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Sample records for jpl electronic nose

  1. JPL Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, continuously operating event monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks in the crew habitat in the International Space Station. It fills the long-standing gap between onboard alarms and complex analytical instruments. ENose provides rapid, early identification and quantification of atmospheric changes caused by chemical species to which it has been trained. ENose can also be used to monitor cleanup processes after a leak or a spill.

  2. The process of developing an instrument: the JPL electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    An electronic nose is a sensing array designed to monitor for targeted chemical species or mixtures. From 1995 to 2008, an electronic nose was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor the environment in human occupied spacecraft for the sudden release, such as leaks or spills, of targeted chemical species. The JPL ENose was taken through three generations of device, from basic exploratory research into polymer-carbon composite chemiresistive sensors to a fully operating instrument which was demonstrated on the International Space Station for several months. The Third Generation JPL ENose ran continuously in the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station to monitor for sudden releases of a targeted group of chemical species. It is capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying targeted species in the parts-per-million range in air, and of operating at a range of temperatures, humidities and pressures.

  3. Developing sensor activity relationships for the JPL electronic nose sensors using molecular modeling and QSAR techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Jewell, A. D.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) study using Genetic Function Approximations (GFA) to describe the polymer-carbon composite sensor activities in the JPL Electronic Nose, when exposed to chemical vapors at parts-per-million concentration levels.

  4. Operation of a Third Generation JPL Electronic Nose in the Regenerative ECLSS Module Simulator at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Manatt, K. S.; Haines, B. E.; Perry, J. L.; Roman, M. C.; Scott, J. P.; Frederick, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor spacecraft cabin air for anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids with near-real-time analysis. It is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on ISS and was deployed on the International Space Station for a seven-month experiment in 2008-2009. In order improve understanding of ENose response to crew activities, an ENose was installed in the Regenerative ECLSS Module Simulator (REMS) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for several months. The REMS chamber is operated with continuous analysis of the air for presence and concentration of CO, CO2, ethane, ethanol and methane. ENose responses were analyzed and correlated with logged activities and air analyses in the REMS.

  5. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  6. JPL Electronic Nose: From Sniffing Brain Cancer to Trouble in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.

    2011-01-01

    What Is An Electronic Nose? An array of non-specific chemical sensors, controlled and analyzed electronically, which mimics the action of the mammalian nose by recognizing patterns of response. An Enose: (1.) ENose measures background resistance in each sensor and establishes a baseline. (2.) Contaminant comes in contact with sensors on the sensing head. (3.) The sensing films, change physical properties, such as thickness or color, as air composition changes. (4.) Sensor response is recorded by a computer, the change in resistance is computed, and the distributed response pattern of the sensor array is used to identify gases and mixtures of gases. (5. Responses of the sensor array are analyzed and quantified using software developed for the task.

  7. Expanding the analyte set of the JPL Electronic Nose to include inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Zhou, H.; Mannat, K.; Manfreda, A.; Kisor, A.; Shevade, A.; Yen, S. P. S.

    2005-01-01

    An array-based sensing system based on 32 polymer/carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL. Until the present phase of development, the analyte set has focuses on organic compounds and a few selected inorganic compounds, notably ammonia and hydrazine.

  8. Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Grace Industries, Inc.'s Electronic Nose is a vapor and gas detector, deriving from NASA's electronic circuitry, capable for sensing the presence of accelerants several days after a fire. The device is powered by rechargeable battery and no special training needed to operate. If an accelerant is present, device will emit a beeping sound and trigger a flashing light; the faster the beep rate, the more volatile the accelerant. Its sensitivity can also detect minute traces of accelerants. Unit saves investigators of fire causes time and expense by providing speedy detection of physical evidence for use in court. Device is also useful for detecting hazardous fumes, locating and detecting gas leaks in refineries and on oil drilling rigs.

  9. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  10. Electronic Nose System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version (shown with palm-size control and data computer). The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  11. Second-Generation Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Zhou, Hanying; Kisor, Adam; Jan, Darrell; Jewell, April; Taylor, Charles; Manfreda, Allison; Manatt, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the second generation of the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose), an array of 32 semi-specific chemical sensors used as an event monitor to identify and quantify contaminants released into breathing air by leaks or spills. It is designed to monitor the environment for changes in air quality, and is trained to identify and quantify selected chemical species at predetermined concentrations, ranging from sub-ppm to ppth. This system has improved reproducibility for making matched arrays, allowing use of data analysis software with minimal recalibration on sensor set replacement. The Second Generation (SG) ENose is a follow-up to the first JPL Electronic Nose that was tested on an earlier space shuttle mission (STS-95). Improvements have been made to the hardware, sensor materials, and data analysis software.

  12. JPL preferred parts list: Reliable electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, R. E.; Scott, W. R.; Hess, L. M.; Steffy, T. G.; Stott, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    The JPL Preferred Parts List was prepared to provide a basis for selection of electronic parts for JPL spacecraft programs. Supporting tests for the listed parts were designed to comply with specific spacecraft environmental requirements. The list tabulates the electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical parts applicable to all JPL electronic equipment wherein reliability is a major concern. The parts listed are revelant to equipment supplied by subcontractors as well as fabricated at the laboratory.

  13. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  14. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one

  15. Detection of hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine using electronic noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Young, R. C.; Buttner, W. J.; Ryan, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Two electronic noses, the Cyranose electronic nose and the electronic nose developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have been tested to determine their utility for detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH).

  16. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An electronic nose (e-nose) composed of eighteen different metal oxide gas sensors was used to characterize the volatile patterns of ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberry fruit at five developmental stages: white, half red, three-quarter red, full ripe, and overripe. Strawberry sam...

  17. Two Algorithms for Processing Electronic Nose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Linnell, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms for processing the digitized readings of electronic noses, and computer programs to implement the algorithms, have been devised in a continuing effort to increase the utility of electronic noses as means of identifying airborne compounds and measuring their concentrations. One algorithm identifies the two vapors in a two-vapor mixture and estimates the concentration of each vapor (in principle, this algorithm could be extended to more than two vapors). The other algorithm identifies a single vapor and estimates its concentration.

  18. Bio-Benchmarking of Electronic Nose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Anderson, Alisha R.; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic noses, E-Noses, are instruments designed to reproduce the performance of animal noses or antennae but generally they cannot match the discriminating power of the biological original and have, therefore, been of limited utility. The manner in which odorant space is sampled is a critical factor in the performance of all noses but so far it has been described in detail only for the fly antenna. Methodology Here we describe how a set of metal oxide (MOx) E-Nose sensors, which is the most commonly used type, samples odorant space and compare it with what is known about fly odorant receptors (ORs). Principal Findings Compared with a fly's odorant receptors, MOx sensors from an electronic nose are on average more narrowly tuned but much more highly correlated with each other. A set of insect ORs can therefore sample broader regions of odorant space independently and redundantly than an equivalent number of MOx sensors. The comparison also highlights some important questions about the molecular nature of fly ORs. Conclusions The comparative approach generates practical learnings that may be taken up by solid-state physicists or engineers in designing new solid-state electronic nose sensors. It also potentially deepens our understanding of the performance of the biological system. PMID:19641604

  19. Electronic nose for space program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Buttner, William J.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic nose for space program applications.

    PubMed

    Young, Rebecca C; Buttner, William J; Linnell, Bruce R; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-08-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements.

  1. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  2. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, María L.; De Saja, José A.; González-Antón, Rocio; García-Hernández, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; García-Cabezón, Cristina; Martín-Pedrosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control, or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of e-noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments. PMID:27826547

  3. Handbook of Machine Olfaction: Electronic Nose Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Tim C.; Schiffman, Susan S.; Nagle, H. Troy; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-02-01

    "Electronic noses" are instruments which mimic the sense of smell. Consisting of olfactory sensors and a suitable signal processing unit, they are able to detect and distinguish odors precisely and at low cost. This makes them very useful for a remarkable variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in environmental control or clinical diagnostics and more. The scope covers biological and technical fundamentals and up-to-date research. Contributions by renowned international scientists as well as application-oriented news from successful "e-nose" manufacturers give a well-rounded account of the topic, and this coverage from R&D to applications makes this book a must-have read for e-nose researchers, designers and users alike.

  4. Electronic noses sniff out danger

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-07-01

    Manufactured by Minneapolis-based Sensor Electronics Corp., SEC 2000 digital gas detectors for hazardous environments display gas concentrations and sound an alarm when combustible or toxic gases exceed preset limits by as little as one part per million. The detectors also are used to monitor indoor air quality inside a variety of manufacturing plants and other public buildings. Gases, such as carbon monoxide, methane, chlorine and ammonia are monitored.

  5. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  6. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  7. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-03-30

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  8. Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip. PMID:24152879

  9. Electronic Nose: Evaluation of Kamina Prototype Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2001-01-01

    The Kamina, Sam and Cyranose electronic nose systems were evaluated and partially trained. Much work was performed on the Kamina as it has the ability to respond to low (less than 10 ppb) concentrations of hydrazine compounds. We were able to tell the difference between Hydrazine (Hz) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in standard clean humid air. We were able to detect MMH in reduced pressure (1/3 atm) at about 250 ppb, however the training set was to far from the real situation to be useful now. Various engineering and usability aspects of both the noses was noted, especially the software. One serious physical engineering flaw was remedied in the Kamina system. A gas flow manifold was created for the Sam system. Different chips were evaluated for the Kamina system. It is still unclear if they can be exchanged without retraining the software.The Sam Detect commercial unit was evaluated for solvent detection and evaluation. It was able to successfully identify some solvents. The Cyranose, was observed and evaluated for two days. It has the ability to detect gasses in the 100 parts per million level but not the 10 parts per billion level. It is very sensitive to humidity changes; there is software to partially handle this.

  10. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  11. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Allman, Steve L.; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja

    2007-05-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors (probably tens of sensors) in a sensor package to achieve selective detection. In order to keep the overall detector unit small, miniature sensors with sufficient sensitivity of detection will be needed. We report sensitive detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a stimulant for the nerve agents, using a miniature sensor unit based on piezoresistive microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications.

  12. Biomedical application of an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Mantini, A; Di Natale, C; Macagnano, A; Paolesse, R; Finazzi-Agrò, A; D'Amico, A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of volatiles secreted outside the human body to get information on the health status of the individuals has been proposed several times in the past. This kind of analysis is complex both from the point of view of sample collection and data interpretation when, for instance, gas chromatography is utilized. In the recent years the advent of chemical sensors and chemical sensors systems (the so-called electronic noses) opened the way to the possibility of fast and simple analysis of odors in many fields, and, recently, among them, in medicine. In this paper some examples of these applications are illustrated. The results, although preliminary, encourage in pursuing these researches that can give rise to a better comprehension of the role of smell and odor in humans and, possibly in the near future, in novel diagnostic tools.

  13. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G; Manatt, Kenneth S; Mowrey, Victoria S; Jackson, Shannon P; Kisor, Adam K; Shevade, Abhijit V; Homer, Margie L

    2004-06-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  14. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  15. Electronic nose for detecting multiple targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Parthasarathi, Ganga; Poddar, Rakesh; Zhao, Weiqiang; Luo, Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977 (garnering the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the three discovering scientists) has attracted considerable interest in the application of polymers as the semiconducting and conducting materials due to their promising potential to replace silicon and metals in building devices. Previous and current efforts in developing conducting polymer microsystems mainly focus on generating a device of a single function. When multiple micropatterns made of different conducting polymers are produced on the same substrate, many microsystems of multiple functions can be envisioned. For example, analogous to the mammalian olfactory system which includes over 1,000 receptor genes in detecting various odors (e.g., beer, soda etc.), a sensor consisting of multiple distinct conducting polymer sensing elements will be capable of detecting a number of analytes simultaneously. However, existing techniques present significant technical challenges of degradation, low throughput, low resolution, depth of field, and/or residual layer in producing conducting polymer microstructures. To circumvent these challenges, an intermediate-layer lithography method developed in our group is used to generate multiple micropatterns made of different, commonly used conducting polymers, Polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene (PEDOT) and Polyaniline (PANI). The generated multiple micropatterns are further used in an "electronic nose" to detect water vapor, glucose, toluene and acetone.

  16. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  17. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  18. An Evaluation of Electronic Nose for Space Program Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Buttner, William J.; Mersqhelte, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the Shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: organic contaminants in crew cabins, propellant contaminants in the airlock, and pre-combustion fire detection. NASA has assessed several commercial and developing electronic noses (e-noses) for these applications. A preliminary series of tests identified those e-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. These e-noses were further tested to assess their ability to identify vapors, and in-house software has been developed to enhance identification. This paper describes the tests, the classification ability of selected e-noses, and the software improvements made to meet the requirements for these space program applications.

  19. Predicting odor pleasantness with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-04-15

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously "learned". We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell.

  20. Predicting Odor Pleasantness with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously “learned”. We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell. PMID:20418961

  1. Electronic nose based tea quality standardization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Kashwan, K R; Bhuyan, M; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we have used a metal oxide sensor (MOS) based electronic nose (EN) to analyze five tea samples with different qualities, namely, drier month, drier month again over-fired, well fermented normal fired in oven, well fermented overfired in oven, and under fermented normal fired in oven. The flavour of tea is determined mainly by its taste and smell, which is generated by hundreds of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds present in tea. These VOCs are present in different ratios and determine the quality of the tea. For example Assamica (Sri Lanka and Assam Tea) and Assamica Sinesis (Darjeeling and Japanese Tea) are two different species of tea giving different flavour notes. Tea flavour is traditionally measured through the use of a combination of conventional analytical instrumentation and human or ganoleptic profiling panels. These methods are expensive in terms of time and labour and also inaccurate because of a lack of either sensitivity or quantitative information. In this paper an investigation has been made to determine the flavours of different tea samples using an EN and to explore the possibility of replacing existing analytical and profiling panel methods. The technique uses an array of 4 MOSs, each of, which has an electrical resistance that has partial sensitivity to the headspace of tea. The signals from the sensor array are then conditioned by suitable interface circuitry. The data were processed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Fuzzy C Means algorithm (FCM). We also explored the use of a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method along with a Radial Basis Function network (RBF) and a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Using FCM and SOM feature extraction techniques along with RBF neural network we achieved 100% correct classification for the five different tea samples with different qualities. These results prove that our EN is capable of discriminating between the flavours of teas manufactured under

  2. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  3. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  4. Classification of Agarwood Oil Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples. PMID:22399899

  5. Classification of agarwood oil using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples.

  6. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  7. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with

  8. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  9. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  10. Clinical evaluation of the electronic nose in the diagnosis of ear, nose and throat infection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shykhon, M E; Morgan, D W; Dutta, R; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2004-09-01

    The term electronic nose describes an electronic system that is able to mimic the human sense of smell. Electronic noses have been developed over the last 10 or more years to perform a variety of identification tasks in various industries. More recently electronic noses have attracted new interest in their application in the field of medical diagnosis. The aim of this study is to explore the use of an electronic nose to identify and classify pathogens associated with ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. In this study 90 bacterial swab samples were collected from 90 patients with ENT infections. Some of these samples were analysed immediately with a commercial electronic nose (Cyranose C320). Similar numbers of swabs were also taken from the same site of infection and were sent for microbiology culture and sensitivity. The electronic nose diagnosis was compared with the microbiology diagnosis and it was found that the electronic nose diagnosis was correct in 88.2 per cent of the cases, which is an encouraging result.

