation of pathogen defense in parsley does not employ the Pep-13 receptor. However, early induced cellular responses implicated in elicitor signal transmission (increased levels of cytoplasmic calcium, production of reactive oxygen species, MAP kinase activation) were stimulated by either elicitor, suggesting the existence of converging signaling pathways in parsley. Infiltration of NPP1 into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants resulted in transcript accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, production of ROS and ethylene, callose apposition, and HR-like cell death. NPP1-mediated induction of the PR1 gene is salicylic acid-dependent, and, unlike the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000(avrRpm1)-induced PR1 gene expression, requires both functional NDR1 and PAD4. In summary, Arabidopsis plants infiltrated with NPP1 constitute an experimental system that is amenable to forward genetic approaches aiming at the dissection of signaling pathways implicated in the activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense.

  11. Improvement of Radwaste Management System at Bilibinskaya NPP in the Far North Conditions - 13456

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Savkin, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Since 2009 Bilibinskaya NPP is getting started to prepare to the decommissioning in the Far North conditions. Bilibinskaya NPP is located in the Far North of Russian Federation in Chukotka region. Since 1974 it operates 4 units EGP-6 with the capacity of 48 MW each. According to the contract, SIA Radon has performed the following works: - LLRW disposal safety analysis, - The technology of spent ion-exchanger and salt residue solidification is proposed, - Expected radwaste (till 2027) management economical analysis, - Technical proposals for LLRW and IRW management. (authors)

  12. 76 FR 46330 - NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1934, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG); Second Draft... for public comment a document entitled, NUREG-1934 (EPRI 1023259), ``Nuclear Power Plant Fire Modeling Application Guide (NPP FIRE MAG), Second Draft Report for Comment.'' DATES: Please submit comments by...

  13. 76 FR 16652 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jose Ignacio Reta de Frutos, Also Known as Joseba Inaki Reta...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Jose Ignacio Reta de Frutos, Also Known as Joseba Inaki Reta de Frutos, Also Known as Joseba I aki Reta Fruit, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended...

  14. Student Residence Locations and Socio-Economic Census Data for San Jose Community College District. A Demographic Profile Based Upon the 1970 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthart, Jeanette

    As a first step in the construction of a geographically based student data system for San Jose Community College District, data were gathered concerning student residence locations, and related socio-economic census factors. The intent of the study was to provide decision makers with information that they would find useful in recruitment,…

  15. Pressure vessel fluence monitoring at NPP with VVER: Routine technique and new approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Borodkin, G.I.; Kovalevich, O.M.; Lomakin, S.S.; Sycheva, N.V.

    1994-12-31

    For Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) neutron fluence monitoring at a nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-type reactor the Russian Nuclear Regulatory Body (GOSATOMNADZOR) has recently recommended use of the ex-vessel cavity dosimetry combined with neutron transport calculations. By using activation dosimeters with long-lived reaction products on the base of {sup 54}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 55}Mn and {sup 59}Co the routine experiments are now carried out. The VVER cavity dosimetry methodology has been developed on the basis of experimental results obtained at Rovno NPP Unit 1 (Ro-1), Unit 2 (Ro-2), Unit 3 (Ro-3), Novovoronezh NPP Unit 5 (NV-5), Yuzhno-Ukrainsk NPP Unit 1 (YuU-1) with VVER-440 and VVER-1000. The set of experiments has been performed during the various reactor fuel cycles including the low leakage core. More accurate evaluation of integral neutron spectrum in cavity is possible by using short-time irradiations of the dosimeters with short-lived reaction products. Now performing cavity experiments also include {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}U and {sup 93}Nb detectors. The track detectors, similar SSTR, may be used for cavity dosimetry, and now such set dosimeters are available for installation in cavities of some VVERs. Also the on-line fluence monitoring technique is now developed. A summary of experimental and calculational results is presented.

  16. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  17. Regulation of CED-3 caspase localization and activation by C. elegans nuclear membrane protein NPP-14

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xudong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Yu-Zen; Harry, Brian L.; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Lee, Eui-Seung; Guo, Hongyan; Xue, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Caspases are cysteine proteases with critical roles in apoptosis. The Caenorhabditis elegans caspase CED-3 is activated by autocatalytic cleavage, a process enhanced by CED-4. Here we report that CED-3 zymogen localizes to the perinuclear region in C. elegans germ cells and that CED-3 autocatalytic cleavage is held in check by C. elegans nuclei and activated by CED-4. The nuclear pore protein NPP-14 interacts with the prodomain of CED-3 zymogen, colocalizes with CED-3 in vivo, and inhibits CED-3 autoactivation in vitro. Several missense mutations in the CED-3 prodomain result in stronger association with NPP-14 and reduced CED-3 activation by CED-4 in the presence of nuclei or NPP-14, leading to cell death defects. Those same mutations enhance autocatalytic cleavage of CED-3 in vitro and increase apoptosis in vivo in the absence of npp-14. Our results reveal a critical role for nuclei and nuclear membrane proteins in regulating activation and localization of CED-3. PMID:27723735

  18. E-NPP3 controls plasmacytoid dendritic cell numbers in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Okumura, Ryu; Umemoto, Eiji; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kayama, Hisako; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) performs multiple functions including activation and induction of apoptosis of many cell types. The ATP-hydrolyzing ectoenzyme ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (E-NPP3) regulates ATP-dependent chronic allergic responses by mast cells and basophils. However, E-NPP3 is also highly expressed on epithelial cells of the small intestine. In this study, we showed that E-NPP3 controls plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) numbers in the intestine through regulation of intestinal extracellular ATP. In Enpp3-/- mice, ATP concentrations were increased in the intestinal lumen. pDC numbers were remarkably decreased in the small intestinal lamina propria and Peyer’s patches. Intestinal pDCs of Enpp3-/- mice showed enhanced cell death as characterized by increases in annexin V binding and expression of cleaved caspase-3. pDCs were highly sensitive to ATP-induced cell death compared with conventional DCs. ATP-induced cell death was abrogated in P2rx7-/- pDCs. Accordingly, the number of intestinal pDCs was restored in Enpp3-/- P2rx7-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that E-NPP3 regulates ATP concentration and thereby prevents the decrease of pDCs in the small intestine. PMID:28225814

  19. Simulation of Hydrogen Distribution in Ignalina NPP ALS Compartments During BDBA

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Egidijus; Urbonavicius, Egidijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas

    2006-07-01

    Accident Localisation System (ALS) of Ignalina NPP is a 'pressure suppression' type confinement, which protects the population, employees and environment from the radiation hazards. According to the Safety Analysis Report for Ignalina NPP {approx}110 m{sup 3} of hydrogen is released to ALS compartments during the Maximum Design Basis Accident. However in case of beyond design basis accident, when the oxidation of zirconium starts, the amount of generated hydrogen could be significantly higher. If the volume concentration of hydrogen in the compartment reaches 4%, there is a possibility for a combustible mixture to appear. To prevent the possible hydrogen accumulation in the ALS of the Ignalina NPP during an accident the H{sub 2} control system is installed. The results of the performed analysis derived the places of the possible H{sub 2} accumulation in the ALS compartments during the transient processes and assessed the mixture combustibility in these places for a beyond design basis accident scenario. Such analysis of H{sub 2} distribution in the ALS of Ignalina NPP in case of BDBA was not performed before. (authors)

  20. Atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from Suomi NPP CrIMSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Kizer, S.; Barnet, C.; Divakarla, M. G.; Gu, D.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Xiong, X.; Guo, G.; Gambacorta, A.; Nalli, N. R.; Willson, M.; Blackwell, W. J.; Leslie, V.; Ma, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) was successfully launched onboard of Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) in October 2011. The CrIMSS consists of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) instruments. The primary products of the CrIMSS Environmental Data Record EDR) include global temperature, moisture and pressure vertical profiles. The CrIMSS EDR operational code is designed to run on a dedicated large computer system, which can process sensor data records (SDRs) and EDRs for several sensors onboard of NPP. In order to efficiently validate the CrIMSS EDR algorithm, we have ported the CrIMSS operational code to run on small LINUX system. We will give an overview of the CrIMSS EDR algorithm. We will show results of applying the CrIMSS EDR algorithm to the real NPP data. Algorithm tunings and modifications are performed to improve the product yield and EDR performance. We will show examples of characterizing the CrIMSS forward model biases and tuning parameters using the real data from the NPP satellite. The CrIMSS EDR performance will be compared with ECMWF profiles and with radiosondes.

  1. International rehabilitation project for the territories contaminated as a result of the ChNPP accident

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A.S.; Raginsky, L.S.; Rybakov, K.A.

    1993-12-31

    The international rehabilitation project for the territories contaminated as a result of the ChNPP accident is described. The project includes the development of techniques and hardware for decontamination of soils in the suffered regions Russia, the Ukraina, and Byelorussia, in view of differences in composition of soils, their structure, landscape and geological characteristic properties.

  2. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  3. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions.

  4. Post-Launch Calibration Support for VIIRS Onboard NASA NPP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxion; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Schwaller, Matthew; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    The NPP Instrument Calibration Support Element (NICSE) is one of the elements within the NASA NPP Science Data Segment (SDS). The primary responsibility of NICSE is to independently monitor and evaluate on-orbit radiometric and geometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument and to validate its Sensor Data Record (SDR) [1]. The NICSE interacts and works closely with other SDS Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements (PEATE) and the NPP Science Team (ST) and supports their on-orbit data product calibration and validation efforts. The NICSE also works closely with the NPP Instrument Calibration Support Team (NICST) during sensor pre-launch testing in ambient and thermal vacuum environment [2]. This paper provides an overview of NICSE VIIRS sensor post-launch calibration support with a focus on the use of sensor on-board calibrators (OBC) for the radiometric calibration and characterization. It presents the current status of NICSE post-launch radiometric calibration tool development effort based on its design requirements

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Lorentz Barrel and Drum Site, operable unit 1, San Jose, CA, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial actions for Operable Unit One (OU-1) at the Lorentz Barrel Drum (LB D) Superfund site in San Jose, California. This operable unit (OU-1) addresses all remaining sources of contamination not already addressed by the removal of barrels, drums, and soils completed in 1988; the removal of structures, sumps, drums, and debris scheduled for 1993 and 1994; and the Operble Unit 2 (OU-2) shallow groundwater extraction and treatment system. Therefore, the OU-1 remedy selected in this ROD is considered and referred to as the 'final remedy' for the LB D site. While this remedy addresses contaminated soil, one of the principal threats at the LB D site, OU-2 will continue to address the principal threat posed by contaminated shallow groundwater.

  6. Santa Clara Valley water district multi-aquifer monitoring-well site, Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom, San Jose, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Wentworth, C.M.; Williams, C.F.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), has completed the first of several multiple-aquifer monitoring-well sites in the Santa Clara Valley. This site monitors ground-water levels and chemistry in the one of the major historic subsidence regions south of San Jose, California, at the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom (CCOC) (fig. 1) and provides additional basic information about the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and subsidence potential of the upper- and lower-aquifer systems that is a major source of public water supply in the Santa Clara Valley. The site also serves as a science education exhibit at the outdoor classroom operated by SCVWD.

  7. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  8. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  9. First report of Siphonaptera infesting Microtus (Microtus) cabrerae (Rodentia-Muridae-Arvicolinae) in Cuenca, Spain and notes about the morphologic variability of Ctenophthalmus (Ctenophthalmus) apertus personatus (Insecta-Siphonaptera-Ctenophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, M S; Fernández-Salvador, R; Garcia, R

    2003-06-01

    The fleas infesting Microtus (Microtus) cabrerae from three different areas of Cuenca province (Spain) have been studied. It is the first time that on ectoparasitological study of this badly known rodent has been done. Four Siphonaptera species have been detected: Rhadinopsylla (Actenophthalmus) pentacantha, Peromyscopsylla spectabilis spectabilis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenophthalmus (Ctenophthalmus) apertus personatus, which was the most abundant species (26 males and 31 females of a total of 28 males and 35 females). Considering the great morphologic variability within the male processus basimerus ventralis (p.b.v.) of segment IX of C. personatus subspecies, three morphotypes have been recognised. The male polymorphism detected, would be the result of both host confinement and genetic selection acting on the parasite. It should be pointed out that C. (C.) apertus personatus is not narrowly host-specific, therefore further studies are required to clarify this taxonomic situation.

  10. Determining the contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP variations over the last decade in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Chen, Dongxiang; Wei, Zongqiang; Dai, Liang; Li, Xingong

    2014-02-15

    Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) is an important measure of global change, and identifying the relative contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP is important for understanding the impact of human and natural influences on terrestrial systems and the carbon cycle. The objective of this study was to reveal how urbanisation and climate drive changes in NPP. Satellite-based estimates of NPP collected over a 12-year period (1999-2010) were analysed to identify NPP variations in the Yangtze River Delta. Temporal and spatial analysis methods were used to identify the relationships among NPP, nighttime light urbanisation index values, and climatic factors from pixel to regional scales. The NPP of the entire Yangtze River Delta decreased slightly at a rate of -0.5 g C m(-2)a(-1) from 1999 to 2010, but this change was not significant. However, in the urban region, NPP decreased significantly (p<0.05) at a rate of -4.7 g C m(-2)a(-1) due to urbanisation processes. A spatially explicit method was proposed to partition the relative contributions of urbanisation and climate change to NPP variation. The results revealed that the urbanisation factor is the main driving force for NPP change in high-speed urbanisation areas, and the factor accounted for 47% of the variations. However, in the forest and farm regions, the NPP variation was mainly controlled by climate change and residual factors.

  11. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Klimenko, I.; Taranenko, L.

    2012-07-01

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: < 100 g/l; pH: 1 - 11; anionic surface-active agent: < 25 mg/l; oil dissipated in the

  12. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation.

  13. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  14. Managing the equipment service life in rendering engineering support to NPP operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyy, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Apart from subjecting metal to nondestructive testing and determining its actual state, which are the traditional methods used for managing the service life of NPP equipment during its operation, other approaches closely linked with rendering engineering support to NPP operation have emerged in recent decades, which, however, have been covered in publications to a lesser extent. Service life management matters occupy the central place in the structure of engineering support measures. Application of the concept of repairing NPP equipment based on assessing its technical state and the risk of its failure makes it possible to achieve significantly smaller costs for maintenance and repairs and produce a larger amount of electricity due to shorter planned outages. Decreasing the occurrence probability of a process-related abnormality through its prediction is a further development of techniques for monitoring the technical state of equipment and systems. The proposed and implemented procedure for predicting the occurrence of process-related deviations from normal NPP operation opens the possibility to record in the online mode the trends in changes of process parameters that are likely to lead to malfunctions in equipment operation and to reduce the probability of power unit unloading when an abnormal technical state of equipment occurs and develops by recording changes in the state at an early stage and taking timely corrective measures. The article presents the structure of interconnections between the objectives and conditions of adjustment and commissioning tests, in which the management of equipment service life (saving and optimizing the service life) occupies the central place. Special attention is paid to differences in resource saving and optimization measures.

  15. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.

  16. Land, Cryosphere, and Nighttime Environmental Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP: http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/). VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and derived products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the former National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization (http://viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html). The paper will also discuss new capabilities being developed at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Test Element (http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/NPP_QA/); including downstream data and products derived from the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB).

  17. Computer modeling and simulators as part of university training for NPP operating personnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers aspects of a program for training future nuclear power plant personnel developed by the NPP Department of Ivanovo State Power Engineering University. Computer modeling is used for numerical experiments on the kinetics of nuclear reactors in Mathcad. Simulation modeling is carried out on the computer and full-scale simulator of water-cooled power reactor for the simulation of neutron-physical reactor measurements and the start-up - shutdown process.

  18. Floor response spectra for seismic qualification of Kozloduy VVER 440-230 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, M.K.; Ma, D.C.; Prato, C.A.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the floor response spectra generation methodology for Kozloduy NPP, Unit 1-2 of VVER 440-230 is presented. The 2D coupled soil-structure interaction models are used combined with a simplified correction of the final results for accounting of torsional effects. Both time history and direct approach for in-structure spectra generation are used and discussion of results is made.

  19. Characterization and Performance of the Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Ning, Lei; Kwofu, Chiang; Xiaoxiong, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    We describe the on-orbit characterization and performance of the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) on-board Suomi-NPP/VIIRS. This description includes the observing procedure of each SDSM event, the algorithms used to generate the Solar Diffuser degradation corrective factors, and the results for the mission to date. We will also compare the performance of the VIIRS SDSM and SD to the similar components operating on the MODIS instrument on the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites

  20. Optimization of the energy complex “NPP-accumulator” in case of force majeure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaluzhnaya, G.; Zagrebaev, A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a problem of optimization of NPP with accumulator operation mode in case of force majeure. A mathematical formulation and solving of problem of energy output’s time behavior is provided. A mathematical formulation and solving of problem of energy’s optimum allocation to consumers with different priorities. Mathematically, the problem reduces to linear programming problem. We received that optimal time behavior is uniform energy output, and one should start with consumer with highest priority.

  1. LOCA feasibility study of Almaraz NPP 110% power up-rate

    SciTech Connect

    Orive, Raul; Gallego, Ines; Garcia, Pablo; Concejal, Alberto; Martinez-Murillo, Juan-Carlos

    2006-07-01

    Knowledge about accidents and fuel response in extreme conditions has progressed in parallel with the simulation tools development and consequently results are today highly satisfactory. This fact allows nuclear power plants (NPP) to carry out optimization processes of its operation and yield improvements due to the development of new methodologies and tools. Power up-rates open a demand in areas like the analyses of Loss Of Coolant Accidents (LOCA's), which impact on plant design may limit the maximum operation power in a nuclear power plant. TRAC-PF1 is a thermal-hydraulic calculation code that allows the complete treatment of two-phase flows in balance, combining a three dimensional vessel, that simulates in detail the accident phenomena, with one dimensional components. TRAC-PF1 code capacities in the reproduction of experiments, transients and accidents have been widely proved. IBERINCO has modified the original code to develop a conservative model applicable to a 3-loop Westinghouse NPP. These circumstances have allowed Almaraz NPP to get deeper in the study of the plant behaviour during a LOCA, after a hypothetical Power Up-rate. The scope of the study includes the development of the plant model and the reproduction of several accidents with loss of coolant. These accidents have been simulated with the improved option and the conservative version of the modified code (TRAC-PF1/IBER). The limiting case at the current power is analyzed in 110% Power Up-rate conditions and different sensitivity studies are performed, focused in impact of axial power distribution, discharge coefficients and emergency core cooling system availability. These studies allow to verify the effectiveness of Almaraz NPP safety systems in LOCA scenarios to guarantee the required safety margins. (authors)

  2. Principles on Radiological Characterization of the Unit 1 at Ignalina NPP for Decommissioning Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Zujus, R.; Drumstas, G.; Poskas, R.; Simonis, V.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operated two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW(each). They were commissioned in 12/1983 and 08/1987, and the original design lifetime was projected out to 2010 and 2015 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit will be closed down before 2010 taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. Implementation of dismantling activities requires detailed knowledge of the radiological situation at the Unit 1. General Programme of Radiological Survey for Ignalina NPP Unit 1 based on NUREG-1575 was prepared in 2005- 2006 by Consortium led by Lithuanian Energy Institute and approved by Regulatory Bodies. It includes such main steps as historical site assessment, scoping, characterization, remedial actions/decontamination support surveys and final status surveys. General Programme of Radiological Survey defines content and principles of the surveys, and preliminary survey considerations, including identification of the contaminants, establishment of the free release levels, principles on areas classification depending on contamination potential, identification of the final survey units, criteria for selection survey instrumentation, techniques and methods etc. So, in the paper information on these principles and the content of the different stages in General Programme of Radiological Survey is presented. (authors)

  3. An overview of the ENEA activities in the field of coupled codes NPP simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, C.; Negrenti, E.; Sepielli, M.; Del Nevo, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the nuclear research activities in the fields of safety, training and education, ENEA (the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Sustainable Development) is in charge of defining and pursuing all the necessary steps for the development of a NPP engineering simulator at the 'Casaccia' Research Center near Rome. A summary of the activities in the field of the nuclear power plants simulation by coupled codes is here presented with the long term strategy for the engineering simulator development. Specifically, results from the participation in international benchmarking activities like the OECD/NEA 'Kalinin-3' benchmark and the 'AER-DYN-002' benchmark, together with simulations of relevant events like the Fukushima accident, are here reported. The ultimate goal of such activities performed using state-of-the-art technology is the re-establishment of top level competencies in the NPP simulation field in order to facilitate the development of Enhanced Engineering Simulators and to upgrade competencies for supporting national energy strategy decisions, the nuclear national safety authority, and the R and D activities on NPP designs. (authors)

  4. Increased N uptake from soil organic matter through priming may increase NPP of forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Lindén, Aki; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2013-04-01

    The response of plant photosynthesis to changing environmental factors is of crucial importance when trying to understand and quantify changes in ecosystem processes determining the carbon balance of soil. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and elevated temperature are assumed to increase net primary production (NPP) in boreal forest zone. Plant photosynthesis is the main source of labile, easily utilizable carbon (C) in soil ecosystem through litter production but especially through root exudation. Input of fast-cycling C has also been shown to induce so called priming effect, i.e. the accelerated decomposition of more recalcitrant C compounds. We aimed to artificially induce the soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by adding glucose and/or the plant (Scots pine, Pinus sylvetris) to the boreal humus containing microcosms. In another study, we investigated the influence of different ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal symbionts, crucial in tree nutrient uptake in boreal forests, on the C assimilation and allocation of Scots pine. We found indications on the intimate connection between tree N uptake from SOM and priming effect, induced by glucose additions. Also, the effect of different ectomycorrhizal symbionts on plant photosynthesis was not related to C sink but to N uptake, retention and allocation. To summarize, we conclude that since increased NPP will most probably increase easily utilizable C in soil, the decomposition of recalcitrant SOM will increase if N availability is limited. In case of increased SOM decomposition, N uptake of trees will be improved through ECM fungal symbionts and this may result in increased NPP.

  5. Conformity Between LR0 Mock-Ups and Vvers Npp Rpv Neutron Flux Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira; Kirilova, Desislava

    2009-08-01

    The conformity of the mock-up results and those for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of nuclear power plants (NPP) has been evaluated in order to qualify if the mock-ups data could be used for benchmark's purpose only, or/and for simulating of the NPP irradiation conditions. Neutron transport through the vessel has been calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinate code TORT with problem oriented multigroup energy neutron cross-section library BGL. Neutron flux/fluence and spectrum shape represented by normalized group neutron fluxes in the multigroup energy structure, for neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV, have been used for conformity analysis. It has been demonstrated that the relative difference of the attenuation factor as well as the group neutron fluxes did not exceed 10% at all considered positions for VVER-440. For VVER-1000, it has been obtained the same consistency, except for the location behind the RPV. The neutron flux attenuation behind the RPV is 18% higher than the mock-up attenuation. It has been shown that this difference arises from the dissimilarity of the biological shielding. The obtained results have demonstrated that the VVERs' mock-ups are appropriate for simulating the NPP irradiation conditions. The mock-up results for VVER-1000 have to be applied more carefully i.e. taking into account the existing peculiarity of the biological shielding and RPV attenuation azimuthal dependence.

  6. NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS RSB Comparison Using Observations from Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html) began to daily collect global data following its successful launch on October 28, 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key NPP sensor. Similar to the design of the OLS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, VIIRS has on-board calibration components including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB), a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view (SV) port for background subtraction. Immediately after the VIIRS nadir door s opening on November 21, 2011, anomalously large degradation in the SD response was identified in the near-IR wavelength region, which was unexpected as decreases in the SD reflectance usually occur gradually in the blue (0.4 m) wavelength region based on past experience. In this study, we use a well-calibrated Aqua MODIS as reference to track and evaluate VIIRS RSB stability and performance. Reflectances observed by both sensors from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) are used to determine VIIRS to MODIS reflectance ratios for their spectral matching bands. Results of this study provide an immediate post-launch assessment, independent validation of the anomalous degradation observed in SD measurements at near-IR wavelengths and initial analysis of calibration stability and consistency.

  7. Monitoring system with automatic sampling units in the surroundings Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svingor, É.; Molnár, M.; Palcsu, L.; Veres, M.; Pintér, T.; Köves, L.

    2006-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the uncontrolled tritium emission from Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been carried out since starting the NPP operation. In order to control the release of fission and corrosion products as well as 14C automatic samplers were designed and installed into 20 observation wells in the vicinity of the reactor units. The automatic samplers contain two columns filled with anion and cation exchanger resins and are equipped with filters for trapping the chelating agents. The samplers are placed two meters below the groundwater level. Water pumps fed by accumulator ensure the water flowing through the ion-exchange columns. After a two-month working period the trapped ions are eluted from the resins. The activity of the gamma-emitters, 14C, 90Sr and transuranium elements are measured in the dried elute, the tritium is measured in the collected water phase. The experiences of a five-year monitoring work in the surroundings of Paks NPP are given here.

  8. Study About Ceiling Design for Main Control Room of NPP with HFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Pengfei; Ni, Ying; Chen, Weihua; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Jianbo; Liang, Huihui

    Recently since human factor engineering (HFE) has been used in control room design of nuclear power plant (NPP), the human-machine interface (HMI) has been gradual to develop harmoniously, especially the use of the digital technology. Comparing with the analog technology which was used to human-machine interface in the past, human-machine interaction has been more enhanced. HFE and the main control room (MCR) design engineering of NPP is a combination of multidisciplinary cross, mainly related to electrical and instrument control, reactor, machinery, systems engineering and management disciplines. However, MCR is not only equipped with HMI provided by the equipments, but also more important for the operator to provide a work environment, such as the main control room ceiling. The ceiling design of main control room related to HFE which influences the performance of staff should also be considered in the design of the environment and aesthetic factors, especially the introduction of professional design experience and evaluation method. Based on Ling Ao phase II and Hong Yanhe project implementation experience, the study analyzes lighting effect, space partition, vision load about the ceiling of main control room of NPP. Combining with the requirements of standards, the advantages and disadvantages of the main control room ceiling design has been discussed, and considering the requirements of lightweight, noise reduction, fire prevention, moisture protection, the ceiling design solution of the main control room also has been discussed.

  9. NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory takes off from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, on NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory takes off from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, on NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  10. NASA Dryden's DC-8 on the ramp at Jaun Santamaria International Airport, San Jose, Costa Rica during the AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    NASA Dryden's DC-8 on the ramp at Jaun Santamaria International Airport, San Jose, Costa Rica during the AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  11. NASA Dryden's DC-8 on the ramp at Jaun Santamaria International Airport, San Jose, Costa Rica, during the AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    NASA Dryden's DC-8 on the ramp at Jaun Santamaria International Airport, San Jose, Costa Rica during the AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  12. Suomi Npp and Jpss Pre-Launch Test Data Collection and Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, M.; Ullman, R.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Chandler, C.; Adameck, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the development of each Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) instrument, significant testing was performed, both in ambient and simulated orbital (thermal-vacuum) conditions, at the instrument factory, and again after integration with the spacecraft. The NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), and later the NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office, defined two primary objectives with respect to capturing instrument and spacecraft test data during these test events. The first objective was to disseminate test data and auxiliary documentation to an often distributed network of scientists to permit timely production of independent assessments of instrument performance, calibration, data quality, and test progress. The second goal was to preserve the data and documentation in a catalogued government archive for the life of the mission, to aid in the resolution of anomalies and to facilitate the comparison of on-orbit instrument operating characteristics to those observed prior to launch. In order to meet these objectives, Suomi NPP pre-launch test data collection, distribution, processing, and archive methods included adaptable support infrastructures to quickly and completely transfer test data and documentation from the instrument and spacecraft factories to sensor scientist teams on-site at the factory and around the country. These methods were unique, effective, and low in cost. These efforts supporting pre-launch instrument calibration permitted timely data quality assessments and technical feedback from contributing organizations within the government, academia, and industry, and were critical in supporting timely sensor development. Second, in parallel to data distribution to the sensor science teams, pre-launch test data were transferred and ingested into the central Suomi NPP calibration and validation (cal/val) system, known as the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation

  13. Vegetation NPP distribution based on MODIS data and CASA model: a case study in the Haihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Zhou, Caiping; Zhang, Haitao; Lin, Chao; Zhu, Qilin

    2008-03-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the most important sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites and can be used in observing the air, the sea and the land quickly, timely and multi-temporally, which makes it an attractive and powerful tool for ecosystem pattern and process study. Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model is one of the most quick, convenient and accurate models to estimate the NPP (Net Primary Productivity) of vegetation. In this paper, the estimation and analysis of spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation NPP of the Haihe River Basin, the most man-interfered area in China, was made by using the CASA model based on the data of MODIS sensor onboard on the Terra satellites from the beginning of 2000 (the first year of delivering data) to the end of 2006. The result shows that the total NPP of the study area ranged from 1.25 × 10 14 to 1.54 × 10 14 gC/a during 2000 to 2006. The crop yields measured in the study area and the NPP value of the agriculture area from the CASA model were compared for testing the model's applicability in this study. The testing result shows that the NPP forecasted by using MODIS data and CASA model is acceptable. The NPP of the study area in all the years accumulated mainly from May to September, in which the maximum NPP appears in July and in August. The average NPP of the seven years of the main four vegetation types varied differently: values of two ripe crops a year or three ripe crops two years (519 gC/m2•a) > value of temperate deciduous shrub (428 gC/m2•a) > value of crop of one ripe a year and value of cold tolerating economic crop (293 gC/m2•a) > value of temperate grassland (195 gC/m2•a). From the results of the time series, it shows that the NPP varied irregularly with the time, but the NPP of all vegetation types in 2001 is lower than those in any other years. It relates to the drought climate in 2000 and 2001.

  14. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in prostate cancer patients: influence of Gleason score, treatment and bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Vanessa; Maders, Liési D K; Bagatini, Margarete D; Battisti, Iara E; Bellé, Luziane P; Santos, Karen F; Maldonado, Paula A; Thomé, Gustavo R; Schetinger, Maria R C; Morsch, Vera M

    2013-04-01

    The relation between adenine nucleotides and cancer has already been described in literature. Considering that the enzymes ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) act together to control nucleotide levels, we aimed to investigate the role of these enzymes in prostate cancer (PCa). E-NPP and ADA activities were determined in serum and platelets of PCa patients and controls. We also verified the influence of the Gleason score, bone metastasis and treatment in the enzyme activities. Platelets and serum E-NPP activity increased, whereas ADA activity in serum decreased in PCa patients. In addition, Gleason score, metastasis and treatment influenced E-NPP and ADA activities. We may propose that E-NPP and ADA are involved in the development of PCa. Moreover, E-NPP and ADA activities are modified in PCa patients with distinct Gleason score, with bone metastasis, as well as in patients under treatment.

  15. An Integrated Calibration Strategy for OMPS Level 1 products from Suomi NPP with Links to the EOS Aura Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Seftor, C. J.; Jaross, G. R.; Moy, L.; McPeters, R. D.; DeLand, M. T.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present an integrated approach to calibrate and maintain the Level 1 radiance data products from the Suomi NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite. Our calibration strategy takes advantage of synergy between the limb and the two nadir UV-VIS instruments flying on the S-NPP platform. We discuss the basic concept of using the OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) measurements to calibrate OMPS Nadir Profiler (NP) radiances below 310 nm, which are highly sensitive to ozone absorption. The LP ozone algorithm uses altitude normalized radiances which are not affected by instrument degradation and does not require solar irradiance measurement, making it relatively self-calibrating. Once calibrated, the OMPS NP wavelengths below 310 nm can be used to retrieve accurate total ozone, which can then be used to calibrate OMPS Nadir Mapper radiances at longer, less ozone sensitive wavelengths. OMPS LP can be calibrated against EOS Aura MLS by calculating UV-VIS radiances from MLS ozone profiles and adjusting LP for consistency. Finally, we present our approach as a general strategy to inter-calibrate S-NPP OMPS with the other nadir UV spectrometers on NOAA POES, Aura, NPP, and JPSS-1, as well as European sensors (GOME, SCIAMACHY, and TropOMI) and the geostationary platforms (TEMPO, GEMS, and Sentinel-4). Our aim is to establish S-NPP OMPS as a calibration flagship for ozone sensitive Level 1 data products of the past and future.

  16. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. MetEd Resources for Embracing Advances with S-NPP and JPSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2014-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. For many years COMET's satellite education programs have focused on developing self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. This presentation provides a tour of COMET's satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Over 90 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Satellite" topic area. Quite a few polar-orbiting-related lessons are available in both English, Spanish, and French. Additionally, S-NPP and JPSS relevant information can also be found on the the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc) that is maintained by COMET. The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to

  18. OVERVIEW ON BNL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C.; GRAVES, H.

    2007-04-01

    A study was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), to determine the applicability of established soil-structure interaction analysis methods and computer programs to deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. This paper provides an overview of the BNL study including a description and discussions of analyses performed to assess relative performance of various SSI analysis methods typically applied to NPP structures, as well as the importance of interface modeling for DEB structures. There are four main elements contained in the BNL study: (1) Review and evaluation of existing seismic design practice, (2) Assessment of simplified vs. detailed methods for SSI in-structure response spectrum analysis of DEB structures, (3) Assessment of methods for computing seismic induced earth pressures on DEB structures, and (4) Development of the criteria for benchmark problems which could be used for validating computer programs for computing seismic responses of DEB NPP structures. The BNL study concluded that the equivalent linear SSI methods, including both simplified and detailed approaches, can be extended to DEB structures and produce acceptable SSI response calculations, provided that the SSI response induced by the ground motion is very much within the linear regime or the non-linear effect is not anticipated to control the SSI response parameters. The BNL study also revealed that the response calculation is sensitive to the modeling assumptions made for the soil/structure interface and application of a particular material model for the soil.

  19. Lunar BRDF Correction of Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day/Night Band Time Series Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Kalb, V.; Stokes, E.; Miller, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first-light images from the Suomi-NPP VIIRS low-light visible Day/Night Band (DNB) sensor were received in November 2011, the NASA Suomi-NPP Land Science Investigator Processing System (SIPS) has focused on evaluating this new capability for quantitative science applications, as well as developing and testing refined algorithms to meet operational and Land science research needs. While many promising DNB applications have been developed since the Suomi-NPP launch, most studies to-date have been limited by the traditional qualitative image display and spatial-temporal aggregated statistical analysis methods inherent in current heritage algorithms. This has resulted in strong interest for a new generation of science-quality products that can be used to monitor both the magnitude and signature of nighttime phenomena and anthropogenic sources of light emissions. In one particular case study, Román and Stokes (2015) demonstrated that tracking daily dynamic DNB radiances can provide valuable information about the character of the human activities and behaviors that influence energy, consumption, and vulnerability. Here we develop and evaluate a new suite of DNB science-quality algorithms that can exclude a primary source of background noise: i.e., the Lunar BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) effect. Every day, the operational NASA Land SIPS DNB algorithm makes use of 16 days worth of DNB-derived surface reflectances (SR) (based on the heritage MODIS SR algorithm) and a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to determine a global set of parameters describing the BRDF of the land surface. The nighttime period of interest is heavily weighted as a function of observation coverage. These gridded parameters, combined with Miller and Turner's [2009] top-of-atmosphere spectral irradiance model, are then used to determine the DNB's lunar radiance contribution at any point in time and under specific illumination conditions.

  20. Radiation protection monitoring zone population NPP according to experts in case of emergency.

    PubMed

    Prilipko, V A; Shevchenko, K K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to peer review the implementation of protective measures to limit public exposure surveillance zone NPP in case of emergency considering laws and regulations. Survey method using expert assessments were used. Experts were formed in four groups who are respon sible for radiation protection of various groups surveillance zone of RNPP. Requirements to selections experts were professional experience not less than 10 years, the profile and post. For primary empirical data was used simple ordering of values of an even or consistent comparison. According to experts, measures warning, provision of stable iodine preparations, provision of collective (protective constructions, hiding place) and personal protective equipment (clothing, gauze bandages, respirators, mask), material and technical equipment at the Rivne NPP could be significantly different in rural and urban sur veillance zone in the case of emergency. Group risk in case of an emergency, can become students of rural schools surveillance zone due to imperfect warning system and lack of shelter facilities. There is no consensus among experts on radiation protection assessments of various groups surveillance zone, including provision of means of individual and collective protection, preparedness protective actions in case of emergency. State radiation protection surveillance zone Rivne NPP, including a system of organizational, techni cal, biomedical, financial and economic measures to prevent and respond to the National Assembly, does not meet the laws of Ukraine "On Nuclear Energy Use and Radiation Safety" and "On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character ", requiring State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate (SNRI) of Ukraine on this question. V. A. Prilipko, K. K. Shevchenko.

  1. COMET Program Training Offerings to Support S-NPP and JPSS Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Are you up to speed on how to exploit new S-NPP capabilities and products? If not, don't worry, because UCAR's COMET program has self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites. The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) has long received funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. By partnering with experts from NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, the Naval Research Laboratory and others, COMET's self-paced training stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. Right now, over 70 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available in English via the MetEd Web site at http://meted.ucar.edu/topics/satellite. Additionally, quite a few lessons are also available in Spanish and French making training more easily accessible to an international audience. This presentation will focus on COMET's latest satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Finally, new relevant training initiatives will also be presented.

  2. Kinetic behaviour of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase with pNPP.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Gouri; Chatterjee, Saswata; Venu-Babu, P; Ramasamy, K; Thilagaraj, W Richard

    2013-02-01

    The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was investigated with respect to kinetic parameters such as V(max), K(m) and K(cat) under varying pH, buffers, substrate concentration, temperature and period of incubation. Highest activity was obtained with Tris-HCl at pH 11, while in the case of glycine-NaOH buffer the peak activity was recorded at pH 9.5. The enzyme showed the following kinetic characteristics with pNPP in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 11 and 100 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 9.5 at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C: V(max), 3.12 and 1.6 micromoles min(-1) unit(-1); K(m), 7.6 x 10(-4) M and 4 x 10(-4) M; and K(cat), 82.98 s(-1) and 42.55 s(-1), respectively. CIAP displayed a high temperature optimum of 45 degrees C at pH 11. The kinetic behaviour of the enzyme under different parameters suggested that the enzyme might undergo subtle conformational changes in response to the buffers displaying unique characteristics. Bioprecipitation of Cu2+ from 50 ppm of CuCl2 solution was studied where 64.3% of precipitation was obtained. P(i) generated from CIAP-mediated hydrolysis of pNPP was found to bind with copper and precipitated as copper-phosphate. Thus, CIAP could be used as a test candidate in bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastes through generation of metal-phosphate complexes.

  3. An Algorithm For Climate-Quality Atmospheric Profiling Continuity From EOS Aqua To Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncet, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We will present results from an algorithm that is being developed to produce climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to hyperspectral sounding instrument data from Suomi-NPP, EOS Aqua, and other spacecraft. The current focus is on data from the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments as well as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua. The algorithm development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) has common heritage with the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm operationally processing S-NPP data in the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), but the ESDR algorithm has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration and has several features adapted to the climate orientation of ESDRs. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. The radiative transfer component uses an enhanced version of optimal spectral sampling (OSS) with updated spectroscopy, treatment of emission that is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), efficiency gains with "global" optimal sampling over all channels, and support for channel selection. The algorithm is designed for adaptive treatment of clouds, with capability to apply "cloud clearing" or simultaneous cloud parameter retrieval, depending on conditions. We will present retrieval results demonstrating the impact of a new capability to perform the retrievals on sigma or hybrid vertical grid (as opposed to a fixed pressure grid), which particularly affects profile accuracy over land with variable terrain height and with sharp vertical structure near the surface. In addition, we will show impacts of alternative treatments of regularization of the inversion. While OE algorithms typically implement regularization by using background estimates from

  4. NASA's New 'Deep Blue' Aerosol Products From The NPP-VIIRS Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Carletta, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue algorithm family has been used to determine spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), from 1997 onwards. However, these sensors are now either ageing or no longer functional. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the first of which was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite in late 2011, has similar capabilities to these sensors, and so is also suitable for AOD retrieval. This presentation introduces the new NASA VIIRS 'Deep Blue' aerosol data set over land and ocean.

  5. [Unsolved radioecological problems of Chernobyl NPP Exclusion Zone at late phase of the accident].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu A; Bondar'kov, M D

    2009-01-01

    Some scientific and scientific-industrial radioecological problems of Chernobyl NPP Exclusion Zone are considered. These problems are demanding its solution or development of already obtaining results for adequate understanding and planning of conducted researches as well as for decision support of activities directed to minimization of the accident consequences. Following problems are discussed: an estimation of radiological significance of natural and technogenic objects of the Zone, long-term dynamics of radioecological processes, autorehabilitation processes of the Zone ecosystems, complex estimation of the influence of the Zone technogenic objects to radioecological state of ecosystems, radioecology of urban ecosystems (by the example of former town Pripyat) and problems of rehabilitation of abandoned areas.

  6. Inter-Comparison of NPP/CrIS with AIRS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Weng, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the newly-launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that provides soundings of the atmosphere with 1305 spectral channels, over 3 wavelength ranges: LWIR (9.14 - 15.38 μm); MWIR (5.71 - 8.26 μm); and SWIR (3.92 - 4.64 μm). An accurate spectral and radiometric calibration as well as geolocation is fundamental for CrIS radiance Sensor Data Records (SDRs). In this study, through inter- and intra-satellite calibration efforts, we focus on assessment of NPP/CrIS post-launch radiometric and spectral calibration. The purpose of this study is to use inter-calibration technologies to quantify the CrIS calibration bias and uncertainties. We will compare CrIS hyperspectral radiance measurements with the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Metop-A and -B to examine spectral and radiometric consistence and difference among three hyperspectral IR sounders. The newly-launched CrIS on Suomi NPP, combined with AIRS and IASI, provide the first-ever inter-calibration opportunity because three hyperspectral IR sounders can observe the Earth and Atmosphere at the same spectral regions from different satellites. We will directly compare CrIS with AIRS and IASI at orbital crossing points of satellites occurring at high latitudes, the so-called simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO). The CrIS, AIRS, and IASI spectra will be processed at common grids and then the spectral differences will be computed. In addition, an accurate collocation algorithm has been developed to collocate high spatial resolution measurements from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) within each CrIS Field of View (FOV). The collocated VIIRS radiances will be used to characterize the homogeneity of CrIS FOVs to further reduce comparison uncertainties

  7. [The dose estimation of woody plants in the long-term after the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Fesenko, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Solomatin, V M; Karpenko, E I

    2008-01-01

    Dosimetric models have been developed to estimate the exposure doses of woody plants growing in the area contaminated by long-lived radionuclides. The models are parameterized based on the data obtained from the experimental plots in the south-west districts of the Bryansk region affected by radioactive fallout of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Doses are estimated to generative organs of pine trees from these plots. The contribution from various sources and types of ionizing radiation to the absorbed dose formation for these objects is determined.

  8. Algorithm and Software for Calculating Optimal Regimes of the Process Water Supply System at the Kalininskaya NPP{sup 1}

    SciTech Connect

    Murav’ev, V. P. Kochetkov, A. V.; Glazova, E. G.; Zefirov, S. V.

    2016-03-15

    An algorithm and software for calculating the optimal operating regimes of the process water supply system at the Kalininskaya NPP are described. The parameters of the optimal regimes are determined for time varying meteorological conditions and condensation loads of the NPP. The optimal flow of the cooling water in the turbines is determined computationally; a regime map with the data on the optimal water consumption distribution between the coolers and displaying the regimes with an admissible heat load on the natural cooling lakes is composed. Optimizing the cooling system for a 4000-MW NPP will make it possible to conserve at least 155,000 MW · h of electricity per year. The procedure developed can be used to optimize the process water supply systems of nuclear and thermal power plants.

  9. Radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plants with VVER reactors using Balakovo NPP (Russia) as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, U.; Hoelker, G.; Chrubasik, A.; Ipatov, P.L.; Ignatov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    In nuclear power plants with VVER reactors, located in the states of the former USSR, the treatment of solid and liquid radioactive waste represents a problem which--besides measures concerning the increase of reactor safety--requires a quick solution at a high technical level. To help address this problem, Nukem GmbH jointly with Balakovo NPP and the Nuclear Power Project Institute AEP Nizhni Novgorod, has developed a waste Treatment Center (WTC) for the Balakowo NPP. This center possesses all the necessary technological installations to transform liquid low-level, medium-level and solid low-level radioactive waste accumulated to date and waste arising during the futures operation of Balakovo NPP (4 reactors VVER-1000) in a way which allows a safe long-time storage.

  10. Acidosis is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto-nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Key, Michelle L; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Millán, José L; Arnett, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi ) to pyrophosphate (PPi ) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi , a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto-nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto-nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto-nucleotidases including NTPdase 1-6 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1-3 (ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 >  alkaline phosphatase > ecto-5-nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8-fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto-nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5-fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions.

  11. Land and Cryosphere Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Christopher O.; Roman, Miguel O.; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Hook, Simon J.; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS.

  12. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsolnay, Eva M.; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor; Hordósy, Gábor; Keresztúri, András; Kresz, Norbert; Oszvald, Ferenc

    2016-02-01

    The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  13. Modelling the current and future spatial distribution of NPP in a Mediterranean watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Cenk; Berberoglu, Suha; Curran, Paul J.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to use full spatial resolution Envisat MERIS data to drive an ecosystem productivity model for pine forests along the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The Carnegie, Ames, Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial biogeochemical model, designed to simulate the terrestrial carbon cycle using satellite sensor and meteorological data, was used to estimate annual regional fluxes in terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP). At its core this model is based on light-use efficiency, influenced by temperature, rainfall and solar radiation. Present climate data was generated from 50 climate stations within the watershed using co-kriging. Regional scale pseudo-warming data for year 2070 were derived using a Regional Climate Model (RCM) these data were used to downscale the GCM General Circulation Model for the research area as part of an international research project called Impact of Climate Changes on Agricultural Production Systems in Arid Areas (ICCAP). Outputs of climate data can be moderated using the four variables of percent tree cover, land cover, soil texture and NDVI. This study employed 47 MERIS images recorded between March 2003 and September 2005 to derive percent tree cover, land cover and NDVI. Envisat MERIS data hold great potential for estimating NPP with the CASA model because of the appropriateness of both its spatial and its spectral resolution.

  14. Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and status.

    PubMed

    Justice, Christopher O; Román, Miguel O; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F; Wolfe, Robert E; Hook, Simon J; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward J

    2013-09-16

    [1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS.

  15. NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Stray Light Characterization and Correction Using Calibration View Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    The NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) nighttime imagery quality is affected by stray light contamination. In this study, we examined the relationship between the observed stray light and the signals in VIIRS's calibrators to investigate the potential stray light source and sneak paths. The stray light contamination is found to be highly correlated with calibrator signal characteristics and the stray light origin and paths could vary at satellite's orbital location and time. For the observed high latitude stray light regions, the calibration view data showed signal profiles that are similar to the estimated earth scene stray light profiles. In the twilight region, calibration view signal profiles can be used to extend stray light estimates to improve upon the current extrapolation method. The calibration view data can also be used to identify the additional stray light occurred during southern hemisphere spring time and the occasional low latitude stray light contamination. Based on the calibration view data, the expected earth scene dark signals can be approximated by extending signals from un-contaminated regions to estimate the additional stray light. Applying this updated stray light correction method, the DNB images showed expected earth scene features over the additional southern hemisphere stray light region, although some residual effects remained. Our analysis indicates that the DNB calibration view data can be used to improve DNB stray light characterization and correction. As stray light affects significant portion of nighttime scenes, further refinement in characterization and correction is important to ensure VIIRS DNB imagery quality in NPP and future missions.

  16. Effects of long-term nutrient additions on Arctic tundra, stream, and lake ecosystems: beyond NPP.

    PubMed

    Gough, Laura; Bettez, Neil D; Slavik, Karie A; Bowden, William B; Giblin, Anne E; Kling, George W; Laundre, James A; Shaver, Gaius R

    2016-11-01

    Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature. Sometimes, responses were similar across all three ecosystems; e.g., increased NPP significantly reduced light to the substrate following fertilization. Perennial biotic structures increased in tundra and streams but not in lakes, and provided important new habitat niches for consumers as well as other producers. Oxygen and temperature responses also differed. Life history traits (e.g., longevity) of the primary producers along with the fate of detritus drove the responses and recovery. As global change persists and nutrients become more available in the Arctic and elsewhere, incorporating these factors as response variables will enable better prediction of ecosystem changes and feedbacks in this biome and others.

  17. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  18. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and wave propagation at the San Jose, California, dense seismic array

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.; Harmsen, S.; Zerva, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion records from a 52-element dense seismic array near San Jose, California, are analyzed to obtain site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and plane-wave propagation characteristics. The array, located on the eastern side of the Santa Clara Valley south of the San Francisco Bay, is sited over the Evergreen basin, a 7-km-deep depression with Miocene and younger deposits. Site response values below 4 Hz are up to a factor of 2 greater when larger, regional records are included in the analysis, due to strong surface-wave development within the Santa Clara Valley. The pattern of site amplification is the same, however, with local or regional events. Site amplification increases away from the eastern edge of the Santa Clara Valley, reaching a maximum over the western edge of the Evergreen basin, where the pre-Cenozoic basement shallows rapidly. Amplification then decreases further to the west. This pattern may be caused by lower shallow shear-wave velocities and thicker Quaternary deposits further from the edge of the Santa Clara Valley and generation/trapping of surface waves above the shallowing basement of the western Evergreen basin. Shear-wave velocities from the inversion of site response spectra based on smaller, local earthquakes compare well with those obtained independently from our seismic reflection/refraction measurements. Velocities from the inversion of site spectra that include larger, regional records do not compare well with these measurements. A mix of local and regional events, however, is appropriate for determination of site response to be used in seismic hazard evaluation, since large damaging events would excite both body and surface waves with a wide range in ray parameters. Frequency-wavenumber, plane-wave analysis is used to determine the backazimuth and apparent velocity of coherent phases at the array. Conventional, high-resolution, and multiple signal characterization f-k power spectra and stacked slowness power spectra are

  19. Multi-phase Temporal Seismic Imaging of a Slope Stability Mitigation Project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treece, B. J.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Without slope stability mitigation, liquefaction-induced settlement in bay mud and Pleistocene alluvial deposits may lead to the collapse of levee walls surrounding sanitary landfills that are located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. To analyze the effectiveness of a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California, we acquired P- and S-wave seismic surveys along a transect through the mitigated region during, and two years after, completion of the mitigation project. Deep soil mixing involves the injection of a cement slurry in augered holes, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) that are intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the subsurface materials. For our seismic investigations, we used accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) and hammer impacts to generate P- and S-wave seismic sources, respectively, at 57 geophone locations, spaced 5 m apart. The resulting seismic data were recorded using 40-Hz, vertical-component (P-wave) and 4.5-Hz, horizontal-component (S-wave) sensors. Initially, we developed tomographic refraction (velocity) images along a progressive transition from a yet-to-be-mitigated area into a more recently mitigated area, located along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The initial survey revealed an increase in seismic velocity in the treated area, seismic velocity increases with curing time for soil-cement elements, and a high-velocity zone beneath the active injection zone. The influence of the mitigation was most apparent from increases in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. To assess the long-term effects of the mitigation project, an identical, follow-up survey was acquired in July 2014, 23 months after the initial survey. We present a comparative analysis of the tomographic images from the two surveys, variations in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios over time, and a comparison of in situ, time-varying seismic parameters with laboratory

  20. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-01

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2-16 % and EP by 7-18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positive biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface-ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate-driven changes in export

  1. Climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (EP) regulated by increasing stratification and phytoplankton community structure in the CMIP5 models

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Weiwei; Randerson, James T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2016-09-16

    We examine climate change impacts on net primary production (NPP) and export production (sinking particulate flux; EP) with simulations from nine Earth system models (ESMs) performed in the framework of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced by the end of the century for the intense warming scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. Relative to the 1990s, NPP in the 2090s is reduced by 2–16 % and EP by 7–18 %. The models with the largest increases in stratification (and largest relative declines in NPP and EP) also show the largest positivemore » biases in stratification for the contemporary period, suggesting overestimation of climate change impacts on NPP and EP. All of the CMIP5 models show an increase in stratification in response to surface–ocean warming and freshening, which is accompanied by decreases in surface nutrients, NPP and EP. There is considerable variability across the models in the magnitudes of NPP, EP, surface nutrient concentrations and their perturbations by climate change. The negative response of NPP and EP to increasing stratification reflects primarily a bottom-up control, as upward nutrient flux declines at the global scale. Models with dynamic phytoplankton community structure show larger declines in EP than in NPP. This pattern is driven by phytoplankton community composition shifts, with reductions in productivity by large phytoplankton as smaller phytoplankton (which export less efficiently) are favored under the increasing nutrient stress. Thus, the projections of the NPP response to climate change are critically dependent on the simulated phytoplankton community structure, the efficiency of the biological pump and the resulting levels of regenerated production, which vary widely across the models. Community structure is represented simply in the CMIP5 models, and should be expanded to better capture the spatial patterns and climate

  2. A Cloud-Based Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Processing and Dissemination of NPP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Chettri, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    We are building a scalable cloud-based infrastructure for generating and disseminating near-real-time data products from a variety of geospatial and meteorological data sources, including the new National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP). Our approach relies on linking Direct Broadcast and other data streams to a suite of scientific algorithms coordinated by NASA's International Polar-Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP). The resulting data products are directly accessible to a wide variety of end-user applications, via industry-standard protocols such as OGC Web Services, Unidata Local Data Manager, or OPeNDAP, using open source software components. The processing chain employs on-demand computing resources from Amazon.com's Elastic Compute Cloud and NASA's Nebula cloud services. Our current prototype targets short-term weather forecasting, in collaboration with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program and the National Weather Service. Direct Broadcast is especially crucial for NPP, whose current ground segment is unlikely to deliver data quickly enough for short-term weather forecasters and other near-real-time users. Direct Broadcast also allows full local control over data handling, from the receiving antenna to end-user applications: this provides opportunities to streamline processes for data ingest, processing, and dissemination, and thus to make interpreted data products (Environmental Data Records) available to practitioners within minutes of data capture at the sensor. Cloud computing lets us grow and shrink computing resources to meet large and rapid fluctuations in data availability (twice daily for polar orbiters) - and similarly large fluctuations in demand from our target (near-real-time) users. This offers a compelling business case for cloud computing: the processing or dissemination systems can grow arbitrarily large to sustain near-real time data access despite surges in

  3. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  4. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  5. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  6. Overview of Remote Handling Equipment Used for the NPP A1 Decommissioning - 12141

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Medved, J.; Pekar, A.; Stubna, M.; Michal, V.; Vargovcik, L.

    2012-07-01

    The first Czechoslovak NPP A1 was in operation from 1972 to 1977 and it was finally shutdown due to an accident (level 4 according to the INES). The presence of radioactive, toxic or hazardous materials limits personnel access to facilities and therefore it is necessary to use remote handling technologies for some most difficult characterization, retrieval, decontamination and dismantling tasks. The history of remote handling technologies utilization started in nineties when the spent nuclear fuel, including those fuel assemblies damaged during the accident, was prepared for the transport to Russia. Subsequent significant development of remote handling equipment continued during implementation of the NPP A1 decommissioning project - Stage I and ongoing Stage II. Company VUJE, Inc. is the general contractor for both mentioned stages of the decommissioning project. Various remote handling manipulators and robotics arms were developed and used. It includes remotely controlled vehicle manipulator MT-15 used for characterisation tasks in hostile and radioactive environment, special robust manipulator DENAR-41 used for the decontamination of underground storage tanks and multi-purposes robotics arms MT-80 and MT-80A developed for variety of decontamination and dismantling tasks. The heavy water evaporator facility dismantling is the current task performed remotely by robotics arm MT-80. The heavy water evaporator is located inside the main production building in the room No. 220 where loose surface contamination varies from 10 Bq/cm{sup 2} to 1x10{sup 3} Bq/cm{sup 2}, dose rate is up to 1.5 mGy/h and the feeding pipeline contained liquid RAW with high tritium content. Presented manipulators have been designed for broad range of decommissioning tasks. They are used for recognition, sampling, waste retrieval from large underground tanks, decontamination and dismantling of technological equipments. Each of the mentioned fields claims specific requirements on design of

  7. The environmental constraint needs for design improvements to the Saligny I/LLW-repository near Cernavoda NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the new perspectives on the development of the L/ILW Final Repository Project which will be built near Cernavoda NPP. The Repository is designed to satisfy the main performance objectives in accordance to IAEA recommendation. Starting in October 1996, Romania became a country with an operating nuclear power plant. Reactor 2 reached the criticality on May 6, 2007 and it will be put in commercial operation in September 2007. The Ministry of Economy and Finance has decided to proceed with the commissioning of Units 3 and 4 of Cernavoda NPP till 2014. The Strategy for radioactive waste management was elaborated by National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD), the jurisdictional authority for definitive disposal and the coordination of nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste management (Order 844/2004) with attributions established by Governmental Decision (GO) 31/2006. The Strategy specifies the commissioning of the Saligny L/IL Radwaste Repository near Cernavoda NPP in 2014. When designing the L/IL Radwaste Repository, the following prerequisites have been taken into account: 1) Cernavoda NPP will be equipped with 4 Candu 6 units. 2) National Legislation in radwaste management will be reviewed and/or completed to harmonize with UE standards 3) The selected site is now in process of confirmation after a comprehensive set of interdisciplinary investigations. (author)

  8. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  9. Retrospective Dosimetry of Vver 440 Reactor Pressure Vessel at the 3RD Unit of Dukovany Npp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Sus, F.; Klupak, V.; Rataj, J.; Hogel, J.

    2009-08-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) residual lifetime of the Czech VVER-440 is currently monitored under Surveillance Specimens Programs (SSP) focused on reactor pressure vessel materials. Neutron fluence in the samples and its distribution in the RPV are determined by a combination of calculation results and the experimental data coming from the reactor dosimetry measurements both in the specimen containers and in the reactor cavity. The direct experimental assessment of the neutron flux density incident onto RPV and neutron fluence for the entire period of nuclear power plant unit operation can be based on the evaluation of the samples taken from the inner RPV cladding. The Retrospective Dosimetry was also used at Dukovany NPP at its 3rd unit after the 18th cycle. The paper describes methodology, experimental setup for sample extraction, measurement of activities, and the determination of the neutron flux and fluence averaged over the samples.

  10. First look at NASA's 'Deep Blue' aerosol products from the NPP-VIIRS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, Christina; Lee, Jaehwa; Bettenhausen, Corey; Carletta, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    The Deep Blue algorithm family has been used to determine spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) from measurements made by the spaceborne Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), providing a record from 1997 to the present. However, these sensors are now either ageing or no longer functional. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the first of which was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite in late 2011, has similar capabilities to MODIS, and is expected to be able to continue the Deep Blue record. We present first results from the NASA VIIRS Deep Blue land aerosol data set, complemented by an over-ocean data set based on a different algorithm, and anticipate that a beta release of this data set should be available in the near future.

  11. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv. PMID:23591638

  12. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite Captures Night-time Look at Cyclone Felleng

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite captured this false-colored night-time image of Cyclone Felleng during the night on Jan. 28, 2013. Felleng is located in the Southern Indian Ocean, and is northwest of Madagascar. The image revealed some pretty cold overshooting tops, topping at ~170K. The image shows some interesting gravity waves propagating out from the storm in both the thermal and visible imagery. For full storm history on NASA's Hurricane Web Page, visit: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2013/h2013... Credit: William Straka, UWM/NASA/NOAA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Conducted Noise at Main Control Room in Uljin NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Goo, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Bok-Ryul; Cho, Won-Seo

    2001-06-17

    Electromagnetic measurements were performed at the power ports of the Plant Control System (PCS) and the Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Uljin to obtain the conducted noise level, which can be utilized to determine the electromagnetic environment test limit for the equipment qualification test, for equipment to be installed in the NPP. The measurements indicated that the maximum noise of the continuous conducted noise at the low-frequency range of from 30 Hz to 50kHz at the PCS was higher than that at the CPC. It was found that the low-frequency conducted noise consists of a 60-Hz power source frequency and its even and odd harmonic frequencies. The odd harmonic was more predominant than the even.

  14. The optimal approach for the processes of verification and validation of NPP software and hardware complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, S.; Tolokonsky, A.; Rogov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the task of increasing the quality of software and hardware complex development has not lost its urgency. The problem mentioned has still been solving by the search of an optimal structure, stage content and life cycle processes. The current system of international standards has been developed on the basis of advanced software complexes for aviation, space and defense industries being designed during the second half of the 20th century. However, it lacks a holistic approach for verification and validation. The paper presents the analysis of Russian and international regulatory framework and current verification and validation methods in the context of the life cycle of NPP software and hardware complexes. Basing on the data obtained, a new approach for verification and validation methods has been introduced.

  15. Photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells grown by OMVPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, S.; Singh, K.; Bhimnathwala, H.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of n(+)/p/p(+) homojunction InP solar cells fabricated by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE) are described. The cells are characterized by I-V, C-V and quantum efficiency measurements, and simulations are used to obtain various device and material parameters. The I-V characteristics show a high recombination rate in the depletion region; this is shown to be independent of the impurity used. It is shown that cadmium is easier to use as an acceptor for the p base and p(+) buffer and is therefore beneficial. The high quantum efficiency of 98 percent at long wavelengths measured in these cells indicates a very good collection efficiency in the base. The short-wavelength quantum efficiency is poor, indicating a high surface recombination.

  16. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Gets an Infrared look at Typhoon Soudelor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On August 6, 2015, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over powerful Typhoon Soudelor when it was headed toward Taiwan. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured an infrared image of the typhoon. The infrared image that showed there were some thunderstorms within the typhoon with very cold cloud top temperatures, colder than -63F/-53C. Temperatures that cold stretch high into the troposphere and are capable of generating heavy rain. Credit: UWM/CIMSS/SSEC, William Straka III NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Developing Land Surface Type Map with Biome Classification Scheme Using Suomi NPP/JPSS VIIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Chengquan; Zhan, Xiwu; Jin, Huiran

    2016-08-01

    Accurate representation of actual terrestrial surface types at regional to global scales is an important element for a wide range of applications, such as land surface parameterization, modeling of biogeochemical cycles, and carbon cycle studies. In this study, in order to meet the requirement of the retrieval of global leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation (fPAR) and other studies, a global map generated from Suomi National Polar- orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) surface reflectance data in six major biome classes based on their canopy structures, which include: Grass/Cereal Crops, Shrubs, Broadleaf Crops, Savannas, Broadleaf Forests, and Needleleaf Forests, was created. The primary biome classes were converted from an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) legend global surface type data that was created in previous study, and the separation of two crop types are based on a secondary classification.

  18. Overview of Activities in the U.S. Related to Continued Service of NPP Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2011-01-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and commentary on continued service assessments of these structures is provided. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status noted. A summary of operating experience related to U.S. nuclear power plant concrete structures is presented. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of NPP concrete structures. Finally current ORNL activities related to aging-management of concrete structures are outlined: development of operating experience database, application of structural reliability theory, and compilation of elevated temperature concrete material property data and information.

  19. NIRS external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Masaki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The great east Japan earthquake and subsequent tsunamis caused Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the external dose estimation system for Fukushima residents. The system is being used in the Fukushima health management survey. The doses can be obtained by superimposing the behavior data of the residents on the dose rate maps. For grasping the doses, 18 evacuation patterns of the residents were assumed by considering the actual evacuation information before using the survey data. The doses of the residents from the deliberate evacuation area were relatively higher than those from the area within 20 km radius. The estimated doses varied from around 1 to 6 mSv for the residents evacuated from the representative places in the deliberate evacuation area. The maximum dose in 18 evacuation patterns was estimated to be 19 mSv.

  20. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  1. Modeling the dynamics of distribution, extent, and NPP of global terrestrial ecosystems in response to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Yang, Yue; Li, Jianlong; Cheng, Jimin; Qi, Jiaguo; Odeh, Inakwu

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how terrestrial ecosystems would respond to future climate change can substantially contribute to scientific evaluation of the interactions between vegetation and climate. To reveal the future climate impacts might on the nature and magnitude of global vegetation, the spatiotemporal distribution and net primary productivity (NPP) of global terrestrial biomes and their dynamics in this century were quantitatively simulated and compared by using the improved Comprehensive and Sequential Classification System and the segmentation model. The 33 general circulation models under the four scenarios of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were utilized to simulate the future climate change. The multi-model ensemble results showed that at the global scale, the distribution of forests and deserts would expand by more than 2% and 4% over this century, respectively. By contrast, more than 11% of grassland regions would shrink. Despite the considerable differences in the simulated responses of the biomes, the poleward movement or expansion of temperate forest were prominent features across all the scenarios. Meanwhile, the terrestrial NPP was projected to increase by 7.44, 9.51, 9.46, and 12.02 Pg DW·a- 1 in 2070s relative to 1970s in the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. The largest NPP decrease would occur in tundra & alpine steppe. NPP in the Tropical Zone, the North Temperate Zone, and the North Frigid Zone was estimated to increase in this century, whereas NPP in the South Temperate Zone was projected to decrease slightly across all scenarios. Overall, ecosystems in the mid-/high latitudes would be more vulnerable to future climate change in terms of distribution ranges and primary productivity despite the existing uncertainties. Some vegetation would benefit from the warmer and wetter climate. However, most of these plants would suffer and experience irreversible changes, particularly in the northern hemisphere.

  2. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1–NPP6. Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2–GFP and NPP6–GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER–Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  3. Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy on corrosion products of NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekan, J.; Lipka, J.; Slugeň, V.

    2013-04-01

    Steam generator (SG) is generally one of the most important components at all nuclear power plants (NPP) with close impact to safe and long-term operation. Material degradation and corrosion/erosion processes are serious risks for long-term reliable operation. Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998, in order to improve corrosion resistance of SGs. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filters deposits. Newest results in our long-term corrosion study confirm good operational experiences and suitable chemical regimes (reduction environment) which results mostly in creation of magnetite (on the level 70 % or higher) and small portions of hematite, goethite or hydrooxides. Regular observation of corrosion/erosion processes is essential for keeping NPP operation on high safety level. The output from performed material analyses influences the optimisation of operating chemical regimes and it can be used in optimisation of regimes at decontamination and passivation of pipelines or secondary circuit components. It can be concluded that a longer passivation time leads more to magnetite fraction in the corrosion products composition.

  4. NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration and characterization using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2012. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56° to -55° in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5° to -50.5°, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14°, 0°] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  5. NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization Using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Butler, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments on-board the Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 28, 2011. VIIRS has been scheduled to view the Moon approximately monthly with a spacecraft roll maneuver after its NADIR door open on November 21, 2011. To reduce the uncertainty of the radiometric calibration due to the view geometry, the lunar phase angles of the scheduled lunar observations were confined in the range from -56 deg to -55 deg in the first three scheduled lunar observations and then changed to the range from -51.5 deg to -50.5 deg, where the negative sign for the phase angles indicates that the VIIRS views a waxing moon. Unlike the MODIS lunar observations, most scheduled VIIRS lunar views occur on the day side of the Earth. For the safety of the instrument, the roll angles of the scheduled VIIRS lunar observations are required to be within [-14 deg, 0 deg] and the aforementioned change of the phase angle range was aimed to further minimize the roll angle required for each lunar observation while keeping the number of months in which the moon can be viewed by the VIIRS instrument each year unchanged. The lunar observations can be used to identify if there is crosstalk in VIIRS bands and to track on-orbit changes in VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) detector gains. In this paper, we report our results using the lunar observations to examine the on-orbit crosstalk effects among NPP VIIRS bands, to track the VIIRS RSB gain changes in first few months on-orbit, and to compare the gain changes derived from lunar and SD/SDSM calibration.

  6. Retrieving Atmospheric Temperature and Moisture Profiles from NPP CRIS/ATMS Sensors Using Crimss EDR Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Kizer, S.; Barnet, C.; Dvakarla, M.; Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) mission in collaboration with the U.S. National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) and international partners. The NPP Cross-track Infrared Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) consists of the infrared (IR) Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the microwave (MW) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). The CrIS instrument is hyperspectral interferometer, which measures high spectral and spatial resolution upwelling infrared radiances. The ATMS is a 22-channel radiometer similar to Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU) A and B. It measures top of atmosphere MW upwelling radiation and provides capability of sounding below clouds. The CrIMSS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithm provides three EDRs, namely the atmospheric vertical temperature, moisture and pressure profiles (AVTP, AVMP and AVPP, respectively), with the lower tropospheric AVTP and the AVMP being JPSS Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The operational CrIMSS EDR an algorithm was originally designed to run on large IBM computers with dedicated data management subsystem (DMS). We have ported the operational code to simple Linux systems by replacing DMS with appropriate interfaces. We also changed the interface of the operational code so that we can read data from both the CrIMSS science code and the operational code and be able to compare lookup tables, parameter files, and output results. The detail of the CrIMSS EDR algorithm is described in reference [1]. We will present results of testing the CrIMSS EDR operational algorithm using proxy data generated from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite data and from the NPP CrIS/ATMS data.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  8. Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and status

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Christopher O; Román, Miguel O; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F; Wolfe, Robert E; Hook, Simon J; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA’s Earth Observing System’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA’s focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team’s evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS. PMID:25821661

  9. Consistent volcanic SO2 products between Aura/OMI and S-NPP OMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Carn, S. A.; Zhang, Y.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Joiner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's EOS Aura satellite has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. The NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper will continue the long-term OMI volcanic SO2 data record, but it is both critical and challenging to build a consistent dataset between the two instruments, considering their different characteristics. In this presentation, we introduce our advanced volcanic SO2 algorithm based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique and compare our retrieval results between OMI and OMPS. This new algorithm uses characteristic features extracted directly from satellite measured radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). The algorithm has several advanced features that make it capable of maximizing data continuity between different satellite instruments. In particular, it eliminates the need to develop explicit, instrument-specific soft-calibration schemes, allowing for seamless implementation with different instruments. We have used the PCA algorithm to publicly release a new operational OMI volcanic SO2 product. Comparisons with the previous OMI product based on the linear fit algorithm indicate the new PCA algorithm significantly reduces retrieval noise and bias over background regions, and greatly improves results for large volcanic eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 and Sierra Negra in 2005. We have also applied the PCA algorithm to OMPS and demonstrated that, despite the coarser spatial and spectral resolution of OMPS, the volcanic SO2 retrievals using our PCA algorithm are highly consistent between OMI and OMPS. Our new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing

  10. Effects of non-human species irradiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M

    2008-08-01

    The area affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 has become a unique test site where long-term ecological and biological consequences of a drastic change in a range of environmental factors as well as trends and intensity of selection are studied in natural settings. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident for biota varied from an enhanced rate of mutagenesis to damage at the ecosystem level. The review comprehensively brings together key data of the long-term studies of biological effects in plants and animals inhabiting over 20 years the Chernobyl NPP zone. The severity of radiation effects was strongly dependent on the dose received in the early period after the accident. The most exposed phytocenoses and soil animals' communities exhibited dose dependent alterations in the species composition and reduction in biological diversity. On the other hand, no decrease in numbers or taxonomic diversity of small mammals even in the most radioactive habitat was shown. In a majority of the studies, in both plant and animal populations from the Chernobyl zone, in the first years after the accident high increases in mutation rates were documented. In most cases the dose-effect relationships were nonlinear and the mutation rates per unit dose were higher at low doses and dose rates. In subsequent years a decline in the radiation background rate occurred faster than reduction in the mutation rate. Plant and animal populations have shown signs of adaptation to chronic exposure. In adaptation to the enhanced level of exposure an essential role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation was shown. Based on the Chernobyl NPP accident studies, in the present review attempts were made to assess minimum doses at which ecological and biological effects were observed.