  11. Increasing Electronic Nose Recognition Ability by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandra, Massacane; Juan, Vorobioff; Karina, Pierpauli; Norberto, Boggio; Silvia, Reich; Carlos, Rinaldi; Alfredo, Boselli; Alberto, Lamagna; Laura, Azcárate M.; Jorge, Codnia; Francisco, Manzano

    2009-05-01

    We present a method to increase the capability of an electronic nose to discriminate between a priori similar odours. We analyze the case of olive oil because it is well known that the characteristics of its aroma impair in many cases the discrimination between different kinds of olive oils especially when they are from similar geographic regions. In the present work we study how to improve the electronic nose performance for the above mentioned discrimination by the use of two IR laser wavelengths for vaporization.

  12. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  13. A Portable Electronic Nose For Hydrazine and Monomethyl Hydrazine Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brooks, Kathy B.; Griffin, Tim P.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Program and military use large quantities Hydrazine (Hz) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMI-I) as rocket propellant. These substances are very toxic and are suspected human carcinogens. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist set the threshold limit value to be 10 parts per billion (ppb). Current off-the-shelf portable instruments require 10 to 20 minutes of exposure to detect 10 ppb concentration. This shortcofriing is not acceptable for many operations. A new prototype instrument using a gas sensor array and pattern recognition software technology (i.e., an electronic nose) has demonstrated the ability to identify either Hz or MM}{ and quantify their concentrations at 10 parts per billion in 90 seconds. This paper describes the design of the portable electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, test equipment setup, test protocol, pattern recognition algorithm, concentration estimation method, and laboratory test results.

  14. Using Electronic Noses to Detect Tumors During Neurosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.; Kateb, Babak; Chen, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to develop special-purpose electronic noses and algorithms for processing the digitized outputs of the electronic noses for determining whether tissue exposed during neurosurgery is cancerous. At present, visual inspection by a surgeon is the only available intraoperative technique for detecting cancerous tissue. Implementation of the proposal would help to satisfy a desire, expressed by some neurosurgeons, for an intraoperative technique for determining whether all of a brain tumor has been removed. The electronic-nose technique could complement multimodal imaging techniques, which have also been proposed as means of detecting cancerous tissue. There are also other potential applications of the electronic-nose technique in general diagnosis of abnormal tissue. In preliminary experiments performed to assess the viability of the proposal, the problem of distinguishing between different types of cultured cells was substituted for the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal specimens of the same type of tissue. The figure presents data from one experiment, illustrating differences between patterns that could be used to distinguish between two types of cultured cancer cells. Further development can be expected to include studies directed toward answering questions concerning not only the possibility of distinguishing among various types of normal and abnormal tissue but also distinguishing between tissues of interest and other odorous substances that may be present in medical settings.

  15. Electronic Nose Based on an Optimized Competition Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hong; Liu, Haiyan; Pan, Yunpeng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that there are disadvantages in that the class number must be determined in advance, the value of learning rates are hard to fix, etc., when using traditional competitive neural networks (CNNs) in electronic noses (E-noses), an optimized CNN method was presented. The optimized CNN was established on the basis of the optimum class number of samples according to the changes of the Davies and Bouldin (DB) value and it could increase, divide, or delete neurons in order to adjust the number of neurons automatically. Moreover, the learning rate changes according to the variety of training times of each sample. The traditional CNN and the optimized CNN were applied to five kinds of sorted vinegars with an E-nose. The results showed that optimized network structures could adjust the number of clusters dynamically and resulted in good classifications. PMID:22163887

  16. Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret A.; Manatt, Kenneth; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison

    2004-01-01

    A method of compensating for the effects of humidity on the readouts of electronic noses has been devised and tested. The method is especially appropriate for use in environments in which humidity is not or cannot be controlled for example, in the vicinity of a chemical spill, which can be accompanied by large local changes in humidity. Heretofore, it has been common practice to treat water vapor as merely another analyte, the concentration of which is determined, along with that of the other analytes, in a computational process based on deconvolution. This practice works well, but leaves room for improvement: changes in humidity can give rise to large changes in electronic-nose responses. If corrections for humidity are not made, the large humidity-induced responses may swamp smaller responses associated with low concentrations of analytes. The present method offers an improvement. The underlying concept is simple: One augments an electronic nose with a separate humidity and a separate temperature sensor. The outputs of the humidity and temperature sensors are used to generate values that are subtracted from the readings of the other sensors in an electronic nose to correct for the temperature-dependent contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. Laboratory experiments on a first-generation electronic nose have shown that this method is effective and improves the success rate of identification of analyte/ water mixtures. Work on a second-generation device was in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  17. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  18. Identification of sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma using an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Wan, Jun; Chu, Liang; Liu, Wengang; Jing, Yafeng; Wu, Chunjie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used Chinese herb which will change brown during the natural drying process. However, sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma will get a better appearance than naturally dried one. Sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is potentially toxical due to sulfur dioxide and sulfites formed during the fuming procedures. The odor components in sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is complex. At present, there is no analytical method available to determine sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma simply and rapidly. To ensure medication safety, it is highly desirable to have an effective and simple method to identify sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma. Materials and Methods: This paper presents a novel approach using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors to identify whether Pinelliae Rhizoma was fumed with sulfur, and to predict the fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analyzing and identification. The use of the electronic nose to discriminate between different fuming degrees Pinelliae Rhizoma and naturally dried Pinelliae Rhizoma was demonstrated. Results: The electronic nose was also successfully applied to identify unknown samples including sulfur fumed samples and naturally dried samples, high recognition value was obtained. Quantitative analysis of fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma was also demonstrated. The method developed is simple and fast, which provides a new quality control method of Chinese herbs from the aspect of odor. Conclusion: It has shown that this electronic nose based metal oxide sensor is sensitive to sulfur and sulfides. We suggest that it can serve as a supportive method to detect residual sulfur and sulfides. PMID:24914293

  19. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  20. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  1. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  2. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  3. Software Compensates Electronic-Nose Readings for Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    A computer program corrects for the effects of humidity on the readouts of an array of chemical sensors (an "electronic nose"). To enable the use of this program, the array must incorporate an independent humidity sensor in addition to sensors designed to detect analytes other than water vapor. The basic principle of the program was described in "Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses" (NPO-30615), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 6 (June 2004), page 63. To recapitulate: The output of the humidity sensor is used to generate values that are subtracted from the outputs of the other sensors to correct for contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. The outputs of the non-humidity sensors are then deconvolved to obtain the concentrations of the analytes. In addition, the humidity reading is retained as an analyte reading in its own right. This subtraction of the humidity background increases the ability of the software to identify such events as spills in which contaminants may be present in small concentrations and accompanied by large changes in humidity.

  4. Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or "Z" nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.

  5. Electronic Noses for Composites Surface Contamination Detection in Aerospace Industry.

    PubMed

    Vito, Saverio De; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Massera, Ettore; Fattoruso, Grazia; Formisano, Fabrizio; Polichetti, Tiziana; Salvato, Maria; Alfano, Brigida; Esposito, Elena; Francia, Girolamo Di

    2017-04-02

    The full exploitation of Composite Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in so-called green aircrafts design is still limited by the lack of adequate quality assurance procedures for checking the adhesive bonding assembly, especially in load-critical primary structures. In this respect, contamination of the CFRP panel surface is of significant concern since it may severely affect the bonding and the mechanical properties of the joint. During the last years, the authors have developed and tested an electronic nose as a non-destructive tool for pre-bonding surface inspection for contaminants detection, identification and quantification. Several sensors and sampling architectures have been screened in view of the high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scenarios requirements. Ad-hoc pattern recognition systems have also been devised to ensure a fast and reliable assessment of the contamination status, by combining real time classifiers and the implementation of a suitable rejection option. Results show that e-noses could be used as first line low cost Non Destructive Test (NDT) tool in aerospace CFRP assembly and maintenance scenarios.

  6. Signal processing inspired from the olfactory bulb for electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ya-Qi; Meng, Qing-Hao; Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Ying-Jie

    2017-01-01

    A bio-inspired signal processing method is proposed for electronic noses (e-noses). The proposed method contains an olfactory bulb model and a feature generation step. The structure of the olfactory bulb model is similar to the anatomical structure of mammals’ olfactory bulb. It consists of olfactory receptor neurons, mitral cells, granule cells, periglomerular cells, and short axon cells. This model uses gas sensors’ original response curves and transforms them to neuron spiking series no matter what kind the response curve is. This largely simplifies the follow-up feature generation step. Recurrence quantification analysis is employed to perform feature generation and the five most important features are selected. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the proposed method, seven kinds of Chinese liquors are tested and three classification methods are used to classify them. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a higher classification rate (99.05%) and also a steadier performance with the change of sensor number and types than the classic one.

  7. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors.

    PubMed

    Shevade, A V; Ryan, M A; Homer, M L; Manfreda, A M; Zhou, H; Manatt, K S

    2003-08-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites.

  8. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  10. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  11. Industrial Applications of Electronic Nose Technology in the Textiles Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Tim; Chandler, Rob; Hallam, Viv; Simpson, Claire; Bentham, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Electronic nose technology has been available commercially for over 12 years but uptake in actual industrial applications has yet to be fully realised. We report 2 specific test protocols being used in the textiles industry that allow the direct measurement of anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics. Results will be shown for the standard anti-odour test which was specifically commissioned by Courtaulds PLC and which is being used by a number of manufacturers. The second test, which measures the anti-microbial and the anti-odour capabilities of fabrics simultaneously was developed in 2008. Results will be shown that clearly indicate both parameters are detected and proofs of anti-microbial capabilities will be given. These 2 tests will for the first time, enable the fulfillment of legislation that states for textile product claims, anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics must be scientifically substantiated.

  12. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.

    2009-05-23

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  13. Results from the Space Shuttle STS-95 Electronic Nose Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Buehler, M. G.; Homer, M. L.; Mannatt, K. S.; Lau, B.; Jackson, S.; Zhou, H.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose in which the sensing media are insulating polymers loaded with carbon black as a conductive medium has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The ENose has a volume of 1700 cc, weighs 1.4 kg including the operating computer, and uses 1.5 W average power (3 W peak power). This ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the middeck. The ENose was designed to detect ten common contaminants in space shuttle crew quarters air. The experiment was controlled by collecting air samples daily and analyzing them using standard analytical techniques after the flight. Changes in humidity were detected and quantified, neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  14. Metal Oxide Sensors for Electronic Noses and Their Application to Food Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (E-noses) use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs. PMID:22319332

  15. Sensing a Changing Chemical Mixture Using an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan; Ryan, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A method of using an electronic nose to detect an airborne mixture of known chemical compounds and measure the temporally varying concentrations of the individual compounds is undergoing development. In a typical intended application, the method would be used to monitor the air in an inhabited space (e.g., the interior of a building) for the release of solvents, toxic fumes, and other compounds that are regarded as contaminants. At the present state of development, the method affords a capability for identifying and quantitating one or two compounds that are members of a set of some number (typically of the order of a dozen) known compounds. In principle, the method could be extended to enable monitoring of more than two compounds. An electronic nose consists of an array of sensors, typically made from polymer carbon composites, the electrical resistances of which change upon exposure to a variety of chemicals. By design, each sensor is unique in its responses to these chemicals: some or all of the sensitivities of a given sensor to the various vapors differ from the corresponding sensitivities of other sensors. In general, the responses of the sensors are nonlinear functions of the concentrations of the chemicals. Hence, mathematically, the monitoring problem is to solve the set of time-dependent nonlinear equations for the sensor responses to obtain the time dependent concentrations of individual compounds. In the present developmental method, successive approximations of the solution are generated by a learning algorithm based on independent-component analysis (ICA) an established information theoretic approach for transforming a vector of observed interdependent signals into a set of signals that are as nearly statistically independent as possible.

  16. Application of electronic nose for industrial odors and gaseous emissions measurement and monitoring--An overview.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A; Jana, Arun

    2015-11-01

    The present review evaluates the key modules of the electronic nose, a biomimetic system, with specific examples of applications to industrial emissions monitoring and measurement. Regulations concerning the odor control are becoming very strict, due to ever mounting environmental pollution and its subsequent consequences and it is advantageous to employ real time measurement system. In this perspective, systems like the electronic nose are an improved substitute for assessing the complex industrial emissions over other analytical techniques (odorant concentration measurement) and olfactometry (odor concentration measurement). Compared to tools like gas chromatography, electronic nose systems are easy to develop, are non-destructive and useful for both laboratory and on field purposes. Although there has been immense development of more sensitive and selective sensor arrays and advanced data mining techniques, there have been limited reports on the application of electronic nose for the measurement of industrial emissions. The current study sheds light on the practical applicability of electronic nose for the effective industrial odor and gaseous emissions measurement. The applications categorization is based on gaseous pollutants released from the industries. Calibration and calibration transfer methodologies have been discussed to enhance the applicability of electronic nose system. Further, industrial gas grab sampling technique is reviewed. Lastly, the electronic mucosa system, which has the ability to overcome the flaws of electronic nose system, has been examined. The review ends with the concluding remarks describing the pros and cons of artificial olfaction technique for the industrial applications.

  17. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Nose System for the Determination of Fish Freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Pérez-Esteve, Edgar; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Garcia-Breijo, Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose has been designed to evaluate fish freshness. The e-nose consists of 15 commercial sensors, a home-made data acquisition system and a PC application that communicates with the data acquisition system. The equipment has been conceived so that the sensors can be configured in non-standard operation modes in order to improve the sensors discrimination capabilities.

  18. Can odors of TCM be captured by electronic nose? The novel quality control method for musk by electronic nose coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Jin, Cheng; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xingfeng; Wang, Haitao; Deng, Pingye; Yang, Ying; Wu, Yanwen; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-07-15

    Musk is a precious and wide applied material in traditional Chinese medicine, also, an important material for the perfume industry all over the world. To establish a rapid, cost-effective and relatively objective assessment for the quality of musk, different musk samples, including authentic, fake and adulterate, were collected. A oxide sensor based electronic nose (E-nose) was employed to measure the musk samples, the E-nose generated data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), the responses of 18 sensors of E-nose were evaluated by loading analysis. Results showed that a rapid evaluation of complex response of the samples could be obtained, in combination with PCA and the perception level of the E-nose was given better results in the recognition values of the musk aroma. The authentic, fake and adulterate musk could be distinguished by E-nose coupled with PCA, sensor 2, 3, 5, 12, 15 and 17 were found to be able to better discriminate between musk samples, confirming the potential application of an electronic instrument coupled with chemometrics for a rapid and on-line quality control for the traditional medicines.