  11. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  12. The Role of Suomi NPP VIIRS Data in Land Science and Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Csiszar, I. A.; Roman, M. O.; Vermote, E.

    2014-12-01

    The current Suomi-NPP mission was designed as a bridging mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) next-generation, operational satellites. The VIIRS instrument on-board Suomi-NPP provides continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations and a much-needed replacement of the long-serving, operational NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) system, to meet the expanding needs of Earth Science and Applications of Societal Benefit. Post-launch evaluation has proven the instrument to be excellent for land observations and capable of providing measurement continuity with MODIS. This provides a critical contribution to the scientific study of global change. Several regions of the World are undergoing rapid land transformations, driven by economic development and population growth. In addition, changes in climate conditions are resulting in ecosystem responses and changes in land cover and land use. Long-term, systematic observations of the global land surface at coarse resolution enable detection, monitoring and characterization of such changes to the land surface. A suite of Land environmental data records (EDRs) from the VIIRS, are being developed by NOAA to meet operational data needs, primarily for the National Weather Service (e.g., Albedo, Land Surface Temperature, Fractional Vegetation Cover, Surface Type, Snow and Ice Monitoring). Scientists funded by NOAA and NASA, have been evaluating and validating these products. Based on these evaluations, NASA is embarking on a program to develop enhanced and additional products to provide continuity with MODIS to meet the needs of the global change science community. In addition, and as with MODIS, data from the VIIRS can be used as input to a number of practical applications of societal benefit and the associated decision support systems. For example, progress with VIIRS data is being made in the areas of fire and agricultural monitoring

  13. Patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP During Boreal Forest Succession

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, Michael L.; McMillan, Andrew; Winston, Greg; Rocha, Adrian; Manies, Kristen; Harden, Jennifer W.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    We deployed a mesonet of year-round eddy covariance towers in boreal forest stands that last burned in ~1850, ~1930, 1964, 1981, 1989, 1998, and 2003 to understand how CO2 exchange changes during secondary succession.The strategy of using multiple methods, including biometry and micrometeorology, worked well. In particular, the three independent measures of NEP during succession gave similar results. A stratified and tiered approach to deploying eddy covariance systems that combines many lightweight and portable towers with a few permanent ones is likely to maximize the science return for a fixed investment. The existing conceptual models did a good job of capturing the dominant patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP during succession. The initial loss of carbon following disturbance was neither as protracted nor large as predicted. This muted response reflects both the rapid regrowth of vegetation following fire and the prevalence of standing coarse woody debris following the fire, which is thought to decay slowly. In general, the patterns of forest recovery from disturbance should be expected to vary as a function of climate, ecosystem type and disturbance type. The NPP decline at the older stands appears related to increased Rauto rather than decreased GPP. The increase in Rauto in the older stands does not appear to be caused by accelerated maintenance respiration with increased biomass, and more likely involves increased allocation to fine root turnover, root metabolism, alternative forms of respiration, mycorrhizal relationships, or root exudates, possibly associated with progressive nutrient limitation. Several studies have now described a similar pattern of NEP following boreal fire, with 10-to-15 years of modest carbon loss followed by 50-to-100 years of modest carbon gain. This trend has been sufficiently replicated and evaluated using independent techniques that it can be used to quantify the likely effects of changes in boreal fire frequency and

  14. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  15. New Research on Securing Educational Excellence & Equity for English Language Learners in Texas Secondary Schools. IDRA Jose A. Cardenas School Finance Fellows Program 2015 Symposium Proceedings (San Antonio, Texas, February 2, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Development Research Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    English language learners make up the fastest growing segment of the student population, but they are one of the lowest academically performing groups of students and the achievement gap widens as students progress through school. Dr. Oscar Jimenez-Castellanos, the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA's) inaugural Jose A.…

  16. What Happened to the EOPS Students of Fall 1973? A Pilot Follow-Up Study Comparing EOPS and All Other First Time Entering, Fall 1973, Day Students at San Jose City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preising, Paul P.

    The academic performance and aspirations of first-time entering Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) students in Fall 1973 were compared to those of all other first-time entering day students at San Jose City College using data from student records. Findings indicated that while 62% of all other students stated that an associate…

  17. Sequential biostratigraphy of the San Jose-1, Puerto Estrella-1, Santa Ana-1, Uashir-1, and Jarara-1 offshore wells, Guajira Peninsula Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Sequence stratigraphical analysis of the San Jose-1, Puerto Estrella-1, Santa Ana-1, Santa Ana-1, Uashir-1, and Jarara-1 offshore wells located in the Portete area, Guajira Peninsula, provide insight into the development and distribution of reservoirs and seals and allows for a finer stratigraphic resolution and correlation than previous available. The sequence stratigraphical interpretation is based on the interpretation of detailed biostratigraphical analysis, the parasequence stacking patterns from the wireline logs, sedimentological data, and seismic stratigraphical interpretation. The Eocene to Pliocene sediments of the Portete wells were deposited for the most part in outer shelf (shelf-slope break) to upper bathyal, disoxic to anoxic environments. Important reservoir development is formed by lowstand slope and basin floor fans interpreted to correspond to the Early Miocene TB1, 1.4 and 1.5, the Middle Miocene TB2 2.3 and 2.4 sequences, and to the Late Eocene to Early Oligocen TA4 supercycle.

  18. Towards the Seismic Hazard Reassessment of Paks NPP (Hungary) Site: Seismicity and Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Laszlo; Monus, Peter; Gyori, Erzsebet; Grenerczy, Gyula; Janos Katona, Tamas; Kiszely, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In context of extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by new units, a comprehensive site seismic hazard evaluation program has been developed that is already approved by the Hungarian Authorities. This includes a 3D seismic survey, drilling of several deep boreholes, extensive geological mapping, and geophysical investigations at the site and its vicinity, as well as on near regional, and regional scale. Furthermore, all relevant techniques of modern space geodesy (GPS, PSInSAR) will be also utilized to construct a new seismotectonic model. The implementation of the project is still in progress. In the presentation, some important elements of the new seismic hazard assessment are highlighted, and some results obtained in the preliminary phase of the program are presented and discussed. The first and most important component of the program is the compilation of the seismological database that is developed on different time scale zooming on different event recurrence rates such as paleo-earthquakes (10-1/a). In 1995, Paks NPP installed and started to operate a sensitive microseismic monitoring network capable for locating earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0 within about 100 km of the NPP site. During the two decades of operation, the microseismic monitoring network located some 2,000 earthquakes within the region of latitude 45.5 - 49 N and longitude 16 - 23 E. Out of the total number of events, 130 earthquakes were reported as 'felt events'. The largest earthquake was an event of ML 4.8, causing significant damage in the epicenter area. The results of microseismic monitoring provide valuable data for seismotectonic modelling and results in more accurate earthquake recurrence equations. The first modern PSHA of Paks NPP site was carried out in 1995. Complex site characterization project was implemented and hazard curves had been evaluated for 10-3 - 10-5 annual frequency. As a follow-up, PSHA results have been reviewed and updated in the frame of periodic safety

  19. The nucleoporin Nup205/NPP-3 is lost near centrosomes at mitotic onset and can modulate the timing of this process in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hachet, Virginie; Busso, Coralie; Toya, Mika; Sugimoto, Asako; Askjaer, Peter; Gönczy, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of mitosis in time and space is critical for proper cell division. We conducted an RNA interference–based modifier screen to identify novel regulators of mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Of particular interest, this screen revealed that the Nup205 nucleoporin NPP-3 can negatively modulate the timing of mitotic onset. Furthermore, we discovered that NPP-3 and nucleoporins that are associated with it are lost from the nuclear envelope (NE) in the vicinity of centrosomes at the onset of mitosis. We demonstrate that centrosomes are both necessary and sufficient for NPP-3 local loss, which also requires the activity of the Aurora-A kinase AIR-1. Our findings taken together support a model in which centrosomes and AIR-1 promote timely onset of mitosis by locally removing NPP-3 and associated nucleoporins from the NE. PMID:22740626

  20. Simulation and System Analysis of Flow Pulsation at Normal and Emergency for Advanced On-line Monitoring and Control of NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Proskouriakov, K.N.; Moukhine, V.S.

    2002-07-01

    In addition to investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes on NPP with use of computer codes the new system analysis of flow pulsation is worked out. System analysis shows that properties of heat rejection circuits of NPP as oscillatory system are not equal the sum of properties of its separate elements but gives the new properties which must be taken into account. Methods have been worked out for calculating and identifying the sources of thermal-hydraulic disturbances are intended to improve the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, to forecast their development, to improve the efficiency of overhauling operations and safety in operation, and also to create advanced on-line monitoring and control of NPP. Conception of the control system development presents. Proposal for main topics R and D areas for advanced NPP monitoring, diagnostic and control are identified. (authors)

  1. S-NPP CrIS Full Resolution Sensor Data Record Processing and Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Han, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D. A.; Jin, X.; Weng, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer. It provides a total of 1305 channels in the normal mode for sounding the atmosphere. CrIS can also be operated in the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the MWIR and SWIR band interferograms are recorded with the same maximum path difference as the LWIR band and with spectral resolution of 0.625 cm-1 for all three bands (total 2211 channels). NOAA will operate CrIS in FSR mode in December 2014 and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Up to date, the FSR mode has been commanded three times in-orbit (02/23/2012, 03/12/2013, and 08/27/2013). Based on CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), CrIS full resolution Processing System (CRPS) has developed to generate the FSR Sensor Data Record (SDR). This code can also be run for normal mode and truncation mode SDRs with recompiling. Different calibration approaches are implemented in the code in order to study the ringing effect observed in CrIS normal mode SDR and to support to select the best calibration algorithm for J1. We develop the CrIS FSR SDR Validation System to quantify the CrIS radiometric and spectral accuracy, since they are crucial for improving its data assimilation in the numerical weather prediction, and for retrieving atmospheric trace gases. In this study, CrIS full resolution SDRs are generated from CRPS using the data collected from FSR mode of S-NPP, and the radiometric and spectral accuracy are assessed by using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecast fields. The biases between observation and simulations are evaluated to estimate the FOV-2-FOV variability and bias under clear sky over ocean. Double difference method and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) method are also used to assess the CrIS radiance consistency with well-validated IASI. Two basic frequency validation

  2. The Management of the Radioactive Waste Generated by Cernavoda NPP, Romania, an Example of International Cooperation - 13449

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    The design criteria and constraints for the development of the management strategy for radioactive waste generated from operating and decommissioning of CANDU Nuclear Units from Cernavoda NPP in Romania, present many specific aspects. The main characteristics of CANDU type waste are its high concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon. Also, the existing management strategy for radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP provides no treatment or conditioning for radioactive waste disposal. These characteristics embodied a challenging effort, in order to select a proper strategy for radioactive waste management at present, when Romania is an EU member and a signatory country of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The helping of advanced countries in radioactive waste management, directly or into the frame of the international organizations, like IAEA, become solve the aforementioned challenges at adequate level. (authors)

  3. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  4. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  5. Comparison Between NPP-VIIRS Aerosol Data Products and the MODIS AQUA Deep Blue Collection 6 Dataset Over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, Andrew M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Lee, J.; Kondragunta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are small particles suspended in the atmosphere and have a variety of natural and man-made sources. Knowledge of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is a measure of the amount of aerosol in the atmosphere, and its change over time, is important for multiple reasons. These include climate change, air quality (pollution) monitoring, monitoring hazards such as dust storms and volcanic ash, monitoring smoke from biomass burning, determining potential energy yields from solar plants, determining visibility at sea, estimating fertilization of oceans and rainforests by transported mineral dust, understanding changes in weather brought upon by the interaction of aerosols and clouds, and more. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine AOD. This study compares the VIIRS dataset to ground-based measurements of AOD, along with a state-of-the-art satellite AOD dataset (the new version of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Deep Blue algorithm) to assess its reliability. The Suomi-NPP satellite was launched late in 2011, carrying several instruments designed to continue the biogeophysical data records of current and previous satellite sensors. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi-NPP is being used, among other things, to determine aerosol optical depth (AOD), and related activities since launch have been focused towards validating and understanding this new dataset through comparisons with other satellite and ground-based products. The operational VIIRS AOD product is compared over land with AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations using the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm from the forthcoming Collection 6 of MODIS data

  6. Transition of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Data Products for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Molthan, A.; Jedlovec, G.

    2012-12-01

    The launch of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides new and exciting opportunities for the application of remotely sensed data products in operational weather forecasting environments. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama is a NASA and NOAA-funded project to assist with the transition of experimental and research products to the operational weather community through partnership with NOAA/National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices (NWS WFOs) throughout the United States. This presentation will provide the S-NPP community with an update on current and future SPoRT projects related to the dissemination of S-NPP derived data to NWS WFOs and highlight unique applications and value of data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), specifically applications of high resolution visible and infrared data, uses of the day-night (or near constant contrast) band, and multispectral composites. Other applications are envisioned through use of selected channels of the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite (OMPS). This presentation will also highlight opportunities for future collaboration with SPoRT and activities planned for participation in the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite Program (JPSS) Proving Ground.

  7. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing-ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-yao; Yang, Qing-pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha−1 yr−1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha−1 yr−1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation. PMID:28067336

  8. BNL PREDICTION OF NUPECS FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SMALL TO MODERATE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis codes for NPP structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to ensure the adequacy of methodologies employed for seismic analyses of NPP structures. A collaborative program between the United States and Japan was developed to study seismic issues related to NPP applications. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its contractor, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this program to apply common analysis procedures to predict both free field and soil-structure interaction (SSI) responses to recorded earthquake events, including embedment and dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effects. This paper describes the BNL effort to predict seismic responses of the large-scale realistic model structures for reactor and turbine buildings at the NUPEC test facility in northern Japan. The NUPEC test program has collected a large amount of recorded earthquake response data (both free-field and in-structure) from these test model structures. The BNL free-field analyses were performed with the CARES program while the SSI analyses were preformed using the SASS12000 computer code. The BNL analysis includes both embedded and excavated conditions, as well as the DCI effect, The BNL analysis results and their comparisons to the NUPEC recorded responses are presented in the paper.

  9. BNL PREDICTION OF NUPECS FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO SMALL TO MODERATE MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.; COSTANTINO,C.; HOFMAYER,C.; MURPHY,A.; KITADA,Y.

    2003-08-17

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis codes for NPP structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to ensure the adequacy of methodologies employed for seismic analyses of NPP structures. A collaborative program between the United States and Japan was developed to study seismic issues related to NPP applications. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its contractor, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this program to apply common analysis procedures to predict both free field and soil-structure Interaction (SSI) responses to recorded earthquake events, including embedment and dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effects. This paper describes the BNL effort to predict seismic responses of the large-scale realistic model structures for reactor and turbine buildings at the NUPEC test facility in northern Japan. The NUPEC test program has collected a large amount of recorded earthquake response data (both free-field and in-structure) from these test model structures. The BNL free-field analyses were performed with the CARES program while the SSI analyses were preformed using the SASS12000 computer code. The BNL analysis includes both embedded and excavated conditions, as well as the DCI effect, The BNL analysis results and their comparisons to the NUPEC recorded responses are presented in the paper.

  10. Kinetic analysis of substrate utilization by native and TNAP-, NPP1-, or PHOSPHO1-deficient matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ciancaglini, Pietro; Yadav, Manisha C; Simão, Ana Maria Sper; Narisawa, Sonoko; Pizauro, João Martins; Farquharson, Colin; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Millán, José Luis

    2010-04-01

    During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs). Here, we have studied phosphosubstrate catalysis by osteoblast-derived MVs at physiologic pH, analyzing the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and PP(i) by isolated wild-type (WT) as well as TNAP-, NPP1- and PHOSPHO1-deficient MVs. Comparison of the catalytic efficiencies identified ATP as the main substrate hydrolyzed by WT MVs. The lack of TNAP had the most pronounced effect on the hydrolysis of all physiologic substrates. The lack of PHOSPHO1 affected ATP hydrolysis via a secondary reduction in the levels of TNAP in PHOSPHO1-deficient MVs. The lack of NPP1 did not significantly affect the kinetic parameters of hydrolysis when compared with WT MVs for any of the substrates. We conclude that TNAP is the enzyme that hydrolyzes both ATP and PP(i) in the MV compartment. NPP1 does not have a major role in PP(i) generation from ATP at the level of MVs, in contrast to its accepted role on the surface of the osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but rather acts as a phosphatase in the absence of TNAP.

  11. Accessing the impacts of bamboo expansion on NPP and N cycling in evergreen broadleaved forest in subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qing-Ni; Lu, Hui; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yang, Guang-Yao; Yang, Qing-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical regions, and it has greatly changed the dominance hierarchy from trees to bamboos. This process may be accompanied by changes in productivity, nutrients accumulation and biogeochemical cycles. We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. We found that the mean NPP of the BDF was 30.0 t ha-1 yr-1, which was 51.5% greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha-1 yr-1). The plant N pool for the BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased by 31.2% with conversion of the EBF to BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation.

  12. Improved Ozone Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from S-NPP and NASA "A Train" Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, J.; Livesey, N. J.; Kulawik, S. S.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Pawson, S.; Wargan, K.; Huang, M.; Luo, M.; Neu, J. L.; Irion, F. W.; Herman, R. L.; Schwartz, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Our prototype studies showed that a new ozone column and profile products can be obtained by combining multi-spectral radiances from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS). The product offers a unique combination of vertical resolution (enabled by the multi-spectral approach), and wide-swath horizontal coverage
and resolution. This product continues the EOS ozone records from the Aura platform that is based on the combination of the ozone profile product from Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The unprecedented horizontal and vertical resolution and coverage of this product will enable new much-needed studies such as stratospheric chemistry and ozone loss, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone exchange, ozone climate forcing as well as long range transport of air pollution. The proposed joint CrIS/OMPS-TC/OMPS-NP global ozone record will have spatial sampling equivalent to OMPS Nadir Profiler measurements and similar to that of TES global survey record. The retrievals of using OMPS/CrIS radiances, TES/OMI and MLS/AIRS/OMI retrievals are presented. The comparisons among the multi-spectral retrievals, Aura operation ozone products, and in-situ measurements are shown.

  13. Preliminary vegetation index products from Suomi NPP VIIRS illuminate the California drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungan, J. L.; Ganguly, S.; Melton, F. S.; Shupe, J. W.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite has been collecting data for almost three years. NOAA and NASA have been collaborating to validate numerous VIIRS data products capturing atmospheric, land and ocean parameters. For vegetation monitoring, standard VIIRS products currently include a top-of-canopy Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), thereby providing an opportunity to observe the recent land surface expression of drought conditions in the state of California as well as creating the potential for modeling gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and other carbon- and water- related variables. We mapped and compared 16-day composite VIIRS EVIs over California from January 2012 to 2014 with equivalent MODIS products from the Aqua satellite (the MYD13 product). Relative to MODIS EVI, VIIRS EVI showed a bias of less than 7% (larger values than MODIS) and a precision of 0.50 to 0.85%. The remaining small proportion of large errors seem to be related to cloud and snow cover. Substantial changes in the EVI time series can be clearly seen for both irrigated and semi-natural land as the recent drought deepened. We also used the VIIRS EVI as input to the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) model to generate ET and GPP, which illuminate drought effects more specifically. As the VIIRS products become more robust, they will make a valuable addition to the arsenal of satellite sensors capturing synoptic trends in vegetation response to drought conditions.

  14. Modelling of the shielding capabilities of the existing solid radioactive waste storages at Ignalina NPP.

    PubMed

    Smaizys, Arturas; Poskas, Povilas; Ragaisis, Valdas

    2005-01-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania--Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operates two similar units with design electrical power of 1500 MW. The units were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. From the beginning of the INPP operation all generated solid radioactive waste was collected and stored at the Soviet type solid radwaste facility located at INPP site. The INPP solid radwaste storage facility consists of four buildings, namely building No. 155, No. 155/1, No. 157 and No. 157/1. The buildings of the INPP solid radwaste storage facility are reinforced concrete structures above ground. State Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) has specified that particular safety analysis must be performed for existing radioactive waste storage facilities of the INPP. As part of the safety analysis, shielding capabilities of the walls and roofs of these buildings were analysed. This paper presents radiation shielding analysis of the buildings No. 157 and No. 157/1 that are still in operation. The buildings No. 155 and No. 155/1 are already filled up with the waste and no additional waste loading is expected.

  15. Commissioning and Operation of a Robotic Arm for Waste Retrieval at Trawsfynydd NPP, North Wales - 12091

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Alan L.; Cabrera, David L.

    2012-07-01

    Trawsfynydd is one of the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power plants. It started operation in 1965 and ceased generation in 1991. Before the site can enter the 'care and maintenance' phase a number of wet and dry waste stores around the site must be emptied and their contents made safe. Wet wastes include sludges and resins produced during the operating life of the NPP. The sludges and resins are stored in a number of different tanks that vary significantly in terms of size, shape, internal features and access. A dexterous long reach manipulator arm has been designed and built to facilitate tank clearance. Commissioning of the arm was carried out in parallel with Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the manufacturer's site in Colorado, USA. In addition to basic functional testing this work included a full range of task based testing to ensure that the arm, tools, control system and support equipment were thoroughly exercised in representative conditions. Trawsfynydd is one of the lead sites in the UK's program for nuclear plant decommissioning. As such the lessons learned, both in terms of technology and process, will be applicable across the remainder of the fleet. (authors)

  16. Westinghouse Fuel Assemblies Performance after Operation in South-Ukraine NPP Mixed Core

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullayev, A. M.; Kulish, G. V.; Slyeptsov, O.; Slyeptsov, S.; Aleshin, Y.; Sparrow, S.; Lashevych, P.; Sokolov, D.; Latorre, Richard

    2013-09-14

    The evaluation of WWER-1000 Westinghouse fuel performance was done using the results of post–irradiation examinations of six LTAs and the WFA reload batches that have operated normally in mixed cores at South-Ukraine NPP, Unit-3 and Unit-2. The data on WFA/LTA elongation, FR growth and bow, WFA bow and twist, RCCA drag force and drag work, RCCA drop time, FR cladding integrity as well as the visual observation of fuel assemblies obtained during the 2006-2012 outages was utilized. The analysis of the measured data showed that assembly growth, FR bow, irradiation growth, and Zr-1%Nb grid and ZIRLO cladding corrosion lies within the design limits. The RCCA drop time measured for the LTA/WFA is about 1.9 s at BOC and practically does not change at EOC. The measured WFA bow and twist, and data of drag work on RCCA insertion showed that the WFA deformation in the mixed core is mostly controlled by the distortion of Russian FAs (TVSA) having the higher lateral stiffness. The visual inspection of WFAs carried out during the 2012 outages revealed some damage to the Zr-1%Nb grid outer strap for some WFAs during the loading sequence. The performed fundamental investigations allowed identifying the root cause of grid outer strap deformation and proposing the WFA design modifications for preventing damage to SG at a 225 kg handling trip limit.

  17. Update of S-NPP VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands Radiometric Calibration Stability Monitoring Using the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The Suomi-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with reference to an onboard blackbody (BB) regularly operated at approximately 292.5 K. The calibration stability at other temperature ranges can be evaluated based on the observations of remote targets with stable thermal properties, such as the Moon. VIIRS has scheduled viewings of the Moon on a nearly monthly basis at a phase angle of nearly -51 degrees. In this study, the brightness temperatures (BT) of the lunar surface retrieved using the detector gain coefficients calibrated with the BB are trended to monitor the calibration stability of VIIRS TEB. Since the Lunar surface temperatures are spatially non-uniform and vary greatly with the photometric geometry, the BT trending must be based on the same regions of the Moon under the same solar illumination condition. Also, the TEB lunar images are always partially saturated because the highest lunar surface temperatures are beyond the dynamic range of all VIIRS TEB detectors. Therefore, a temporally invariant dynamic mask is designed to clip a fraction of the lunar images corresponding to the regions of the Moon that may saturate the detector at any lunar event. The BT of the remaining hottest pixels are then trended. Results show that, since the launch of VIIRS to mid-2016, the radiometric calibration of all TEB detectors has been stable within 0.4 K at the BT range of as high as 350 K.

  18. Analysis of Suomi-NPP VIIRS vignetting functions based on yaw maneuver data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, Jeff; Efremova, Boryana; Moyer, David; Lee, Shihyan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    The Suomi - NPP Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands are calibrated on-orbit via reference to regular solar observations through a solar attenuation screen (SAS) and diffusely reflected off a Spectralon ® panel. The degradation of the Spectralon panel BRDF due to UV exposure is tracked via a ratioing radiometer (SDSM) which compares near simultaneous observations of the panel with direct observations of the sun (through a separate attenuation screen). On-orbit, the vignetting functions of both attenuation screens are most easily measured when the satellite performs a series of yaw maneuvers over a short period of time (thereby covering the yearly angular variation of solar observations in a couple of days). Because the SAS is fixed, only the product of the screen transmission and the panel BRDF was measured. Moreover, this product was measured by both VIIRS detectors as well as the SDSM detectors (albeit at different reflectance angles off the Spectralon panel). The SDSM screen is also fixed; in this case, the screen transmission was measured directly. Corrections for instrument drift and degradation, solar geometry, and spectral effects were taken into consideration. The resulting vignetting functions were then compared to the pre-launch measurements as well as models based on screen geometry.

  19. OSI-SAF operational NPP/VIIRS sea surface temperature chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Borgne, Pierre; Legendre, Gérard; Marsouin, Anne; Péré, Sonia; Roquet, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Data of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) have been acquired at Centre de Météorologie Spatiale (CMS) in Lannion (Brittany) in direct readout mode since April 2012. CMS is committed to produce sea surface temperature (SST) products from VIIRS data twice a day over an area covering North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea in the framework of the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF). A cloud mask has been developed and cloud mask control techniques have been implemented. SST algorithms have been defined, as well as quality level attribution rules. Since mid October 2012 a VIIRS SST chain, similar to that used for processing METOP AVHRR has been run in a preoperational mode. The corresponding bias and standard deviation against drifting buoy measurements (mid October 2012 to mid March 2013) are -0.05 and 0.37 K for nighttime and -0.13 and 0.46 K for daytime, respectively. VIIRS derived SST production is expected operational by mid 2013. The OSI-SAF VIIRS derived SST products are compliant with the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) GDS V2.0 format.

  20. S-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands on-orbit calibration and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-09-01

    Presented is an assessment of the on-orbit radiometric performance of the thermal emissive bands (TEB) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument based on data from the first 2 years of operations—from 20 January 2012 to 20 January 2014. The VIIRS TEB are calibrated on orbit using a V-grooved blackbody (BB) as a radiance source. Performance characteristics trended over the life of the mission include the F factor—a measure of the gain change of the TEB detectors; the Noise Equivalent differential Temperature (NEdT)—a measure of the detector noise; and the detector offset and nonlinear terms trended at the quarterly performed BB warm-up cool-down cycles. We find that the BB temperature is well controlled and stable within the 30mK requirement. The F factor trends are very stable and showing little degradation (within 0.8%). The offsets and nonlinearity terms are also without noticeable drifts. NEdT is stable and does not show any trend. Other TEB radiometric calibration-related activities discussed include the on-orbit assessment of the response versus scan-angle functions and an approach to improve the M13 low-gain calibration using onboard lunar measurements. We conclude that all the assessed parameters comply with the requirements, and the TEB provide radiometric measurements with the required accuracy.

  1. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry: development of approaches to application in populated areas downwind of the Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Correcher, V; Delgado, A; Jungner, H; Khamidova, L G; Kolizshenkov, T V; Meckbach, R; Petin, D V; Orlov, M Yu; Petrov, S A

    2005-09-01

    The cumulative absorbed dose in fired-clay bricks collected from ten buildings in the populated contaminated settlement (137Cs, 1,470 kBq m(-2)) of Stary Vishkov, located 175 km downwind of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Bryansk administrative region of Russia, was determined using luminescence techniques by five laboratories. At each location, the cumulative dose, after subtraction of the natural background dose, was translated to absorbed dose in air using conversion factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations employed source distributions inferred from contemporary soil contamination data and also took into account heterogeneity of fallout deposition. At four locations the cumulative dose at a reference location was calculated, enabling the luminescence determinations to be compared directly with values of cumulative absorbed dose in air obtained using deterministic models. A "local" conversion factor was also derived from the Monte Carlo simulations for locations where the disturbance of soil was significant. Values of the "local" cumulative dose in air calculated using this factor were compared with those predicted using the deterministic models at each sampled location, allowing location factors to be calculated. The methodology developed is generally applicable to populated areas contaminated by radioactive fallout in which brick buildings are found. The sensitivity of the luminescence techniques for bricks from this region of Russia was sufficient to evaluate cumulative absorbed dose in brick due to fallout of less than 20 mGy.

  2. Initial On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector?s digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

  3. On-Orbit Calibration and Performance of S-NPP VIIRS DNB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Sun, C.; Chen, X.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.

    2016-01-01

    The S-NPP VIIRS instrument has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 m that is capable of observing Earth scenes during both day and nighttime orbits at a spatial resolution of 750 m. To cover the large dynamic range, the DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for its low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a means to compute gain ratios of low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. This paper describes the DNB on-orbit calibration methodologies used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). It provides an assessment and update of DNB on-orbit performance, including the SD degradation in the DNB spectral range, detector gain and gain ratio trending, stray light contamination and its correction. Also presented in this paper are performance validations based on earth scenes and lunar observations.

  4. Update of S-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands radiometric calibration stability monitoring using the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yonghong

    2016-10-01

    The Suomi-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are radiometrically calibrated on-orbit with reference to a blackbody (BB) regularly operated at approximately 292.5 K. The calibration stability at other temperature ranges can be evaluated based on the observations of remote targets with stable thermal properties, such as the Moon. VIIRS has scheduled viewings of the Moon on a nearly monthly basis at a phase angle of nearly -51 degrees. In this paper, the brightness temperatures (BT) of the lunar surface retrieved using the detector gain coefficients calibrated with the BB are trended to monitor the calibration stability of VIIRS TEB. Since the Lunar surface temperatures are spatially nonuniform and vary greatly with the solar illumination geometry, the BT trending must be based on the same regions of the Moon under the same solar illumination condition. Also, the TEB lunar images are always partially saturated because the highest lunar surface temperatures are beyond the dynamic range of all VIIRS TEB detectors. Therefore, a temporally dynamic mask is designed to clip a fraction of the lunar images corresponding to the regions of the Moon that may saturate the detector at any lunar event. The BT trending is then based on the hottest pixels not clipped by the mask. Results show that, since the launch of VIIRS to mid-2016, the radiometric calibration of all TEB detectors has been stable within +/-0.4 K at the BT range of as high as 350-260 K.

  5. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Jinbo, Y.; Ishido, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  6. CERES FM-5 on the NPP Spacecraft: Continuing the Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, G. Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model-5 (FM-5) instrument will fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft, which has a launch-readiness date in June, 2010. This mission will continue the critical Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record (CDR) begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments in the mid 1980 s and continued by the CERES instruments currently flying on the EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Ground calibrations have been completed for FM-5 and the instrument has been delivered for integration to the spacecraft Rigorous pre-launch ground calibration is performed on each CERES unit to achieve an accuracy goal of 1% for SW flux and 0.5% for outgoing LW flux. Any ground to flight or in-flight changes in radiometer response is monitored using a protocol employing both onboard and vicarious calibration sources and experiments. Recent studies of FM-1 through FM-4 data have shown that the SW response of space based broadband radiometers can change dramatically due to optical contamination. With these changes having most impact on optical response to blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output, such changes are hard to monitor accurately using existing on-board sources. This paper outlines the lessons learned on the existing CERES sensors from 30+ years of flight experience and presents a radiometric protocol to be implemented on the FM-5 instrument to ensure that its performance exceeds the stated calibration and stability goals.

  7. Typhoon Soudelor's Eye Close-Up from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On August 6, 2015, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over powerful Typhoon Soudelor when it was headed toward Taiwan. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured this night-time infrared close-up image of Soudelor's eye. At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 6, 2015, Typhoon Soudelor had maximum sustained winds near 90 knots (103.6 mph/166.7 kph). It was centered near 21.3 North latitude and 127.5 East longitude, about 324 nautical miles (372.9 miles/600 km) south of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. It was moving to the west at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). Credit: UWM/CIMSS/SSEC, William Straka III NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Typhoon Soudelor's Eye Close-Up from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On August 6, 2015, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over powerful Typhoon Soudelor when it was headed toward Taiwan. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured this night-time infrared close-up image of Soudelor's eye. The infrared image that showed there were some thunderstorms within the typhoon with very cold cloud top temperatures, colder than -63F/-53C. Temperatures that cold stretch high into the troposphere and are capable of generating heavy rain. At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 6, 2015, Typhoon Soudelor had maximum sustained winds near 90 knots (103.6 mph/166.7 kph). It was centered near 21.3 North latitude and 127.5 East longitude, about 324 nautical miles (372.9 miles/600 km) south of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. It was moving to the west at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). Credit: UWM/CIMSS/SSEC, William Straka III NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite Cyclone Haruna Near Madagascar at Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    This night-time image revealed Cyclone Haruna's massive eye before it made landfall in southwestern Madagascar. This image was taken from the VIIRS instrument that flies aboard the NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite. The image was taken on Feb. 20 at 2242 UTC (5:42 p.m. EST/U.S.) and shows a clear eye, surrounded by very powerful thunderstorms. The bright lights of the Capital city of Antananarivo are seen in this image. The capital city lies about 300 nautical miles northwest of the storm's center. Haruna's center made landfall near Manombo, Madagascar around 0600 UTC (1 a.m. EST/U.S.) and its eye became cloud-filled quickly. For the entire storm history, visit NASA's Hurricane Page: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2013/h2013... Text: Credit: Univ.of Wisconsin/NASA/NOAA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  10. Application of the Sorption-Membrane Technologies for Liquid Radioactive Waste Processing at Kursk NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Slepokon, Y.I.; Milyutin, V.V.; Kozlitin, E.A.; Gelis, V.M.; Cherkasov, A.P.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental tests of the technology for NPP wastewater processing were conducted in the beginning of 2005. Wastewater effluents contained anion-active surface-active substances (SAS) in the concentration of 5-10 mg/L; total salt bearing of the effluents was about 0.8 g/L; specific activity of the {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 60}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 51}Cr, and {sup 137}Cs was within the range of 50-200 Bq/L; gross specific activity amounted 700-800 Bq/L. The experimental facility for wastewater processing consists of the following modules and units: - ozonizing module; - micro-filtration module based on a cross-flow filtering unit equipped with the metal-ceramic Trumem membranes; - sorption end-polishing unit loaded with the cesium-selective sorbent and conventional cation and anion exchange resins. After all SAS and other organic contaminants were destroyed at the ozonizing stage, all radionuclides except {sup 137}Cs were retained at the micro-filtration stage. The end-polishing selective sorption unit provided further removal of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide to the level of 2-3 Bq/L. Total volume of various wastewater effluents processed at the experimental facility amounted 670 L. The volume of the secondary waste concentrate was 0.3% of the feed, i.e. the waste concentrating factor reached 350. (authors)

  11. Progress in Low and Intermediate Level Operational Waste Characterization and Preparation for Disposal at Ignalina NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Adomaitis, J. E.; Ragaisis, V.

    2003-02-25

    In Lithuania about 70-80% of all electricity is generated at a single power station, Ignalina NPP, which has two RBMK-1500 type reactors. Units 1 and 2 will be closed by 2005 and 2010, respectively, taking into account the conditions of the long-term substantial financial assistance rendered by the European Union, G-7 countries and other states as well as international institutions. The Government approved the Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management. Objectives of this strategy are to develop the radioactive waste management infrastructure based on modern technologies and provide for the set of practical actions that shall bring management of radioactive waste in Lithuania in compliance with radioactive waste management principles of IAEA and with good practices in force in European Union Member States. SKB-SWECO International-Westinghouse Atom Joint Venture with participation of Lithuanian Energy Institute has prepared a reference design of a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate level waste. This reference design is applicable to the needs in Lithuania, considering its hydro-geological, climatic and other environmental conditions and is able to cover the expected needs in Lithuania for at least thirty years ahead. Development of waste acceptance criteria is in practice an iterative process concerning characterization of existing waste, repository development, safety and environmental impact assessment etc. This paper describes the position in Lithuania with regard to the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste in the absence of finalized waste acceptance criteria and a near surface repository.

  12. Transitioning from MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS data for Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.; Bandaru, V.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Franch, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2016-12-01

    S-NPP VIIRS was designed to provide continuity of the MODIS AQUA observations. MODIS data are being used routinely to monitor agricultural regions of the world for crop condition. This approach relies on assessing the current growing season in the context of growing previous seasons, which in turn requires multi-year observations. The MODIS data form the basis of a number of operational decision support systems currently used for agriculture. The requirement for timely information has driven the delivery of MODIS data by the near NASA real-time processing system (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE)). In addition, research is underway to use such coarse resolution data for estimating regional crop area and yield. As the MODIS instruments age, there is a need to transition the monitoring capability to VIIRS. The operational status of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), will ensure the provision of VIIRS data into the future, with the launch of JPSS-1 planned for January 2017 and JPSS-2 in 2021. The fundamental record for coarse resolution monitoring for agricultural is the Surface Reflectance product. This product has been developed for VIIRS and validation is in progress. From the Surface Reflectance product, vegetation indices are developed. This paper reviews current agricultural monitoring and decision support approaches and presents an inter-comparison of MODIS and VIIRS observations and the initial integration of VIIRS data into LANCE and the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) System.

  13. Volcanic Ash and SO2 Monitoring Using Suomi NPP Direct Broadcast OMPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftor, C. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; McPeters, R. D.; Li, J. Y.; Brentzel, K. W.; Habib, S.; Hassinen, S.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Schneider, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Suomi NPP Ozone Science Team, in conjunction with Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Direct Readout Laboratory, developed the capability of processing, in real-time, direct readout (DR) data from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) to perform SO2 and Aerosol Index (AI) retrievals. The ability to retrieve this information from real-time processing of DR data was originally developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Aura spacecraft and is used by Volcano Observatories and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) charged with mapping ash clouds from volcanic eruptions and providing predictions/forecasts about where the ash will go. The resulting real-time SO2 and AI products help to mitigate the effects of eruptions such as the ones from Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle in Chile, which cause massive disruptions to airline flight routes for weeks as airlines struggle to avoid ash clouds that could cause engine failure, deeply pitted windshields impossible to see through, and other catastrophic events. We will discuss the implementation of real-time processing of OMPS DR data by both the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), which provide real-time coverage over some of the most congested airspace and over many of the most active volcanoes in the world, and show examples of OMPS DR processing results from recent volcanic eruptions.

  14. Modeling Suomi-NPP VIIRS Solar Diffuser Degradation due to Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP uses a solar diffuser (SD) as on-board radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band (RSB) calibration. Solar diffuser is made of Spectralon (one type of fluoropolymer) and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region and its near-Lambertian reflectance profile. Spectralon is known to degrade in reflectance at the blue end of the spectrum due to exposure to space radiations such as solar UV radiation and energetic protons. These space radiations can modify the Spectralon surface through breaking C-C and C-F bonds and scissioning or cross linking the polymer, which causes the surface roughness and degrades its reflectance. VIIRS uses a SDSM (Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 um wavelength range and provide a correction to the calibration constants. The H factor derived from SDSM reveals that reflectance of 0.4 to 0.6um channels of VIIRS degrades faster than the reflectance of longer wavelength RSB channels. A model is developed to derive characteristic parameters such as mean SD surface roughness height and autocovariance length of SD surface roughness from the long term spectral degradation of SD reflectance as monitored by SDSM. These two parameters are trended to assess development of surface roughness of the SD over the operation period of VIIRS.

  15. An Operational Tool for Global Monitoring of Inundation Using NPP ATMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesfagiorgis, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study is to introduce an operational microwave-based tool for the detection and monitoring of inundation across the globe using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard SUOMI NPP. ATMS surface sensitive channels, namely, the 23 GHz and the 89 GHz are used in this study. The inundation detection approach is based on the analysis of the standardized anomalies of a soil wetness index that is determined from the gradient between 89 and 23 GHz brightness temperatures. The dimensionless index is sensitive to extreme wetness conditions. Appropriate threshold-based techniques were implemented in the developed tool to detect and eliminate rainy pixels as well as snow and ice covered pixels. An automated tool was developed to process, analyze the data, develop the inundation product, and disseminate the detected inundated area through a web-based interface. The outputs of the developed algorithm were verified against records from the Darthmouth Flood Observatory data archive. The agreement was acceptable with POD reaching 80 % globally for flood with durations longer than 5 days. The analysis of the flood records showed that the most frequent flood events have a duration of 3 days. The flood detection and mapping system was able to reports more short duration events that lasted 1 day or less than what is in the flood observatory records. The inundation global mapping tool was deployed operationally using real time readouts from NOAA-CREST satellite receiving station in New York, USA.

  16. Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Chiang, Kwofu; Efremova, Boryana; Fullbright, Jon; Lei, Ning; McIntire, Jeff; Oudrari, Hassan; Wang, Zhipeng; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The VIIRS instrument on board the S-NPP spacecraft has successfully operated for more than four years since its launch in October, 2011. Many VIIRS environmental data records (EDR) have been continuously generated from its sensor data records (SDR) with improved quality, enabling a wide range of applications in support of users in both the operational and research communities. This paper provides a brief review of sensor on-orbit calibration methodologies for both the reflective solar bands (RSB) and the thermal emissive bands (TEB) and an overall assessment of their on-orbit radiometric performance using measurements from instrument on-board calibrators (OBC) as well as regularly scheduled lunar observations. It describes and illustrates changes made and to be made for calibration and data quality improvements. Throughout the mission, all of the OBC have continued to operate and function normally, allowing critical calibration parameters used in the data production systems to be derived and updated. The temperatures of the on-board blackbody (BB) and the cold focal plane assemblies are controlled with excellent stability. Despite large optical throughput degradation discovered shortly after launch in several near and short-wave infrared spectral bands and strong wavelength dependent solar diffuser degradation, the VIIRS overall performance has continued to meet its design requirements. Also discussed in this paper are challenging issues identified and efforts to be made to further enhance the sensor calibration and characterization, thereby maintaining or improving data quality.

  17. Dynamic Monitoring of Energy Services in Conflict Regions using Suomi-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, E.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    While remote sensing data has proven useful for understanding the environmental conditions surrounding conflict, it can also present a more nuanced, dynamic picture inside conflict zones. This study investigates the use of global nighttime environmental products as derived from the Suomi-NPP satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to identify and track the location and timing of regional conflicts in the Middle East as reflected in changes to the region's energy infrastructure. The study focuses on a 43-month period (c. Jan 2012 - Aug 2015) over major urban centers in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Lebanon. The new daily dynamic products captured a series of striking downturns in energy service supply and demand that occurred in 2012 in the Syrian cities of Damascus (-50%) and Aleppo (-94%) corresponding to the onset of major military confrontations (The Battle of Aleppo on 7/15/2012 and The Damascus Bombing on 7/23/2012, respectively). Iraqi cities recently captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (e.g. Mosul, Tikrit, Tal Afor, Ramadi), also showed marked average decreases in energy service provision (-84% since 4/1/2014) compared to their unoccupied counterparts (e.g., Baghdad and Sulaimaniya at +6%). A seasonal trend decomposition analysis is used to disentangle climactic, social, and political factors affecting the VIIRS time-series, distinguishing between energy patterns associated with conflict and those associated with cultural festivals, load shedding, seasonal weather, and socioeconomic factors.

  18. On-orbit radiometric performance characterization of S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong

    2016-05-01

    It has been nearly four years that the S-NPP was launched. In an effort to improve the VIIRS calibration, VIIRS has undergone a number of major look up table updates during this period. RSB bands such as M1 through M3 suggested higher solar diffuser degradation rate. Similarly, for higher wavelengths, even though the solar diffuser degradation is much smaller and even negligible for SWIR bands, bands such as M7 suffer from major degradation due to RTA throughput degradation. Even though the solar diffuser and mirror degradation is well characterized, the data quality needs to be independently validated to ensure that data are well within the specification. We have used on-orbit calibration/validation techniques such as extended SNOs to estimate the bias of these bands and quantify the radiometric performance since launch. Assuming MODIS as a standard reference, intercomparison was performed to analyze the VIIRS radiometric performance. It was observed that some of the VIIRS bands such as M5 and M7 suggest bias on the order of 1.5% or more for most of the time period since early launch. VIIRS bias trends keep changing over time which can be mainly correlated to calibration updates and instrument anomalies. Results on VIIRS on-orbit calibration performance and its bias since early launch will be presented during meeting to help users better understand the data quality and its impacts on broader scientific research and applications.

  19. Suomi-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Chiang, K. V.; Chen, H.; Sun, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Day-Night Band (DNB) onboard Suomi-NPP VIIRS is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 mm that is capable of observing the Earth scene in visible/near-Infrared spectral range at spatial resolution of 750 m. The DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a mean to compute gain ratios between low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. With its large dynamic range and high sensitivity, the DNB detectors can make observations during both daytime and nighttime. We will describe the DNB on-orbit calibration methodology used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). We will update the status of DNB calibration and characterization of its performance, including the SD degradation, detector gains and gain ratios trending, stray light contamination and its correction.

  20. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  1. Pressure Vessel Investigations of the Former Greifswald NPP: Fluence Calculations and Niobium Based Fluence Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Konheiser, J.; Rindelhardt, U.; Viehrig, H.W.; Boehmer, B.; Gleisberg, B.

    2006-07-01

    Pressure vessel integrity assessment after long-term service irradiation is commonly based on surveillance program results. Nevertheless, only the investigation of RPV material from decommissioned NPPs enables the evaluation of the real toughness response. Such a chance is given now through the investigation of material from the former Greifswald NPP (VVER-440/230) to evaluate the material state of a standard RPV design and to assess the quality of prediction rules and assessment tools. The operation of the four Greifswald units was finished in 1991 after 12--15 years of operation. In autumn 2005 the first trepans (diameter 120 mm) were gained from the unit 1 of this NPP. Some details of the trepanning procedure will be given. The paper mainly deals with the retrospective dosimetry based on Niobium, which is a trace element of the RPV material. The reaction {sup 93}Nb(n,n'){sup 93m}Nb with an energy dependence highly correlated to radiation damage and a half life of the reaction product of 16.13 years is well suited for retrospective fast neutron dosimetry. Fluence calculations using the code TRAMO were based on pin-wise time dependent neutron sources and an updated nuclear data base (ENDF/B-VI release 8). The neutron spectra were determined at the trepan positions. The different loading schemes of unit 1 (standard and with 4 or 6 dummy assemblies) were taken into account. The calculated specific {sup 93m}Nb activities for February, 2006 at the sample positions were determined to 16.3 Bq/{mu}g Nb for sample 1, (0.1 cm distance from inner wall), and 4.0 Bq/{mu}g Nb for sample 2 (11.5 cm distance from inner wall). Unfortunately, a second neutron reaction besides {sup 93}Nb(n,n') leading to {sup 93m}Nb-activity is the reaction {sup 92}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 93}Mo. {sup 93}Mo decays by electron capture to {sup 93m}Nb with a half life of 4000 years and a branching ratio b{sub r} = 0.88. As (n,{gamma})-reactions are produced mainly by low energy neutrons, being less important

  2. Paleoseismology of the Hluboká Fault in the near-region of the NPP Temelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Dana; Popotnig, Ankelika; Porpaczy, Clemens; Lomax, Johanna; Decker, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Temelin is located in the Bohemian Massif, a Variscan basement unit characterized by very low historical/instrumental seismicity. Previous seismic hazard assessments for the site revealed very low hazard (PGA<0.1g) for a non-exceedance probability of 10-4 per year. The assessments are based on historical/instrumental earthquake data of the Bohemian Massif that cover the time period since about 1800 and 1903, respectively. In this study we assess the late Variscan Hluboká fault in the vicinity of the site, which was repeatedly re-activated in Mesozoic, Miocene and Pliocene times. The fault is part of the several tens of kilometres long NW-striking Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) Fault zone. It is located about 10 to 20 km south of the NPP. Geological, geophysical, and structural data characterize the fault as a dextral strike-slip fault system. Reflection seismic shows an up to a few hundred meters wide zone with steeply dipping faults that are supposed to merge into a common master fault at depth. The fault is characterized by fault bends defining a restraining and a releasing segment. The latter coincides with a pronounced morphological scarp. Recent uplift of the footwall of the fault at this releasing bend is indicated by previously published geodetic data (P. Vyskočil, 1973) and geomorphological data comparing the tectonic morphology of the fault scarp near Hluboká nad Vltavou with slopes, which are not fault controlled. All analysed geomorphological indices characterize the Hluboká scarp as a unique morphological feature, which results from Quaternary uplift of the footwall of the Hluboká Fault with respect to its hanging wall. The assessment of the youngest tectonic history of the fault further uses correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River across the fault. We established a new Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of fluvial terraces using field and borehole data combined with OSL/IRSL age dating. The results show terrace staircases in the hanging wall

  3. Update global budget of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from Fukushima NPP1 accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misuimi, Kazuhiro; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hamajima, Yasunori

    2014-05-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released from the Fukushima NPP1 accident on March 2011 and to evaluate total amount of released radiocaesium is essential to assess impacts of released radiocaesium to iur environment. We however still have wide range of reports about total amount of released radiocaesium after the accident till today. Released radiocasium were injected in the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge from the accident site and atmospheric pathway to the ocean while there was only atmospheric deposition on land. We summarize estimations of budget of radiocasium based on both observations and model studies for land deposition, deposition on the North Pacific Ocean and inventory in the North Pacific Ocean, an inventory of sediment close to the site. The major portion of released radiocaesium can be believed to be deposited mainly in the western North Pacific Ocean because deposition density at west coast of US continent was only at an order of 100 Bq m-2 while that at close to accident site was MBq m-2. An inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by some of the authors was 15-18 PBq on April-May 2011 by model-observation comparison and that in the mode water in the western North Pacific Ocean based on the observations on January- February 2012 was 6 PBq. The second portion might be on main land Japan and it is rather easy to evaluate total amount of deposited radiocaesium because there are good observation both by direct sampling of soil and aerial survey. A result of integration for land deposition was about 2.5 PBq. The third portion is in the sediment and an inventory in the sediment by observation showed 42 TBq at close to the site while the total inventory of 137Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast is thus estimated to be the order of 0.1 PBq by a model study by some of the authors. Estimations of direct discharge from the site also still varied much from 3 PBq to 27 PBq. Two larger estimations did the backward

  4. The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) CalVal Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite was launched successfully on October 28, 2011 and is a pathfinder for the future US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational satellite series. The primary objectives of the SNPP mission provide a continuation of the group of Earth system observations initiated by the Earth Observing System Terra, Aqua, and Aura missions; and prepare the operational forecasting community with pre-operational risk reduction, demonstration, and validation for selected JPSS instruments and ground processing data systems. The SNPP satellite is now flying with the following five instruments: 1) Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has multi-band imaging capabilities to support the acquisition of high-resolution atmospheric imagery and generation of a variety of applied products including visible and infrared imaging of hurricanes and detection of fires, smoke, and atmospheric aerosols. 2) Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is the the first in a series of advanced operational sounders that provide more accurate, detailed atmospheric temperature and moisture observations for weather and climate applications. 3) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) operates in conjunction with the CrIS to profile atmospheric temperature and moisture. Higher (spatial, temporal and spectral) resolution and more accurate sounding data from CrIS and ATMS support continuing advances in data assimilation systems and NWP models to improve short- to medium-range weather forecasts. 4) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) measures the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, providing information on how ozone concentration varies with altitude. Data from OMPS continue three decades of climate measurements of this important parameter used in global climate models. The OMPS measurements also fulfill the U.S. treaty obligation to monitor global ozone concentrations with no gaps in coverage. Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) seeks to develop and

  5. Assessing the spatiotemporal variation in distribution, extent and NPP of terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate change from 1911 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Gang, Chengcheng; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yizhao; Mu, Shaojie; Ren, Jizhou; Chen, Jingming; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2013-01-01

    To assess the variation in distribution, extent, and NPP of global natural vegetation in response to climate change in the period 1911-2000 and to provide a feasible method for climate change research in regions where historical data is difficult to obtain. In this research, variations in spatiotemporal distributions of global potential natural vegetation (PNV) from 1911 to 2000 were analyzed with the comprehensive sequential classification system (CSCS) and net primary production (NPP) of different ecosystems was evaluated with the synthetic model to determine the effect of climate change on the terrestrial ecosystems. The results showed that consistently rising global temperature and altered precipitation patterns had exerted strong influence on spatiotemporal distribution and productivities of terrestrial ecosystems, especially in the mid/high latitudes. Ecosystems in temperate zones expanded and desert area decreased as a consequence of climate variations. The vegetation that decreased the most was cold desert (18.79%), while the maximum increase (10.31%) was recorded in savanna. Additionally, the area of tundra and alpine steppe reduced significantly (5.43%) and were forced northward due to significant ascending temperature in the northern hemisphere. The global terrestrial ecosystems productivities increased by 2.09%, most of which was attributed to savanna (6.04%), tropical forest (0.99%), and temperate forest (5.49%). Most NPP losses were found in cold desert (27.33%). NPP increases displayed a latitudinal distribution. The NPP of tropical zones amounted to more than a half of total NPP, with an estimated increase of 1.32%. The increase in northern temperate zone was the second highest with 3.55%. Global NPP showed a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation in comparison with mean annual temperature and biological temperature. In general, effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems were deep and profound in 1911

  6. Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation in Distribution, Extent and NPP of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Response to Climate Change from 1911 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Chengcheng; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yizhao; Mu, Shaojie; Ren, Jizhou; Chen, Jingming; Groisman, Pavel Ya.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the variation in distribution, extent, and NPP of global natural vegetation in response to climate change in the period 1911–2000 and to provide a feasible method for climate change research in regions where historical data is difficult to obtain. In this research, variations in spatiotemporal distributions of global potential natural vegetation (PNV) from 1911 to 2000 were analyzed with the comprehensive sequential classification system (CSCS) and net primary production (NPP) of different ecosystems was evaluated with the synthetic model to determine the effect of climate change on the terrestrial ecosystems. The results showed that consistently rising global temperature and altered precipitation patterns had exerted strong influence on spatiotemporal distribution and productivities of terrestrial ecosystems, especially in the mid/high latitudes. Ecosystems in temperate zones expanded and desert area decreased as a consequence of climate variations. The vegetation that decreased the most was cold desert (18.79%), while the maximum increase (10.31%) was recorded in savanna. Additionally, the area of tundra and alpine steppe reduced significantly (5.43%) and were forced northward due to significant ascending temperature in the northern hemisphere. The global terrestrial ecosystems productivities increased by 2.09%, most of which was attributed to savanna (6.04%), tropical forest (0.99%), and temperate forest (5.49%). Most NPP losses were found in cold desert (27.33%). NPP increases displayed a latitudinal distribution. The NPP of tropical zones amounted to more than a half of total NPP, with an estimated increase of 1.32%. The increase in northern temperate zone was the second highest with 3.55%. Global NPP showed a significant positive correlation with mean annual precipitation in comparison with mean annual temperature and biological temperature. In general, effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems were deep and profound in 1911–2000

  7. S-NPP VIIRS instrument telemetry and calibration data trend study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZiPing; De Luccia, Frank J.; Cardema, Jason C.; Moy, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) employs a large number of temperature and voltage sensors (telemetry points) to monitor instrument health and performance. We have collected data and built tools to study telemetry and calibration parameters trends. The telemetry points are organized into groups based on locations and functionalities. Examples of the groups are: telescope motor, focal plane array (FPA), scan cavity bulkhead, radiators, solar diffuser and Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). We have performed daily monitoring and long-term trending studies. Daily monitoring processes are automated with alarms built into the software to indicate if pre-defined limits are exceeded. Long-term trending studies focus on instrument performance and sensitivities of Sensor Data Record (SDR) products and calibration look-up tables (LUTs) to instrument temperature and voltage variations. VIIRS uses a DC Restore (DCR) process to periodically correct the analog offsets of each detector of each spectral band to ensure that the FPA output signals are always within the dynamic range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The offset values are updated based on observations of the On-Board Calibrator Blackbody source. We have performed a long-term trend study of DCR offsets and calibration parameters to explore connections of the DCR offsets with onboard calibrators. The study also shows how the instrument and calibration parameters respond to the VIIRS Petulant Mode, spacecraft (SC) anomalies and flight software (FSW) updates. We have also shown that trending studies of telemetry and calibration parameters may help to improve the instrument calibration processes and SDR Quality Flags.

  8. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  9. Preparing the remote sensing community toward the NPP/NPOESS era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuciauskas, A. P.; Lee, T. F.; Turk, F. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Hawkins, J. D.; Kent, J. E.; Miller, S. D.; McWilliams, G.

    2008-12-01

    Under the auspices of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Integrated Program Office (IPO), the Naval Research Laboratory in Monterey (NRLMRY) was tasked to develop NexSat, a weather satellite web-based resource, to illustrate future sensing capabilities within the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor onboard the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPOESS era. NexSat acquires and processes data from polar orbiters (AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, DMSP, and TRMM) that serve as heritage instruments to the VIIRS. Geostationary sensors and numerical weather prediction (NWP) overlays supplement the image products suite, making NexSat a one-stop shop for current and future environmental monitoring. NRLMRY collaborates with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) for product development. Together with the Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET®), NRLMRY provides educational outreach to research and development communities as well as to the general public. This paper intends to describe the products within the NexSat webpage and its training resources. The product suite consists of generic and state of the art images. Along with the standard visible, IR, and water vapor products, NexSat also includes dust enhancement, cloud properties, cloud profiling, snow cloud discrimination, volcanic ash plumes, hot spots, aerosol content over land and water. NexSat training resources will be described, including on-line product tutorials, a course module, as well as outreach efforts to the National Weather Service, government agencies, academic institutions, and international organizations.

  10. Ozone, Aerosol, and Cloud Data Products from Suomi NPP OMPS LP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLand, M. T.; Bhartia, P. K.; Jaross, G. R.; Xu, P.; Kramarova, N. A.; Taha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) instrument is currently flying on the Suomi NPP satellite, and has collected almost 5 years of regular data since its launch in October 2011. LP hyperspectral measurements simultaneously cover a spectral range between 290 nm and 1015 nm with variable spectral resolution (0.8-30 nm), and an altitude range between 0 km and 80 km with 1 km sampling. Level 1 sun-normalized radiance data created from these measurements are available to create multiple products. OMPS LP ozone profiles represent a continuation of the Aura MLS high resolution data record, providing profiles covering the altitude range 10-55 km with 1.8 km vertical resolution. We are creating a reprocessed LP Version 2.5 (V2.5) ozone product that incorporates improved altitude registration information and stray light correction in the Level 1 data set, and a simplified aerosol correction using LP aerosol profiles in the Level 2 retrieval. This ozone product has reduced bias relative to MLS in the tropical upper stratosphere/lower stratosphere, and typically agrees to within ±5% in the stratosphere. OMPS LP Version 1.0 (V1.0) aerosol extinction profiles extend the stratospheric aerosol data record available from SAGE II and OSIRIS, providing extinction coefficient profiles from cloud top to 30-35 km. The spatial and temporal sampling of LP enables extensive observation of volcanic eruption plumes and stratospheric dynamics. We have also developed a cloud height product to supply lower boundary information for the ozone and aerosol retrievals. Future LP algorithm development will include a 2-D approach to address line-of-sight inhomogeneity effects that affect all limb-viewing measurements.

  11. Joint Polar Satellite System's Operational and Research Applications from Suomi NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key operational and research applications, and includes: 1) Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. 2) Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. 3) Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established a proving ground program to optimize the use of JPSS data with other data sources to improve key products and services. A number of operational and research applications will be discussed, including the use of CrIS and ATMS for improved weather forecasting, the use of VIIRS for environmental monitoring of sea ice, smoke, fire, floods, droughts, coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms

  12. A maximum likelihood approach to determine sensor radiometric response coefficients for NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-10-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors' radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1 (FU1) (Butler, J., Xiong, X., Oudrari, H., Pan, C., and Gleason, J., "NASA Calibration and Characterization in the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)", IGARSS, July 12-17, 2009, Cape Town, South Africa.), the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor's digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the quadratic model. We show that using the inadequate quadratic model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  13. Modeling the transport of nitrogen in an NPP-2006 reactor circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, O. E.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Sledkov, R. M.; Melekh, S. S.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Efficient radiation protection of the public and personnel requires detecting an accident-initiating event quickly. Specifically, if a heat-exchange tube in a steam generator is ruptured, the 16N radioactive nitrogen isotope, which contributes to a sharp increase in the steam activity before the turbine, may serve as the signaling component. This isotope is produced in the core coolant and is transported along the circulation circuit. The aim of the present study was to model the transport of 16N in the primary and the secondary circuits of a VVER-1000 reactor facility (RF) under nominal operation conditions. KORSAR/GP and RELAP5/Mod.3.2 codes were used to perform the calculations. Computational models incorporating the major components of the primary and the secondary circuits of an NPP-2006 RF were constructed. These computational models were subjected to cross-verification, and the calculation results were compared to the experimental data on the distribution of the void fraction over the steam generator height. The models were proven to be valid. It was found that the time of nitrogen transport from the core to the heat-exchange tube leak was no longer than 1 s under RF operation at a power level of 100% N nom with all primary circuit pumps activated. The time of nitrogen transport from the leak to the γ-radiation detection unit under the same operating conditions was no longer than 9 s, and the nitrogen concentration in steam was no less than 1.4% (by mass) of its concentration at the reactor outlet. These values were obtained using conservative approaches to estimating the leak flow and the transport time, but the radioactive decay of nitrogen was not taken into account. Further research concerned with the calculation of thermohydraulic processes should be focused on modeling the transport of nitrogen under RF operation with some primary circuit pumps deactivated.

  14. Suomi-NPP VIIRS day/night band calibration with stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright, Jon P.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Observations of stars can be used to calibrate the radiometric performance of the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Suomi-NPP instrument VIIRS. Bright stars are normally visible in the Space View window. In this paper, we describe several potential applications of stellar observations with preliminary results for several. These applications include routine trending of the gain of the highand mid-gain stages of the DNB and trending the gain ratio between those stages. Many of the stars observed by the VIIRS DNB have absolute flux curves available, allowing for an absolute calibration. Additionally, stars are visible during scheduled lunar roll observations. The electronic sector rotations applied during the scheduled lunar observations greatly increases the sky area recorded for a brief period, increasing the observing opportunities. Additionally, the DNB recorded data during the spacecraft pitch maneuver. This means the deep sky was viewed through the full Earth View. In this situation, thousands of stars (and the planet Mars) are recorded over a very short time period and over all aggregation zones. A possible application would be to create a gain curve by comparing the instrument response to the known apparent stellar brightness for a large number of stars of similar spectral shape. Finally, the DNB is especially affected the mirror degradation afflicting VIIRS. The degradation has shifted peak of the relative spectral response (RSR) of the DNB the blue and the effective band pass has been slightly reduced. The change in response for hot stars (effective temperatures of over 30,000 K) due to this degradation will differ by about 10 percent from the response change of cool stars (below 3500 K).

  15. Climatic drivers of variability in the response of NPP to elevated CO2. A model-data comparison at two FACE sites in the south eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Dietze, M. C.; Hanson, P. J.; Hickler, T.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Parton, W. J.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Weng, E.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    In response to elevated CO2, terrestrial plant productivity increases; creating negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 increase. Inter-annual variability (IAV) in the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) response, demonstrated at FACE experiments in Tennessee and North Carolina, was a result of nitrogen dynamics and the water balance. An inter-comparison study, that simulated the FACE experiments with 11 different models, showed that models could reproduce IAV at Duke FACE but were less able at Oak Ridge. The aim of this study was to test whether models could reproduce the experimentally observed relationships between the NPP response and climatic variables. Temperature and soil water were shown to be important drivers of the simulated NPP response. However, models did not demonstrate the same relationships to climate as the observed data. Despite the intensity and duration of the measurement campaigns in comparison with other ecosystem manipulations, fusion of models and data was confounded by the comparatively limited resolution of observed data - 11 years, difficulty in measurement of the full model parameter sets - and difficulty in standardising the diverse parameter sets and initial conditions of the various models. Furthermore, long-term simulations of the FACE experiments, using a 300 year randomised sequence of the 11 years of climatic data, showed that there was wide variability in the NPP response for a particular year of climatic data. Results demonstrate that although IAV in models can correlate with IAV in observations, relationships between NPP and climatic variables may not always be comparable.

  16. Bamboo Expansion Alters Ecosystem NPP and N Cycling of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Song, Q. N.; Wang, W.

    2016-12-01

    Background and Aims The bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) expansion into adjacent forests is a widespread phenomenon in subtropical region, and it has imposed great effects on the species compositions and community structures of cloned ecosystems. This shift in dominant plant life form, from trees to bamboos, may be accompanied by changes in the productivity, standing accumulation of biomass and nutrients and biogeochemical cycles. Methods We compared the net primary production (NPP) and major pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) in bamboo-dominant forest (BDF) and neighboring secondary evergreen broadleaved forest (EBF) in South China using the space-for-time substitution method. Results The mean annual NPP of BDF was 30.0 t ha-1 a-1, which was 51.5 % greater than that of the EBF (19.8 t ha-1 a-1), with fine root contributed more than 8.2 kg ha-1. The plant N pool for BDF was 37.5% larger than that of the EBF, because of higher N content in P. pubescens tissues relative to that in trees, whereas the soil inorganic N pool significantly decreased in the EBF by 31.2 % compared with that in the BDF. Additionally, the ratio of N return to N uptake was 0.69 in the BDF and 0.88 in the EBF because of the lower litter N return of the BDF compared with that of the EBF. Conclusion These results indicated that the expansion of P. pubescens significantly increased the NPP and plant N accumulation but reduced the soil N available pool and slowed the N cycling rate, which could lead to soil degradation. These findings have great additional information for the assessment of P. pubescens expansion, and enrich our understanding of bamboo expansion into neighboring forests in subtropical China.

  17. The Operational Use of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite Information in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), Alaska Region (AR) provides warnings, forecasts and information for an area greater than 20% of the size of the continental United States. This region experiences an incredible diversity of weather phenomena, yet ironically is one of the more data-sparse areas in the world. Polar orbiting satellite-borne sensors offer one of the most cost effective means of gaining repetitive information over this data-sparse region to provide insight on Alaskan weather and the environment on scales ranging from synoptic to mesoscale in a systematic manner. Because of Alaska's high latitude location, polar orbiting satellites can provide coverage about every two hours at high resolution. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite, equipped with a new generation of satellite sensors to better monitor, detect, and track weather and the environment was launched October 2011. Through partnership through the with NESDIS JPSS, the University of Alaska - Geographical Information Network of Alaska (GINA), the NWS Alaska Region was able to gain timely access to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery from S-NPP. The imagery was quickly integrated into forecast operations across the spectrum of NWS Alaska areas of responsibility. The VIIRS has provided a number of new or improved capabilities for detecting low cloud/fog, snow cover, volcanic ash, fire hotspots/smoke, flooding due to river ice break up, and sea ice and ice-free passages. In addition the Alaska Region has successfully exploited the 750 m spatial resolution of the VIIRS/Near Constant Contrast (NCC) low-light visible measurements. Forecasters have also begun the integration of NOAA Unique Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings in AWIPS-II operations at WFO Fairbanks and Anchorage, the Alaska Aviation Weather Unit (AAWU) and the Alaska Region, Regional Operations Center (ROC

  18. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  19. NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory takes off from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, on NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-06

    NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory takes off from Juan Santamaria International Airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, on NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 Mesoamerica is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that uses an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) which is located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are combining ground research done in several areas in Central America with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. The radar, developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, can penetrate clouds and also collect data at night. Its high-resolution sensors operate at multiple wavelengths and modes, allowing AirSAR to see beneath treetops, through thin sand, and dry snow pack. AirSAR's 2004 campaign is a collaboration of many U.S. and Central American institutions and scientists, including NASA; the National Science Foundation; the Smithsonian Institution; National Geographic; Conservation International; the Organization of Tropical Studies; the Central American Commission for Environment and Development; and the Inter-American Development Bank.