  19. Electronic Nose Aided Verification of an Odour Dispersion Model for Composting Plants' Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Palmeri, Luca; Pittarello, Alberto; Benzo, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    The dispersion of odour from a composting plant was calculated with the CALPUFF modeling system, where site specific meteorology and geophysical informations were taken into account. The odour emissions, both from forced and free-convection sources, were measured by means of dynamic olfactometry and implemented in the model. The results obtained from the model were verified with a MOS sensor based Electronic Nose equipped with a preconcentrator, placed in two target sites 50 m and 250 m far from the plant. Odour episodes, detected by electronic nose, were compared with model's forecast; a procedure for tuning the model parameters is needed, in order to reproduce Electronic Nose measurements.

  20. Differentiation of red wines using an electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    García, M; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J L; Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Aleixandre, M; Sayago, I; Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2006-02-15

    An electronic nose, utilizing the principle of surface acoustic waves (SAW), was used to differentiate among different wines of the same variety of grapes which come from the same cellar. The electronic nose is based on eight surface acoustic wave sensors, one is a reference sensor and the others are coated by different polymers by spray coating technique. Data analysis was performed by two pattern recognition methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neuronal network (PNN). The results showed that electronic nose was able to identify the tested wines.

  1. Electronic nose system combined with membrane interface probe for detection of VOCs in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junghwan; Howard, Zachary; Kurup, Pradeep

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a novel electronic nose system combined with a membrane interface probe (MIP) for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. The MIP is an in situ tool that allows the detection of certain VOCs in the soil via a pushed or driven probe. The MIP was combined with a sensor array consisting of four different tin-oxide gas sensors known as an electronic nose (e-nose). The designed e-nose system was calibrated in aqueous media spiked with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 ppm. Since the experiment was conducted utilizing five repetitions for each analyte, a data set of 60 measurements was prepared for principal components analysis (PCA). The results of the PCA showed that two principal components contain more than 99% variance information and each VOC is separable and detectable by the e-nose.

  2. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2010-01-01

    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

  3. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Ge, Lingpu; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    When an electronic nose (E-nose) is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde). Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training) is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training. PMID:26985898

  4. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  5. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors.

  6. The Application of AN Electronic Nose as a Predictive Technique against Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, E. I.; Festuccia, A. M.; Martinelli, E.; Andreoli, A.; Martini, A.; di Natale, C.; de Lorenzo, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is to apply electronic nose (EN) technology as an alternative method for fast monitoring of metabolic clearances and nephropathy insurgence in diabetics. This will be performed through urine analyses of diabetic patients and healthy subjects.

  7. Threshold detection of aromatic compounds in wine with an electronic nose and a human sensory panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José Pedro; Lozano, Jesús; Aleixandre, Manuel; Arroyo, Teresa; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Gil, Mar; del Carmen Horrillo, Maria

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) based on thin film semiconductor sensors has been developed in order to compare the performance with a trained human sensory panel. The panel had 25 members and was trained to detect concentration thresholds of some compounds of interest present in wine. Typical red wine compounds such as whiskylactone and white wine compounds such as 3-methyl butanol were measured at different concentrations starting from the detection threshold found in literature (in the micrograms to milligrams per liter range). Pattern recognition methods (principal component analisys and neural networks) were used to process the data. The results showed that the performance of the e-nose for threshold detection was much better than the human panel. The compounds were detected by the e-nose at concentrations up to ten times lower than the panel. Moreover the e-nose was able to identify correctly each concentration level therefore quantitative applications are devised for this system.

  8. Discrimination of chicken seasonings and beef seasonings using electronic nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes.

  9. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  10. A Portable Electronic Nose For Toxic Vapor Detection, Identification, and Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, B. R.; Young, R. C.; Griffin, T. P.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Peterson, B. V.; Brooks, K. B.

    2005-01-01

    A new prototype instrument based on electronic nose (e-nose) technology has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify many vapors of interest to the Space Program at their minimum required concentrations for both single vapors and two-component vapor mixtures, and may easily be adapted to detect many other toxic vapors. To do this, it was necessary to develop algorithms to classify unknown vapors, recognize when a vapor is not any of the vapors of interest, and estimate the concentrations of the contaminants. This paper describes the design of the portable e-nose instrument, test equipment setup, test protocols, pattern recognition algorithms, concentration estimation methods, and laboratory test results.

  11. Electronic nose for quality control of Colombian coffee through the detection of defects in "Cup Tests".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan; Durán, Cristhian; Reyes, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs), are used for many applications, but we must emphasize the importance of their application to foodstuffs like coffee. This paper presents a research study about the analysis of Colombian coffee samples for the detection and classification of defects (i.e., using "Cup Tests"), which was conducted at the Almacafé quality control laboratory in Cúcuta, Colombia. The results obtained show that the application of an electronic nose called "A-NOSE", may be used in the coffee industry for the cupping tests. The results show that e-nose technology can be a useful tool for quality control to evaluate the excellence of the Colombian coffee produced by National Federation of Coffee Growers.

  12. Development of a Portable Electronic Nose System for the Detection and Classification of Fruity Odors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Pan, Chih-Heng; Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Liang, Yao-Sheng; Liu, Ssu-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a prototype of a portable electronic nose (E-Nose) comprising a sensor array of eight commercially available sensors, a data acquisition interface PCB, and a microprocessor. Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system prototype is able to identify the fragrance of three fruits, namely lemon, banana, and litchi. PMID:22163403

  13. Feasibility of electronic nose technology for discriminating between head and neck, bladder, and colon carcinomas.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, R M G E; Leunis, N; van Hooren, M R A; Francisca, E; Masclee, A; Kremer, B; Kross, K W

    2017-02-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) technology has the potential to detect cancer at an early stage and can differentiate between cancer origins. Our objective was to compare patients who had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with patients who had colon or bladder cancer to determine the distinctive diagnostic characteristics of the e-nose. Feasibility study An e-nose device was used to collect samples of exhaled breath from patients who had HNSCC and those who had bladder or colon cancer, after which the samples were analyzed and compared. One hundred patients with HNSCC, 40 patients with bladder cancer, and 28 patients with colon cancer exhaled through an e-nose for 5 min. An artificial neural network was used for the analysis, and double cross-validation to validate the model. In differentiating HNSCC from colon cancer, a diagnostic accuracy of 81 % was found. When comparing HNSCC with bladder cancer, the diagnostic accuracy was 84 %. A diagnostic accuracy of 84 % was found between bladder cancer and colon cancer. The e-nose technique using double cross-validation is able to discriminate between HNSCC and colon cancer and between HNSCC and bladder cancer. Furthermore, the e-nose technique can distinguish colon cancer from bladder cancer.

  14. In Tube Integrated Electronic Nose System on a Flexible Polymer Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Kinkeldei, Thomas; Zysset, Christoph; Münzenrieder, Niko; Petti, Luisa; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of electronic devices, such as gas sensors on flexible polymer substrates, enables the use of electronics in applications where conventional devices on stiff substrates could not be used. We demonstrate the development of a new intra-tube electronic-nose (e-nose) gas sensor device with multiple sensors fabricated and integrated on a flexible substrate. For this purpose, we developed a new method of fabricating a sensor array of four gas sensors on a flexible polymer substrate. The method allowed the use of lithography techniques to pattern different polymers with a broad range of solubility parameters. Conductive polymer composites were used as a gas sensitive layer due to the high stretchability of the material. Each of the 30 e-nose devices on one substrate was designed to fit on a polymer strip with a width of 2 mm. A single e-nose strip was successfully integrated into the inlet tube of a gas-measurement apparatus with an inner-tube diameter of 3 mm. Using the e-nose, we were able to differentiate between four different volatile solvent vapors. The tube-integrated e-nose outperformed a chamber-integrated e-nose of the same type in terms of response time and flow-rate influences. The sensor array inside the tube showed a faster response time and detected short pulses of analyte exposure compared to the same sensor array outside of the tube. We measured gas flow rates from 1,000 to 30 sccm without significant changes in sensor performance using this intra-tube e-nose prototype. The tube could be bent to radii <15 mm with a sensor performance similar to an unbent sensor. PMID:23202016

  15. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  16. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation.

  17. [Detection of TVOC and odor in industrial park using electronic nose].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiu-Ying; Cai, Qiang; Ye, Zhao-Xia; Guo, Wei; Lu, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2011-12-01

    The main volatile compounds belong to TVOC or odor which may generate from industrial park,special sensors were adopted to build electronic nose for detecting those compounds. TVOC pollution index (TPI) and odor pollution index (OPI) were designed as well as detecting method based on electronic nose in the field. On this basis, considering the pollution situation of chemical industrial of Zhapu port in Jiaxing, six detecting points were selected to be tested by electronic nose on site. Each sensor responses processed by principal components analysis (PCA), two principal components were extracted, that is, eight sensors can be divided into two groups including the types of TVOC (S1) and odor (S2-S8). Meanwhile, the on site collected samples were qualitatively analyzed with GC/ MS. At each testing point, integral area percentage of the compounds being a part of TVOC accumulated mostly over 90% and to odor, mostly was below 10%. Results show: (1) Choosing appropriate sensors combining PCA can preliminarily reflect the pollution condition of TVOC and odor in industrial park; (2) Combining pollution indexes measured with electronic nose and results of qualitative analysis with GC/MS can generally concluded the overall pollution situation of TVOC and odor in industrial park and distribution of each pollutant; (3) Application of electronic noses and GIS to detect TVOC and odor in industrial park can preliminary assess space pollution situation in industrial park.

  18. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  19. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  20. Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.

    PubMed

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2014-10-24

    Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke.

  1. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-02-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  2. COPD Identification By The Analysis Of Breath With An Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; Bergamini, Alberto; Cazzola, Mario; Ciaprini, Chiara; Segreti, Andrea; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2011-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a non fully reversible pathology characterized by airflow limitation. Spirometry (pulmonary function) is the gold standard to diagnose COPD, but often in the early stage of the pathology breathing symptoms might not be clinically evident. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for non-invasive diagnostic techniques. In this paper an electronic nose has been applied to the breath analysis of COPD patients. Breath samples of COPD patients and control subjects were analyzed with the electronic nose. Classification of sensors data illustrates the ability of this instrument to distinguish between the two groups. Electronic nose data were complemented by GC-MS analysis for a thorough characterization of the breath samples.

  3. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  4. Discrimination of Beef Samples by Electronic Nose and Pattern Recognition Techniques Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a study about the possibility of beef characterization with electronic nose is presented. Three beef classes were compared: Piemontese (PIE), Limousin (FRA) and meat from Argentine (ARG). 150 meat samples were put in glass vials and analysed with a commercial electronic nose instrument based on 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors. Sensors response of beef classes seemed to be different. Different supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition procedures were applied to sensors signal: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Multivariate analysis pointed out promising classification and prediction results. Three clusters (according to the beef classes) can be clearly discriminated in PCA score plot. Statistical parameters from calibration, validation and prediction of PLS-DA model revealed themselves to be indices of a good model. These results demonstrate that electronic nose technology with multivariate analysis models is promising for the rapid determination of differences in meat aroma.

  5. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  6. [Applicability of an electronic nose for detection of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil].

    PubMed

    Bu, Fan-Yang; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Wan, Mei; Liu, Rui; Cai, Qiang; Chen, Lü-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2011-12-01

    An electronic nose principally composed of a photo ionization detector (PID) was developed for rapid detection of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) in contaminated soil. Removal of interference gas such as benzene homologues with a pre-filtration tube was analyzed with gas chromatography (GC). A standard gas generator was applied to generate different concentrations of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) gas, with which the determine precision and reproducibility of the electronic nose were evaluated by comparison with GC. Finally, simulated contamination soil with three typical paddy soils in Yangtze river delta region were used for ventilation purification experiments, the change of VCHs concentrations in the ventilation gas was monitored, based on which the applicability of the electronic nose was evaluated for on-line detection of the on-going of the ventilation purification process. Results showed that a halogenated hydrocarbon RAE-SEP tube was effective to remove interference gas, with 80%-97% of benzene homologues such as benzene and ethyl benzene being removed while more than 90% of VCHs passed through. With PCE or TCE gas, a linear dependence was derived between the data determined with the electronic nose and GC, the linear slope being 1.012 and R2 > 0.99. The electronic nose showed data consistent with GC (R2 > 0.99, n = 47) when applied for monitoring the remediation progress in a soil ventilation process. The electronic nose is therefore possibly applicable for rapid determination of soil pollution by VCHs, improving the efficiency of pollution diagnosis and remediation.

  7. Diverse applications of electronic-nose technologies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2013-02-08

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  8. Use of electronic nose and GC-MS in detection and monitoring some VOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Ruiz-Montoya, M.; Giraldez, I.; López, R.; Madejón, E.; Díaz, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an electronic nose (e-nose) as on-line, rapid method to quantify the MSW composting gases. Changes in selected VOCs (limonene, β-pinene, 2-butanone, undecane, toluene and dimethyl disulfide) during composting were studied and quantified by means of two different analytical methods (GC-MS and e-nose). The results of this study indicate that it is possible to differentiate and quantify the main gases emitted during Municipal Solid Waste- Legume Trimming Residues composting using an electronic nose equipped with 10 Metal Oxide Sensors. The electronic nose was able to detect a clear difference in volatile compounds profile of emitted gases in composting, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis. PCA successfully reduced the data sets from the sensors to two principal components, which accounted for 74.5%, 68.8% and 62.8% of the total variance by using patterns for initial, thermophilic and mesophilic composting phases respectively.

  9. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems. PMID:23396191

  10. An improved approach to identify irradiated spices using electronic nose, FTIR, and EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Maeng, Jeong-Hwan; Kyung, Hyun-Kyu; Lim, Ha-Kyeong; Sharma, Arun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Changes in cumin and chili powder from India resulting from electron-beam irradiation were investigated using 3 analytical methods: electronic nose (E-nose), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spices had been exposed to 6 to 14 kGy doses recommended for microbial decontamination. E-nose measured a clear difference in flavor patterns of the irradiated spices in comparison with the nonirradiated samples. Principal component analysis further showed a dose-dependent variation. FTIR spectra of the samples showed strong absorption bands at 3425, 3007 to 2854, and 1746 cm(-1). However, both nonirradiated and irradiated spice samples had comparable patterns without any noteworthy changes in functional groups. EPR spectroscopy of the irradiated samples showed a radiation-specific triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyper-fine coupling constant of 3 mT confirming the results obtained with the E-nose technique. Thus, E-nose was found to be a potential tool to identify irradiated spices.

  11. JPL/USC GAIM: Validating COSMIC and Ground-Based GPS Assimilation Results to Estimate Ionospheric Electron Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Wilson, B.; Akopian, V.; Pi, X.; Mannucci, A.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    We seem to be in the midst of a revolution in ionospheric remote sensing driven by the abundance of ground and space-based GPS receivers, new UV remote sensing satellites, and the advent of data assimilation techniques for space weather. In particular, the COSMIC 6-satellite constellation was launched in April 2006. COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS occultations measurements, each of which yields electron density information with unprecedented ~1 km vertical resolution. Calibrated measurements of ionospheric delay (total electron content or TEC) suitable for input into assimilation models is currently made available in near real-time (NRT) from the COSMIC with a latency of 30 to 120 minutes. The University of Southern California (USC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed a real-time Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for DoD customers and NASA flight projects. JPL/USC GAIM is a physics- based 3D data assimilation model that uses both 4DVAR and Kalman filter techniques to solve for the ion and electron density state and key drivers such as equatorial electrodynamics, neutral winds, and production terms. Daily (delayed) GAIM runs can accept as input ground GPS TEC data from 1200+ sites, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, and the COSMIC constellation, UV limb and nadir scans from the TIMED and DMSP satellites, and in situ data from a variety of satellites (DMSP and C/NOFS). Real-Time GAIM (RTGAIM) ingests multiple data sources in real time, updates the 3D electron density grid every 5 minutes, and solves for improved drivers every 1-2 hours. Since our forward physics model and the adjoint model were expressly designed for data assimilation and computational efficiency, all of this can be accomplished on a single dual- processor Unix workstation. Customers are currently evaluating the accuracy of JPL/USC GAIM 'nowcasts' for ray

  12. Molecular modeling of polymer composite interactions with analytes in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring in International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings (with no hydrogens). The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer and solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4- vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic (ammonia) and organic (methanol, toluene, hydrazine) compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites.

  13. Electronic noses and tongues: Applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electronic nose (enose) is designed to crudely mimic the human brain in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern rec...

  14. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

    2013-01-01

    Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

  15. Improving Short Term Instability for Quantitative Analyses with Portable Electronic Noses

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems when working with electronic noses is the lack of reproducibility or repeatability of the sensor response, so that, if this problem is not properly considered, electronic noses can be useless, especially for quantitative analyses. On the other hand, irreproducibility is increased with portable and low cost electronic noses where laboratory equipment like gas zero generators cannot be used. In this work, we study the reproducibility of two portable electronic noses, the PEN3 (commercial) and CAPINose (a proprietary design) by using synthetic wine samples. We show that in both cases short term instability associated to the sensors' response to the same sample and under the same conditions represents a major problem and we propose an internal normalization technique that, in both cases, reduces the variability of the sensors' response. Finally, we show that the normalization proposed seems to be more effective in the CAPINose case, reducing, for example, the variability associated to the TGS2602 sensor from 12.19% to 2.2%. PMID:24932869

  16. Mass-producible and wireless wide-area networks of electronic noses: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bos, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a wide-area network of wireless electronic noses and the solutions found to the problems encountered, both of a technical nature and the management involved when employing large amounts of field units. Examples of field test results are given, to illustrate the abilities of such a system.

  17. Application and Uses of Electronic Noses for Clinical Diagnosis on Urine Samples: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Taverna, Gianluigi; Bellini, Alessia; Eusebio, Lidia; Buffi, Niccolò; Lazzeri, Massimo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Bozzini, Giorgio; Seveso, Mauro; Mandressi, Alberto; Tidu, Lorenzo; Grizzi, Fabio; Sardella, Paolo; Latorre, Giuseppe; Hurle, Rodolfo; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Casale, Paolo; Meregali, Sara; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    The electronic nose is able to provide useful information through the analysis of the volatile organic compounds in body fluids, such as exhaled breath, urine and blood. This paper focuses on the review of electronic nose studies and applications in the specific field of medical diagnostics based on the analysis of the gaseous headspace of human urine, in order to provide a broad overview of the state of the art and thus enhance future developments in this field. The research in this field is rather recent and still in progress, and there are several aspects that need to be investigated more into depth, not only to develop and improve specific electronic noses for different diseases, but also with the aim to discover and analyse the connections between specific diseases and the body fluids odour. Further research is needed to improve the results obtained up to now; the development of new sensors and data processing methods should lead to greater diagnostic accuracy thus making the electronic nose an effective tool for early detection of different kinds of diseases, ranging from infections to tumours or exposure to toxic agents. PMID:27754437

  18. Use of electronic nose technology to identify cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic nose technology has historically been utilized for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile compounds in air, soil, water, and for quality control in food, beverage and cosmetic industries. Breath analysis has been used experimentally in humans and animals to ...

  19. Development of an Electronic Nose Sensing Platform for Undergraduate Education in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Daniel V.; Burek, Michael J.; Iutzi, Ryan M.; Mracek, James A.; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of the different aspects of a sensor system, with a focus on the involved nanotechnology, is a challenging, yet important task. We present the development of an electronic nose system that utilizes a nanoscale amperometric sensing mechanism for gas mixtures. The fabrication of the system makes use of a basic microfabrication facility,…

  20. Application of Combined Electronic Nose and Tongue Technology in Petfood Flavor Development and Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladipupo, Bola; Stough, Jean; Guthrie, Nicky

    2011-09-01

    This work demonstrates the use of combined Electronic Nose and Tongue (ENT) technology in pet food flavor development and quality control. ENT with multivariate data analysis was used to effectively screen multiple flavor formulations during development, discriminate Off the Shelf (OTS) kibbles from different plants, and assess the quality of finished flavors; with good correlation to animal sensory results.

  1. Electronic nose with an air sensor matrix for detecting beef freshness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The design of an electronic nose includes the design of a matrix of chemical sensors such as gas sensors, and development of a pattern-recognition algorithm. The sensor matrix sniffs the vapor from a sample and provides a set of measurements. The pattern-recognizer compares the pattern of the meas...

  2. Acetic acid detection threshold in synthetic wine samples of a portable electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

    2012-12-24

    Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  3. A Study on Electronic Nose for Clinical Breath Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Le; Yu, Jin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Yanjie; Ying, Kejing

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases and the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The high mortality in patients with lung cancer results, in part, from the lack of effective tools to diagnose the disease at an early stage before it has spread to regional nodes or has metastasized beyond the lung. The electronic nose combined with a diagnosis model which based on the biomarkers can provide a non-invasive and more convenient method. The article presented an improved e-Nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors and an a diagnosis model to diagnose lung cancer.

  4. Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance Based on a Novel QPSO-KELM Model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Yan, Jia; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan; Jia, Pengfei; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-04-11

    A novel multi-class classification method for bacteria detection termed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based kernel extreme learning machine (QPSO-KELM) based on an electronic nose (E-nose) technology is proposed in this paper. Time and frequency domain features are extracted from E-nose signals used for detecting four different classes of wounds (uninfected and infected with Staphylococcu aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in this experiment. In addition, KELM is compared with five existing classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), extreme learning machine (ELM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, three traditional optimization methods including particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search algorithm (GS) and four kernel functions (Gaussian kernel, linear kernel, polynomial kernel and wavelet kernel) for KELM are discussed in this experiment. Finally, the QPSO-KELM model is also used to deal with another two experimental E-nose datasets in the previous experiments. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of QPSO-KELM in various E-nose applications.

  5. Detecting cannabis use on the human skin surface via an electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Witt, Katharina; Kaschowitz, Tobias; Poitz, Wolf; Ebert, Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2014-07-23

    The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an "electronic nose" (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA) with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM) processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90%) between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases.

  6. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2017-04-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose), having 18 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil is reported. The ranking and screening of MOS sensors, specific for volatile organic compounds, was performed using fuzzy logic. A correlation was examined between rancidity indices of fried oil (total polar compounds (TPC), and triglyceride dimers-polymers (TGDP), among others) and e-nose based odor index. Fuzzy logic screened 6 MOS sensors (LY2/G, LY2/AA, LY2/GH, LY2/gCT1, T30/1, and P30/1) to deconvolute the rancid fried oils using hierarchical clustering on principal component space. A good relationship was noted between rancidity indices and odor index (R(2)>0.85). Based on maximum discard limits of rancidity indices (25% TPC and 10% TGDP), the frying disposal time of 15.2h (TPC) vs. 15.8h (e-nose) and 15.5h (TGDP) vs. 16.3h (e-nose) was determined. The demonstrated methodology holds a potential extension to different fried oils and products.

  7. Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance Based on a Novel QPSO-KELM Model

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Yan, Jia; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan; Jia, Pengfei; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    A novel multi-class classification method for bacteria detection termed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based kernel extreme learning machine (QPSO-KELM) based on an electronic nose (E-nose) technology is proposed in this paper. Time and frequency domain features are extracted from E-nose signals used for detecting four different classes of wounds (uninfected and infected with Staphylococcu aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in this experiment. In addition, KELM is compared with five existing classification methods: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), extreme learning machine (ELM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, three traditional optimization methods including particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and grid search algorithm (GS) and four kernel functions (Gaussian kernel, linear kernel, polynomial kernel and wavelet kernel) for KELM are discussed in this experiment. Finally, the QPSO-KELM model is also used to deal with another two experimental E-nose datasets in the previous experiments. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of QPSO-KELM in various E-nose applications. PMID:27077860

  8. A novel wearable electronic nose for healthcare based on flexible printed chemical sensor array.

    PubMed

    Lorwongtragool, Panida; Sowade, Enrico; Watthanawisuth, Natthapol; Baumann, Reinhard R; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2014-10-22

    A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  9. Application Of Electronic Nose And Ion Mobility Spectrometer To Quality Control Of Spice Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Banach, U.; Tiebe, C.; Huebert, Th.

    2009-05-23

    The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of electronic nose (e-nose) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to quality control and to find out product adulteration of spice mixtures. Therefore the gaseous head space phase of four different spice mixtures (spices for sausages and saveloy) was differed from original composition and product adulteration. In this set of experiments metal-oxide type e-nose (KAMINA-type) has been used, and characteristic patterns of data corresponding to various complex odors of the four different spice mixtures were generated. Simultaneously an ion mobility spectrometer was coupled also to an emission chamber for the detection of gaseous components of spice mixtures. The two main methods that have been used show a clear discrimination between the original spice mixtures and product adulteration could be distinguished from original spice mixtures.

  10. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Lorwongtragool, Panida; Sowade, Enrico; Watthanawisuth, Natthapol; Baumann, Reinhard R.; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2014-01-01

    A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities. PMID:25340447

  11. Quantitative determination of pulp and paper industry emissions and associated odor intensity in methyl mercaptan equivalent using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Jana, Arun; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Pandey, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The obnoxious odors generated from pulp and paper industries have been the cause of nuisance since the instigation of these industries. The objective of the study was to develop a metal oxide sensor based electronic nose for rapid measurement of odorant concentration and associated odor intensity of major reduced sulfur compounds emitted from different sources of these pulp and paper mills. The gas samples collected from the surroundings of major source points of industry were exposed to sensor array of the electronic nose and the change in voltage was measured and taken to PC through data acquisition cards. The same sets of samples were also tested with gas chromatography. The results of electronic nose and GC-FPD were correlated using response surface methodology to know the odorant concentration. The model fed with unknown industrial samples had more than 95% prediction capability. To determine odor intensity by electronic nose firstly a collective index was generated using SVD based 2-norm method (e-nose index) proportional to the sensors response relative to reference gas, methyl mercaptan. Secondly the e-nose index was associated with human expert evaluations. The training of the electronic nose enabled it to predict odorant concentration found at the industrial site and associated odor intensity in methyl mercaptan equivalent. The overall results of the experiments carried out suggest the potential of electronic nose as a device for on or off line measurement of odorant concentration and odor intensity.

  12. Stable Odor Recognition by a neuro-adaptive Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Magna, Gabriele; Polese, Davide; Vergara, Alexander; Schild, Detlev; di Natale, Corrado

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivity, selectivity and stability are decisive properties of sensors. In chemical gas sensors odor recognition can be severely compromised by poor signal stability, particularly in real life applications where the sensors are exposed to unpredictable sequences of odors under changing external conditions. Although olfactory receptor neurons in the nose face similar stimulus sequences under likewise changing conditions, odor recognition is very stable and odorants can be reliably identified independently from past odor perception. We postulate that appropriate pre-processing of the output signals of chemical sensors substantially contributes to the stability of odor recognition, in spite of marked sensor instabilities. To investigate this hypothesis, we use an adaptive, unsupervised neural network inspired by the glomerular input circuitry of the olfactory bulb. Essentially the model reduces the effect of the sensors’ instabilities by utilizing them via an adaptive multicompartment feed-forward inhibition. We collected and analyzed responses of a 4 × 4 gas sensor array to a number of volatile compounds applied over a period of 18 months, whereby every sensor was sampled episodically. The network conferred excellent stability to the compounds’ identification and was clearly superior over standard classifiers, even when one of the sensors exhibited random fluctuations or stopped working at all.

  13. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  14. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-06-08

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  15. Electronic-Nose Applications for Fruit Identification, Ripeness and Quality Grading

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally utilize and rely on human testers or panels to evaluate fruit quality and aroma characters for assessing fruit salability in fresh markets. We explore the current and potential utilization of electronic-nose devices (with specialized sensor arrays), instruments that are very effective in discriminating complex mixtures of fruit volatiles, as new effective tools for more efficient fruit aroma analyses to replace conventional expensive methods used in fruit aroma assessments. We review the chemical nature of fruit volatiles during all stages of the agro-fruit production process, describe some of the more important applications that electronic nose (e-nose) technologies have provided for fruit aroma characterizations, and summarize recent research providing e-nose data on the effectiveness of these specialized gas-sensing instruments for fruit identifications, cultivar discriminations, ripeness assessments and fruit grading for assuring fruit quality in commercial markets. PMID:25569761

  16. An electronic nose for amine detection based on polymer/SWNT-COOH nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lorwongtragooll, Panida; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2011-12-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) system based on polymer/carboxylic-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) was developed for sensing various volatile amines. The SWNT-COOH dispersed in the matrix of different polymers; namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cumene terminated polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (cumene-PSMA), poly(styrenecomaleic acid) partial isobutyl/methyl mixed ester (PSE), and polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP), were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes to make the gas sensors. The response of these sensors to volatile amines was studied by both static and dynamic flow measurements. It was found that all sensors exhibited behaviors corresponding to Plateau-Bretano-Stevens law (R2 = 0.81 to 0.99) as the response to volatile amines. Real-world application was demonstrated by applying this e-nose to monitor the odor of sun-dried snakeskin gourami that was pre-processed by salting-preservation. This electronic nose can discriminate sun-dried fish odors with different stored days using a simple pattern recognition based on the principal component analysis (PCA).

  17. Use of electronic nose and tongue for separation of fruit aromas and non-aroma compounds for quality evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electronic nose (e-nose) was used to distinguish differences between mango fruit of different harvest maturities, apple fruit to which different coatings were applied, cut apple subjected to heat and ethanol treatments as well as strawberries of different ripeness stages, based on their volatile...

  18. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-10-15

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  19. Potential application of the electronic nose for shelf-life determination of raw milk and red meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, Aziz; El Barbri, Noureddine; El Bari, Nezha; Llobet, Eduard; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2009-05-01

    The present study describes the performance of an electronic nose in food odor analysis. This methodology was successfully applied to odor characterization of milk stored at 4° C during 4 days and of beef and sheep meat stored at 4° C for up to 15 days. The electronic nose sensor system coupled to PCA as a pattern recognition technique, is able to reveal characteristic changes in raw milk and red meat quality related to storage time. Additionally, a bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system for both beef and sheep meat analysis.