  20. Vertical Migration of Radionuclides in Soils on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Exclusion Zone (1987-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannik, G. T.; Ivanov, Y. A.; Kashparov, V. A.; Levchuk, S. E.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 1986-1987, a set of experimental sites for studies of vertical migration of radionuclides released from the ChNPP was established in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone for various fallout plumes. The sites were selected considering local terrain and geo-chemical conditions, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fallout. The experimental sites included grasslands, and pre-Chernobyl cultivated meadows and croplands. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone grasslands was evaluated. Parameters of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239,240Pu transfer were calculated and the periods during which these radionuclides reach their ecological half-life in the upper 5 cm soil layer were estimated. Migration capabilities of these radionuclides in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: 90Sr >137Cs ≥ 239,240Pu. A significant retardation of the 137Cs vertical migration was shown in the grasslands long after the Chernobyl accident. During the 21st year after the fallout, average Tecol values for 137Cs (the period of time it takes in the environment for 137Cs to reach half the value of its original concentration in the upper 5 cm soil layer, regardless of physical decay) are as follows: 180 - 320 years for grassland containing automorphous mineral soils of a light granulometric composition; and 90 - 100 years for grassland containing hydromorphous organogenic soils. These values are significantly higher than those estimated for the period of 6-9 years after the fallout: 60 - 150 years and 11 - 20 years, respectively. The absolute 137Cs Tecol values are by factors of 3-7 higher than 137Cs radiological decay values long after the accident. Changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited 137Cs only depend on its radiological decay. This factor should necessarily be considered for development of predictive assessments, including dose exposures for the hypothetical population in case of their re-evacuation to the exclusion areas. The obtained

  1. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  2. Application of the leak-before-break concept to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Eperin, A.P.; Zakharzhevsky, Yu.O.; Arzhaev, A.I.

    1997-04-01

    A two-year Finnish-Russian cooperation program has been initiated in 1995 to demonstrate the applicability of the leak-before-break concept (LBB) to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP. The program includes J-R curve testing of authentic pipe materials at full operating temperature, screening and computational LBB analyses complying with the USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, and exchange of LBB-related information with emphasis on NDE. Domestic computer codes are mainly used, and all tests and analyses are independently carried out by each party. The results are believed to apply generally to RBMK type plants of the first generation.

  3. Using Ground Targets to Validate S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the observations from S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and Moderate resolution bands (M bands) of Libya 4 and Dome C over the first four years of the mission are used to assess the DNB low gain calibration stability. The Sensor Data Records produced by NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired from nearly nadir overpasses for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. A kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) correction model is used for both Libya 4 and Dome C sites to correct the surface BRDF influence. At both sites, the simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) DNB reflectances based on SCIAMACHY spectral data are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectances based on modulated Relative Spectral Response (RSR). In the Libya 4 site, the results indicate a decrease of 1.03% in Land PEATE TOA reflectance and a decrease of 1.01% in SCIAMACHY derived TOA reflectance over the period from April 2012 to January 2016. In the Dome C site, the decreases are 0.29% and 0.14%, respectively. The consistency between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE data trends is good. The small difference between SCIAMACHY and Land PEATE derived TOA reflectances could be caused by changes in the surface targets, atmosphere status, and on-orbit calibration. The reflectances and radiances of Land PEATE DNB are also compared with matching M bands and the integral M bands based on M4, M5, and M7. The fitting trends of the DNB to integral M bands ratios indicate a 0.75% decrease at the Libya 4 site and a 1.89% decrease at the Dome C site. Part of the difference is due to an insufficient number of sampled bands available within the DNB wavelength range. The above results indicate that the Land PEATE VIIRS DNB product is accurate and stable. The methods used in this study can be used on other satellite instruments to provide quantitative assessments for calibration stability.

  4. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting Applications of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, Shobha

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR), and a Suspended Matter (SM) EDR that provides aerosol type (dust, smoke, sea salt, and volcanic ash) information. An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. The accuracy of the SM product, however, is found to be very low (20 percent) when compared to Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and AERONET. Several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance have been developed for AOT retrieval. For dust aerosol type retrieval, a new approach that takes advantage of spectral dependence of Rayleigh scattering, surface reflectance, dust absorption in the deep blue (412 nm), blue (440 nm), and mid-IR (2.2 um) has been developed that detects dust with an accuracy of ~80 percent. For smoke plume identification, a source apportionment algorithm that combines fire hot spots with AOT imagery has been developed that provides smoke plume extent with an accuracy of ~70 percent. The VIIRS aerosol products will provide continuity to the current operational use of aerosol products from Aqua and Terra MODIS. These include aerosol data assimilation in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) global aerosol model, verification of National Weather Service (NWS) dust and smoke forecasts, exceptional events monitoring by different states

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE

  6. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  7. Adapting MODIS Dust Mask Algorithm to Suomi NPP VIIRS for Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciren, P.; Liu, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2012-12-01

    Despite pollution reduction control strategies enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), large regions of the United States are often under exceptional events such as biomass burning and dust outbreaks that lead to non-attainment of particulate matter standards. This has warranted the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide smoke and dust forecast guidance to the general public. The monitoring and forecasting of dust outbreaks relies on satellite data. Currently, Aqua/MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and Terra/MODIS provide measurements needed to derive dust mask and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) products. The newly launched Suomi NPP VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument has a Suspended Matter (SM) product that indicates the presence of dust, smoke, volcanic ash, sea salt, and unknown aerosol types in a given pixel. The algorithm to identify dust is different over land and ocean but for both, the information comes from AOT retrieval algorithm. Over land, the selection of dust aerosol model in the AOT retrieval algorithm indicates the presence of dust and over ocean a fine mode fraction smaller than 20% indicates dust. Preliminary comparisons of VIIRS SM to CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) aerosol type product indicate that the Probability of Detection (POD) is at ~10% and the product is not mature for operational use. As an alternate approach, NESDIS dust mask algorithm developed for NWS dust forecast verification that uses MODIS deep blue, visible, and mid-IR channels using spectral differencing techniques and spatial variability tests was applied to VIIRS radiances. This algorithm relies on the spectral contrast of dust absorption at 412 and 440 nm and an increase in reflectivity at 2.13 μm when dust is present in the atmosphere compared to a clear sky. To avoid detecting bright desert surface as airborne dust, the algorithm uses the reflectances at 1.24 μm and 2.25 μm to flag bright pixels. The

  8. Estimation of Net Primary Production (NPP) of Inner Mongolia in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kwak, Y.; Yasuda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    1. Introduction In the latter part of 1970's, the need for more precise calculation of the fixed-quantity of global land vegetation was emphasized. This data is necessary for estimating carbon income and expenditure at a global level. Research at the Mauna Loa volcano has clearly shown that the density of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. This increase is caused mainly by changes in human activities and the respiration of plants and animals. At present, however, the value of CO2 income and expenditure as calculated for human activities does not agree with the value thought to be contained in the marine and terrestrial carbon sinks. Clearly the value of primary production needs to be measured more precisely on a global scale. The use of satellite data immediately enables application at a global level, leading to higher precision of estimation when analyzing ecosystem models. In this study, we analyzed and compared Hohhot and Naiman, two regions in Inner Mongolia. In situ observation data (biomass and reflection data for each type of vegetation) was collected from 1999 to 2002. The results of these ground observations were then compared to the results from wide area measurement of vegetation index utilizing Terra/MODIS data 2. Application to satellite data The MODIS Surface Reflectance product (MOD09), with resolution of 250m, was utilized from April to November of 2002. MOD09 did atmosphere correction and geometric correction. Bands 1 (RED : 620-670nm) and 2 (NIR : 841-876nm) from MOD09 were used to produce a NDVI image. In addition, to remove the influence of cloud cover, monthly vegetation index images for May to September were generated using the Temporal Window Operation method (TWO : Park et al.1999), with the mid day of each month designated as a representative day. 3. Conclusion In this study, we estimate Net Primary Production (NPP) for a semiarid region of northern China using satellite data. An area in which pasturage is prohibited was studied in 1999

  9. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M.

    2007-05-15

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  10. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales.

  11. Evaluation of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data for Mapping Global Fossil Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions: A Comparison with DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jinpei; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xia; Li, Meifang; Li, Wenkai

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the stable light products and radiance calibrated products from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) have been useful for mapping global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial resolution. However, few studies on this subject were conducted with the new-generation nighttime light data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite, which has a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light data. Therefore, this study performed the first evaluation of the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in estimating the spatial distributions of global CO2 emissions (excluding power plant emissions). Through a disaggregating model, three global emission maps were then derived from population counts and three different types of nighttime lights data (NPP-VIIRS, the stable light data and radiance calibrated data of DMSP-OLS) for a comparative analysis. The results compared with the reference data of land cover in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou show that the emission areas of map from NPP-VIIRS data have higher spatial consistency of the artificial surfaces and exhibit a more reasonable distribution of CO2 emission than those of other two maps from DMSP-OLS data. Besides, in contrast to two maps from DMSP-OLS data, the emission map from NPP-VIIRS data is closer to the Vulcan inventory and exhibits a better agreement with the actual statistical data of CO2 emissions at the level of sub-administrative units of the United States. This study demonstrates that the NPP-VIIRS data can be a powerful tool for studying the spatial distributions of CO2 emissions, as well as the socioeconomic indicators at multiple scales. PMID:26390037

  12. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two new cataract loci, Ccw and To3, and further mapping of the Npp and Opj cataracts in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, S.; Glenister, P.H.; Lyon, M.F.; Favor, J.

    1996-08-15

    Many types of inherited early onset cataract are known in both human and mouse. Here we describe the mapping of two novel dominant cataract loci in the mouse genome. Cataract and curly whiskers, Ccw, maps to Chromosome 4, 3.1 {+-} 1.1 cM distal to the b (brown) locus. Total opacity 3, To3, maps to Chromosome 7, 7.1 {+-} 1.8 cM proximal top (pink-eyed dilution). The map positions of two other dominant cataract mutants have now been refined by three-point crosses. Nuclear and posterior polar cataract, Npp, maps to the central part of Chromosome 5,1.4 {+-} 0.5 cM distal to W{sup e} (dominant spotting-extreme, an allele at the Kit locus), and Opaque secondary fiber cell junctions, Opj, maps to the proximal region of Chromosome 16, 9.1 {+-} 1.5 cM distal to the marker md (mahoganoid). While there are no obvious candidate genes in the vicinity of the Ccw, Npp, and Opj mutations, To3 lies remarkably close to the recently mapped Lim2 locus, which encodes lens intrinsic membrane protein 2. also called MP19. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Comparison of Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ with Remote Sensing Retrievals from Suomi-npp Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping Profile Suite (OMPS) was launched October 28, 2011 on-board the Suomi NPP satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov). OMPS is the next generation total column ozone mapping instrument for monitoring the global distribution of stratospheric ozone. OMPS includes a limb profiler to measure the vertical structure of stratosphere ozone down to the mid-troposphere. This study uses tropical ozonesonde profile measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) archive to evaluate total column ozone retrievals from OMPS and concurrent measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the predecessor of OMPS with a data record going back to 2004. We include ten SHADOZ stations that contain data overlapping the OMPS time period (2012-2013). This study capitalizes on the ozone profile measurements from SHADOZ to evaluate OMPS limb profile retrievals. Finally, we use SHADOZ sondes and OMPS retrievals to examine the agreement with the GEOS-5 Ozone Assimilation System (GOAS). The GOAS uses data from the OMI and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) to constrain the total column and stratospheric profiles of ozone. The most recent version of the assimilation system is well constrained to the total column compared with SHADOZ ozonesonde data.

  15. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  16. Tracking on-orbit stability of the response versus scan angle for the S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Cao, Changyong

    2016-09-01

    Built on strong heritage of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) carried on Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html) has been in operation for nearly five fives. The on-board calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) relies on a solar diffuser (SD) located at a fixed scan angle and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The VIIRS response versus scan angle (RVS) was characterized prelaunch in lab ambient conditions and is currently used to determine the on orbit response for all scan angles relative to the SD scan angle. Since the RVS is vitally important to the quality of calibrated level 1B products, it is important to monitor its on-orbit stability. In this study, the RVS stability is examined based on reflectance trends collected from 16-day repeatable orbits over preselected pseudo-invariant desert sites in Northern Africa. These trends cover nearly entire Earth view scan range so that any systematic drifts in the scan angle direction would indicate a change in RVS. This study also compares VIIRS RVS on-orbit stability results with those from Aqua and Terra MODIS over the first four years of mission for a few selected bands, which provides further information on potential VIIRS RVS on-orbit changes.

  17. [Ranking of radionuclides and pathways according to their contribution to the dose burden to the population resulting from NPP releases].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Karpenko, E I; Sharpan, L A

    2013-01-01

    Approaches are described towards estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of ecosystems by nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with the rationale for the optimal specification level for nuclear power plants (NPP) operating in the normal mode. Calculations are made based on the initial data of the IAEA project, INPRO ENV, dealing with the ranking of radionuclides escaping to the environment from the operating NPPs. Influence of various factors on rankings of radionuclides and pathways of public exposure is demon- strated. An important factor is the controlled radionuclide composition of atmospheric NPP releases. It has been found that variation in the dose coefficients for some radionuclides leads to significant changes not only in the ranking results but also in the estimates of total dose burdens. Invariability is shown of the estimation concerning the greatest contribution of the peroral route to the population dose of irradiation in the situation considered. A conclusion was drawn on the need of taking into consideration uncertainties of different factors when comparing effects on the environment from enterprises of conventional and innovative nuclear fuel cycles.

  18. Tracking On-Orbit Stability of the Response Versus Scan Angle for the S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Cao, Changyong

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http:npp.gsfc.nasa.govviirs.html) has been in operation for nearly five years. The onboard calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) relies on a solar diffuser (SD) located at a fixed scan angle and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The VIIRS response versus scan angle (RVS) was characterized prelaunch in ambient conditions and is currently used to determine the on-orbit response for all scan angles relative to the SD scan angle. Since the RVS is vitally important to the quality of calibrated level 1B products, it is important to monitor its on-orbit stability. In this study, the RVS stability is examined based on reflectance trends collected from 16-day repeatable orbits over pre-selected pseudo-invariant desert sites in Northern Africa. These trends nearly cover the entire Earth view scan range so that any systematic drifts in the scan angle direction would indicate a change in RVS. This study also compares VIIRS RVS on-orbit stability results with those from both Aqua and Terra MODIS over the first four years of mission for a few selected bands, which provides further information on potential VIIRS RVS on-orbit changes.

  19. Simulation of Loss of RHRS Sequences in the Almaraz NPP during Mid-loop Operation using TRACE Code

    SciTech Connect

    Queral, Cesar; Gonzalez, Isaac; Exposito, Antonio

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of different international and national projects sponsored by the Spanish nuclear regulatory body, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, and the energy industry of Spain, UNESA, one of the most important objectives is the maintenance and developing of Spanish NPP models for different codes, such as RELAP5 and TRACE. In this context, and due to the risk importance of the loss of RHRS at mid-loop conditions, our group has developed a mid-loop model of Almaraz NPP with the TRACE code. During this kind of transients the reflux condensation is one of the cooling mechanisms anticipated in the abnormal operational procedure of loss of RHRS at mid-loop level. In this sense, several simulations of loss of the RHRS are being performed attending to different plant states, such as primary closed or open (different path vents were considered), availability of steam generators, power levels, primary inventory and different secondary conditions. These parametric analyses allow us to check the capability of this cooling mechanism at different plant configurations and to apply them to the success criteria of the reflux condensation mechanism. (authors)

  20. Retrospective study of 14C concentration in the vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice using tree rings and the AMS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ješkovský, Miroslav; Povinec, Pavel P.; Steier, Peter; Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric radiocarbon has been monitored around the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Jaslovské Bohunice (Slovakia) using CO2 absorption in NaOH solution since 1969. In 2012, tree ring samples were collected from Tilia cordata using an increment borer at Žlkovce monitoring station situated close to the Bohunice NPP. Each tree ring was identified and graphite targets were produced for 14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C concentrations obtained from the tree-ring samples have been in a reasonable agreement with the averaged annual 14C concentrations in atmospheric CO2.

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 ABC Transporter NppA1A2BCD Is Required for Uptake of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Daniel; Braun, Yvonne; Dubiley, Svetlana; Lafon, Corinne; Köhler, Thilo; Page, Malcolm G P; Mourez, Michael; Severinov, Konstantin; Weingart, Helge

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of the genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 revealed the presence of an operon encoding an ABC-type transporter (NppA1A2BCD) showing homology to the Yej transporter of Escherichia coli. The Yej transporter is involved in the uptake of the peptide-nucleotide antibiotic microcin C, a translation inhibitor that targets the enzyme aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Furthermore, it was recently shown that the Opp transporter from P. aeruginosa PAO1, which is identical to Npp, is required for uptake of the uridyl peptide antibiotic pacidamycin, which targets the enzyme translocase I (MraY), which is involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. We used several approaches to further explore the substrate specificity of the Npp transporter. Assays of growth in defined minimal medium containing peptides of various lengths and amino acid compositions as sole nitrogen sources, as well as Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays, showed that the Npp transporter is not required for di-, tri-, and oligopeptide uptake. Overexpression of the npp operon increased susceptibility not just to pacidamycin but also to nickel chloride and the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic blasticidin S. Furthermore, heterologous expression of the npp operon in a yej-deficient mutant of E. coli resulted in increased susceptibility to albomycin, a naturally occurring sideromycin with a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic. Additionally, heterologous expression showed that microcin C is recognized by the P. aeruginosa Npp system. Overall, these results suggest that the NppA1A2BCD transporter is involved in the uptake of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics by P. aeruginosa PA14. One of the world's most serious health problems is the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is a desperate need to find novel antibiotic therapeutics that either act on new biological targets or are able to bypass known resistance mechanisms. Bacterial ABC transporters play an important role in nutrient uptake from the environment. These uptake

  2. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite Gets Colorful Look at Hurricane Blanca

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite flew over Hurricane Blanca in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and gathered infrared data on the storm that was false-colored to show locations of the strongest thunderstorms within the storm. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite or VIIRS instrument aboard the satellite gathered infrared data of the storm that was made into an image at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The image was false-colored to show temperature. Coldest cloud top temperatures indicate higher, stronger, thunderstorms within a tropical cyclone. Those are typically the strongest storms with potential for heavy rainfall. VIIRS is a scanning radiometer that collects visible and infrared imagery and "radiometric" measurements. Basically it means that VIIRS data is used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, sea and land surface temperature, ice motion and temperature, fires, and Earth's albedo (reflected light). The VIIRS image from June 5 at 8:11 UTC (4:11 a.m. EDT) showed two areas of coldest cloud top temperatures and strongest storms were west-southwest and east-northeast of the center of Blanca's circulation center. On June 5 at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) Blanca's maximum sustained winds were near 105 mph (165 kph) with higher gusts. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecast expects some strengthening during the next day or so. Weakening is forecast to begin by late Saturday. At that time, NHC placed the center of Hurricane Blanca near latitude 14.3 North, longitude 106.2 West. That puts the center about 350 miles (560 km) south-southwest of Manzanillo, Mexico and about 640 miles (1,030 km) south-southeast of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. The estimated minimum central pressure is 968 millibars (28.59 inches). Blanca is moving toward the northwest near 10 mph (17 kph). A northwestward to north-northwestward motion at a similar forward speed is expected to continue through Saturday night. Blanca has been stirring up surf along the coast of southwestern

  3. NPP Saturation, Soil Acidification, and Phosphorus Limitation Caused by Nitrogen Enrichment-Meta Analysis of Manipulative Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, S.; Tian, D.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (N) deposition is traditionally expected to increase net primary production (NPP), but continued retention of N deposition may saturate the ecosystem capacity to store N and cause some dark side effects on ecosystems, like soil acidification and the limitation of other nutrient. However, those dark side effects of nitrogen deposition have not been well quantified based on experimental evidences. We synthesized nitrogen deposition experiments in the world and conducted three meta-analysis studies. By compiling a dataset from 44 studies with at least three levels of N addition treatment, we found an universal saturation response of NPP to N addition gradient in terrestrial ecosystems. The N saturation threshold for NPP was at the N addition rates of 4-5 g m-2 yr-1 on average across all the ecosystems. However, ecosystem types and environmental factors largely impacted the saturation response patterns and the N thresholds. By synthesizing 106 studies that monitored soil pH and base cations under N enrichment, we quantified global soil acidification caused by N addition. On average, N addition significantly reduced soil pH by 0.26, but the magnitude varied with ecosystem types, N addition rate, N fertilization forms, and experimental durations. Environmental factors such as initial soil pH, soil carbon and nitrogen content, precipitation, and temperature all influenced the N responses of soil pH. Global soils are now at a buffering transition from base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) to non-base cations (Mn2+ and Al3+). This calls our attention to care about the limitation of base cations and the toxic impact of non-base cations for terrestrial ecosystems with N deposition. By comparing the phosphorus limitation on biomass productions between the ambient and elevated N conditions, we found a stronger P limitation induced by N enrichment. Overall, the results indicate that the beneficial effect of N deposition on ecosystem productivity will

  4. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  5. Influence of Agricultural Developments on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the Semi-arid Region of India: A Study using GloPEM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholkar, M. D.; Goroshi, S.; Singh, R. P.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the effect of agricultural developments on inter-annual variations in the agricultural Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of selected districts of the semi-arid region of India by using GloPEM model. Advancements in farming practices have been contributing to the increase of net primary productivity, which ultimately leads to increase in the agricultural production. The study shows that increase in the gross irrigated area, fertilizer consumption, use of high yielding crop varieties and adoption of agricultural mechanization in terms of tractors and irrigation pumps have contributed significantly in the increase in agricultural NPP in the semi-arid region of India. The agricultural NPP of the semi-arid region of India has shown a very good correlation with the gross irrigated area (R2 = 0.668) and fertilizer use (R2 = 0.701). The anthropogenic factors influencing the agricultural NPP were grouped in 3 major Factor Components (FC) (eigenvalues > 1) as: FC1-nutrients application, FC2-irrigation potential and agricultural mechanization (irrigation pumps and tractors) and irrigated area while FC3-cultivated area and area under high yielding crop varieties. The study showed that most of the semi-arid region of India has a good agricultural production potential which needs to harness by increasing the supply of irrigation water, promoting agricultural mechanization and adoption of integrated nutrient management approach.

  6. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi.

  7. Performance of high resistivity n+pp+ silicon solar cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, I.; Goradia, C.; Swartz, C. K.; Hermann, A. M.

    1981-03-01

    High resistivity (1250 and 84 ohm-cm) n(+)pp(+) silicon solar cells were irradiated and their performance evaluated as a function of fluence. The greatest degradation in power occurred for the higher resistivity cell. The data were analyzed under open circuit conditions, and the components of V sub oc determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the voltage contributions from the front and back junctions decreased while the base component (V sub B) increased with fluence. The anomalous behavior of V sub B was attributed to an increase in the base minority carrier gradient with fluence. An argument that the increased power degradation in the 1250 ohm-cm cells was attributable to an increased voltage drop in the base is presented. Diffusion lengths calculated under high injection conditions were significantly greater than those determined under low injection. This was attributed to a saturation of recombination centers under high injection conditions.

  8. Assessment of CO2 fluxes and forest productivity (NPP/GPP) estimates from eddy covariance measurement and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anić, Mislav; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Večenaj, Željko

    2016-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) measurements were carried out at the Jastrebarsko site, Croatia, in lowland forest dominated by pedunculate oak. For validation of CO2 fluxes measured with EC method bi-weekly field measurements of increment of 640 trees in 24 plots set in a 100m x 100m grid, height increment and litterfall have been used. In our work we compared annual productivity (GPP and NPP) assessments from EC measurements with field measurements. The comparison was made on a seven year dataset of measurements, spanning from 2008 to 2014. Also, flux dependence on groundwater level has been investigated. Results are showing that forest productivity estimates with EC method are in good agreement with the estimates from field measurements in the dry years. Agreement is slightly lower for years with high precipitation.

  9. Five years of gas flaring by country, oil field or flare observed by the Suomi NPP satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    We will present a new methodology and the resulting interactive map and statistical estimates of flared gas volumes in 2012-2016 using multispectral infrared images from VIIRS radiometer at the Suomi NPP satellite. The high temperature gas flares are detected at the night side of the Earth with the Nightfire algorithm. Gas flares are distinct from biomass burning and industrial heat sources because they have higher temperatures. Sums of the radiative heat from the detected flares are calibrated with country-level flared volumes reported by CEDIGAZ. Statistical analysis of the database with accumulated 5 years of the Nightfire detections makes it possible to estimate instant flow rate for an individual flare, as well as integral flared volumes and long term trends for all the countries or oil and gas fields.

  10. Performance of high resistivity n+pp+ silicon solar cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Goradia, C.; Swartz, C. K.; Hermann, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    High resistivity (1250 and 84 ohm-cm) n(+)pp(+) silicon solar cells were irradiated and their performance evaluated as a function of fluence. The greatest degradation in power occurred for the higher resistivity cell. The data were analyzed under open circuit conditions, and the components of V sub oc determined as a function of fluence. It was found that the voltage contributions from the front and back junctions decreased while the base component (V sub B) increased with fluence. The anomalous behavior of V sub B was attributed to an increase in the base minority carrier gradient with fluence. An argument that the increased power degradation in the 1250 ohm-cm cells was attributable to an increased voltage drop in the base is presented. Diffusion lengths calculated under high injection conditions were significantly greater than those determined under low injection. This was attributed to a saturation of recombination centers under high injection conditions.

  11. Status and Prospects for Low-Light Visible Sensing from the VIIRS Day/Night Band on Suomi NPP and JPSS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Seaman, C.; Combs, C.; Solbrig, J. E.; Straka, W. C.; Walther, A.; NOH, Y. J.; Heidinger, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since its launch in October 2011, the Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has delivered above and beyond expectations, revolutionizing our ability to observe and characterize the nocturnal environment. Taking advantage of natural and artificial (man-made) light sources, the DNB offers unique information content ranging from the surface to the upper atmosphere. Notable developments include the quantitative use of moonlight for cloud property retrievals and the discovery of nightglow sensitivity revealing the signatures of gravity waves. The DNB represents a remarkable advance to the heritage low-light visible sensing of the Operational Linescan System (OLS), providing spatial and radiometric resolution unprecedented to the space platform. Soon, we will have yet another dimension of resolution to consider—temporal. In early 2017, NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System-1 (J1) will join S-NPP in early afternoon (1330 local time, ascending node) sun-synchronous orbital plane, displaced ½ orbit ( 50 min) from S-NPP. Having two DNB sensors will offer an expanded ability (lower latitudes) to examine the temporal properties of various light sources, track the motion of ships, low-level clouds and dust storms, fire line evolution, cloud optical properties, and even the dynamics of mesospheric gravity wave structures such as thunderstorm-induced concentric gravity waves and mesospheric bores. This presentation will provide an update to the science and application-oriented research involving the S-NPP/DNB, examples of key capabilities, first results of lunar irradiance model validation, and a look ahead toward the new research opportunities to be afforded by tandem S-NPP/J1 observations. The AGU is well-positioned for anticipating these capabilities "on the eve" of the J1 launch.

  12. The monetary value of the man-mSv for Korean NPP radiation workers assessed by the radiation aversion factor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-il; Suh, Dong-hee; Kim, So-i; Jeong, Mi-seon; Lim, Young-khi

    2012-07-01

    The monetary value of the man-mSv for operators of Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs) was calculated using a radiation aversion factor based on a survey of NPP workers. Initially, the life expectancy in the population is 79.4 y, the average age of cancer occurrence is 60 y, the average annual wage for an electric worker is 56 000 $ y(-1) and the nominal risk coefficient induced by radiation is 4.2E(-5) mSv were used to evaluate the basic monetary value (α(base)) resulting in 45.6 $ mSv(-1). To investigate the degree of radiation aversion, the subject of the investigation was selected as the working radiation workers in 10 NPPs in Korea (Kori 1-2, Yeonggwang 1-3, Ulchin 1-3 and Wolseong 1-2). In August 2010, with the cooperation of KHNP and partner companies, a total of 2500 survey questionnaires to 10 NPPs (or 250 surveys to each NPP) were distributed to currently employed radiation workers. From these, 2157 responses were obtained between August and October 2010. The assessed radiation aversion factor and the monetary value of the man-mSv from the calculated radiation aversion factor were 1.26 and ∼50 $ in the 0-1 mSv range, 1.38 and ∼200 $ in the 1-5 mSv range, 1.52 and ∼1000 $ in the 5-10 mSv range, 1.65 and ∼4000 $ in the 10-20 mSv range and 1.74 and ∼8500 $ >20 mSv.

  13. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  14. Global space-based inter-calibration system reflective solar calibration reference: from Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, David; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-05-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter- Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth-observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  15. River Ice and Flood Detection Products Derived from Suomi NPP VIIRS Satellite Data to Support Hydrologic Forecast Operations in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breukelen, C. M.; Plumb, E. W.; Li, S.; Holloway, E.; Stevens, E.

    2015-12-01

    A lack of river ice data during spring break-up in Alaska creates many forecast challenges for National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters. Limited and infrequent ice conditions and flood observations are provided by river observers, community officials, and pilots. Although these observations are invaluable, there are extensive spatial and temporal data gaps across Alaska during spring break-up. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite imagery has proved to be an extremely beneficial situational awareness and decision support tool for NWS forecast operations. In particular, the VIIRS satellite imagery became highly effective in identifying extensive flooding of many Alaskan rivers due to ice jams during the 2013 spring breakup season. A devastating ice jam flood in the Yukon River community of Galena prompted the development of river ice and flood detection products derived from the VIIRS satellite imagery with the support of the Joint Polar Satellite System/Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (JPSS/PGRR) Program. The two new products from S-NPP/VIIRS imagery provided critical decision making information to NWS forecasters responsible for issuing flood warnings for the region. Since 2013, the NWS continues to evaluate the use of these products in an operational forecast setting, and has expanded the evaluation period to include summertime flooding. There are limitations of these products due to cloud cover, sun zenith angles, product validation, and other issues unique to Alaska. The NWS will continue to provide feedback to the JPSS/PGRR Program in order to further refine and improve the algorithms used to create the river ice and flood detection products. This presentation will demonstrate how these products have been integrated into the NWS forecast process for several types of flood events in Alaska.

  16. Comment on the paper `Historical seismicity in the Middle East: new insights from Ottoman primary sources (sixteenth to mid-eighteenth centuries)' by Güçlü Tülüveli (JOSE, 2015, vol. 19, 1003-1008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Caroline; Albini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    This is a comment on the paper `Historical seismicity in the Middle East: new insights from Ottoman primary sources (sixteenth to mid-eighteenth centuries)' by Güçlü Tülüveli (JOSE, 2015, vol. 19, 1003-1008). The authors comment on the sources for each of the events cited by Güçlü Tülüveli, providing for the non-specialist a better sense of how the events he lists might more accurately fit into existing knowledge of the historical seismicity of the Ottoman lands.

  17. Climate Change Response of Ocean Net Primary Production (NPP) and Export Production (EP) Regulated by Stratification Increases in The CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W.; Randerson, J. T.; Moore, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean warming due to rising atmospheric CO2 has increasing impacts on ocean ecosystems by modifying the ecophysiology and distribution of marine organisms, and by altering ocean circulation and stratification. We explore ocean NPP and EP changes at the global scale with simulations performed in the framework of the fifth Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5). Global NPP and EP are reduced considerably by the end of the century for the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario, although models differ in their significantly in their direct temperature impacts on production and remineralization. The Earth system models used here project similar NPP trends albeit the magnitudes vary substantially. In general, projected changes in the 2090s for NPP range between -2.3 to -16.2% while export production reach -7 to -18% relative to 1990s. This is accompanied by increased stratification by 17-30%. Results indicate that globally reduced NPP is closely related to increased ocean stratification (R2=0.78). This is especially the case for global export production, that seems to be mostly controlled by the increased stratification (R2=0.95). We also identify phytoplankton community impacts on these patterns, that vary across the models. The negative response of NPP to climate change may be through bottom-up control, leading to a reduced capacity of oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump. There are large disagreements among the CMIP5 models in terms of simulated nutrient and oxygen concentrations for the 1990s, and their trends over time with climate change. In addition, potentially important marine biogeochemical feedbacks on the climate system were not well represented in the CMIP5 models, including important feedbacks with aerosol deposition and the marine iron cycle, and feedbacks involving the oxygen minimum zones and the marine nitrogen cycle. Thus, these substantial reductions in primary productivity and export production over

  18. Consistent High-Quality Global SO2 and HCHO Datasets from EOS Aura/OMI and Suomi NPP/OMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We report on recent effort and progress at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in developing consistent SO2 and HCHO retrieval products from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP)/Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper. Given the substantial differences between OMI and OMPS in several key aspects, such as spatial and spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, a major challenge in ensuring data continuity between the two instruments is to properly account for different instrument characteristics as well as instruments' degradation over time. To this end, we have developed an innovative approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) of measured Earthshine radiances. We utilize a PCA technique to extract a series of spectral features (principal components or PCs) explaining the variance of measured reflectance spectra, associated with both physical processes (e.g., ozone absorption, rotational Raman scattering) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). By fitting these PCs along with pre-computed Jacobians for our target species (SO2 or HCHO) to the measured radiance spectra, we can estimate the atmospheric loading of SO2 or HCHO while minimizing the impacts of interfering processes and measurement imperfection on retrievals. Since no explicit instrument-specific radiance data correction scheme is required, the PCA method is easily implemented with both OMI and OMPS and maximizes data continuity. The PCA algorithm currently runs operationally in the production of the new generation NASA standard OMI planetary boundary layer (PBL) SO2 data that have been shown to improve the detection limit of anthropogenic SO2 emission sources by a factor of two, as compared with the previous generation product. In this presentation, we will demonstrate that the PCA algorithm can produce SO2 and HCHO retrievals from OMPS that have comparable data quality with our OMI retrievals. We will also demonstrate

  19. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerospace Transportable Lidar System 2 (ATLS-2) provides ground truth humidity and temperature data for the testing and evaluation of instruments aboard environmental satellites. The Aerospace ground-truth data consist of collocated state-of-the art lidar and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). The lidar system consists of a pulsed UV transmitter, 36-inch collection telescope, and detection channels for water Raman, nitrogen Raman, and Rayleigh/Mie scattering. All channels are separated into two altitude bins to improve the dynamic range of the system. Dedicated balloon-borne radiosondes are Vaisala RS-92, processed with the current version of the Digicora-III software. The synergy between the Raman lidar data and radiosonde data produce high accuracy, quality-controlled vertical profiles of humidity (0 - 20 km) and temperature (0 - 60 km). Starting in May 2012, The Aerospace Corporation has exercised ATLS-2 to collect dedicated ground truth data sets in support of calibration and validation (cal/val) efforts for the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) aboard the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Data sets are collected from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on the west coast of Kauai and are timed to be coincident with S-NPP overpasses. The Aerospace PMRF datasets complement the ensemble of similar datasets collected from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) sites, which are compared to CrIMSS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) by the NOAA/NESDIS/STAR cal/val team for validation of algorithm performance and algorithm improvement. In addition to providing the only dedicated CrIMSS data in the mid-pacific, The Aerospace Corporation was the first site to provide ground truth data to the EDR cal/val team. As a result, ATLS-2 data sets served as the initial benchmarks for EDR performance testing. Details of the ATLS-2 system and data products as well

  20. Radio-cesium accumulation during decomposition of leaf litter in a deciduous forest after the Fukushima NPP accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Huang, Yao; Nakamori, Taizo; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Masanori

    2013-04-01

    Fukusima NPP accident contaminated vast area in eastern Japan with radio isotopes. Most of the area is covered by natural and plantation forest. The forest floor in deciduous forests, and canopy of evergreen forest were most contaminated by fall out. Radio-cesium is known to stay bioavailable in forest ecosystems for long time, and it is necessary to cut the cycling process to decontaminate the forest ecosystem. Ecological process to recycle radio-Cs in forest ecosystem should be studied to enhance decontamination of radio-Cs. Mushrooms show high concentration of Cs. Although mushroom biomass in a forest ecosystem is small, fungal mycelium in detritus and soil is large, thus fungi contain substantial amount of radio-Cs. It is well known that concentration of some nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, increase, whereas potassium decreases during the leaf litter decomposition. We observed radio-Cs concentration of leaf litter during decomposition on a forest floor where 134-Cs and 137-Cs of surface soil were 5,700, and 6,800 Bq/kg, respectively. We put 16 g (dry weight) of newly fallen mixed deciduous leaf litter (half of which was oak, Quercus serrata) into 25 cm x 25 cm litter bag (2 mm mesh size) in a deciduous forest about 50 km from Fukushima NPP. Fresh litter 137-Cs concentration was ca. 1,000 Bq/kg in December 2011. During the decomposition process on the forest floor, litter Cs increased exponentially and exceeded 10,000 Bq/kg after 6 months, indicating that Cs and K show contrasting dynamics during early decomposition phase. Increase in fungal biomass in the early stage of litter decomposition was observed. Therefore, this upward movement of Cs from humus and soil layer suggests fungal translocation of nutrients from outside of litter substrate. Retrieving the litter after 6 months can remove 18.0% of 134-Cs. Interaction between fungal species, grazing effect on fungi by fungivorous invertebrates will change the amount of translocation of radio-Cs from

  1. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China’s landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001–2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone. PMID:27348303

  2. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  3. Change of outlook for the forest productivity estimated with remote sensing using the new Collection 6 GPP/NPP MODIS product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanović, Hrvoje; Kern, Anikó; Anić, Mislav; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Balenović, Ivan; Alberti, Giorgio; Kovač, Goran; Barcza, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of forest productivity from remote sensing data, such as the MOD17 GPP and NPP values derived from MODIS data, are becoming increasingly important tools for monitoring forest productivity in light of the climate change. Hence, small sensor degradation, like the one in the case of MODIS sensor on-board satellite Terra could lead so significant bias in results and false conclusions of the path that the ecosystem is on. In new Collection 6 (C6) of the MOD17 product, the sensor degradation problem has been addressed compared to the previous version Collection 5.5 (C5.5) products, offering a new outlook on the trends in forest productivity. In our work we compared the C5.5 and C6 for MOD17 GPP and NPP products against estimates from eddy covariance and field measurements ('ground truth') at young Pedunculate oak site in Jastrebarsko forest. In order to assess the outlook of forest productivity at larger scale we intersected in GIS maps of forest areas under management and MODIS pixels with 1km spatial resolution. After selecting only those pixels that have at least 90% forest coverage according to the management plans, we analysed the temporal trends and variability in MODIS derived GPP and NPP both from C5.5 and C6 products. Analysis was performed for four main forests classes according to the dominant tree species (Pedunculate oak, Sessile oak, Common beech and Silver fir).