  20. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Miao, Jiacheng; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Linfeng; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In the application of electronic noses (E-noses), probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM) was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes). Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine) was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples. PMID:27420074

  1. Detecting Cannabis Use on the Human Skin Surface via an Electronic Nose System

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Witt, Katharina; Kaschowitz, Tobias; Poitz, Wolf; Ebert, Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an “electronic nose” (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA) with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM) processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90%) between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases. PMID:25057136

  2. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05). The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed. PMID:24287526

  3. Novel method for the producing area identification of Zhongning Goji berries by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Xiuzhu; Xu, Lirong; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-04-15

    High-quality Zhongning Goji berries (ZNG) are illegally adulterated in the market by adding non-ZNG (NZNG). An accurate, rapid, and effective approach for the producing area identification of ZNG is needed to protect the geographical indications of Goji berry products and to ensure fair trade. Samples from different regions were collected and their odors were detected by an electronic nose (E-nose). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to build identification models. The E-nose models were further verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification rates of the PCA, CA, and LDA models were 91.0%, 98.9%, and 100%, respectively. The PCA and CA models presented good results, and the LDA model showed optimum performance. These conditions indicate the feasibility of using the E-nose technique for ZNG identification. GC-MS analysis revealed differences and similarities in total ion current chromatograms between ZNG and NZNG.

  4. Detection of off-flavor in catfish using a conducting polymer electronic-nose technology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alphus D; Oberle, Charisse S; Oberle, Daniel F

    2013-11-25

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05). The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.

  5. Investigation of a Nanowire Electronic Nose by Computer Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    molecules by using light with the same frequency as the vibrations. Particularly important for sensors is nondispersive infrared ( NDIR ) in which the...potential g() Density of states IETS Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy RTD Resonant Tunneling Diode TBDW Triple Barrier Double Well NDIR

  6. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  7. Electronic Noses As Flexible Tools For Evaluating Food Quality And Safety: Can We Trust Them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2011-09-01

    Since most food adulterations are reflected on volatile chemical profile, Electronic Noses (ENs) appear as excellent candidates for process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation, sensory and authenticity assessment, microbial contamination diagnosis [1]. In this study three applications recently carried out in our laboratory are presented and discussed, with the aim to illustrate three paradigmatic and diverse issues related to food quality control in which EN can find application and discuss the reliability of sensor technology in food analysis.

  8. Electronic Nose Characterization of the Quality Parameters of Freeze-Dried Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, R.; Santonico, M.; Martinelli, E.; Paolesse, R.; Passot, S.; Fonseca, F.; Cenard, S.; Trelea, C.; Di Natale, C.

    2011-09-01

    Freeze-drying is the method of choice for preserving heat sensitive biological products such as microorganisms. The development of a fast analytical method for evaluating the properties of the dehydrated bacteria is then necessary for a proper utilization of the product in several food processes. In this paper, dried bacteria headspace is analyzed by a GC-MS and an electronic nose. Results indicate that headspace contains enough information to assess the products quality.

  9. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Zsofia; Fens, Niki; van der Maten, Jan; van der Schee, Marc P.; Wagener, Ariane H.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Dijkers, Erica; Sterk, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1) and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2). At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20) causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320). Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04). Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01). However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27). The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction. PMID:22163399

  10. The electronic NOSE and its application to the manufacture of food products

    PubMed Central

    Hodgins, Diana; Sirnmonds, Derek

    1995-01-01

    The Electronic NOSE (Neotronics Olfactory Sensing Equipment) is an instrument which mimics the human olfactory sensory system. It analyses complex vapours and produces a simple output. In the food industry there are numerous examples where the aroma from the raw ingredients through to the final product are important. These aromas are currently analysed using human sensory panels or analytical equipment such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The Electronic NOSE described in this paper was not developed to replace the GC/MS or the sensory panel but to provide an instrumental measure of aroma quality which would be related to and complement the current methodology. The Electronic NOSE is a robust system which can detect complex vapours at levels similar to the human, which means typically in the parts per billion range. The system produces an output which can be easily related to sensory data and is easy to interpret by a non-skilled operator. No part of this system reacts with the sample under test. PMID:18925038

  11. Canine olfaction and electronic nose detection of volatile organic compounds in the detection of cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Spencer W; Moore, Daniel R; Marzouk, Evan B; Glenn, Frasier R; Hallock, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory cancer detection shows promise as an affordable, precise, and noninvasive way to screen for cancer. This review focuses on two methods of olfactory cancer detection: first, the ability of canines to differentiate between cancerous and healthy individuals through the use of biological samples and second, electronic nose technology that uses chemical sensors to detect known biomarkers in exhaled breath. This review summarizes and critiques past research and outlines future directions to improve understanding of both canine olfaction and electronic nose technology.

  12. Pressure-driven fast reaction and recovery of peptide receptor for an electronic nose application

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myung; Chae, Myung-Sic; Yoon Kang, Ji; Song Kim, Tae; Seon Hwang, Kyo E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr; Hoon Lee, Jeong E-mail: jhlee@kw.ac.kr

    2014-02-24

    Combining a highly sensitive sensor platform with highly selective recognition elements is essential for micro/nanotechnology-based electronic nose applications. Particularly, the regeneration sensor surface and its conditions are key issues for practical e-nose applications. We propose a highly sensitive piezoelectric-driven microcantilever array chip with highly selective peptide receptors. By utilizing the peptide receptor, which was discovered by a phase display screening process, we immobilized a dinitrotoluene (DNT) specific peptide as well as a DNT nonspecific peptide on the surface of the cantilever array. The delivery of DNT gas via pressure-driven flow led to a greater instant response of ∼30 Hz, compared to diffusion only (∼15 Hz for 15 h). Using a simple pressure-driven air flow of ∼50 sccm, we confirmed that a ratio of ∼70% of the specific-bounded sites from DNT gas molecules could be regenerated, showing re-usability of the peptide receptor in on-site monitoring for electronic nose applications.

  13. Evaluation of oxygen exposure levels and polyphenolic content of red wines using an electronic panel formed by an electronic nose and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mendez, M L; Apetrei, C; Gay, M; Medina-Plaza, C; de Saja, J A; Vidal, S; Aagaard, O; Ugliano, M; Wirth, J; Cheynier, V

    2014-07-15

    An electronic panel formed by an electronic nose and an electronic tongue has been used to analyse red wines showing high and low phenolic contents, obtained by flash release and traditional soaking, respectively, and processed with or without micro-oxygenation. Four oxygen transfer rate conditions (0.8, 1.9, 8.0, and 11.9 μl oxygen/bottle/day) were ensured by using synthetic closures with controlled oxygen permeability and storage under controlled atmosphere. Twenty-five chemical parameters associated with the polyphenolic composition, the colour indices and the levels of oxygen were measured in triplicate and correlated with the signals registered (seven replicas) by means of the electronic nose and the electronic tongue using partial least squares regression analysis. The electronic nose and the electronic tongue showed particularly good correlations with those parameters associated with the oxygen levels and, in particular, with the influence of the porosity of the closure to oxygen exposure. In turn, the electronic tongue was particularly sensitive to redox species including oxygen and phenolic compounds. It has been demonstrated that a combined system formed from the electronic nose and the electronic tongue provides information about the chemical composition of both the gas and the liquid phase of red wines. This complementary information improves the capacity to predict values of oxygen-related parameters, phenolic content and colour parameters.

  14. Portable Electronic Nose System for Identification of Synthesized Gasoline Using Metal Oxide Gas Sensor and Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Wung; Park, Hong Bae; Lee, In Soo; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for use in the identification of synthesized gasoline, comprised of a single semiconductor type of gas sensor and pattern recognition neural networks. The designed e-nose system consists of a one-chip microcontroller, a pre-concentrator, and a gas sensor. Two different neural networks, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network and a fuzzy ARTMAP neural network were applied to discriminate synthesized gasoline from normal gasoline. The results of the classification showed 100% and 85% recognition rates for the training data set and testing data set, respectively.

  15. Electronic Nose Based on Independent Component Analysis Combined with Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks for Wine Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Teodoro; Lozano, Jesús; Paredes, José A.; Álvarez, Fernando J.; Suárez, José I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an alternative way for wine classification and prediction based on an electronic nose (e-nose) combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a dimensionality reduction technique, Partial Least Squares (PLS) to predict sensorial descriptors and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for classification purpose. A total of 26 wines from different regions, varieties and elaboration processes have been analyzed with an e-nose and tasted by a sensory panel. Successful results have been obtained in most cases for prediction and classification. PMID:22969387

  16. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-05-13

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45-200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses.

  17. Headspace Analysis of Philippine Civet Coffee Beans Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongo, E.; Sevilla, F.; Antonelli, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Montevecchi, G.; Sberveglieri, V.; de Paola, E. L.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Civet coffee, the most expensive and best coffee in the world, is an economically important export product of the Philippines. With a growing threat of food adulteration and counterfeiting, a need for quality authentication is essential to protect the integrity and strong market value of Philippine civet coffee. At present, there is no internationally accepted method of verifying whether a bean is an authentic civet coffee. This study presented a practical and promising approach to identify and establish the headspace qualitative profile of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The findings were supported by GC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clearly separated civet coffees from their control beans. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffees differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents.

  18. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F.; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A.; Barroso, Carmelo G.

    2016-01-01

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45–200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses. PMID:27187407

  19. Comparison of Different Classification Methods for Analyzing Electronic Nose Data to Characterize Sesame Oils and Blends

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaolong; Li, Hui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was used to characterize sesame oils processed by three different methods (hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and refined), as well as blends of the sesame oils and soybean oil. Seven classification and prediction methods, namely PCA, LDA, PLS, KNN, SVM, LASSO and RF, were used to analyze the e-nose data. The classification accuracy and MAUC were employed to evaluate the performance of these methods. The results indicated that sesame oils processed with different methods resulted in different sensor responses, with cold-pressed sesame oil producing the strongest sensor signals, followed by the hot-pressed sesame oil. The blends of pressed sesame oils with refined sesame oil were more difficult to be distinguished than the blends of pressed sesame oils and refined soybean oil. LDA, KNN, and SVM outperformed the other classification methods in distinguishing sesame oil blends. KNN, LASSO, PLS, and SVM (with linear kernel), and RF models could adequately predict the adulteration level (% of added soybean oil) in the sesame oil blends. Among the prediction models, KNN with k = 1 and 2 yielded the best prediction results. PMID:26506350

  20. A Portable Electronic Nose for Toxic Vapor Detection, Identification, and Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, B. R.; Young, R. C.; Griffin, T. P.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Peterson, B. V.; Brooks, K. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Program and military use large quantities of hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine as rocket propellant, which are very toxic and suspected human carcinogens. Current off-the-shelf portable instruments require 10 to 20 minutes of exposure to detect these compounds at the minimum required concentrations and are prone to false positives, making them unacceptable for many operations. In addition, post-mission analyses of grab bag air samples from the Shuttle have confirmed the occasional presence of on-board volatile organic contaminants, which also need to be monitored to ensure crew safety. A new prototype instrument based on electronic nose (e-nose) technology has demonstrated the ability to qualify (identify) and quantify many of these vapors at their minimum required concentrations, and may easily be adapted to detect many other toxic vapors. To do this, it was necessary to develop algorithms to classify unknown vapors, recognize when a vapor is not any of the vapors of interest, and estimate the concentrations of the contaminants. This paper describes the design of the portable e-nose instrument, test equipment setup, test protocols, pattern recognition algorithms, concentration estimation methods, and laboratory test results.

  1. Evaluation of aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis with an electronic nose and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Rivera-Chavira, B

    2008-01-01

    There is an increased interest in exploring the potential of new Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different natural ecosystems for the production of aroma compounds. Thus, the objective of this study was to screen the aroma generation of Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different sources by an electronic nose and sensory evaluation for their potential use in starter cheese cultures. Twenty-three strains of Lactococcus lactis were isolated from dairy sources such as artisanal raw-milk cheeses, nondairy sources, and commercial starter cultures (industrial). All the strains were assessed for their ability to produce aromas by an electronic nose and sensory analysis after their incubation in milk. Some phenotypic characteristics of technological importance such as lactose fermentation, proteolytic activity, and citrate utilization were also evaluated. Lactococcus lactis strains showed clear phenotypic differences related to their isolation source. Strains isolated from raw-milk dairy products or commercial starter cultures presented faster lactose fermentation and proteolytic activity than those presented by strains isolated from nondairy sources. Additionally, strains isolated from dairy and nondairy sources presented better citrate utilization than strains isolated from commercial dairy starters. On the other hand, there was not a clear relationship between the source of isolation and the ability of lactococci strains to produce aroma. Principal components analysis of electronic nose data revealed 4 distinctive groups based on aroma profiles. Additionally, odor intensity scores (yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like) for these 4 groups revealed the nature of their differences. In general, strains from dairy products presented intense yogurt-like and Fresco cheese-like aromas, with the latter being the most intense for one specific strain. On the other hand, the majority of wild strains from nondairy sources presented a stronger yogurt-like aroma, whereas

  2. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M A; Shevade, A V; Zhou, H; Homer, M L

    2004-10-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  3. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  4. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  5. Electronic nose for the identification of pig feeding and ripening time in Iberian hams.

    PubMed

    Santos, J P; García, M; Aleixandre, M; Horrillo, M C; Gutiérrez, J; Sayago, I; Fernández, M J; Arés, L

    2004-03-01

    An electronic nose system to control the processing of dry-cured Iberian ham is presented. The sensors involved are tin oxide semiconductors thin films. They were prepared by RF sputtering. Some of the sensors were doped with metal catalysts as Pt and Pd, in order to improve the selectivity of the sensors. The multisensor with 16 semiconductor sensors, gave different responses from two types of dry-cured Iberian hams which differ in the feeding and curing time. The data has been analysed using the PCA (principal component analysis) and backpropagation and probabilistic neural networks. The analysis shows that different types of Iberian ham can be discriminated and identified successfully.

  6. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuzhen; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin; Yan, Jia; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan; Jia, Pengfei; Tian, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC) has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose) used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM) for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced. PMID:26131672

  7. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuzhen; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin; Yan, Jia; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan; Jia, Pengfei; Tian, Fengchun

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC) has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose) used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM) for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced.

  8. Calibration transfer between electronic nose systems for rapid in situ measurement of pulp and paper industry emissions.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Kamde, Kalyani; Jana, Arun; Korde, Sanjivani; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Sankar, Ravi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A

    2014-09-02

    Electronic nose systems when deployed in network mesh can effectively provide a low budget and onsite solution for the industrial obnoxious gaseous measurement. For accurate and identical prediction capability by all the electronic nose systems, a reliable calibration transfer model needs to be implemented in order to overcome the inherent sensor array variability. In this work, robust regression (RR) is used for calibration transfer between two electronic nose systems using a Box-Behnken (BB) design. Out of the two electronic nose systems, one was trained using industrial gas samples by four artificial neural network models, for the measurement of obnoxious odours emitted from pulp and paper industries. The emissions constitute mainly of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) in different proportions. A Box-Behnken design consisting of 27 experiment sets based on synthetic gas combinations of H2S, MM, DMS and DMDS, were conducted for calibration transfer between two identical electronic nose systems. Identical sensors on both the systems were mapped and the prediction models developed using ANN were then transferred to the second system using BB-RR methodology. The results showed successful transmission of prediction models developed for one system to other system, with the mean absolute error between the actual and predicted concentration of analytes in mg L(-1) after calibration transfer (on second system) being 0.076, 0.1801, 0.0329, 0.427 for DMS, DMDS, MM, H2S respectively.

  9. Electronic Noses for Well-Being: Breath Analysis and Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Julian W; Vincent, Timothy A

    2016-06-23

    The wealth of information concealed in a single human breath has been of interest for many years, promising not only disease detection, but also the monitoring of our general well-being. Recent developments in the fields of nano-sensor arrays and MEMS have enabled once bulky artificial olfactory sensor systems, or so-called "electronic noses", to become smaller, lower power and portable devices. At the same time, wearable health monitoring devices are now available, although reliable breath sensing equipment is somewhat missing from the market of physical, rather than chemical sensor gadgets. In this article, we report on the unprecedented rise in healthcare problems caused by an increasingly overweight population. We first review recently-developed electronic noses for the detection of diseases by the analysis of basic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Then, we discuss the primary cause of obesity from over eating and the high calorific content of food. We present the need to measure our individual energy expenditure from our exhaled breath. Finally, we consider the future for handheld or wearable devices to measure energy expenditure; and the potential of these devices to revolutionize healthcare, both at home and in hospitals.

  10. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Detection of Volatile Biomarker Metabolites in the Human Breath

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs. PMID:25738426

  11. Advances in electronic-nose technologies for the detection of volatile biomarker metabolites in the human breath.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2015-03-02

    Recent advancements in the use of electronic-nose (e-nose) devices to analyze human breath profiles for the presence of specific volatile metabolites, known as biomarkers or chemical bio-indicators of specific human diseases, metabolic disorders and the overall health status of individuals, are providing the potential for new noninvasive tools and techniques useful to point-of-care clinical disease diagnoses. This exciting new area of electronic disease detection and diagnosis promises to yield much faster and earlier detection of human diseases and disorders, allowing earlier, more effective treatments, resulting in more rapid patient recovery from various afflictions. E-nose devices are particularly suited for the field of disease diagnostics, because they are sensitive to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and can effectively distinguish between different complex gaseous mixtures via analysis of electronic aroma sensor-array output profiles of volatile metabolites present in the human breath. This review provides a summary of some recent developments of electronic-nose technologies, particularly involving breath analysis, with the potential for providing many new diagnostic applications for the detection of specific human diseases associated with different organs in the body, detectable from e-nose analyses of aberrant disease-associated VOCs present in air expired from the lungs.

  12. Towards an Electronic Dog Nose: Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Security and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This review describes an “electronic dog nose” based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and an antigen–antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol), dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described. PMID:25198004

  13. A Novel Semi-Supervised Method of Electronic Nose for Indoor Pollution Detection Trained by M-S4VMs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tailai; Jia, Pengfei; He, Peilin; Duan, Shukai; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose (E-nose), as a device intended to detect odors or flavors, has been widely used in many fields. Many labeled samples are needed to gain an ideal E-nose classification model. However, the labeled samples are not easy to obtain and there are some cases where the gas samples in the real world are complex and unlabeled. As a result, it is necessary to make an E-nose that cannot only classify unlabeled samples, but also use these samples to modify its classification model. In this paper, we first introduce a semi-supervised learning algorithm called S4VMs and improve its use within a multi-classification algorithm to classify the samples for an E-nose. Then, we enhance its performance by adding the unlabeled samples that it has classified to modify its model and by using an optimization algorithm called quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) to find the optimal parameters for classification. The results of comparing this with other semi-supervised learning algorithms show that our multi-classification algorithm performs well in the classification system of an E-nose after learning from unlabeled samples. PMID:27626420

  14. Application of Electronic Nose for Measuring Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen and Total Viable Counts in Packaged Pork During Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Wang, Haibiao; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Gaiming; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork using an electronic nose (E-nose), and to assess the freshness of chilled pork during storage using different packaging methods, including pallet packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% O2 /40% CO2 /20% N2 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the E-nose signals, and the results showed that the relationships between the freshness of chilled pork and E-nose signals could be distinguished in the loadings plots, and the freshness of chilled pork could be distributed along 2 first principal components. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to correlate TVC and TVB-N to E-nose signals. High F and R2 values were obtained in the MLR output of TVB-N (F = 32.1, 21.6, and 24.2 for PP [R2 = 0.93], VP [R2 = 0.94], and MAP [R2 = 0.95], respectively) and TVC (F = 34.2, 46.4, and 7.8 for PP [R2 = 0.98], VP [R2 = 0.89], and MAP [R2 = 0.85], respectively). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to use the E-nose technology to predict TVB-N and TVC for assessing the freshness of chilled pork during storage.

  15. On-line classification of pollutants in water using wireless portable electronic noses.

    PubMed

    Herrero, José Luis; Lozano, Jesús; Santos, José Pedro; Suárez, José Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    A portable electronic nose with database connection for on-line classification of pollutants in water is presented in this paper. It is a hand-held, lightweight and powered instrument with wireless communications capable of standalone operation. A network of similar devices can be configured for distributed measurements. It uses four resistive microsensors and headspace as sampling method for extracting the volatile compounds from glass vials. The measurement and control program has been developed in LabVIEW using the database connection toolkit to send the sensors data to a server for training and classification with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The use of a server instead of the microprocessor of the e-nose increases the capacity of memory and the computing power of the classifier and allows external users to perform data classification. To address this challenge, this paper also proposes a web-based framework (based on RESTFul web services, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML and JavaScript Object Notation) that allows remote users to train ANNs and request classification values regardless user's location and the type of device used. Results show that the proposed prototype can discriminate the samples measured (Blank water, acetone, toluene, ammonia, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, benzene, dichloromethane, acetic acid, xylene and dimethylacetamide) with a 94% classification success rate.

  16. Development of Fabric-Based Chemical Gas Sensors for Use as Wearable Electronic Noses

    PubMed Central

    Seesaard, Thara; Lorwongtragool, Panida; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2015-01-01

    Novel gas sensors embroidered into fabric substrates based on polymers/ SWNT-COOH nanocomposites were proposed in this paper, aiming for their use as a wearable electronic nose (e-nose). The fabric-based chemical gas sensors were fabricated by two main processes: drop coating and embroidery. Four potential polymers (PVC, cumene-PSMA, PSE and PVP)/functionalized-SWCNT sensing materials were deposited onto interdigitated electrodes previously prepared by embroidering conductive thread on a fabric substrate to make an optimal set of sensors. After preliminary trials of the obtained sensors, it was found that the sensors yielded a electrical resistance in the region of a few kilo-Ohms. The sensors were tested with various volatile compounds such as ammonium hydroxide, ethanol, pyridine, triethylamine, methanol and acetone, which are commonly found in the wastes released from the human body. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the body odors of different regions and exist in various forms such as the urine, armpit and exhaled breath odor. Based on a simple pattern recognition technique, we have shown that the proposed fabric-based chemical gas sensors can discriminate the human body odor from two persons. PMID:25602265

  17. A Novel Pre-Processing Technique for Original Feature Matrix of Electronic Nose Based on Supervised Locality Preserving Projections

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Wang, Li; Duan, Shukai; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) consisting of 14 metal oxide gas sensors and one electronic chemical gas sensor has been constructed to identify four different classes of wound infection. However, the classification results of the E-nose are not ideal if the original feature matrix containing the maximum steady-state response value of sensors is processed by the classifier directly, so a novel pre-processing technique based on supervised locality preserving projections (SLPP) is proposed in this paper to process the original feature matrix before it is put into the classifier to improve the performance of the E-nose. SLPP is good at finding and keeping the nonlinear structure of data; furthermore, it can provide an explicit mapping expression which is unreachable by the traditional manifold learning methods. Additionally, some effective optimization methods are found by us to optimize the parameters of SLPP and the classifier. Experimental results prove that the classification accuracy of support vector machine (SVM combined with the data pre-processed by SLPP outperforms other considered methods. All results make it clear that SLPP has a better performance in processing the original feature matrix of the E-nose. PMID:27376295

  18. Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Trincavelli, Marco; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Söderquist, Bo; Thunberg, Per

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method for identification of bacteria in human blood culture samples using an electronic nose. The method uses features, which capture the static (steady state) and dynamic (transient) properties of the signal from the gas sensor array and proposes a means to ensemble results from consecutive samples. The underlying mechanism for ensembling is based on an estimation of posterior probability, which is extracted from a support vector machine classifier. A large dataset representing ten different bacteria cultures has been used to validate the presented methods. The results detail the performance of the proposed algorithm and show that through ensembling decisions on consecutive samples, significant reliability in classification accuracy can be achieved.

  19. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  20. Development of an electronic nose sensing platform for undergraduate education in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Daniel V.; Burek, Michael J.; Iutzi, Ryan M.; Mracek, James A.; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    The teaching of the different aspects of a sensor system, with a focus on the involved nanotechnology, is a challenging, yet important task. We present the development of an electronic nose system that utilizes a nanoscale amperometric sensing mechanism for gas mixtures. The fabrication of the system makes use of a basic microfabrication facility, as well as an undergraduate chemistry laboratory for material synthesis and preparation. The sensing device consists of an array of cross-reactive sensors composed of metal-oxide semiconducting nanoparticles. Each sensor in the array produces a unique response in the presence of a target gas, allowing the sensor to determine the identity and concentration of multiple gases in a mixture. The educational aspects include microheater simulation and fabrication, design and fabrication of interdigitated electrodes, development of interfacing circuitry and software, development and calibration of a sensory array, sol-gel processing of nanoparticle films and their characterization, and details of the fundamental chemical sensing mechanism.

  1. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  2. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  3. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-12

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.

  4. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R(2) = 0 .99396.

  5. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M; Yamauchi, Elaine Y; Li, Rosamaria W C; Esteves, Carlos H A; Rehder, Gustavo P; Gaylarde, Christine C; Shirakawa, Márcia A

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s.

  6. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-05-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  7. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-05-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  8. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  9. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  10. Electronic Noses for Well-Being: Breath Analysis and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Julian W.; Vincent, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of information concealed in a single human breath has been of interest for many years, promising not only disease detection, but also the monitoring of our general well-being. Recent developments in the fields of nano-sensor arrays and MEMS have enabled once bulky artificial olfactory sensor systems, or so-called “electronic noses”, to become smaller, lower power and portable devices. At the same time, wearable health monitoring devices are now available, although reliable breath sensing equipment is somewhat missing from the market of physical, rather than chemical sensor gadgets. In this article, we report on the unprecedented rise in healthcare problems caused by an increasingly overweight population. We first review recently-developed electronic noses for the detection of diseases by the analysis of basic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Then, we discuss the primary cause of obesity from over eating and the high calorific content of food. We present the need to measure our individual energy expenditure from our exhaled breath. Finally, we consider the future for handheld or wearable devices to measure energy expenditure; and the potential of these devices to revolutionize healthcare, both at home and in hospitals. PMID:27347946

  11. Natural Satellite Ephemerides at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert Arthur; Brozovic, Marina

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 176 known natural planetary satellites in the solar system; 150 are officially recognized by the IAU and 26 have IAU provisional designations. We maintain ephemerides for all of the satellites at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and make them available electronically through the On-Line Solar System Data Service known as Horizons(http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons) and in the form of generic Spice Kernels (SPK files) from NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif). General satellite information such as physical constants and descriptive orbital elements can be found on the JPL Solar System Dynamics Website (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov). JPL's ephemerides directly support planetary spacecraft missions both in navigation and science data analysis. They are also used in general scientific investigations of planetary systems. We produce the ephemerides by fitting numerically integrated orbits to observational data. Our model for the satellite dynamics accounts for the gravitational interactions within a planetary system and the external gravitational perturbations from the Sun and planets. We rely on an extensive data set to determine the parameters in our dynamical models. The majority of the observations are visual, photographic, and CCD astrometry acquired from Earthbased observatories worldwide and the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional observations include optical and photoelectric transits, eclipses, occultations, Earthbased radar ranging, spacecraft imaging,and spacecraft radiometric tracking. The latter data provide information on the planet and satellite gravity fields as well as the satellite position at the times of spacecraft close encounters. In this paper we report on the status of the ephemerides and our plan for future development, specifically that in support of NASA's Juno, Cassini, and New Horizons missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto, respectively.

  12. Pattern classification using an olfactory model with PCA feature selection in electronic noses: study and application.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Huang, Canqin; Xing, Jianguo; Zheng, Junbao

    2012-01-01

    Biologically-inspired models and algorithms are considered as promising sensor array signal processing methods for electronic noses. Feature selection is one of the most important issues for developing robust pattern recognition models in machine learning. This paper describes an investigation into the classification performance of a bionic olfactory model with the increase of the dimensions of input feature vector (outer factor) as well as its parallel channels (inner factor). The principal component analysis technique was applied for feature selection and dimension reduction. Two data sets of three classes of wine derived from different cultivars and five classes of green tea derived from five different provinces of China were used for experiments. In the former case the results showed that the average correct classification rate increased as more principal components were put in to feature vector. In the latter case the results showed that sufficient parallel channels should be reserved in the model to avoid pattern space crowding. We concluded that 6~8 channels of the model with principal component feature vector values of at least 90% cumulative variance is adequate for a classification task of 3~5 pattern classes considering the trade-off between time consumption and classification rate.

  13. Electronic Nose analysis of milk from cows grazing on two different Alpine vegetation types.

    PubMed

    Falchero, Luca; Sala, Giacomo; Gorlier, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giampiero; Lonati, Michele; Masoero, Giorgio

    2009-08-01

    The nutritional distinctiveness of pasture-fed dairy products is mainly influenced by the transfer of specific chemical compounds from the grass to the milk and by their effect on rumen microflora and animal metabolism. Thus, the pasture-fed origin has to be objectively proven, using fast and reproducible analytical methods applied to finished products, in order to protect consumers against potential frauds. In this work, Electronic Nose patterns of Alpine milks produced by cows grazing Trifolium alpinum and Festuca nigrescens pasture types have been examined, in order to test the potential use of this device for routine control analyses of the botanical origin of milk and dairy products. The data have been treated with different multivariate analyses (MANOVA, LDA) and chemometrics (MPLS). The results allow a very good classification of the milks, according to the two treatments. Such results demonstrate that this device could be successfully applied to PDO dairy products food chain as a tool for the determination of their dietary origin.

  14. Monitoring of taints related to printed solid boards with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Heiniö, R L; Ahvenainen, R

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives were to combine knowledge gathered from the electronic nose (EN) with traditional analytical reference methods for measuring volatile compounds, such as sensory and headspace methods. The impacts of different colouring agents on the sensory properties of packaging materials when analysed by EN were determined. The first step in investigations using the EN was optimization of sample treatment and analysis parameters for the samples. The best resolution was achieved at 60 degrees C in 20 min, and the effect of humidity on the EN sensors was confirmed. A comparison was made of three sensory methods for analysing taints of packaging materials. The study showed that the odour of the packaging itself was often not a reliable indication of the taint perceived in the packed foodstuff and should be regarded only as indicative. Taints caused by pigments of printed solid boards were analysed by EN. Twenty samples were studied, representing unprinted solid board, lacquered solid board, offset printed solid board with 14 different colours and offset printed, lacquered solid board with four colours. The EN succeeded in grouping these materials according to their colouring agents or lacquering, despite slight overlapping of replicates, and the results appeared to reflect at least to some extent the off-flavours perceived in sensory evaluation. The results of this study are only indicative, because the analysis of results from different sources or equipment requires more extensive use of statistical methods.