  4. Complexes of Sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Horikami, S M; Curran, J; Kolakofsky, D; Moyer, S A

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that the formation of NP-P and P-L protein complexes is essential for replication of the genome of Sendai defective interfering (DI-H) virus in vitro, using extracts of cells expressing these viral proteins from plasmids. Optimal replication of DI-H nucleocapsid RNA required extracts of cells transfected with critical amounts and ratios of each of the plasmids and was three- to fivefold better than replication with a control extract prepared from a natural virus infection. Extracts in which NP and P proteins were coexpressed supported replication of the genome of purified DI-H virus which contained endogenous polymerase proteins, but extracts in which NP and P were expressed separately and then mixed were inactive. Similarly, the P and L proteins must be coexpressed for biological activity. The replication data thus suggest that two protein complexes, NP-P and P-L, are required for nucleocapsid RNA replication and that these complexes must form during or soon after synthesis of the proteins. Biochemical evidence in support of the formation of each complex includes coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins of each complex with an antibody specific for one component and cosedimentation of the subunits of each complex. We propose that the P-L complex serves as the RNA polymerase and NP-P is required for encapsidation of newly synthesized RNA. Images PMID:1321276

  5. Radiation damage and annealing in large area n+/p/p+ GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Fan, J. C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Annealing of radiation damage was observed for the first time in VPE-grown, 2- by 2-cm, n+/p/p+ GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells. Electrical performance of several cells was determined as a function of 1-MeV electron fluence in the range of 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power e-/sq cm and as a function of thermal annealing time at various temperatures. Degradation of normalized power output after a fluence of 10 to the 15th power 1-MeV electrons/sq cm ranged from a low of 24 to 31 percent of initial maximum power. Normalized short circuit current degradation was limited to the range from 10 to 19 percent of preirradiated values. Thermal annealing was carried out in a flowing nitrogen gas ambient, with annealing temperatures spanning the range from 125 to 200 C. Substantial recovery of short circuit current was observed at temperatures as low as 175 C. In one case improvement by as much as 10 percent of the postirradiated value was observed. The key features of these cells are their extremely thin emitter layers (approxmately 0.05 micrometers), the absence of any Al sub xGd sub 1-x As passivating window layer, and their fabrication by vapor phase epitaxy.

  6. Initial Stability Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Calibration Using Invariant Desert and Deep Convective Cloud Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Doelling, David R.; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Scarino, Benjamin R.; Haney, Conor O.; Gopalan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The latest CERES FM-5 instrument launched onboard the S-NPP spacecraft will use the VIIRS visible radiances from the NASA Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Elements (PEATE) product for retrieving the cloud properties associated with its TOA flux measurement. In order for CERES to provide climate quality TOA flux datasets, the retrieved cloud properties must be consistent throughout the record, which is dependent on the calibration stability of the VIIRS imager. This paper assesses the NASA calibration stability of the VIIRS reflective solar bands using the Libya-4 desert and deep convective clouds (DCC). The invariant targets are first evaluated for temporal natural variability. It is found for visible (VIS) bands that DCC targets have half of the variability of Libya-4. For the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, the desert has less variability. The brief VIIRS record and target variability inhibits high confidence in identifying any trends that are less than 0.6yr for most VIS bands, and 2.5yr for SWIR bands. None of the observed invariant target reflective solar band trends exceeded these trend thresholds. Initial assessment results show that the VIIRS data have been consistently calibrated and that the VIIRS instrument stability is similar to or better than the MODIS instrument.

  7. Temporal monitoring of vessels activity using day/night band in Suomi NPP on South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Asanuma, Ichio; Park, Jong Geol; Mackin, Kenneth J.; Mittleman, John

    2017-05-01

    In this research, we focus on vessel detection using the satellite imagery of day/night band (DNB) on Suomi NPP in order to monitor the change of vessel activity on the region of South China Sea. In this paper, we consider the relation between the temporal change of vessel activities and the events on maritime environment based on the vessel traffic density estimation using DNB. DNB is a moderate resolution (350-700m) satellite imagery but can detect the fishing light of fishery boats in night time for every day. The advantage of DNB is the continuous monitoring on wide area compared to another vessel detection and locating system. However, DNB gave strong influence of cloud and lunar refection. Therefore, we additionally used Brightness Temperature at 3.7μm(BT3.7) for cloud information. In our previous research, we construct an empirical vessel detection model that based on the DNB contrast and the estimation of cloud condition using BT3.7. Moreover, we proposed a vessel traffic density estimation method based on empirical model. In this paper, we construct the time temporal density estimation map on South China Sea and East China Sea in order to extract the knowledge from vessel activities change.

  8. Analysis of Alternatives for Dismantling of the Equipment in Building 117/1 at Ignalina NPP - 13278

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Audrius; Poskas, Gintautas

    2013-07-01

    Ignalina NPP was operating two RBMK-1500 reactors which are under decommissioning now. In this paper dismantling alternatives of the equipment in Building 117/1 are analyzed. After situation analysis and collection of the primary information related to components' physical and radiological characteristics, location and other data, two different alternatives for dismantling of the equipment are formulated - the first (A1), when major components (vessels and pipes of Emergency Core Cooling System - ECCS) are segmented/halved in situ using flame cutting (oxy-acetylene) and the second one (A2), when these components are segmented/halved at the workshop using CAMC (Contact Arc Metal Cutting) technique. To select the preferable alternative MCDA method - AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is applied. Hierarchical list of decision criteria, necessary for assessment of alternatives performance, are formulated. Quantitative decision criteria values for these alternatives are calculated using software DECRAD, which was developed by Lithuanian Energy Institute Nuclear engineering laboratory. While qualitative decision criteria are evaluated using expert judgment. Analysis results show that alternative A1 is better than alternative A2. (authors)

  9. Towards real-time risk mitigation for NPP in Switzerland: the potential role of EEW and OEF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Wiemer, Stefan; Behr, Yannik; Clinton, John; Renault, Philippe; Le Guenan, Thomas; Douglas, John; Woessner, Jochen; Biro, Yesim; Caprio, Marta; Cua, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Spurred by the research activities being carried out within the EC-funded project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real Time Earthquake Risk Reduction, FP7, contract no. 282862, 2011-2014, www.reaktproject.eu), we present herein the key elements to understanding the potential benefits of routinely using Earthquake Early Warning and Operational Earthquake Forecasting methods to mitigate the seismic risk at NPP in Switzerland. The advantages of using the aforementioned real-time risk reduction tools are critically discussed based on the limitations of the current scientific knowledge and technology, as well as on the costs associated to both system maintenance and machine- or human-triggered actions following an alert. Basic inputs to this discussion are, amongst others: a) the performances of the Swiss seismic network (http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/monitor, where SeisComP3 is used as earthquake monitoring software) and the selected EEW algorithm (the Virtual Seismologist, VS, http://www.seiscomp3.org/doc/seattle/2013.200/apps/vs.html), in terms of correct detections, false alerts, and missed events; b) the reliability of time-dependent hazard scenarios for the region of interest; c) a careful assessment of the frequency of occurrence of critical warnings based on the local and regional seismicity; d) the identification of the mitigation actions and their benefits and costs for the stakeholders.

  10. The Results of Feasibility Study of Co-generation NPP With Innovative VK-300 Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yury N.

    2006-07-01

    The co-generation nuclear power plant (CNPP) producing electricity and district heating heat is planned to be constructed in Archangelsk Region of Russia. Following the 'Letter of Intent' signed by Governor of Archangelsk region and by Minister of the Russian Federation for atomic energy the feasibility study of the Project has been done. The NPP will be based on the four co-generation nuclear power units with the Russian VK-300 SBWR. The innovative passive VK-300 reactor facility has been designed on the basis of well-established nuclear technologies, proven major components, the operating experience of the prototype VK-50 reactor in RIAR, Dimitrovgrad, and the experience in designing such reactors as SBWR (GE) and SWR-1000 (Siemens). The CNPP's total power is planned to be 1000 MW(e) and district-heating heat production capacity 1600 Gcal/h. A detailed description of the results of the feasibility study is presented in the report. The results of the feasibility study have shown that the Archangelsk CGNP is feasible in terms of engineering, economics and production. (authors)

  11. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort.

  12. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  13. Comparing the impacts of the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons and the 2004 drought on NPP in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have evolved together with relatively frequent disturbances such as wildfires and long dry periods. However, in recent decades fire regimes have been changing due to widespread socio-economic factors (e.g. rural abandonment) as well as in response to climatic trends. In particular, drought have become more frequent and intense, a pattern that is expected to increase in future decades. Despite Mediterranean ecosystems being adapted to fire and drought occurrence, changes in the characteristics of disturbances may affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. The years 2003, 2004 and 2005 were particularly severe for ecosystems in the Iberia Peninsula, as a devastating fire season (2003, ~574.000ha burnt) was followed by a very intense drought (2004/2005) that affected 2/3 of Iberian vegetation for more than 9 months. In 2005, a very destructive fire season was again registered, with ~727.000ha burnt. These disturbances have been shown to have a severe impact on vegetation phenology, as assessed by remote sensing imagery. One of the more relevant societal impacts of these disturbances is the decrease in net primary production (NPP) of vegetation, both for practical issues such as food production, fiber and fuel and for carbon balance assessments. This work focuses on 2003 and 2005 fire seasons in the Iberia Peninsula and in the 2004/05 drought. Burnt scars in all fire seasons were identified by cluster analysis; the area affected by the drought event of 2004/2005 was selected as the region where vegetative stress was observed for 9 or more months. Remote sensing allows large scale studies of the evolution of vegetation dynamics at relatively fine spatial resolution. We rely on satellite NDVI data from SPOT/VEGETATION (1km) to identify burnt scars and drought-stricken regions. To quantify the impacts in terms of carbon uptake by vegetation, the MOD17A2 (annual NPP) and MOD17A3 (monthly net photosynthesis, PsN) datasets

  14. Evaluating the new NASA S-NPP continuity cloud products for climate research using CALIPSO and L3 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, R.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, S. A.; Frey, R.; Meyer, K.; Wind, G.; Heidinger, A. K.; Walther, A.; Amarasinghe, N.

    2015-12-01

    The launch of VIIRS and CrIS on Suomi NPP in the fall of 2011 introduced the next generation of U.S. operational polar orbiting environmental observations. Similar to MODIS, VIIRS provides visible and IR observations at moderate spatial resolution and has a 1:30 pm equatorial crossing time consistent with the MODIS on Aqua platform. However unlike MODIS, VIIRS lacks water vapor and CO2 absorbing channels that are used by the MODIS cloud algorithms for both cloud detection and to retrieve cloud top height and cloud emissivity for ice clouds. Given the different spectral and spatial characteristics of VIIRS, we seek to understand the extent to which the 15-year MODIS climate record can be continued with VIIRS/CrIS observations while maintaining consistent sensitivities across the observational systems. This presentation will focus on the evaluation of the latest version of the NASA funded cloud retrieval algorithms being developed for climate research. We will present collocated inter-comparisons between the imagers (VIIRS and MODIS Aqua) with CALIPSO as well as long term statistics based on a new Level-3 (L3) product being developed as part the project. The CALIPSO inter-comparisons will focus on cloud detection (cloud mask), cloud-top heights, and cirrus optical thickness. Using CALIPSO as the reference, and applying the same algorithms to VIIRS and MODIS, we will discuss the consistency between products from both imagers. The L3 analysis will focus on the regional and seasonal consistency between the suite of MODIS and VIIRS continuity cloud products. Do systematic biases remains when using consistent algorithms but applied to different observations (MODIS or VIIRS)?

  15. The Urban Social and Energy Use Data Embedded in Suomi-NPP VIIRS Nighttime Lights: Algorithm Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, E. C.; Roman, M. O.; Seto, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Although urban areas contribute between 67-75% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is very little understanding of what drives anthropogenic emissions both locally and globally. Part of this gap in knowledge is due to a lack of reliable measurements across a range of urban scales. Where, when, and how much urban areas use energy is also a function of human activity patterns and social practices deeply embedded in culture. One apparent manifestation of energy use patterns in human settlements is in the celebration of holidays - when human activity patterns change, this affects short-term patterns in energy consumption. Using satellite-based retrievals of nighttime lighting (NTL) during three major holiday periods, (1) Christmas and New Year's, (2) the Holy Month of Ramadan, and (3) the Chinese Spring Festival, we demonstrate that cultural variations within and between urban areas contextualize and shape the magnitude and timing of energy use. We derived NTL signatures from the Suomi-NPP satellite's (VIIRS) Day/Night Band for two years and over 1200 cities. The high-quality NTL retrievals are based on the latest science reprocessing (Collection V1.1, c. 8/2014) produced by the Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (Land PEATE) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. After correcting for cloud and snow cover, as well as atmospheric-, terrain-, lunar BRDF-, fire-, and straylight effects, the high-resolution NTL time series were decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder signals—revealing strong, consistent patterns of activity changes during holiday periods. We demonstrate that patterns of holiday luminosity reveal changes in human activities important for understanding urban demographics and urban dynamics, and are strong examples of the socio-cultural and energy demand signatures embedded in satellite remote sensing imagery.

  16. Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

    2012-09-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

  17. Radiometric traceability diagnosis and bias correction for the Suomi NPP VIIRS long-wave infrared channels during blackbody unsteady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changyong; Wang, Wenhui; Blonski, Slawomir; Zhang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Program (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs) have been performing well since the data became available on 20 January 2012, and the Sensor Data Record data reached validated maturity on 18 March 2014. While overall the validation has shown that these channels have an estimated absolute uncertainty on the order of 0.1 K based on extensive comparisons, there is a remaining issue that persisted over the years. A calibration bias on the order of 0.1 K is introduced in channels such as M15 during the quarterly blackbody temperature warm-up/cooldown, and the bias is further amplified by the sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm up to 0.3 K in the global daily-averaged products which causes an apparent spike in the SST time series. Our investigation reveals that this bias is caused by a fundamental but flawed theoretical assumption in the VIIRS calibration equation, which states that the shape of the calibration curve is assumed unchanged from prelaunch to postlaunch without any constrains. While the assumption may work to account for long-term degradation, it has a shortcoming during the blackbody unsteady state. In this study, we present a diagnostic and correction method with a compensatory term (Ltrace) to reconcile the assumption such that it removes the calibration bias during the blackbody temperature changes. The methodology has been tested using historical data, and the results are very positive. The implementation has minimal impacts on the operational data processing system and is readily available for use in operations.

  18. Suomi NPP CrIS measurements, sensor data record algorithm, calibration and validation activities, and record data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Revercomb, Henry; Cromp, Mike; Gu, Degui; Johnson, David; Mooney, Daniel; Scott, Deron; Strow, Larrabee; Bingham, Gail; Borg, Lori; Chen, Yong; DeSlover, Daniel; Esplin, Mark; Hagan, Denise; Jin, Xin; Knuteson, Robert; Motteler, Howard; Predina, Joe; Suwinski, Lawrence; Taylor, Joe; Tobin, David; Tremblay, Denis; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Likun; Zavyalov, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Fourier Transform Michelson interferometer instrument launched on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite on 28 October 2011. CrIS provides measurements of Earth view interferograms in three infrared spectral bands at 30 cross-track positions, each with a 3 × 3 array of field of views. The CrIS ground processing software transforms the measured interferograms into calibrated and geolocated spectra in the form of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) that cover spectral bands from 650 to 1095 cm-1, 1210 to 1750 cm-1, and 2155 to 2550 cm-1 with spectral resolutions of 0.625 cm-1, 1.25 cm-1, and 2.5 cm-1, respectively. During the time since launch a team of subject matter experts from government, academia, and industry has been engaged in postlaunch CrIS calibration and validation activities. The CrIS SDR product is defined by three validation stages: Beta, Provisional, and Validated. The product reached Beta and Provisional validation stages on 19 April 2012 and 31 January 2013, respectively. For Beta and Provisional SDR data, the estimated absolute spectral calibration uncertainty is less than 3 ppm in the long-wave and midwave bands, and the estimated 3 sigma radiometric uncertainty for all Earth scenes is less than 0.3 K in the long-wave band and less than 0.2 K in the midwave and short-wave bands. The geolocation uncertainty for near nadir pixels is less than 0.4 km in the cross-track and in-track directions.

  19. The risk of macular degeneration development in persons antenatally irradiated as a result of Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Babenko, T F; Fedirko, P A; Dorichevska, R Y; Denysenko, N V; Samoteikina, L A; Tyshchenko, O P

    2016-12-01

    Assess the risk of macular degeneration development in persons exposed in utero as a result of Chornobyl NPP accident. The object of the study was the state of the macular area of the retina of 84 individuals exposed in utero as a result of the Chornobyl disaster. They were surveyed at the age of 14-30. The results of stan dardized ophthalmic examinations conducted between 2000 and 2016 were used. The control group consisted of 165 persons who have not undergone prenatal exposure and were examined at the same age as the core group. All patients were examined according to the formalized ophthalmic protocol procedure, examination included ophthal moscopy and fundus camera photography (VISUCAM lite Digital Camera, Zeiss). Statistical analysis of the survey results was carried out using the free trial version of «Open Epi 2.2.1» software package. It is shown that the prevalence of macular degeneration of the retina at the age of 14-30 for persons exposed in utero was 95.23 ± 32.03 in 1000 and compared with control age (17.86 ± 10.31 in 1000) was significant ly higher (χ2 = 7.827, p = 0.0026). In the under 30 age group of the antenatally exposed there already appear macular degenerations whose clinical picture resembles age related macular degeneration. It is proved that the prevalence of macular degeneration was significantly higher in the group of antenatally exposed as compared with non irradiated control at the same age. T. F. Babenko, P.A. Fedirko, R.Y. Dorichevska, N.V. Denysenko, L. A. Samoteikina, O. P. Tyshchenko.

  20. Real-time mapping of combustion sources using Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS and CrIMSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Night-time images from the Suomi NPP satellite VIIRS scanning radiometer in visible and infrared spectral bands provide invaluable data for real-time detection of natural and technological combustion sources on the surface of the Earth, such as forest fires, gas flares, steel mills or active volcanoes. Point sources detected at night in 1.6 micron near-infrared M10 channel are most likely to be large fires or gas flares. Their temperature and radiative power can be estimated by simultaneous fitting of two Planck black-body spectral curves to the observed radiances of all VIIRS infrared M-channels, one curve for the temperature and power of the combustion, another for the background. VIIRS instrument is sensitive to the IR sources with temperature range from 800 to 2000 degrees K. This method can discriminate low temperature sources such as volcanoes and forest fires from the high temperature gas flares with 300 m average location error. Global real-time mapping of the IR sources on the Earth requires correction of the M-channels for bow tie effect, atmospheric correction and filtering of the false detections resulting from sensor bombardment by the cosmic rays, especially at the aurora rings and at the South Atlantic anomaly. MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer mode is used with temperature and moisture profiles provided by the CrIMSS onboard sensor suite. False detections can be removed by correlating of the observed bright spots in M10 channel with other infrared and the visible day-night band. After geometry correction and denoising, the IR point sources are mapped on Google Earth and listed in a table. NOAA NGDC provides global daily detection products for thousands of IR sources as KML vector maps and as CSV tables.

  1. Time changes in radiocesium wash-off from various land uses after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-05-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to monitor and model the time series change of radiocesium transfer through aquatic systems after significant fallout, especially from the Chernobyl disaster. However, no data is available for the temporal changes of radiocesium concentration in environmental materials such as soil and water after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Our research team has been monitoring the environmental consequences of radioactive contamination just after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Yamakiya-district, Kawamata town, Fukushima prefecture. Research items are listed below. 1. Radiocesium wash-off from the runoff-erosion plot under different land use. 2. Measurement of radiocesium transfer in forest environment, in association with hydrological pathways such as throughfall and overlandflow on hillslope. 3. Monitoring on radiocesium concentration in soil water, ground water, and spring water. 4. Monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentration in river water, and stream water from the forested catchment. 5.Measurement of radiocesium content in drain water and suspended sediment from paddy field. Our monitoring result demonstrated that the Cs-137 concentration in eroded sediment from the runoff-erosion plot has been almost constant for the past 3 years, however the Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment from the forested catchment showed slight decrease through time. On the other hand, the suspended sediment from paddy field and those in river water from large catchments exhibited rapid decrease in Cs-137 concentration with time. The decreasing trend of Cs-137 concentration were fitted by the two-component exponential model, differences in decreasing rate of the model were compared and discussed among various land uses and catchment scales. Such analysis can provide important insights into the future prediction of the radiocesium wash-off from catchments with different land uses.

  2. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  3. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  4. From Environmental Data Record (EDR) to Information Data Record (IDR) - Towards The Development of S-NPP/JPSS Real-Time Informatics in Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    In cooperation with the NOAA Suomi NPP/JPSS program, CIMSS/SSEC continues to leverage and expand the NASA funded International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) effort, and to facilitate the use of international polar orbiter satellite data through the development of a unified Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP). CSPP supports the Suomi NPP and JPSS, and will subsequently build up over time, to support operational GOES-R, METOP series, FY-3 series, and geostationary meteorological and environmental satellites for the global weather and environmental user community. This paper briefly highlights 16 years (2000-2016) of success of IMAPP and, more recently, of CSPP, that latter as a pathway to the development of a freely available software package to transform VIIRS, CrIS, and ATMS Raw Data Records (RDRs) (i.e. Level 0) to Sensor Data Records (SDRs) (i.e. Level 1), and SDRs to Environmental Data Records (EDRs) (i.e. Level 2) in support of Suomi NPP and subsequently the JPSS missions under the CSPP framework. Examples of CSPP in implementing the customized - UW multi-instrument hyperspectral retrieval and NOAA enterprise algorithms - 1) The Clouds from AVHRR Extended (CLAVR-X), 2) Microwave Integrated Retrieval (MIR), 3) Advanced Clear-SKY Processor for Oceans (ACSPO), 4) NOAA Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) will be outlined. Moreover, the current innovations in the development of Information Data Record (IDR) from single or multiple EDRs and other ancillary and auxiliary data, to become the foundation of CSPP Informatics (CSPP science information processing and integration system) will be discussed. Several current CSPP Informatics examples such as 1) Infusion Data into Environmental Air Quality Application - International (IDEA-I), 2) AWH (Aviation Weather Hazard), and 3) Aerosol Visibility are to be highlighted.

  5. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current status of the radioactive waste management programme in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lang-Lenton Leon, Jorge; Garcia Neri, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    Since 1984, ENRESA is responsible of the radioactive waste management and the decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. The major recent challenge has been the approval of the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan (GRWP) as 'master plan' of the activities to be performed by ENRESA. Regarding the LILW programme, the El Cabril LILW disposal facility will be described highlighting the most relevant events especially focused on optimizing the existing capacity and the start-up of a purpose -built disposal area for VLLW. Concerning the HLW programme, two aspects may be distinguished in the direct management of spent fuel: temporary storage and long-term management. In this regards, a major challenge has been the decision adopted by the Spanish Government to set up a Inter-ministerial Committee for the establishment of the criteria that must be met by the site of the Centralized Intermediate Storage (CTS) facility as the first and necessary step for the process. Also the developments of the long-term management programme will be presented in the frame of the ENRESA's R and D programme. Finally, in the field of decommissioning they will be presented the PIMIC project at the CIEMAT centre and the activities in course for the decommissioning of Jose Cabrera NPP. (authors)

  7. Theoretical modeling, near-optimum design and predicted performance of n(+)pp(+) and p(+)nn(+) indium phosphide homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Using a detailed simulation model of p(+)nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide (InP) homojunction solar cells, extensive parametric variation computer simulation runs are conducted to help arrive at near-optimum designs of these two solar cell configurations. Values of all the geometrical and material parameters corresponding to the near-optimal designs of both these configurations are presented. For each configuration, results are given for parametric variation runs showing how the performance parameters JSC, VOC, and eta vary with each of the cell parameters for the near-optimally designed cell.

  8. Theoretical modeling, near-optimum design and predicted performance of n(+)pp(+) and p(+)nn(+) indium phosphide homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Using a detailed simulation model of p(+)nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide (InP) homojunction solar cells, extensive parametric variation computer simulation runs are conducted to help arrive at near-optimum designs of these two solar cell configurations. Values of all the geometrical and material parameters corresponding to the near-optimal designs of both these configurations are presented. For each configuration, results are given for parametric variation runs showing how the performance parameters JSC, VOC, and eta vary with each of the cell parameters for the near-optimally designed cell.

  9. Upgrading the SPP-500-1 moisture separators-steam reheaters used in the Leningrad NPP turbine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legkostupova, V. V.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The specific features of existing designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters (MSRs) and experience gained with using them at nuclear power plants are considered. Main factors causing damage to and failures of MSRs are described: nonuniform distribution of wet steam flow among the separation modules, breakthrough of moisture through the separator (and sometimes also through the steam reheater), which may lead to the occurrence of additional thermal stresses and, hence, to thermal-fatigue damage to or stress corrosion cracking of metal. MSR failure results in a less efficient operation of the turbine unit as a whole and have an adverse effect on the reliability of the low-pressure cylinder's last-stage blades. By the time the design service life of the SPP-500-1 MSRs had been exhausted in power units equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors, the number of damages inflicted to both the separation part and to the pipework and heating surface tubes was so large, that a considerable drop of MSR effectiveness and turbine unit efficiency as a whole occurred. The design of the upgraded separation part used in the SPP-500-1 MSR at the Leningrad NPP is described and its effectiveness is shown, which was confirmed by tests. First, efforts taken to achieve more uniform distribution of moisture content over the perimeter and height of steam space downstream of the separation modules and to bring it to values close to the design ones were met with success. Second, no noticeable effect of the individual specific features of separation modules on the moisture content was revealed. Recommendations on elaborating advanced designs of moisture separators-steam reheaters are given: an MSR arrangement in which the separator is placed under or on the side from the steam reheater; axial admission of wet steam for ensuring its uniform distribution among the separation modules; inlet chambers with an extended preliminary separation system and devices for uniformly distributing steam flows in the

  10. Validation of Vegetation Index Time Series from Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Using Tower Radiation Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, T.; Kato, A.; Wang, J.; Vargas, M.; Lindquist, M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite vegetation index (VI) time series data serve as an important means to monitor and characterize seasonal changes of terrestrial vegetation and their interannual variability. It is, therefore, critical to ensure quality of such VI products and one method of validating VI product quality is cross-comparison with in situ flux tower measurements. In this study, we evaluated the quality of VI time series derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft by cross-comparison with in situ radiation flux measurements at select flux tower sites over North America and Europe. VIIRS is a new polar-orbiting satellite sensor series, slated to replace National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the afternoon overpass and to continue the highly-calibrated data streams initiated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System. The selected sites covered a wide range of biomes, including croplands, grasslands, evergreen needle forest, woody savanna, and open shrublands. The two VIIRS indices of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the atmospherically-corrected, Top-of-Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (daily, 375 m spatial resolution) were compared against the TOC NDVI and a two-band version of EVI (EVI2) calculated from tower radiation flux measurements, respectively. VIIRS and Tower VI time series showed comparable seasonal profiles across biomes with statistically significant correlations (> 0.60; p-value < 0.01). "Start-of-season (SOS)" phenological metric values extracted from VIIRS and Tower VI time series were also highly compatible (R2 > 0.95), with mean differences of 2.3 days and 5.0 days for the NDVI and the EVI, respectively. These results indicate that VIIRS VI time series can capture seasonal evolution of

  11. Validation of Vegetation Index Time Series from Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Using Tower Radiation Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, T.; Kato, A.; Wang, J.; Vargas, M.; Lindquist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite vegetation index (VI) time series data serve as an important means to monitor and characterize seasonal changes of terrestrial vegetation and their interannual variability. It is, therefore, critical to ensure quality of such VI products and one method of validating VI product quality is cross-comparison with in situ flux tower measurements. In this study, we evaluated the quality of VI time series derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft by cross-comparison with in situ radiation flux measurements at select flux tower sites over North America and Europe. VIIRS is a new polar-orbiting satellite sensor series, slated to replace National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the afternoon overpass and to continue the highly-calibrated data streams initiated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System. The selected sites covered a wide range of biomes, including croplands, grasslands, evergreen needle forest, woody savanna, and open shrublands. The two VIIRS indices of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the atmospherically-corrected, Top-of-Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (daily, 375 m spatial resolution) were compared against the TOC NDVI and a two-band version of EVI (EVI2) calculated from tower radiation flux measurements, respectively. VIIRS and Tower VI time series showed comparable seasonal profiles across biomes with statistically significant correlations (> 0.60; p-value < 0.01). "Start-of-season (SOS)" phenological metric values extracted from VIIRS and Tower VI time series were also highly compatible (R2 > 0.95), with mean differences of 2.3 days and 5.0 days for the NDVI and the EVI, respectively. These results indicate that VIIRS VI time series can capture seasonal evolution of

  12. Obtaining a consistent calibration between the DSCOVR EPIC and Aqua-MODIS/NPP-VIIRS imagers using multiple calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, A.; Haney, C.; Doelling, D. R.; Minnis, P.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) was launched on 11 February 2015, and maintains orbit around the Sun at the Lagrange-1 (L1) point. The L1 position offers a continuous view of the entire sunlit side of Earth, which is ideal for deriving the shortwave and longwave broadband fluxes from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) instrument, a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-like instrument to monitor the Earth's net balance over time. The greatest challenge will be converting the measured NISTAR angular dependent radiances to fluxes, which is dependent on the underlying cloud and surface conditions or scene type. This conversion is accomplished by using the onboard Earth Polychromatic Camera (EPIC) visible imager to identify the appropriate scene type for use in the CERES angular distribution models (ADM). The technique requires that the EPIC imager calibration is referenced to Aqua-MODIS and NPP-VIIRS, thereby ensuring that the cloud properties based on EPIC are similar to the MODIS and VIIRS clouds. The CERES calibration team, which is responsible for calibrating the geostationary imagery used in CERES analyses, and for monitoring the MODIS and VIIRS temporal stability, employs several calibration methods. The similar-channel EPIC and MODIS, or VIIRS, coincident ray-matched radiance pairs are used to transfer the MODIS, or VIIRS, calibration to the EPIC instrument. The EPIC navigation is first corrected to best match either MODIS/VIIRS image. Spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) based on SCIAMACHY are used to account for the spectral differences between the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS bands, which are a function of scene type. The calibration coefficients are found to be similar, whether all-sky ocean or deep convective clouds (DCC) are ray-matched. In fact, the SBAF can also be used to calibrate the oxygen A-band channels using either the 0.65- or 0.86-µm bands. Invariant target calibration using

  13. NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric

  14. Improved Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA "A Train", NPP, and TROPOMI Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Kulawik, S. S.; Miyazaki, K.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Livesey, N. J.; Payne, V.; Luo, M.; Natraj, V.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Strow, L. L.; Kuai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is at the juncture of air quality and climate. Ozone directly impacts human and plant health, and directly forces the climate system through absorption of thermal radiation. Carbon monoxide is a chemical precursor of greenhouse gases CO2 and tropospheric O3, and is also an ideal tracer of transport processes due to its medium life time (weeks to months). The Aqua-AIRS and Aura-OMI instruments in the NASA "A-Train", CrIS and OMPS instruments on the NOAA Suomi-NPP, IASI and GOME-2 on METOP and TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5 precursor (S5p) have the potential to provide the synoptic chemical and dynamical context for ozone necessary to quantify long-range transport at global scales and to provide an anchor to the near-term constellation of geostationary sounders: NASA TEMPO, ESA Sentinel 4, and the Korean GEMS. We introduce the JPL MUlti-SpEctral, MUlti-SpEcies, MUlti-SatEllite (MUSES) retrieval algorithm, which ingests panspectral observations across multiple platforms in a non-linear optimal estimation framework. MUSES incorporates advances in remote sensing science developed during the EOS-Aura era including rigorous error analysis diagnostics and observation operators needed for trend analysis, climate model evaluation, and data assimilation. Its performance has been demonstrated through prototype studies for multi-satellite missions (AIRS, CrIS, TROPOMI, TES, OMI, and OMPS). We present joint tropospheric ozone retrievals from AIRS/OMI and CrIS/OMPS over global scales, and demonstrate the potential of joint carbon monoxide profiles from TROPOMI/CrIS. These results indicate that ozone can be retrieved with ~2 degrees of freedom for signal (dofs) in the troposphere, which is similar to TES. Joint CO profiles have dofs similar to the MOPITT multispectral retrieval but with higher spatial resolution and coverage. Consequently, multispectral retrievals show promise in providing continuity with NASA EOS observations and pave the way towards a new

  15. The Project on the distribution of fallout radionuclide and their transfer through environment by Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Fukushima, Takehiko; Patin, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Following comprehensive investigation (FMWSE project funded by MEXT, Japan; http://fmwse.suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp/) was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200 - 600 kBq/m2. (1) Migration study of radionuclides in natural environment including forests and rivers: 1) Depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland, 2) Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests, 3) Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use, 4) Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils. (2) Migration study of radionuclides through hydrological cycle such as soil water, rivers, lakes and ponds, ground water: 1) Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use, 2) Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments, 3) Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments, 4) Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs. The main finding is as follows: 1) Migration of radionuclides to soil water, stream water and ground water was confirmed low at present. On the other hand, concentration of radiocaesium was found approximately 50 kBq/kg in the suspended sediments flowing down the river. 2) Amount of sediments deposited in the tank placed at the end of downstream within the USLE plot was confirmed together with the concentrations of

  16. NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric

  17. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-19

    Cabrera . On education, he designated Jose Ramon Machado Ventura and Esteban Lazo Hernandez, both members of the Political Bureau (Politburo) of the...the Cuban government released seven prisoners: Oscar Espinosa Chepe, Margarito Broche, and Marcelo Lopez on November 29; Raúl Rivero, and Oswaldo

  18. NPP Making the News

    NASA Image and Video Library

    When it comes to a NASA mission, it is not just about the science and engineering but it is also important to educate the public about the program. In this video television crews work night and day...