  15. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis.

  16. [Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and electronic nose for alcohol quantification during the red wine fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2012-11-01

    The red wine fermentation needs fast and nondestructive techniques, which can help to control the fermentation process and assure the quality of wine. In the present study, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and electronic nose (EN) were used to predict the alcohol content during the red wine alcoholic fermentation. Calibration models were developed between instru- mental data and chemical analysis using principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) with cross validation. Good correlations (R > 0.99) were acquired for both the models developed by the NIR and EN data. However, RMSEC and RMSEP were a little larger. Combining NIR and EN can optimize the model and improve the prediction accuracy. The PLSR model based on combined data shows the best correlation (R = 0.999 2), with RMSEC and RMSEP being 0. 206 and 0.205% (v/v), respectively. Both NIR spectroscopy and EN can predict the alcohol concentration during the alcoholic fermentation of red wine, and the combination of two instruments can improve the analysis precision. Although the measurements were carried out in off-line mode, this study demonstrates that NIR and EN can be used as on line, fast, nondestructive and in time techniques to provide in-time information about the fermentation process and to assure the quality of final products.

  17. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  18. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  19. Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters from molecular dynamics with applications to electronic nose polymer sensors.

    PubMed

    Belmares, M; Blanco, M; Goddard, W A; Ross, R B; Caldwell, G; Chou, S-H; Pham, J; Olofson, P M; Thomas, Cristina

    2004-11-30

    We introduce the Cohesive Energy Density (CED) method, a multiple sampling Molecular Dynamics computer simulation procedure that may offer higher consistency in the estimation of Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters. The use of a multiple sampling technique, combined with a simple but consistent molecular force field and quantum mechanically determined atomic charges, allows for the precise determination of solubility parameters in a systematic way (sigma = 0.4 hildebrands). The CED method yields first-principles Hildebrand parameter predictions in good agreement with experiment [root-mean-square (rms) = 1.1 hildebrands]. We apply the CED method to model the Caltech electronic nose, an array of 20 polymer sensors. Sensors are built with conducting leads connected through thin-film polymers loaded with carbon black. Odorant detection relies on a change in electric resistivity of the polymer film as function of the amount of swelling caused by the odorant compound. The amount of swelling depends upon the chemical composition of the polymer and the odorant molecule. The pattern is unique, and unambiguously identifies the compound. Experimentally determined changes in relative resistivity of seven polymer sensors upon exposure to 24 solvent vapors were modeled with the CED estimated Hansen solubility components. Predictions of polymer sensor responses result in Pearson R2 coefficients between 0.82 and 0.99.

  20. Electronic nose screening of limonene release from multicomponent essential oils encapsulated in pectin gels.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Eugenia; Bulone, Donatella; Giacomazza, Daniela; Negri, Martín; Bernik, Delia L

    2004-06-01

    Multicomponent essential oils Tagetes Minuta and Poleo as well as pure limonene were encapsulated in Tween doped-high methoxylated pectin gels. Optical microscopy reveals that the obtained gels containing limonene consisted in a highly heterogeneous oil-in-water emulsion stabilised by the gelled medium. The influence of limonene encapsulation in pectin gelation kinetics and the gel structural properties were followed by dynamic rheological measurements. An electronic nose device developed in our laboratory was used to follow the flavour release of the three systems in order to discriminate the samples according to the main components released to the headspace. PCA and Neural Network Analysis allowed us to discriminate Tagetes Minuta from Poleo due to the difference in their limonene content. It is remarkable that the fingerprints of encapsulated complex mixtures differ from those obtained for the non-encapsulated oils, showing a preferential release of some components. In the case of limonene, the effect of the encapsulated concentration on the detected odour was also studied.

  1. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  2. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Composition in Chinese Truffles via GC × GC/HR-TOF/MS and Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haitao; Sun, Baoguo; Mao, Xueying; Zhang, Yuyu; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To compare the volatile compounds of Chinese black truffle and white truffle from Yunnan province, this study presents the application of a direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) coupled with a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF/MS) and an electronic nose. Both of the analytical methods could distinguish the aroma profile of the two samples. In terms of the overall profile of truffle samples in this research, more kinds of acids were detected via the method of DSE-SAFE. Besides, compounds identified in black truffle (BT), but not in white truffle (WT), or vice versa, and those detected in both samples at different levels were considered to play an important role in differentiating the two samples. According to the analysis of electronic nose, the two samples could be separated, as well. PMID:27058524

  4. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    SciTech Connect

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-05-23

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  5. Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in Liquid Media by Volatile Production Similarity Patterns, Using a FF-2A Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Arakawa, Eiji; Kita, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Yoshihiro; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A technique for rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential for the diagnosis of associated infections and for food safety analysis. Aeromonas hydrophila is one such food contaminant. Several methods for rapid detection of this pathogen have been developed; these include multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays and the colony overlay procedure for peptidases. However, these conventional methods can only be used to detect the microorganisms at high accuracy after symptomatic onset of the disease. Therefore, in the future, simple pre-screening methods may be useful for preventing food poisoning and disease. In this paper, we present a novel system for the rapid detection of the microorganism A. hydrophila in cultured media (in <2 h), with the use of an electronic nose (FF-2A). With this electronic nose, we detected the changes of volatile patterns produced by A. hydrophila after 30 min culture. Our calculations revealed that the increased volatiles were similar to the odours of organic acids and esters. In future, distinctive volatile production patterns of microorganisms identified with the electronic nose may have the potential in microorganism detection. PMID:23296330

  6. A Novel Optimization Technique to Improve Gas Recognition by Electronic Noses Based on the Enhanced Krill Herd Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) is an intelligent system that we will use in this paper to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), formaldehyde (CH2O)) and carbon monoxide (CO). The algorithm is a key part of an E-nose system mainly composed of data processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we employ support vector machine (SVM) to distinguish indoor pollutant gases and two of its parameters need to be optimized, so in order to improve the performance of SVM, in other words, to get a higher gas recognition rate, an effective enhanced krill herd algorithm (EKH) based on a novel decision weighting factor computing method is proposed to optimize the two SVM parameters. Krill herd (KH) is an effective method in practice, however, on occasion, it cannot avoid the influence of some local best solutions so it cannot always find the global optimization value. In addition its search ability relies fully on randomness, so it cannot always converge rapidly. To address these issues we propose an enhanced KH (EKH) to improve the global searching and convergence speed performance of KH. To obtain a more accurate model of the krill behavior, an updated crossover operator is added to the approach. We can guarantee the krill group are diversiform at the early stage of iterations, and have a good performance in local searching ability at the later stage of iterations. The recognition results of EKH are compared with those of other optimization algorithms (including KH, chaotic KH (CKH), quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA)), and we can find that EKH is better than the other considered methods. The research results verify that EKH not only significantly improves the performance of our E-nose system, but also provides a good beginning and theoretical basis for further study about other improved krill algorithms’ applications in all E-nose application areas. PMID

  7. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Urinary Pathogens by Mobile IMS-Based Electronic Nose: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Oksala, Niku K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) –based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. In conclusion: These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI. PMID:25526592

  8. Factors Influencing Continuous Breath Signal in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit Patients Measured by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Colombo, Camilla; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Continuous breath analysis by electronic nose (eNose) technology in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be useful in monitoring (patho) physiological changes. However, the application of breath monitoring in a non-controlled clinical setting introduces noise into the data. We hypothesized that the sensor signal is influenced by: (1) humidity in the side-stream; (2) patient-ventilator disconnections and the nebulization of medication; and (3) changes in ventilator settings and the amount of exhaled CO2. We aimed to explore whether the aforementioned factors introduce noise into the signal, and discuss several approaches to reduce this noise. Methods: Study in mechanically-ventilated ICU patients. Exhaled breath was monitored using a continuous eNose with metal oxide sensors. Linear (mixed) models were used to study hypothesized associations. Results: In total, 1251 h of eNose data were collected. First, the initial 15 min of the signal was discarded. There was a negative association between humidity and Sensor 1 (Fixed-effect β: −0.05 ± 0.002) and a positive association with Sensors 2–4 (Fixed-effect β: 0.12 ± 0.001); the signal was corrected for this noise. Outliers were most likely due to noise and therefore removed. Sensor values were positively associated with end-tidal CO2, tidal volume and the pressure variables. The signal was corrected for changes in these ventilator variables after which the associations disappeared. Conclusion: Variations in humidity, ventilator disconnections, nebulization of medication and changes of ventilator settings indeed influenced exhaled breath signals measured in ventilated patients by continuous eNose analysis. We discussed several approaches to reduce the effects of these noise inducing variables. PMID:27556467

  9. Application of solid phase-microextraction (SPME) and electronic nose techniques to differentiate volatiles of sesame oils prepared with diverse roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Hee; Jeong, Min Kyu; Yeo, JuDong; Son, Hee-Jin; Lim, Chae-Lan; Hong, Eun Jeung; Noh, Bong-Soo; Lee, JaeHwan

    2011-01-01

    Headspace volatiles of sesame oil (SO) from sesame seeds roasted at 9 different conditions were analyzed by a combination of solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), electronic nose/metal oxide sensors (MOS), and electronic nose/MS. As roasting temperature increased from 213 to 247 °C, total headspace volatiles and pyrazines increased significantly (P < 0.05). Pyrazines were major volatiles in SO and furans, thiazoles, aldehydes, and alcohols were also detected. Roasting temperature was more discrimination factor than roasting time for the volatiles in SO through the principal component analysis (PCA) of SPME-GC/MS, electronic nose/MOS, and electronic nose/MS. Electronic nose/MS showed that ion fragment 52, 76, 53, and 51 amu played important roles in discriminating volatiles in SO from roasted sesame seeds, which are the major ion fragments from pyrazines, furans, and furfurals. SO roasted at 213, 230, and 247 °C were clearly differentiated from each other on the base of volatile distribution by SPME-GC/MS, electronic nose/MOS, and electronic nose/MS analyses. Practical Application: The results of this study are ready to apply for the discriminating samples using a combinational analysis of volatiles. Not only vegetable oils prepared from roasting process but also any food sample possessing volatiles could be targets for the SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose assays. Contents and types of pyrazines in sesame seed oil could be used as markers to track down the degree of roasting and oxidation during oil preparation.

  10. Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Olsson, J; Börjesson, T; Lundstedt, T; Schnürer, J

    2002-02-05

    Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with some kind of off-odour were selected from Swedish granaries. The samples were evaluated with regard to moisture content, fungal contamination, ergosterol content, and levels of ochratoxin A (OA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Volatile compounds were also analysed using both an electronic nose and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples with normal odour had no detectable ochratoxin A and average DON contents of 16 microg kg(-1) (range 0-80), while samples with off-odour had average OA contents of 76 microg kg(-1) (range 0-934) and DON contents of 69 microg kg(-1) (range 0-857). Data were evaluated by multivariate data analysis using projection methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The results show that it was possible to classify the OA level as below or above the maximum limit of 5 microg kg(-1) cereal grain established by the Swedish National Food Administration, and that the DON level could be estimated using PLS. Samples with OA levels below 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentration of aldehydes (nonanal, 2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, 1-octanol). Samples with OA levels above 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentrations of ketones (2-hexanone, 3-octanone). The GC-MS system predicted OA concentrations with a higher accuracy than the electronic nose, since the GC-MS misclassified only 3 of 37 samples and the electronic nose 7 of 37 samples. No correlation was found between odour and OA level, as samples with pronounced or strong off-odours had OA levels both below and above 5

  11. Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiu; Wang, Xichang; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2012-01-01

    Species discrimination among three kinds of puffer fish, Takifugu obscurus, Takifugu flavidus and Takifugu rubripes, was conducted using an electronic nose combined with olfactory sensory evaluation. All data were treated by multivariate data processing based on principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA). The results showed the discriminant model by PCA method and DFA method. Using PCA and DFA, it was shown that the electronic nose was able to reasonably distinguish between each of the eleven puffer fish groups, with a discrimination index of 85. The olfactory sensory evaluation was undertaken in accordance to Sensory analysis-Methodology-Initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odors (BS ISO 5496-2006), and the results showed that the evaluation was able to identify puffer fish samples according to their species, geographical origin and age. Results from this analysis demonstrate that the E-nose can be used to complement the discrimination of odors by sensory evaluation from the three species of puffer fish studied here.

  12. Use of an electronic nose to diagnose Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and cattle.

    PubMed

    Fend, R; Geddes, R; Lesellier, S; Vordermeier, H-M; Corner, L A L; Gormley, E; Costello, E; Hewinson, R G; Marlin, D J; Woodman, A C; Chambers, M A

    2005-04-01

    It is estimated that more than 50 million cattle are infected with Mycobacterium bovis worldwide, resulting in severe economic losses. Current diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle relies on tuberculin skin testing, and when combined with the slaughter of test-positive animals, it has significantly reduced the incidence of bovine TB. The failure to eradicate bovine TB in Great Britain has been attributed in part to a reservoir of the infection in badgers (Meles meles). Accurate and reliable diagnosis of infection is the cornerstone of TB control. Bacteriological diagnosis has these characteristics, but only with samples collected postmortem. Unlike significant wild animal reservoirs of M. bovis that are considered pests in other countries, such as the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, the badger and its sett are protected under United Kingdom legislation (The Protection of Badgers Act 1992). Therefore, an accurate in vitro test for badgers is needed urgently to determine the extent of the reservoir of infection cheaply and without destroying badgers. For cattle, a rapid on-farm test to complement the existing tests (the skin test and gamma interferon assay) would be highly desirable. To this end, we have investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) to diagnose infection of cattle or badgers with M. bovis, using a serum sample. Samples were obtained from both experimentally infected badgers and cattle, as well as naturally infected badgers. Without exception, the EN was able to discriminate infected animals from controls as early as 3 weeks after infection with M. bovis, the earliest time point examined postchallenge. The EN approach described here is a straightforward alternative to conventional methods of TB diagnosis, and it offers considerable potential as a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers.

  13. Runny Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... practice parameter update. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2014;113:347. Stuffy nose. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery. http://www.entnet.org/content/stuffy-nose. Accessed ...

  14. Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can probably guess what happens next. You sneeze . Sneezes can send those unwelcome particles speeding out ... ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nose What Makes Me Sneeze? When Sinuses Attack! Why Does My Nose Run? ...