  19. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time.

  20. The responses of net primary production (NPP) to different climate scenarios with Biome-BGC model in oasis areas along the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Slusser, James R.; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

    2003-07-01

    The scientific community has been interested in the responses of vegetation to global change at regional and global scales. Many models have been developed to study the responses in terms of primary productivity. The ecosystem model, Biome-BGC, simulates the storage and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen within the vegetation, litter, and soil components of a terrestrial ecosystem and can be used to quantify effect on net primary production (NPP) under different climate scenarios. This study was conducted in oasis areas along the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, China with an arid climate. Ten sites were selected to test Biome-BGC model for its feasibility in the study areas. The model was proven not suitable to the desert ecosystem. After ecological and meteorological parameters were modified for each of the vegetation covers we applied the model to four sites that present agricultural, shrub, grasslands and mixed forest ecosystems. By using modified Biome-BGC model, we simulated the response of NPP with different land surface covers to four designed climate scenarios.

  1. Inter-Comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Using Hyperspectral Infrared Sounder Measurements as a Transfer Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yonghong; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration consistency of the spectrally-matched thermal emissive bands (TEB) between the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), using observations from their simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO). Nearly-simultaneous hyperspectral measurements from the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder(AIRS) and the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) are used to account for existing spectral response differences between MODIS and VIIRS TEB. The comparison uses VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR) in MODIS five-minute granule format provided by the NASA Land Product and Evaluation and Test Element (PEATE) and Aqua MODIS Collection 6 Level 1 B (L1B) products. Each AIRS footprint of 13.5 km (or CrIS field of view of 14 km) is co-located with multiple MODIS (or VIIRS) pixels. The corresponding AIRS- and CrIS-simulated MODIS and VIIRS radiances are derived by convolutions based on sensor-dependent relative spectral response (RSR) functions. The VIIRS and MODIS TEB calibration consistency is evaluated and the two sensors agreed within 0.2 K in brightness temperature.Additional factors affecting the comparison such as geolocation and atmospheric water vapor content are also discussed in this paper.

  2. The responses of net primary production (NPP) and total carbon storage for the continental United States to changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, climate, and vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    We extrapolated 3 biogeochemistry models (BIOME-BGC, CENTURY, and TEM) across the continental US with the vegetation distributions of 3 biogeography models (BIOME2, DOLY, and MAPSS) for contemporary climate at 355 ppmv CO{sub 2} and each of 3 GCM climate scenarios at 710 ppmv. For contemporary conditions, continental NPP ranges from 3132 to 3854 TgC/yr and total carbon storage ranges from 109 to 125 PgC. The responses of NPP range from no response (BIOME-BGC with DOLY or MAPSS vegetations for UKMO climate) to increases of 53% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for GFDL and OSU climates). The responses of total carbon storage vary from a decrease of 39% (BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation for UKMO climate) to increases of 52% and 56% (TEM with BIOME2 vegetations for OSU and GFDL climates). The UKMO responses of BIOME-BGC with MAPSS vegetation are caused by both decreased forest area (from 44% to 38%) and photosynthetic water stress. The OSU and GFDL responses of TEM with BIOME2 vegetations are caused by forest expansion (from 46% to 67% for OSU and to 75% for GFDL) and increased nitrogen cycling.

  3. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  4. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  5. Inter-Comparison of Suomi NPP CrIS Radiances with AIRS and IASI toward Infrared Hyperspectral Benchmark Radiance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Jin, X.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmosphere at the same spectral regions from different satellites. We will directly compare CrIS with AIRS and IASI at orbital crossing points of satellites occurring at high latitudes, the so-called simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO). The CrIS, AIRS, and IASI spectra will be processed at common grids and then the spectral differences will be computed. In addition, an accurate collocation algorithm has been developed to spatially match high spatial resolution measurements from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) within each CrIS, AIRS, and IASI Field of View (FOV). The collocated VIIRS radiances will be used as a transfer radiometer to further evaluate the difference among AIRS-VIIRS, IASI-VIIRS, and CrIS-VIIRS. Finally, the inter-comparisons between CrIS and AIRS will be further extended to the tropical scenes because Aqua and NPP have similar equator cross time.

  6. [Accumulation of 238, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in Boar Organs and Tissues on the Territory of the Belarusian Part of the ChNPP Exclusion Zone].

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Zabrotski, V N; Sadchikov, V I; Kalinin, V N

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to determination of α-emitting radionuclides of 238, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in liver, lungs, muscular and bone tissues of the boars on the territory of the Belarusian part of the ChNPP exclusion zone. It is shown that the content of Pu and Am isotopes in boar organs and tissues decreases in the following order: liver > bone tissues > lungs ≥ muscular tissues. The results received allow evaluation of penetration of 238, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am through the biological chain "soil-ration-organs and tissues". It is calculated that 1.7% of a boar's ration falls on the soil getting into the stomach with food. Translocation and accumulation coefficients characterizing the transfer of radionuclides through the chain "soil-vegetation-organs and tissues" were calculated. The conclusion about accumulation of Pu in the boar's body is made.

  7. Update of the tectonic model for the Pannonian basin: a contribution to the seismic hazard reassessment of the Paks NPP (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Ferenc; Tóth, Tamás; Wórum, Géza; Koroknai, Balázs; Kádi, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor; Balázs, Attila; Visnovitz, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The planned construction of two new units at the site of the Paks NPP requires a comprehensive site investigation including complete reassessment of the seismic hazard according to the Hungarian as well as international standards. Following the regulations of the Specific Safety Guide no. 9 (IAEA 2010), the approved Hungarian Geological Investigation Program (HGIP) includes integrated geological-geophysical studies at different scales. The regional study aims at to elaborate a new synthesis of all published data for the whole Pannonian basin. This task is nearly completed and the main outcomes have already been published (Horváth et al. 2015). The near regional study is in progress and addresses the construction of a new tectonic model for the circular area with 50 km radius around the NPP using a wealth of unpublished oil company seismic and borehole data. The site vicinity study has also been started with a core activity of 300 km² 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation assisted by a series of additional geophysical surveys, new drillings and geological mapping. This lecture will present a few important results of the near regional study, which sheds new light on the intricate tectonic evolution of the Mid-Hungarian Fault Zone (MHFZ), which is a strongly deformed belt between the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia megatectonic units. The nuclear power plant is located at the margin of the Tisza unit near to the southern edge of the MHFZ. Reassessment of seismic hazard at the site of the NPP requires better understanding of the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of this region in the central part of the Pannonian basin. Early to Middle Miocene was a period of rifting with formation of 1 to 3 km deep half-grabens filled with terrestrial to marine deposits and large amount of rift-related volcanic material. Graben fill became strongly deformed as a consequence of juxtaposition of the two megatectonic units leading to strong compression and development of

  8. Modeling the migration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the subsurface from the Chernobyl NPP Unit-4 Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Kivva, S.L.; Stelya, O.B.; Proskura, N.I.

    1997-12-31

    The Shelter constructed above the destroyed Unit-4 of the Chernobyl NPP contains 20 MCi of nuclear fuel. More than 1,000 m{sup 3} of intermediate-level radioactive water is disposed in its basement. The purpose of this work was to simulate migration of the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the Shelter into the subsurface environment to evaluate their migration rate and migration paths. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of water and radionuclides in variably saturated media was used. The lack of suitable experimental and field studies excluded the possibility of complete validating the model. Results of the simulations will be useful for future field studies.

  9. Abnormal N-glycosylation pattern for brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 (NPP-5) in Mecp2-mutant murine models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Guerranti, Roberto; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Scalabrì, Francesco; Madonna, Michele; Filosa, Stefania; Della Giovampaola, Cinzia; Capone, Antonietta; Durand, Thierry; Mirasole, Cristiana; Zolla, Lello; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Guy, Jacky; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Hayek, Joussef

    2016-04-01

    Neurological disorders can be associated with protein glycosylation abnormalities. Rett syndrome is a devastating genetic brain disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Although its pathogenesis appears to be closely associated with a redox imbalance, no information on glycosylation is available. Glycoprotein detection strategies (i.e., lectin-blotting) were applied to identify target glycosylation changes in the whole brain of Mecp2 mutant murine models of the disease. Remarkable glycosylation pattern changes for a peculiar 50kDa protein, i.e., the N-linked brain nucleotide pyrophosphatase-5 were evidenced, with decreased N-glycosylation in the presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice. Glycosylation changes were rescued by selected brain Mecp2 reactivation. Our findings indicate that there is a causal link between the amount of Mecp2 and the N-glycosylation of NPP-5.

  10. [Development of radioadaptive properties for microscopic fungi, long time located on terrains with a heightened background radiation after emergency on Chernobyl NPP].

    PubMed

    Tugaĭ, T I; Zhdanova, N N; Zheltonozhskiĭ, V A; Sadovnikov, L V

    2007-01-01

    In 7 species of micromycetes which were isolated from radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl NPP zone under exposure of two artificial sources: y-low energy (121Sn) and radiation mix type gamma + beta (137Cs). Two new earlier unknown radioadaptive properties for fungi--radiotropism and radiostimulation were established. The strains, which were isolated from clean areas, did not have such features. All investigated strains, which have shown positive radiotropism at the same time, have shown stimulation of conidia germination and of length of the emergent hyphum under exposure to one of sources of radiation. It was shown that micro fungi having radioadaptive properties, the adaptive response to high (100-1000 Gy) ionizing radiation doses was found that is evidence of that these strains have high radio resistance level. Nevertheless fungal strains have shown varied response to presence of ionizing radiation depending on its type and absorbed dose.

  11. Thermally stable, low resistance contact systems for use with shallow junction p(+) nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Fatemi, N. S.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Two contact systems for use on shallow junction InP solar cells are described. The feature shared by these two contact systems is the absence of the metallurgical intermixing that normally takes place between the semiconductor and the contact metallization during the sintering process. The n(+)pp(+) cell contact system, consisting of a combination of Au and Ge, not only exhibits very low resistance in the as-fabricated state, but also yields post-sinter resistivity values of 1(exp -7) ohms-sq cm, with effectively no metal-InP interdiffusion. The n(+)pp(+)cell contact system, consisting of a combination of Ag and Zn, permits low resistance ohmic contact to be made directly to a shallow junction p/n InP device without harming the device itself during the contacting process.

  12. Non cancer thyroid and other endocrine disease in children and adults exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident.

    PubMed

    Kaminskyi, O V; Kopylova, O V; Afanasyev, D E; Pronin, O V

    2015-12-01

    To summarize the verified clinical and epidemiological data on the natural history of non cancer endocrine disease in remote period after the ChNPP accident in survivors of adult and children age. Retrospective estimation was carried out of data on 24,588 adult persons and 20,087 chil dren survived after the ChNNP accident and being healthy or having any diseases. Data were retrieved from database of the Clinical Epidemiological Registry (CER), NRCRM for the 23 years (1992-2014) of survey. Average total external radiation dose in adults was 0.187 Gy, range of thyroid dose in children was 0.1-1.55 Gy. These data were verifies in a separate clinical study. Anthropometric, laboratory biochemical and hormonal assay values, thyroid ultrasound imaging patterns and radiation dose values were retrieved for the study. Retrospective data review for the 1992-2014 period indicated that incidence of thyroid disease in all per sons survived after the ChNPP accident run at 40.29% with 35.37% among the clean up workers, 27.24% among evac uees, and 28.6% among population of contaminated territories that all is significantly (p < 0.0001) higher vs. the entire population of Ukraine (3.9%). Following non cancer endocrine diseases were most prevalent in the ChNPP acci dent survivors: nodular goiter (14.35%), chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (~8%), pre obesity and obesity (41.9% and 36.8% respectively), prediabetes and diabetes mellitus (15.5% and 21.4% respectively). Nodular goiter (21.8%), chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (12.95%), pre obesity and obesity (41.71% and 33.61% respectively), and predia betes and diabetes mellitus (8.6% and 12.15% respectively) were most often diagnosed in the ChNPP accident clean up workers. Children evacuated from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone were a critical population group. They were diagnosed diffuse non toxic goiter in 43.68%, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in 1.74%, primary hypothyroidism in 0.96%, and nodular goiter in 2.57%. Peak prevalence of

  13. Detection and characterization of small hot fires: Comparing FireBird, BIRD, S-NPP VIIRS and MODIS capacities over gas flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Lorenz, Eckehard; Kaiser, Johannes; Caseiro, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    According to recent research, black carbon has the second strongest effect on the earth climate system after carbon dioxide. In high Northern latitudes, industrial gas flares are an important source of black carbon, especially in winter. This fact is particularly relevant for the relatively fast observed climate change in the Arctic since deposition of black carbon changes the albedo of snow and ice, thus leading to a positive feedback cycle. Here we explore gas flare detection and Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrievals of the German FireBird TET-1 and BIRD Hotspot Recognition Systems (HSRS), the VIIRS sensor on board of the S-NPP satellite, and the MODIS sensor using temporally close to near coincident data acquisitions. Comparison is based on level 2 products developed for fire detection for the different sensors; in the case of S-NPP VIIRS we use two products: the new VIIRS 750m algorithm based on MODIS collection 6, and the 350 m algorithm based on the VIIRS mid-infrared I (Imaging) band, which offers high resolution, but no FRP retrievals. Results indicate that the highest resolution FireBird sensors offer the best detection capacities, though the level two product shows false alarms, followed by the VIIRS 350 m and 750 m algorithms. MODIS has the lowest detection rate. Preliminary results of FRP retrievals show that FireBird and VIIRS algorithms have a good agreement. Given the fact that most gas flaring is at the detection limit for medium to coarse resolution space borne sensors - and hence measurement errors may be high - our results indicates that a quantitative evaluation of gas flaring using these sensors is feasible. Results shall be used to develop a gas flare detection algorithm for Sentinel-3, and a similar methodology will be employed to validate the capacity of Sentinel 3 to detect and characterize small high temperature sources such as gas flares.

  14. VIIRS S-NPP Nighttime DNB Spectral Response Function (SRF): The At-launch Characteristics and How the SRF Changes with Time Due to Tungsten Oxides Chromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, B.; Lei, N.; Moeller, C.

    2015-12-01

    The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is designed with 3 gain stages: Low (LGS), Mid (MGS) and High (HGS) to span bright daytime to moonlit night earth scene signal levels. The published at-launch DNB relative spectral response (RSR) is based upon the LGS spectral measurements, since it was well measured in the pre-launch test program and the LGS can be calibrated by the on-board solar diffuser (MGS and HGS saturate on the SD). The LGS RSR however does not fully represent the spectral characteristics of nighttime DNB data from the MGS and HGS. Nighttime data users who apply the detailed DNB spectral characteristics in their analyses should use modulated RSR appropriate to the MGS and HGS observations. The RSR modulation is due to spectral darkening of the 4 mirrors of the S-NPP VIIRS telescope, which were contaminated with tungsten oxides in fabrication. These tungsten oxides are 'in family' with transition lenses on eyeglasses that darken when exposed to sunlight but do not recover when VIIRS goes into darkness because VIIRS in space is in a vacuum (transition lenses require atmospheric oxygen to recover). The on-going mirror darkening has caused a time-dependent shift in DNB RSR towards blue wavelengths. This presentation will provide access to the correct RSR to use for S-NPP DNB nighttime data over the mission time on-orbit. The changes in characteristics will be described in engineering terms to facilitate clear user understanding of how to handle RSR for nighttime observations over the mission lifetime.

  15. Validation and expected error estimation of Suomi-NPP VIIRS aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent with AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Zhang, Hai; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu; Holben, Brent N.; Petrenko, Maksym

    2016-06-01

    The new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, provides critical daily global aerosol observations. As older satellite sensors age out, the VIIRS aerosol product will become the primary observational source for global assessments of aerosol emission and transport, aerosol meteorological and climatic effects, air quality monitoring, and public health. To prove their validity and to assess their maturity level, the VIIRS aerosol products were compared to the spatiotemporally matched Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Over land, the VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record (EDR) exhibits an overall global bias against AERONET of -0.0008 with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the biases as 0.12. Over ocean, the mean bias of VIIRS AOT EDR is 0.02 with RMSE of the biases as 0.06. The mean bias of VIIRS Ocean Ångström Exponent (AE) EDR is 0.12 with RMSE of the biases as 0.57. The matchups between each product and its AERONET counterpart allow estimates of expected error in each case. Increased uncertainty in the VIIRS AOT and AE products is linked to specific regions, seasons, surface characteristics, and aerosol types, suggesting opportunity for future modifications as understanding of algorithm assumptions improves. Based on the assessment, the VIIRS AOT EDR over land reached Validated maturity beginning 23 January 2013; the AOT EDR and AE EDR over ocean reached Validated maturity beginning 2 May 2012, excluding the processing error period 15 October to 27 November 2012. These findings demonstrate the integrity and usefulness of the VIIRS aerosol products that will transition from S-NPP to future polar-orbiting environmental satellites in the decades to come and become the standard global aerosol data set as the previous generations' missions come to an end.

  16. Suomi NPP/JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS): Calibration Validation With The Aircraft Based Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Tobin, D.; Knuteson, R. O.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. A.; Pettersen, C.; Garcia, R. K.; Gero, P.

    2013-12-01

    To better accommodate climate change monitoring and improved weather forecasting, there is an established need for higher accuracy and more refined error characterization of radiance measurements from space and the corresponding geophysical products. This need has led to emphasizing direct tests of on-orbit performance, referred to as validation. Currently, validation typically involves (1) collecting high quality reference data from airborne and/or ground-based instruments during the satellite overpass, and (2) a detailed comparison between the satellite-based radiance measurements and the corresponding high quality reference data. Additionally, for future missions technology advancements at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) have led to the development of an on-orbit absolute radiance reference utilizing miniature phase change cells to provide direct on-orbit traceability to International Standards (SI). The detailed comparison between the satellite-based radiance measurements and the corresponding measurements made from a high-altitude aircraft must account for instrument noise and scene variations, as well as differences in instrument observation altitudes, view angles, spatial footprints, and spectral response. Most importantly, for the calibration validation process to be both accurate and repeatable the reference data instrument must be extremely well characterized and understood, carefully maintained, and accurately calibrated, with traceability to absolute standards. The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) meets and exceeds these requirements and has proven to do so on multiple airborne platforms, each with significantly different instrument operating environments. The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi NPP, launched 28 October 2011, is designed to give scientists more refined information about Earth's atmosphere and improve weather forecasts and our understanding of climate. CrIS is an

  17. Climate-related large-scale variation in forest carbon turnover rate - Evaluating global vegetation models using remote sensing products of biomass and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Forkel, Matthias; Friend, Andrew; Ito, Akihiko; Kleidon, Axel; Lomas, Mark; Quegan, Shaun; Tito Rademacher, Tim; Santoro, Maurizio; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmullius, Christiane; Tum, Markus; Wiltshire, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation carbon turnover, in terms of its spatial variation and its response to climate change, is one of the most important, but also most uncertain carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Its measurement is hardly possible by inventory studies alone, due to several reasons: First, vegetation carbon turnover involves a variety of processes, including litterfall, background mortality, and mortality by all kinds of disturbances, affecting single biomass compartments, individual trees or even whole ecosystems. Second, these processes act on very different timescales, involving short-term extreme events and long-term responses, and spatial scales, from local extremes to global impacts. In order to capture this variety of processes, spatial scales and timescales, here we estimate forest carbon turnover rate from novel remote sensing products of NPP and biomass. These products allow investigating the spatial variation in long-term mean turnover rate at 0.5° resolution across northern boreal and temperate forest ecosystems and its relation to climate variables. We observe an increase in turnover rate with colder and longer winters in boreal forests, whereas in temperate forests the spatial gradients in turnover rate are related to the length of both warm and dry periods. Thus, we hypothesize that the spatial variation in turnover rate can be explained by direct and indirect frost damage effects on mortality in boreal forests but drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. An evaluation of a set of global vegetation models (GVMs) participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, VISIT) shows that those models are able to reproduce the observation-based spatial relationships only to a limited extent. Deviations from the observation-based turnover rates can be mostly attributed to severe overestimations of biomass, however also important differences in the simulated spatial

  18. Climate-related Large-scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate - Evaluating Global Vegetation Models Using Remote Sensing Products of Biomass and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, P.; Forkel, M.; Friend, A. D.; Ito, A.; Kleidon, A.; Lomas, M.; Quegan, S.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Schaphoff, S.; Schmullius, C.; Tum, M.; Wiltshire, A.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation carbon turnover, in terms of its spatial variation and its response to climate change, is one of the most important, but also most uncertain carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Its measurement is hardly possible by inventory studies alone, due to several reasons: First, vegetation carbon turnover involves a variety of processes, including litterfall, background mortality, and mortality by all kinds of disturbances, affecting single biomass compartments, individual trees or even whole ecosystems. Second, these processes act on very different timescales, involving short-term extreme events and long-term responses, and spatial scales, from local extremes to global impacts. In order to capture this variety of processes, spatial scales and timescales, here we estimate forest carbon turnover rate from novel remote sensing products of NPP and biomass. These products allow investigating the spatial variation in long-term mean turnover rate at 0.5° resolution across northern boreal and temperate forest ecosystems and its relation to climate variables. We observe an increase in turnover rate with colder and longer winters in boreal forests, whereas in temperate forests the spatial gradients in turnover rate are related to the length of both warm and dry periods. Thus, we hypothesize that the spatial variation in turnover rate can be explained by direct and indirect frost damage effects on mortality in boreal forests but drought and insect outbreaks in temperate forests. An evaluation of a set of global vegetation models (GVMs) participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, VISIT) shows that those models are able to reproduce the observed spatial relationships only to a limited extent. Deviations from the observation-based turnover rates can be mostly attributed to severe overestimations of biomass, however also important differences in the simulated spatial patterns

  19. 77 FR 20641 - Jose Concepcion: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... products, including products for cardiac and psychiatric conditions and prescription pain relievers. Mr... inaccurate data and records to obtain FDA approval to market new product lines. In furtherance of...

  20. Job Ad for San Jose Mercury News

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, L

    2006-07-27

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is recruiting Computer Scientists in the areas of: control systems, computer and information security, database applications development, scientific modeling and simulation, software engineering, and computer and network system administration.

  1. Recalculation with SEACAB of the activation by spent fuel neutrons and residual dose originated in the racks replaced at Cofrentes NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortego, Pedro; Rodriguez, Alain; Töre, Candan; Compadre, José Luis de Diego; Quesada, Baltasar Rodriguez; Moreno, Raul Orive

    2017-09-01

    In order to increase the storage capacity of the East Spent Fuel Pool at the Cofrentes NPP, located in Valencia province, Spain, the existing storage stainless steel racks were replaced by a new design of compact borated stainless steel racks allowing a 65% increase in fuel storing capacity. Calculation of the activation of the used racks was successfully performed with the use of MCNP4B code. Additionally the dose rate at contact with a row of racks in standing position and behind a wall of shielding material has been calculated using MCNP4B code as well. These results allowed a preliminary definition of the burnker required for the storage of racks. Recently the activity in the racks has been recalculated with SEACAB system which combines the mesh tally of MCNP codes with the activation code ACAB, applying the rigorous two-step method (R2S) developed at home, benchmarked with FNG irradiation experiments and usually applied in fusion calculations for ITER project.

  2. Internal radiocesium contamination of adults and children in Fukushima 7 to 20 months after the Fukushima NPP accident as measured by extensive whole-body-counter surveys

    PubMed Central

    HAYANO, Ryugo S.; TSUBOKURA, Masaharu; MIYAZAKI, Makoto; SATOU, Hideo; SATO, Katsumi; MASAKI, Shin; SAKUMA, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident contaminated the soil of densely-populated regions in Fukushima Prefecture with radioactive cesium, which poses significant risks of internal and external exposure to the residents. If we apply the knowledge of post-Chernobyl accident studies, internal exposures in excess of a few mSv/y would be expected to be frequent in Fukushima. Extensive whole-body-counter surveys (n = 32,811) carried out at the Hirata Central Hospital between October, 2011 and November, 2012, however show that the internal exposure levels of residents are much lower than estimated. In particular, the first sampling-bias-free assessment of the internal exposure of children in the town of Miharu, Fukushima, shows that the 137Cs body burdens of all children (n = 1,383, ages 6–15, covering 95% of children enrolled in town-operated schools) were below the detection limit of 300 Bq/body in the fall of 2012. These results are not conclusive for the prefecture as a whole, but are consistent with results obtained from other municipalities in the prefecture, and with prefectural data. PMID:23574806

  3. [Participation of the lipid peroxidation processes in the adaptation mechanism of Muridae like rodents to the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Shishkina, L N; Kudiasheva, A G; Zagorskaia, N G; Shevchenko, O G; Taskaev, A I

    2011-01-01

    Results of the comparative analysis of the complex investigation of rodent population state caught at areas with different levels of contamination in the accident zone of the Chernobyl NPP during 1986-1993 and 2007, at areas with a practically normal radiation background in the neighborhood of the Kiev City in 1993 and at areas with the normal and increased radiation background in Ukhta region of Komi Republic in 1993-2008 are presented. It is shown that the absence of the linear dependence in changes of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) regulatory system parameters in rodent tissues on the dose of the external gamma-radiation at areas of their trap persists for a long time. Different ability to normalization of the studied indices and nonlinearity of their dose dependences allow us to suggest that changes of the scale and direction of interrelations between the reciprocal parameters of the LPO regulatory system in norm in tissues of rodents which were caught in the accident zone and at areas with an increased radiation background should be the information signal determining selection of the strategy of adaptation to the chronic radiation factor action.

  4. Independent Qualification of the CIAU Tool Based on the Uncertainty Estimate in the Prediction of Angra 1 NPP Inadvertent Load Rejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Ronaldo C.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.

    2002-07-01

    The Code with - the capability of - Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU) is a tool proposed by the 'Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP)' of the University of Pisa. Other Institutions including the nuclear regulatory body from Brazil, 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear', contributed to the development of the tool. The CIAU aims at providing the currently available Relap5/Mod3.2 system code with the integrated capability of performing not only relevant transient calculations but also the related estimates of uncertainty bands. The Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) is used to characterize the uncertainty in the prediction of system code calculations for light water reactors and is internally coupled with the above system code. Following an overview of the CIAU development, the present paper deals with the independent qualification of the tool. The qualification test is performed by estimating the uncertainty bands that should envelope the prediction of the Angra 1 NPP transient RES-11. 99 originated by an inadvertent complete load rejection that caused the reactor scram when the unit was operating at 99% of nominal power. The current limitation of the 'error' database, implemented into the CIAU prevented a final demonstration of the qualification. However, all the steps for the qualification process are demonstrated. (authors)

  5. Experience gained from carrying out ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies and control and protection system assemblies in the Novovoronezh NPP unit 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Shvarov, V. A.; Vitkovskii, S. L.

    2014-02-01

    A growth of deposits on fuel assembly elements was revealed during operation of the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 3 starting from 1997. This growth caused progressive reduction of coolant flow rate through the reactor core and increase of pressure difference across the assemblies, which eventually led to the need to reduce the power unit output and then to shut down the power unit. In view of these circumstances, it was decided to develop an installation for ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies. The following conclusions were drawn with regard of this installation after completion of all stages of its development, commissioning, and improvement: no detrimental effect of ultrasound on the integrity of fuel assemblies was revealed, whereas the cleaning effect on the fuel assemblies subjected to ultrasonic treatment and improvement of their thermal-hydraulic characteristics are obvious. With these measures implemented, it became possible to clean all fuel assemblies in the core in 2011, to achieve better thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and to avoid reduction of power output and off-scheduled outages of Unit 3.

  6. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EURADOS SURVEY ON INDIVIDUAL MONITORING DATA AND INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENTS OF FOREIGNERS EXPOSED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Fojtik, P; Franck, D; Osko, J; Gerstmann, U; Scholl, C; Lebacq, A L; Breustedt, B; Del Risco Norrlid, L

    2016-09-01

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V. (EURADOS) survey on individual monitoring data and dose assessment has been carried out for 550 foreigners returning home after being exposed in Japan to intakes of radionuclides (mainly (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) as a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In vivo and in vitro measurements were performed in their respective countries at an early stage after that accident. Intakes of radionuclides were detected in 208 persons from Europe and Canada, but the committed effective dose E(50) was below the annual dose limit for the public (<1 mSv) in all the cases. Lessons learned from this EURADOS survey are presented here regarding not only internal dosimetry issues, but also the management of the emergency situation, the perception of the risk of health effects due to radiation and the communication with exposed persons who showed anxiety and lack of trust in monitoring data and dose assessments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of containment peak pressure and structural response for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a VVER-440/213 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Kulak, R.F.; Pfeiffer, P.A.; Voeroess, L.; Techy, Z.; Katona, T.

    1998-07-01

    A collaborative effort between US and Hungarian specialists was undertaken to investigate the response of a VVER-440/213-type NPP to a maximum design-basis accident, defined as a guillotine rupture with double-ended flow from the largest pipe (500 mm) in the reactor coolant system. Analyses were performed to evaluate the magnitude of the peak containment pressure and temperature for this event; additional analyses were performed to evaluate the ultimate strength capability of the containment. Separate cases were evaluated assuming 100% effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser pressure suppression system as well as zero effectiveness. The pipe break energy release conditions were evaluated from three sources: (1) FSAR release rate based on Soviet safety calculations, (2) RETRAN-03 analysis and (3) ATHLET analysis. The findings indicated that for 100% bubbler-condenser effectiveness the peak containment pressures were less than the containment design pressure of 0.25 MPa. For the BDBA case of zero effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser system, the peak pressures were less than the calculated containment failure pressure of 0.40 MPa absolute.

  8. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word 'blind' is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report. It is important to

  9. Cloud-based opportunities in scientific computing: insights from processing Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Direct Broadcast data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2013-12-01

    The cloud is proving to be a uniquely promising platform for scientific computing. Our experience with processing satellite data using Amazon Web Services highlights several opportunities for enhanced performance, flexibility, and cost effectiveness in the cloud relative to traditional computing -- for example: - Direct readout from a polar-orbiting satellite such as the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) requires bursts of processing a few times a day, separated by quiet periods when the satellite is out of receiving range. In the cloud, by starting and stopping virtual machines in minutes, we can marshal significant computing resources quickly when needed, but not pay for them when not needed. To take advantage of this capability, we are automating a data-driven approach to the management of cloud computing resources, in which new data availability triggers the creation of new virtual machines (of variable size and processing power) which last only until the processing workflow is complete. - 'Spot instances' are virtual machines that run as long as one's asking price is higher than the provider's variable spot price. Spot instances can greatly reduce the cost of computing -- for software systems that are engineered to withstand unpredictable interruptions in service (as occurs when a spot price exceeds the asking price). We are implementing an approach to workflow management that allows data processing workflows to resume with minimal delays after temporary spot price spikes. This will allow systems to take full advantage of variably-priced 'utility computing.' - Thanks to virtual machine images, we can easily launch multiple, identical machines differentiated only by 'user data' containing individualized instructions (e.g., to fetch particular datasets or to perform certain workflows or algorithms) This is particularly useful when (as is the case with S-NPP data) we need to launch many very similar machines to process an unpredictable number of

  10. The MUlti-SpEctral, MUlti-SpEcies, MUlti-SEnsors (MUSES) Retrievals from the EOS to the Suomi-NPP Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Kulawik, S.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Miyazaki, K.; Neu, J. L.; Luo, M.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Strow, L. L.; Liu, X.; Yu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing the vertical distribution of O3 concentrations is thus crucial for studies of air quality, its effects on human health and vegetation, and the natural and anthropogenic contributions to ozone regional climate forcing. Carbon monoxide is a chemical precursor of greenhouse gases CO2 and tropospheric O3, and is also an ideal tracer of transport processes due to its medium life time (weeks to months). The Aqua-AIRS and Aura-OMI instruments in the "A-Train", CrIS and OMPS instruments on the Suomi-NPP, and TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5 precursor have the potential to provide the synoptic chemical/dynamical context for O3 necessary to quantify long-range transport at global scales and to provide an anchor to the near-term constellation of geostationary sounders: NASA TEMPO, ESA Sentinel 4, and the Korean GEMS. We introduce the MUSES retrieval algorithm, which ingests panspectral observations across multiple platforms in a non-linear optimal estimation framework. MUSES incorporates advances in remote sensing science developed during the EOS era including rigorous error analysis diagnostics and observation operators needed for trend analysis, climate model evaluation, and data assimilation. We present joint tropospheric O3 retrievals from AIRS/OMI and CrIS/OMPS for the KORUS-AQ campaign period. We also demonstrate the potential of joint carbon monoxide profiles from CrIS/ TROPOMI. These results indicate that ozone can be retrieved with 2 degrees of freedom for signal (dofs) in the troposphere, which is similar to TES. Joint CO profiles have dofs similar to the MOPITT multispectral retrieval but with higher spatial resolution and coverage. Consequently, multispectral retrievals show promise in providing continuity with EOS observations and pave the way towards a new advanced atmospheric composition constellation.

  11. The NPP and J1 NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) for atmospheric thermal sounding: recent algorithm enhancements tailored to near real time users applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C. D.; Smith, N.; Pierce, R. B.; Smith, J. W.; Spackman, J. R.; Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    NUCAPS is the NOAA operational algorithm to retrieve thermodynamic variables from hyper spectral thermal sounders such as CrIS on NPP and J1, IASI on MetOp and AIRS on Aqua, in conjunction with microwave sounders, such as ATMS, AMSU and MHS. NUCAPS builds on a long-term, multi-agency investment on algorithm research and development. The uniqueness of this algorithm consists in a number of features that are key in providing highly accurate and stable atmospheric retrievals, suitable for both real time weather and long-term climate applications. NUCAPS is an all-weather, full column and high vertical resolution system compatible with multiple hyper spectral sounders. This design was intended to enable multiple, global yet consistent daily measurements of the full atmospheric state and plays a critical role in filling in for the NWS in-situ measurement gaps, particularly during the early afternoon pre-convective and fast developing regimes. We are now developing the capability to run a Lagrangian transport model that can collocate NUCAPS thermodynamic fields to surface wind fields and propagate NUCAPS moist and dry layers in time and space. This is key to enhance a forecaster's predictive knowledge of what sources are at play in the evolution or suppression of convective or fire events. NUCAPS has proven robust in capturing extreme and high impact weather events during previously held JPSS PGRR initiatives, such as the 2015 CalWater, the 2016 Hazardous Test bed Spring Experiment, SENEX, SONGNEX and the 2016 El Nino Rapid Response campaign. Results from these initiatives will be presented at the meeting.

  12. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band and M bands performance using ground reference targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  13. Modeling the effect of 1 MeV electron irradiation on the performance of n+-p-p+ silicon space solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamache, Abdelghani; Sengouga, Nouredine; Meftah, Afak; Henini, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Energetic particles such as electrons and protons induce severe degradation on the performance of solar cells used to power satellites and space vehicles. This degradation is usually attributed to lattice damage in the active region of the solar cell. One of the phenomena observed in silicon solar cells exposed to 1 MeV electron irradiation is the anomalous degradation of the short circuit current. It initially decreases followed by a recovery before falling again with increasing electron fluence. This behavior is usually attributed to type conversion of the solar cell active region. The other figures of merit, on the other hand, decrease monotonically. In this work numerical simulator SCAPS (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator) is used to elucidate this phenomenon. The current-voltage characteristics of a Si n+-p-p+ structure are calculated under air mass zero spectrum with the fluence of 1 MeV electrons as a variable parameter. The effect of irradiation on the solar cell is simulated by a set of defects of which the energy levels lie deep in energy gap of silicon (much larger than the characteristic thermal energy kT far from either the conduction or valence band). Although several types of deep levels are induced by irradiation including deep donors (exchange electrons mainly with the conduction band), deep acceptors (exchange electrons mainly with the valence band) and/or generation-recombination centers (exchange electrons with both the conduction and valence bands), it was found that, only one of them (the shallowest donor) is responsible for the anomalous degradation of the short circuit current. It will be also shown, by calculating the free charge carrier profile in the active region, that this behavior is not related to type conversion but to a lateral widening of the space charge region.

  14. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  15. Optimized planning of in-service inspections of local flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based units at the Novovoronezh NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Budanov, V. A.; Golubeva, T. N.

    2015-03-01

    Matters concerned with making efficient use of the information-analytical system on the flow-accelerated corrosion problem in setting up in-service examination of the metal of pipeline elements operating in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered. The principles used to select samples of pipeline elements in planning ultrasonic thickness measurements for timely revealing metal thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion along with reducing the total amount of measurements in the condensate-feedwater path are discussed.

  16. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  17. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Perdue, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  18. Using NPP-Suomi VIIRS I-band data to delineate high- and low-intensity burn areas for forest fires in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waigl, C. F.; Prakash, A.; Stuefer, M.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present and evaluate an algorithm that generates near real-time fire detections suitable for use by fire and related hazard management agencies in Alaska. Our scheme offers benefits over available global products and is sensitive to low-intensity residual burns while at the same time avoiding common sources of false detections as they are observed in the Alaskan boreal forest, such as refective river banks and old fire scars. The algorithm is based on I-band brightness temperature data form the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NOAA's NPP Suomi spacecraft. Using datasets covering the entire 2015 Alaska fire season, we first evaluate the performance of two global fire products: MOD14/MYD14, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the more recent global VIIRS I-band product. A comparison with the fire perimeter and properties data published by the Alaska Interagency Coordination Center (AICC) shows that both MODIS and VIIRS fire products successfully detect all fires larger than approx. 1000 hectares, with the VIIRS I-band product only moderately outperforming MOD14/MYD14. For smaller fires, the VIIRS I-band product offers higher detection likelihood, but still misses one fifth of the fire events overall. Furthermore, some daytime detections are missing, possibly due to processing difficulties or incomplete data transfer. Second, as an alternative, we present a simple algorithm that uses the normalized difference between the 3.74µm and 11.45 µm VIIRS-I band at-sensor brightness temperatures to map both low- and high-intensity burn areas. Such an approach has the advantage that it makes use of data that is available via the direct readout station operated by Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA). We apply this scheme to known Alaskan boreal forest fires and validate it using GIS data produced by fire management agencies, fire detections from near simultanous Landsat

  19. An Emerging ESDR: Multi-Platform Hyperspectral Infrared Radiances fromEOS-AIRS, S-NPP/JPSS CrIS, and METOP IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strow, L. L.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Motteler, H.; Hepplewhite, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Space-based measurements of high-spectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances of the earth began in Sept. 2002 with the NASA EOS-AQUA AIRS instrument. The CrIS instrument on NASA's Suomi-NPP platform supplements this record in the 1:30 polar orbit, starting in 2012, and may continue for 15 years under the NOAA/NASA JPSS Program. The first of three IASI hyperspectral sounders on EUMETSAT's METOP platforms (9:30 orbit) started operation in July 2007, followed by the 2nd IASI on METOP-2 in early 2013. Development of a follow-on instrument (IASI-NG) for post METOP-3 is well underway. These instruments are sensitive to the atmospheric temperature and humidity profile, surface temperature and emissivity, and minor gases (CO2, O3, CO, CH4, N2O, CFCs, HNO3, etc.) They also have high sensitivity to clouds, especially long-wave cloud radiative forcing. The National Research Council has recommended the development of a hyperspectral IR radiance climate data set as a climate benchmark. We present here evidence that supports the use of the existing hyperspectral sounders for generation of these ESDRs and eventually CDRs. The large spatial and temporal overlap between these sensors has provided a rich data-set for inter-calibration studies that are used to characterize the accuracy of a combined ESDR radiance product. We will discuss the stability of each instrument, and inter-calibration differences (with error estimates). In addition, we have developed robust, non-statistical approaches for converting the AIRS spectral radiances into equivalent CrIS radiances, a key step in development of a long-term consistent radiance record. Finally, several examples of robust decadal changes in the earth's atmosphere using AIRS will be discussed and compared to ERA and MERRA re-analysis products (temperature, water vapor, cloud forcing). Finally, we will review the challenges involved in creating an ESDR from 3 different instruments and institutions/countries.

  20. Ammonia Measurements by the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the NPP Suomi Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Zhu, J.; Pinder, R. W.; Bash, J. O.; Walker, J. T.; Luo, M.

    2013-12-01

    models of the ammonia bi-directional exchange at the surface and we will show some preliminary ammonia retrievals from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) currently flying on the NASA NPP Suomi satellite.

  1. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  2. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  3. International MODIS and AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) Implementation of Infusion of Satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International (IDEA-I) for Air Quality Forecasts using Suomi-NPP, Terra and Aqua Aerosol Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. E.; Strabala, K.; Pierce, R. B.; Huang, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fine mode aerosols play a significant role in public health through their impact on respiratory and cardiovascular disease. IDEA-I (Infusion of Satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International) is a real-time system for trajectory-based forecasts of aerosol dispersion that can assist in the prediction of poor air quality events. We released a direct broadcast version of IDEA-I for aerosol trajectory forecasts in June 2012 under the International MODIS and AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP). In January 2014 we updated this application with website software to display multi-satellite products. Now we have added VIIRS aerosols from Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). IMAPP is a NASA-funded and freely-distributed software package developed at Space Science and Engineering Center of University of Wisconsin-Madison that has over 2,300 registered users worldwide. With IMAPP, any ground station capable of receiving direct broadcast from Terra or Aqua can produce calibrated and geolocated radiances and a suite of environmental products. These products include MODIS AOD required for IDEA-I. VIIRS AOD for IDEA-I can be generated by Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) VIIRS EDR Version 2.0 Software for Suomi NPP. CSPP is also developed and distributed by Space Science & Engineering Center. This presentation describes our updated IMAPP implementation of IDEA-I through an example of its operation in a region known for episodic poor air quality events.

  4. Full Spectral Resolution Data Generation from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on S-NPP at NOAA and its Use to Investigate Uncertainty in Methane Absorption Band Near 7.66 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sasakawa, M.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Tremblay, D.; Jin, X.; Zhou, L.; Liu, Q.; Weng, F.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (S-NPP) is a Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding. CrIS on S-NPP started to provide measurements in 1305 channels in its normal mode since its launch on November 2011 to December 4, 2014, and after that it was switched to the full spectral resolution (FSR) mode, in which the spectral resolutions are 0.625 cm-1 in all the MWIR (1210-1750 cm-1), SWIR (2155-2550 cm-1) and the LWIR bands (650-1095 cm-1) with a total of 2211 channels. While the NOAA operational Sensor Data Record (SDR) processing (IDPS) continues to produce the normal resolution SDRs by truncating full spectrum RDR data, NOAA STAR started to process the FSR SDRs data since December 4, 2014 to present, and the data is being delivered through NOAA STAR website (ftp://ftp2.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/xxiong/). The current FSR processing algorithm was developed on basis of the CrIS Algorithm Development Library (ADL), and is the baseline of J-1 CrIS SDR algorithm. One major benefit to use the FSR data is to improve the retrieval of atmospheric trace gases, such as CH4, CO and CO2 . From our previous studies to retrieve CH4 using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), it was found the uncertainty in the CH4 absorption band is up to 1-2%. So, in this study we computed the radiance using the community radiative transfer model (CRTM) and line-by-line model, with the inputs of "truth" of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from ECMWF model (and/or RAOB sounding) and CH4 profiles from in-situ aircraft measurements, then convoluted with the response function of CrIS. The difference between the simultaed radiance and the collocated CrIS FSR data is used to exam the uncertainty in these strong absorption channels.Through the improved fitting to the transmittance in these channels, it is expected to improve the retrieval of CH4 using CrIS on S-NPP

  5. Neuro-Physiological Psychotherapy (NPP): The development and application of an integrative, wrap-around service and treatment programme for maltreated children placed in adoptive and foster care placements.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jay; McCullough, Elaine; Burnell, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the development and application of a wrap-around, multidisciplinary, brain-based, developmental and attachment-focussed intervention for children who have experienced significant trauma in the context of their early life. It outlines the presentation of the children and families who are referred to the service and the model of treatment that they receive. In doing so, it identifies the core components underpinning Neuro-Physiological Psychotherapy (NPP) and links the application of the integrative model to research and practice in the field of neuroscience and attachment and to the use of therapeutic approaches that are beneficial to maltreated children and their adoptive parents. It highlights the need for a neuro-sequential approach that impacts all aspects of the child's life in the effort to redress the impact of developmental trauma with the aim of improving their overall functioning and their ability to develop healthy relationships into the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  7. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  8. Radioecologycal study of 239/240Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of 239/240Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-01

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on 239/240Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope 239/240Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration 239/240Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg-1 and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg-1 respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m-3 and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m-3.

  9. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years after Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    This overview is devoted to some unresolved basic problems in crystal growth kinetics. The density wave approach to propagation of a spatially diffuse interface between a growing crystal and its simple (e.g., metallic) melt is discussed is Section 2. This approach allows for the calculation of kinetic coefficients and is an alternative to the localized interface concept in which each atom belongs to either a solid or a liquid. Sections 3 and 4 deals mainly with layer growth from solution. Mutual retardation of the growth steps via their bulk and d a c e diffusion fields is the major subject. The influence of solution flow on step bunching (Section 4) suggests the essential influence of bulk diffusion on the surface morphology. The flow within the solution boundary layer enhances step-step interaction, influences the step bunching process and the resulting step pattern morphology on the growing surface. Recent experiments on the rates at which strongly polygonized steps on protein and small molecule crystals propagate during growth from solution are analyzed in Section 5 . We have shown that the step segments may be "singular" and that "one-dimensional nucleation" may be the rate limiting stage for the segments that are shorter or comparable in length to the thermodynamically equilibrium interlink distance. In this case, the reciprocal dependence of the segment propagation rate on the segment length that follow from the Gibbs-Thompson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch from zero to a finite constant velocity. Until recently, the Kossel crystal remained the only model used in crystal growth theory. In such Kossel Gibbs-Thomson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch &om zero to a finite constant velocity. crystals, all kinks at the steps are identical and the kink rate is a linear function of the supersaturation. In the non-Kossel crystals, there may be several kink configurations characterized by different geometries and energies. These configurations should appear in a specific sequence when each new lattice unit cell is filled. As a result of such a cooperative interaction within the unit cell, a non-linear dependence of the kink rate on the vapor pressure or solution concentration in excess over the equilibrium value should be expected.

  10. Distribution of the Grey Slender Loris (Loris lyddekerianus Cabrera, 1908) in Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Kumara, Honnavalli N; Sasi, R; Chandran, Subash; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    The grey slender loris Loris lydekkerianus, one of only two nocturnal primates of India, is found in the southern part of the country. Our understanding of its geographical distribution is largely based on historical records and short surveys, and little is known of its occurrence in southern India today. We sought to establish the relative abundance of this species in 26 districts in the state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Pondicherry in southern India. We sighted lorises in 19 districts, and their relative abundance ranged from 0.01 to 2.21/km. The south-central districts of Tamil Nadu showed the highest densities of lorises, while the western districts showed the lowest. Based on these results, we recommend increased protection measures for the forest patches of the Eastern Ghats mountains in order to ensure the long-term survival of the grey slender loris.

  11. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years After Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of basic problems of crystal growth kinetics controlled by processes on the crystal interface with solution and melt. Included, also, are results on fundamental issues concerning morphological stability of crystal-solution interface that engage both interface kinetics and mass transport by diffusion and convection.

  12. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years after Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    This overview is devoted to some unresolved basic problems in crystal growth kinetics. The density wave approach to propagation of a spatially diffuse interface between a growing crystal and its simple (e.g., metallic) melt is discussed is Section 2. This approach allows for the calculation of kinetic coefficients and is an alternative to the localized interface concept in which each atom belongs to either a solid or a liquid. Sections 3 and 4 deals mainly with layer growth from solution. Mutual retardation of the growth steps via their bulk and d a c e diffusion fields is the major subject. The influence of solution flow on step bunching (Section 4) suggests the essential influence of bulk diffusion on the surface morphology. The flow within the solution boundary layer enhances step-step interaction, influences the step bunching process and the resulting step pattern morphology on the growing surface. Recent experiments on the rates at which strongly polygonized steps on protein and small molecule crystals propagate during growth from solution are analyzed in Section 5 . We have shown that the step segments may be "singular" and that "one-dimensional nucleation" may be the rate limiting stage for the segments that are shorter or comparable in length to the thermodynamically equilibrium interlink distance. In this case, the reciprocal dependence of the segment propagation rate on the segment length that follow from the Gibbs-Thompson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch from zero to a finite constant velocity. Until recently, the Kossel crystal remained the only model used in crystal growth theory. In such Kossel Gibbs-Thomson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch &om zero to a finite constant velocity. crystals, all kinks at the steps are identical and the kink rate is a linear function of the supersaturation. In the non-Kossel crystals, there may be several kink configurations characterized by different geometries and energies. These configurations should appear in a specific sequence when each new lattice unit cell is filled. As a result of such a cooperative interaction within the unit cell, a non-linear dependence of the kink rate on the vapor pressure or solution concentration in excess over the equilibrium value should be expected.

  13. Maya medicinal plants of San Jose Succotz, Belize.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Uck, F; Lambert, J; Hebda, R

    1980-12-01

    The traditional use of plants for medicine was studied in the Maya village of San José Succotz, Belize. Sixty-four species were collected and 106 remedies are described. The ethnobotany of Succotz is discussed in relation to traditional concepts of medicine, ritual and magic in treatment of illnesses, and biochemically active constituents of the plants. Use of plants in Belize and the Yucatan is compared.

  14. Educational Reform in New Mexico: Tireman, San Jose, and Nambe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachelor, David L.

    In the 1930s Loyd Tireman organized two successful New Mexico experiments in progressive and bicultural education that anticipated contemporary trends. Resisting the nativist and assimilationist sentiments of the time, Tireman saw the necessity of tailoring education to the child rather than fitting the child into a standardized curriculum. His…

  15. Jose de Acosta (1539”1600): A pioneer of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    One of the first books written about the American continent was by Father José de Acosta. Entitled Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias (i.e., Natural and Moral History of the Indias), it was published in Seville, Spain, in 1590 (Figure 1). The rapid printing of four editions in Spain in less than 20 yr and the translation of the book into French, Italian, German, Dutch, and Latin less than 15 yr after the first Spanish edition are signs of the rapid popularity that was achieved by this book in Europe.José de Acosta was born in 1539 in Medina del Campo, Spain. He joined the Jesuit Order in 1553 and travelled to America in 1572. He remained there for 15 yr, travelling frequently and visiting the territories that today belong to Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Mexico. During his journeys, he took note of his observations of natural phenomena, many of them related to the geophysical sciences, such as the aspect of the skies, distribution of temperature, rain, and winds, volcanic activity, earthquakes, and a variety of new minerals, plants, and animals, as well as on the social behavior of the inhabitants of those lands.

  16. Project R-3 (San Jose, California): Analysis and Selection Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Project R-3 is a motivational program designed to upgrade essential reading and math skills of junior high school students. It emphasizes student readiness, subject relevance, and learning reinforcement (R-3) in a laboratory environment. All incoming seventh graders are involved in the project and remain with it for three years. A teaching team of…

  17. Interview with Dr. Hugo Partsch (by Jose Antonio Olivencia).

    PubMed

    Partsch, Hugo

    2002-03-01

    Is it necessary to write an introduction for a man whose name is familiar to every phlebologist and angiologist, and who is currently the President of the International Union of Phlebology? (Figure 1) The list of Professor Hugo Partsch's publications (more than 360) and his memberships in scientific committees and advisory boards would fill several pages. In the early 1970s I was reading, with great interest, his articles in "VASA," and several of them have become part of my basic medical knowledge. In all these years, the flow of numerous publications has not diminished, now covering the entire spectrum of angiology. Just by looking to his enormous scientific production, the average reader would probably picture the author as a "typical textbook scientist" caught in a strange world consisting of vessels, either too wide or too narrow. Anyone who has met Hugo Partsch will agree that the contrary is true. It must be assumed that most readers have already seen him as a regular guest speaker at international meetings. It is still a mystery to me how he finds time for all his scientific work, at the same time overseeing the University Clinic in Vienna and traveling from one Congress to the next. Readers will know him as a highly respected scientist, as a fair and diplomatic discussant that speaks several languages, and last but not least, an untiring skier and dancer. Hugo Partsch has helped to bring European Angiology to the United States, and using his broad knowledge and Viennese charm, to merge the diverse studies and interests of phlebology, angiology, lymphology and dermatology.He was born in Vienna in 1938 where he completed all of his studies. He graduated in 1962 and served three years as a resident in southern Austria. In 1965 he continued his residency at the Wilhelmine Spital; at this hospital he would become the head of the dermatological department in 1987. Starting his training in dermatology in 1966, he became a senior registrar in 1970. He acquired the Venia Legendi in 1978 and received the title of Professor of Dermatology at the University of Vienna in 1985. He is the father of three children and has four grandchildren. One could simply define Hugo Partsch as Professor of Dermatology in Vienna. But he is the only dermatologist, to my knowledge, having done so much in the fields of thrombosis, lymphology, peripheral neuropathies, phlebology and angiology in general.

  18. [The contribution of Jose Juan Bruner to Chilean psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Santander, Jaime; Santander, Pablo; Berner, Juan Enrique

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of Dr. Bruner to psychology and psychiatry is largely unknown. This is a summary of the ideas proposed in his "Medical-Psychological Monograph" from 1857, that was written after a case of a possibly possessed woman from Santiago. In this work Dr. Bruner discards the spirit-brain duality, proposes a functional morphology of the brain, recognizes the importance of remote history taking when interviewing patients, proposes a theory for self-formation and the risks of self-fragmentation. He proposes that the case of the woman corresponds to a brain disease, opposing the thought of an ovarian and uterine origin. He proposes a hypothesis of the psychogenic origin of the disease, the importance of what happened during dreams and beyond the conscience of the patient. Many of his ideas preceded by decades those of Charcot and Freud, but they have not had a proper recognition.

  19. The JOSE atmospheric seeing monitor at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, D.; Cox, G. C.; Baldwin, J. E.; Mackay, C. D.; Waldram, E. M.; Wilson, R. W.

    1997-09-01

    We have installed a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the William Herschel Telescope. The sensor has 8x8 subapertures and operates at frame rates up to 865 Hz. It is used to monitor those aspects of the seeing relevant to the design and optimization of the future WHT adaptive optics system. Here we describe its implementation and present some sample results.

  20. Educational Reform in New Mexico: Tireman, San Jose, and Nambe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachelor, David L.

    In the 1930s Loyd Tireman organized two successful New Mexico experiments in progressive and bicultural education that anticipated contemporary trends. Resisting the nativist and assimilationist sentiments of the time, Tireman saw the necessity of tailoring education to the child rather than fitting the child into a standardized curriculum. His…

  1. Serials Automation for San Jose State University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Susana J.

    This study (1) examines the university's serials system and identifies its problems; (2) analyzes the current manual operations in the serials department, with emphasis on the serials check-in system; and (3) determines whether or not computerization of some or all of the serials subsystems would improve the department's internal effectiveness and…

  2. SAN JOSE, SUBCULTURES OF A "TRADITIONAL" COFFEE MUNICIPALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLF, ERIC R.

    THIS ESSAY, A CHAPTER WITHIN A LARGER VOLUME OF CULTURAL-HISTORICAL FIELD STUDIES OF REGIONAL SUBCULTURES IN PUERTO RICO, DESCRIBES THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PATTERNS OF A "TRADITIONAL" COFFEE MUNICIPALITY. POLITICS, EDUCATION, RELIGION, SOCIAL CUSTOMS, AND OTHER GENERAL FEATURES OF THE CULTURE ARE DISCUSSED. ALSO DESCRIBED ARE THE…

  3. New-generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) volcanic SO2 dataset: algorithm description, initial results, and continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  4. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  5. (137)Cs and plutonium isotopes accumulation/retention in bottom sediments and soil in Lithuania: A case study of the activity concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides and their provenance before the start of operation of the Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant (NPP).

    PubMed

    Marčiulionienė, D; Lukšienė, B; Montvydienė, D; Jefanova, O; Mažeika, J; Taraškevičius, R; Stakėnienė, R; Petrošius, R; Maceika, E; Tarasiuk, N; Žukauskaitė, Z; Kazakevičiūtė, L; Volkova, M

    2017-09-13

    Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operations of the new nuclear facilities in Belarus is of great value worldwide. Inland water bodies in Lithuania (specifically the Neris River, the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon) are near the site of the Belarusian NPP under construction and, for this reason, sediments and flooded soils from these sensitive areas were analysed for radiocesium and plutonium isotopes (macrophytes were analysed only for (137)Cs) in 2011-2012. The (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu activity concentrations in bottom sediments from the Nemunas River, sampled in 1995-1996 and re-calculated to the year 2016, were compared with those of 2011-2012. The obtained activity of (137)Cs in bottom sediments of the Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon varied from 1 Bq/kg to 47.0 Bq/kg. The activity of (137)Cs in the tested soils ranged from 5.3 B g/kg to 32.9 Bq/kg. The (239+240)Pu activity in bottom sediments of the studied sampling sites varied between 0.016 and 0.34 Bq/kg and in flooded soils from 0.064 to 0.55 Bq/kg. The (238)Pu activity values were very low or lower than the detection limit. The activity of (137)Cs in macrophytes varied from values lower than the detection limit to 6 Bq/kg. A strong positive linear correlation for bottom sediments was calculated between: (239+240)Pu and total organic carbon (TOC), r = 0.86, p-value 0.01; (239+240)Pu and silt, r = 0.80, p-value 0.029; (137)Cs and silt, r = 0.78, p-value 0.04; and (137)Cs and TOC, r = 0.85, p-value 0.015. The similar peculiarities of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu accumulation in bottom sediments and flooded soil allow us to assume that (137)Cs can be used as a tracer for (239+240)Pu in the initial stage of searching for radionuclide accumulation zones. A remaining impact of the Chernobyl fallout in average comprised: in the Lower Nemunas River and Curonian Lagoon sediments - 51%, in the Middle Nemunas River -90% and in the

  6. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    coarser spatial and spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  7. Expanding the Estimation of Surface PM2.5 from Aqua and Terra MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth in the EPA's AirNow Satellite Data Processor to Suomi NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szykman, J.; Kondragunta, S.; Zhang, H.; Dickerson, P.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Pasch, A. N.; White, J. E.; DeWinter, J. L.; Zahn, P. H.; Dye, T. S.; Haderman, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Air Quality Index (AQI) relies on hourly measurements of ground-based surface PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5 μm in median diameter) to develop daily AQI index maps. The EPA is improving the accuracy of AQI information and extending its coverage for reporting to the public by incorporating National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite-derived surface PM2.5 concentrations into daily AQI maps. The additional coverage will provide air quality information in regions without dense monitoring networks. The AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP) uses daily PM2.5 estimates and uncertainties derived from average Aqua and Terra MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) in near real-time over the United States. The algorithm to derive surface PM2.5 from MODIS AOD relies on linear relationships between AOD and PM2.5 generated from multi-year GEOS-Chem model simulations (van Donkelaar et al., 2012). Parameters from the regression equation (slopes and intercepts) are saved in a lookup table (LUT) with 4 km spatial resolution for each day of a given year. To improve data accuracy and continuity, a filter is applied to remove MODIS AOD with low accuracy (e.g., over bright surfaces) and an inverse distance weighted average is applied to fill in gaps created by cloud coverage. Daily surface PM2.5 estimates and their uncertainties are generated at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using the van Donkelaar et al. algorithm and near real-time MODIS AOD products from Terra and Aqua and are provided to the EPA through its Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) website. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) was launched on October 28, 2011, and similar to MODIS, provides AOD products for real-time applications. NOAA plans to explore the value of VIIRS AOD products to

  8. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    coarser spatial and spectral resolution of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument, application of the new PCA algorithm to OMPS data produces highly consistent retrievals between OMI and OMPS. The new PCA algorithm is therefore capable of continuing the volcanic SO2 data record well into the future using current and future hyperspectral UV satellite instruments.

  9. A comparative investigation to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an alcohol-free CPC-containing mouthwash as compared to a control mouthwash in controlling dental plaque and gingivitis: a six-month clinical study on adults in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Farid; Prado, Roger; Mateo, Luis R; Stewart, Bernal; Szewczyk, Gregory; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Panagakos, Fotinos S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an antiplaque alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), as compared to a control mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF, in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis after three and six months of product use. This was a single-center, parallel-group, two-cell, double-blind, randomized clinical study. Prospective adult male and female subjects from San Jose, Costa Rica reported to the clinical facility having refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 12 hours, and from eating, drinking, or smoking for four hours prior to their visit. Qualifying subjects who presented with Gingival Index scores (Löe and Silness Index) of at least 1.0 and Plaque Index scores (Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Index) of at least 1.5 were allowed to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups according to their baseline gingival and plaque scores. In the first treatment group (Test), subjects used an alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC and 0.05% NaF, whereas in the second treatment group (Control), subjects used a mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF. Gingivitis and plaque assessments, and examinations of oral hard and soft tissues were conducted after three months and six months of product use. One-hundred and ten (110) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-month study. After six months of product use, the Test Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to Gingival (33.5%), Gingival Interproximal (34.5%), Gingival Severity (63.2%), Plaque (33.6%), Plaque Interproximal (30.0%), and Plaque Severity (73.6%) Index scores. After six months of product use, the Control Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline with respect to Gingival (6.9%), Plaque Interproximal (7.2%), and Plaque Severity (32.7%) Index

  10. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Moravek, J.; Spirko, M.

    2002-02-26

    The first (pilot) nuclear power plant A1 in the Slovak Republic, situated on Jaslovske Bohunice site (60 km from Bratislava) with the capacity of 143 MWel, was commissioned in 1972 and was running with interruptions till 1977. A KS 150 reactor (HWGCR) with natural uranium as fuel, D2O as moderator and gaseous CO2 as coolant was installed in the A1 plant. Outlet steam from primary reactor coolant system with the temperature of 410 C was led to 6 modules of steam generators and from there to turbine generators. Refueling was carried out on-line at plant full power. The first serious incident associated with refueling occurred in 1976 when a locking mechanism at a fuel assembly failed. The core was not damaged during that incident and following a reconstruction of the damaged technology channel, the plant continued in operation. However, serious problems were occurring with the integrity of steam generators (CO2 gas on primary side, water and steam on secondary side) when the plant had to be shut down frequently due to failures and subsequent repairs. The second serious accident occurred in 1977 when a fuel assembly was overheated with a subsequent release of D2O into gas cooling circuit due to a human failure in the course of replacement of a fuel assembly. Subsequent rapid increase in humidity of the primary system resulted in damages of fuel elements in the core and the primary system was contaminated by fission products. In-reactor structures had been damaged, too. Activity had penetrated also into certain parts of the secondary system via leaking steam generators. Radiation situation in the course of both events on the plant site and around it had been below the level of limits specified. Based on a technical and economical justification of the demanding character of equipment repairs for the restoration of plant operation, and also due to a decision made not to continue with further construction of gas cooled reactors in Czechoslovakia, a decision was made in 1977 to terminate plant operation. The decision on the A1 plant decommissioning was issued in 1979.

  11. Development of the Neodymium Pentaphosphate (NPP) Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    about 11% in the compound EUQ {^^I^ 8^5^14" ■’■^^ terminal level is approximately 1000 cm above ground. See Figure 4 for the relevant...H IS <U 0 5 P. o e PH;3 p^ 0) I—I t/5 •H J-i > > Td Pi m <U •H (/) iH oj P,r-I O -H U S •H :3 DHPM +-> fin

  12. Operating experience feedback program at Olkiluoto NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kosonen, Mikko

    2002-07-01

    Recent review and development of the operating experience feedback program will be described. The development of the program has been based on several reviews by outside organizations. Main conclusions from these review reports and from the self assessment of safety performance, safety problems and safety culture on the basis of the operational events made by ASSET-method will be described. An approach to gather and analyze small events - so-called near misses - will be described. The operating experience program has been divided into internal and external operating experience. ASSET-methodology and a computer program assisting the analysis are used for the internal operating experience events. Noteworthy incidents occurred during outage are analyzed also by ASSET-method. Screening and pre analysis of the external operating experience relies on co-operation with ERFATOM, an organization of Nordic utilities for the exchange of nuclear industry experience. A short presentation on the performance of the Olkiluoto units will conclude the presentation. (author)

  13. Characterisation of neutron fields at Cernavoda NPP.

    PubMed

    Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip; Dumitrescu, Dorin; Chirosca, Alecsandru; Hager, Luke; Million, Marc; Bartz, James

    2013-04-01

    Near a nuclear reactor or a fuel container, mixed neutron/gamma fields are very common, necessitating routine neutron dosimetry. Accurate neutron dosimetry is complicated by the fact that the neutron effective dose is strongly dependent on the neutron energy and the direction distribution of the neutron fluence. Neutron field characterisation is indispensable if one wants to obtain a reliable estimate for the neutron dose. A measurement campaign at CANDU nuclear power plant located in Cernavoda, Romania, was set up to characterise the neutron fields in four different locations and to investigate the behaviour of different neutron personal dosemeters. This investigation intends to assist in choosing a suitable neutron dosimetry system at this nuclear power plant.

  14. Suomi NPP VIIRS active fire product status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellicott, E. A.; Csiszar, I. A.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Wind, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the evaluation and development of the Active Fires product derived from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite during the first year of on-orbit data. Results from the initial evaluation of the standard SNPP Active Fires product, generated by the SNPP Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), supported the stabilization of the VIIRS Sensor Data Record (SDR) product. This activity focused in particular on the processing of the dual-gain 4 micron VIIRS M13 radiometric measurements into 750m aggregated data, which are fundamental for active fire detection. Following the VIIRS SDR product's Beta maturity status in April 2012, correlative analysis between VIIRS and near-simultaneous fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite confirmed the expected relative detection rates driven primarily by sensor differences. The VIIRS Active Fires Product Development and Validation Team also developed a science code that is based on the latest MODIS Collection 6 algorithm and provides a full spatially explicit fire mask to replace the sparse array output of fire locations from a MODIS Collection 4 equivalent algorithm in the current IDPS product. The Algorithm Development Library (ADL) was used to support the planning for the transition of the science code into IDPS operations in the future. Product evaluation and user outreach was facilitated by a product website that provided end user access to fire data in user-friendly format over North America as well as examples of VIIRS-MODIS comparisons. The VIIRS fire team also developed an experimental product based on 375m VIIRS Imagery band measurements and provided high quality imagery of major fire events in US. By August 2012 the IDPS product achieved Beta maturity, with some known and documented shortfalls related to the processing of incorrect SDR input data and to apparent algorithm deficiencies in select observing and environmental conditions.

  15. Structural and functional state of heart left ventricle depending on polymorphism rs966221 phosphodiesterase 4D gene in emergency workers of the Chornobyl NPP suffering from coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Nastina, O; Pleskach, G; Kursina, N; Bazyka, O; Makarevich, O; Abramenko, I; Chumak, A; Belyi, D

    2016-12-01

    This study consisted in examination the features of structural and functional state of the cardiovascular system in emergency workers (EW) of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) who suffered from coronary heart disease (CHD) and having different genotypes due to polymorphism rs966221 phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene. The study involved 121 EW and 63 non irradiated patients with CHD. Standardized survey included echo doppler cardiography (EchoCG) that was done by Diagnostic Ultrasound System DS N3 (Mindray). Polymorphism rs966221 PDE4D determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction reaction products. The distribution of genotypes PDE4D in EW was as follows: CC - 42, CT - 49 and TT - 30 patients. In the con trol group, carriers of the same genotypes were 27, 21 and 15 persons respectively. All echocardiographic parame ters in EW workers and non irradiated patients did not differ significantly. Amongst TT genotype carriers of both groups the proportion of patients with increased myocardial mass index was the highest (82.9%) compared to CC genotype (78.4%) and CT (71.4%). The concentric type of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was found in 54.9% of patients with CC genotype, in 51.8% with CT genotype and 45.7% with TT genotype, while the eccentric type in 23.5, 21.4 and 37.1% respectively. The relative number of people with high LV end diastolic volume (EDV) normalized by body surface area (BSA) was 27.5% in CC genotype carriers, 26.8% in CT genotype and 40% in TT genotype carriers (p > 0.05). The increase of BSA indexed LV end systolic volume (ESV) was found in 27.5, 30.4 and 28.6%, and the ejection fraction in 15.7, 23.2 and 22.9% respectively. The largest number of CHD patients with inadequate dias tolic function was in carriers of TT genotype (75%) compared with the data in CC (66.7%) and CT genotypes (42.9%) carriers. In patients with the same genotype, both EW and non irradiated persons there were virtually no dif ferences in indicators

  16. Comparison of Novovoronezh Unit 5 NPP and South Ukraine Unit 1 NPP Level 1 PRA Results

    SciTech Connect

    Musicki, Zoran; Ginsberg, Ted

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar VVER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics. (authors)