  15. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively. PMID:27792131

  16. Effects of Sampling Conditions and Environmental Factors on Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis by an Electronic Nose Device

    PubMed Central

    Berkhout, Daniel J. C.; Benninga, Marc A.; van Stein, Ruby M.; Brinkman, Paul; Niemarkt, Hendrik J.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.; de Meij, Tim G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior to implementation of volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in clinical practice, substantial challenges, including methodological, biological and analytical difficulties are faced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of several sampling conditions and environmental factors on fecal VOC profiles, analyzed by an electronic nose (eNose). Effects of fecal sample mass, water content, duration of storage at room temperature, fecal sample temperature, number of freeze–thaw cycles and effect of sampling method (rectal swabs vs. fecal samples) on VOC profiles were assessed by analysis of totally 725 fecal samples by means of an eNose (Cyranose320®). Furthermore, fecal VOC profiles of totally 1285 fecal samples from 71 infants born at three different hospitals were compared to assess the influence of center of origin on VOC outcome. We observed that all analyzed variables significantly influenced fecal VOC composition. It was feasible to capture a VOC profile using rectal swabs, although this differed significantly from fecal VOC profiles of similar subjects. In addition, 1285 fecal VOC-profiles could significantly be discriminated based on center of birth. In conclusion, standardization of methodology is necessary before fecal VOC analysis can live up to its potential as diagnostic tool in clinical practice. PMID:27886068

  17. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-10-25

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm². The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  18. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Luis F.; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies. PMID:27775628

  19. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Luis F; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies.

  20. JPL web team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) WEB Team activities were reported for activities which were directed toward identifying and attacking areas in the growth of dendritic web ribbon, to complement the program at Westinghouse Electric Corp.

  1. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-05-04

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil.

  2. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil. PMID:27153069

  3. An Analog Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for a Portable Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Heng; Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This study examines an analog circuit comprising a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). This study proposes a low-power and small-area analog MLP circuit to implement in an E-nose as a classifier, such that the E-nose would be relatively small, power-efficient, and portable. The analog MLP circuit had only four input neurons, four hidden neurons, and one output neuron. The circuit was designed and fabricated using a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process with a 1.8 V supply. The power consumption was 0.553 mW, and the area was approximately 1.36 × 1.36 mm2. The chip measurements showed that this MLPNN successfully identified the fruit odors of bananas, lemons, and lychees with 91.7% accuracy. PMID:23262482

  4. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  5. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  6. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

  7. Composition of commercial truffle flavored oils with GC-MS analysis and discrimination with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo

    2014-03-01

    Truffles are among the most expensive foods and their quality depends on their unique aroma, composed of complex mixtures of lipophilic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are many foods flavored with truffle, and oils are particularly common. Using DHS-GC-MS and an electronic nose (MOS), 18 samples of olive oil flavored with white and black truffles from the Italian market were subjected to a blind analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis with DHS-GC-MS detected the presence of 63 VOCs, 32 of which can be attributed to olive oil, also defective, and 19 to truffles, while 12 foreign compounds are of dubious origin (synthesis and/or demolition). The data obtained with the electronic nose (MOS), processed statistically, was able to discriminate the aromas coincident with the three species of truffle declared on the label (the white truffle Tuber magnatum and the black truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum), demonstrating the potential and reliability of this technique, confirming the established malpractice of the use of bismethyl(dithio)methane in black truffles flavorings.

  8. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  9. Variation Of Odour Profile Detected In The Floral Stages of Prunus Persica (L) Batsch Using An Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeria, Messina; Silvia, Radice; Rosa, Baby; de Reca Noemí, Walsöe

    2009-05-01

    Bees use signals from plants to identify worthwhile visits. They learn quickly to differentiate mainly their floral odor than their colour. In some species the flowers remain open, intact and turgid until they are pollinated (anthesis) after which they are no longer attractive to pollinators (post-anthesis). Pollinators use fragrance for distance orientation, approach, landing, feeding and associative learning. The aim of this work was to study the variation of odor profile between anthesis and post-anthesis produced in flowers of different cultivars of Prunus Persica (L.) batsch, using an electronic nose since odor is a communication between flowering plants and bees. Visual results on field showed that peach flowers are generally more visited in the anthesis stage. Among all the analysed cultivars, Forastero cultivar was the only one visited in this floral stage. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose data showed that doped semiconductuvtive SnO2 sensors could differentiate between stages (anthesis and post-anthesis) only in case of Forastero cultivar.

  10. Progress in interferometry for LISA at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, Robert; Bachman, Brian; de Vine, Glenn; Dickson, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; Ozawa, Tetsuo; McKenzie, Kirk; Shaddock, Daniel; Robison, David; Sutton, Andrew; Ware, Brent

    2011-05-01

    Recent advances at JPL in experimentation and design for LISA interferometry include the demonstration of time delay interferometry using electronically separated end stations, a new arm-locking design with improved gain and stability, and progress in flight readiness of digital and analog electronics for phase measurements.

  11. A wireless and portable electronic nose to differentiate musts of different ripeness degree and grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-04-13

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry-The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties-Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  12. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies. PMID:25871715

  13. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  14. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  15. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  16. Electronic nose based on multipatterns of ZnO nanorods on a quartz resonator with remote electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Lee, Moonchan; Yun, Minhyuk; Jeon, Sangmin

    2013-08-27

    An electrodeless monolithic multichannel quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM) sensor was developed via the direct growth of ZnO nanorod patterns of various sizes onto an electrodeless quartz crystal plate. The patterned ZnO nanorods acted as independent resonators with different frequencies upon exposure to an electric field. The added mass of ZnO nanostructures was found to significantly enhance the quality factor (QF) of the resonator in electrodeless QCM configuration. The QF increased with the length of the ZnO nanorods; ZnO nanorods 5 μm in length yielded a 7-fold higher QF compared to the QF of a quartz plate without ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods offered enhanced sensitivity due to the enlarged sensing area. The developed sensor was used as an electronic nose for detection of vapor mixtures with impurities.

  17. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  18. Prospects for clinical application of electronic-nose technology to early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture and sputum.

    PubMed

    Fend, Reinhard; Kolk, Arend H J; Bessant, Conrad; Buijtels, Patricia; Klatser, Paul R; Woodman, Anthony C

    2006-06-01

    Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is time-consuming and operator dependent and lacks sensitivity. A new method is urgently needed. We investigated the potential of an electronic nose (EN) (gas sensor array) comprising 14 conducting polymers to detect different Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the headspaces of cultures, spiked sputa, and sputum samples from 330 culture-proven and human immunodeficiency virus-tested TB and non-TB patients. The data were analyzed using principal-component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and artificial neural networks. The EN differentiated between different Mycobacterium spp. and between mycobacteria and other lung pathogens both in culture and in spiked sputum samples. The detection limit in culture and spiked sputa was found to be 1 x 10(4) mycobacteria ml(-1). After training of the neural network with 196 sputum samples, 134 samples (55 M. tuberculosis culture-positive samples and 79 culture-negative samples) were used to challenge the model. The EN correctly predicted 89% of culture-positive patients; the six false negatives were the four ZN-negative and two ZN-positive patients. The specificity and sensitivity of the described method were 91% and 89%, respectively, compared to culture. At present, the reasons for the false negatives and false positives are unknown, but they could well be due to the nonoptimized system used here. This study has shown the ability of an electronic nose to detect M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens and opens the way to making this method a rapid and automated system for the early diagnosis of respiratory infections.

  19. Comparative analysis of two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by electronic nose, headspace GC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xu, Feng; Cao, Chen; Shang, Ming-Ying; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Yu, Jie; Liu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) can be identified by experts according to their odors. However, the identification of these medicines is subjective and requires long-term experience. In this paper, electronic nose, headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chemometrics methods were applied to differentiate two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors. The samples used were the dried roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum (AH) and Asarum sieboldii (AS). The electronic nose was used to determine the odors of the samples and enabled rapid differentiation of AH and AS when coupled with principal component analysis. Headspace GC-MS was utilized to reveal the differences between the volatile constituents of AH and AS. In all, 54 volatile constituents were identified, and 9 major constituents (eucalyptol, eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene, methyleugenol, 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene, croweacin, pentadecane and asaricin) could be used as chemical markers to distinguish these two species. AH contained higher relative contents of eucarvone (1.79-16.76%), 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (6.64-26.52%), 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene/methyleugenol (6.43-31.67%) and 2,3,5-trimethoxytoluene (1.64-6.66%), whereas AS had higher relative contents of eucalyptol (14.06-24.95%), croweacin (5.64-13.55%), pentadecane (8.44-20.82%) and asaricin (7.03-13.45%). Moreover, AH and AS could be distinguished according to the contents of either all 54 identified volatile constituents or only the 9 major constituents by employing cluster analysis. The proposed method is rapid, simple, eco-friendly and can successfully differentiate these two species of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by their odors.

  20. Detection of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida tropicalis in a High-Sugar Medium by a Metal Oxide Sensor-Based Electronic Nose and Comparison with Test Panel Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Guo, Chunfeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-11-01

    Osmotolerant yeasts are primarily responsible for spoilage of sugar-rich foods. In this work, an electronic nose (e-nose) was used to diagnose contamination caused by two osmotolerant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida tropicalis) in a high-sugar medium using test panel evaluation as the reference method. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the evolution of the volatile organic compound fingerprint in the contaminated samples during yeast growth. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis revealed that the e-nose could identify contamination after 48 h, corresponding to the total yeast levels of 3.68 (Z. rouxii) and 3.09 (C. tropicalis) log CFU/ml. At these levels, the test panel could not yet diagnose the spoilage, indicating that the e-nose approach was more sensitive than the test panel evaluation. Loading analysis indicated that sensors 8 and 6 were the most important for detection of these two yeasts. Based on the result obtained with the e-nose, the incubation time and total yeast levels could be accurately predicted by established multiple regression models with a correlation of greater than 0.97. In the sensory evaluation, spoilage was diagnosed after 72 h in samples contaminated with C. tropicalis and after 48 to 72 h for samples contaminated with Z. rouxii. GC-MS revealed that compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol contributed to spoilage detection by the e-nose after 48 h. In the high-sugar medium, the e-nose was more sensitive than the test panel evaluation for detecting contamination with these test yeast strains. This information could be useful for developing instruments and techniques for rapid scanning of sugar-rich foods for contamination with osmotolerant yeasts before such spoilage could be detected by the consumer.

  1. Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... the space behind your nose) is the olfactory epithelium (say: ol-FAK-tuh-ree eh-puh-THEE- ... that has to do with smelling. The olfactory epithelium contains special receptors that are sensitive to odor ...

  2. Broken Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... include contact sports, physical fights, falls and motor vehicle accidents that result in facial trauma. A broken ... such as football or hockey Physical altercations Motor vehicle accidents Falls A broken nose can even be ...

  3. Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase.

  4. Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Siavash; Sagar, Nidhi M.; Kyrou, Ioannis; Mozdiak, Ella; O’Connell, Nicola; Nwokolo, Chuka; Bardhan, Karna D.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P.; Covington, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. PMID:26821055

  5. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin.

  6. Nose Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Improving Form And Function Of The Nose Each year thousands of people undergo surgery of the ... plan to avoid appearing in public for about a week due to swelling and ...

  7. Summary of JPL Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight programs, including past, present and future missions targeting Solar System exploration. Details, including launch dates and batteries used, are given for Deep Space 1 (Asteroid Rendezvous), Deep Space 2 (Mars Penetrator), Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Surveyor '98, Stardust, Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor 2001, Mars 2003 Lander and Rover, and Genesis (Solar Dust Return). Earth science projects are also outlined: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ARIMSAT), Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon), Jason-1 (TOPEX follow-on), and QuikScat/Seawinds (Ocean Winds Tracking). The status, background, and plans are given for several batteries: (1) 2.5 inch common pressure vessel (CPV), (2) 3.5 inch CPV, (3) Ni-H2, and (4) Li-Ion.

  8. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Plans for evaluating, designing, fabricating, transporting and deploying cost effective and STS compatible offset wrap rib antennas up to 300 meters in diameter for mobile communications, Earth resources observation, and for the orbiting VLBI are reviewed. The JPL surface measurement system, intended for large mesh deployable antenna applications will be demonstrated and validated as part of the antenna ground based demonstration program. Results of the offset wrap rib deployable antenna technology development will include: (1) high confidence structural designs for antennas up to 100 meters in diameter; (2) high confidence estimates of functional performance and fabrication cost for a wide range of antenna sizes (up to 300 meters in diameter); (3) risk assessment for fabricating the large size antennas; and (4) 55 meter diameter flight quality hardware that can be cost effectively completed toto accommodate a flight experiment and/or application.

  9. Rapid prediction of ochratoxin A-producing strains of Penicillium on dry-cured meat by MOS-based electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Vincenzo; Ferrara, Massimo; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Damascelli, Anna; Epifani, Filomena; Pascale, Michelangelo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2016-02-02

    The availability of rapid diagnostic methods for monitoring ochratoxigenic species during the seasoning processes for dry-cured meats is crucial and constitutes a key stage in order to prevent the risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. A rapid, easy-to-perform and non-invasive method using an electronic nose (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) was developed to discriminate dry-cured meat samples in two classes based on the fungal contamination: class P (samples contaminated by OTA-producing Penicillium strains) and class NP (samples contaminated by OTA non-producing Penicillium strains). Two OTA-producing strains of Penicillium nordicum and two OTA non-producing strains of Penicillium nalgiovense and Penicillium salamii, were tested. The feasibility of this approach was initially evaluated by e-nose analysis of 480 samples of both Yeast extract sucrose (YES) and meat-based agar media inoculated with the tested Penicillium strains and incubated up to 14 days. The high recognition percentages (higher than 82%) obtained by Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), either in calibration and cross-validation (leave-more-out approach), for both YES and meat-based samples demonstrated the validity of the used approach. The e-nose method was subsequently developed and validated for the analysis of dry-cured meat samples. A total of 240 e-nose analyses were carried out using inoculated sausages, seasoned by a laboratory-scale process and sampled at 5, 7, 10 and 14 days. DFA provided calibration models that permitted discrimination of dry-cured meat samples after only 5 days of seasoning with mean recognition percentages in calibration and cross-validation of 98 and 88%, respectively. A further validation of the developed e-nose method was performed using 60 dry-cured meat samples produced by an industrial-scale seasoning process showing a total recognition percentage of 73%. The pattern of volatile compounds of dry-cured meat samples was identified and

  10. The Verification of the Usefulness of Electronic Nose Based on Ultra-Fast Gas Chromatography and Four Different Chemometric Methods for Rapid Analysis of Spirit Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Dymerski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Spirit beverages are a diverse group of foodstuffs. They are very often counterfeited which cause the appearance of low quality products or wrongly labelled products on the market. It is important to find a proper quality control and botanical origin method enabling the same time preliminary check of the composition of investigated samples, which was the main goal of this work. For this purpose, the usefulness of electronic nose based on ultra-fast gas chromatography (fast GC e-nose) was verified. A set of 24 samples of raw spirits, 33 samples of vodkas, and 8 samples of whisky were analysed by fast GC e-nose. Four data analysis methods were used. The PCA was applied for the visualization of dataset, observation of the variation inside groups of samples, and selection of variables for the other three statistical methods. The SQC method was utilized to compare the quality of the samples. Both the DFA and SIMCA data analysis methods were used for discrimination of vodka, whisky, and spirits samples. The fast GC e-nose combined with four statistical methods can be used for rapid discrimination of raw spirits, vodkas, and whisky and in the same for preliminary determination of the composition of investigated samples. PMID:27446633

  11. Nonlinear Least-Squares Based Method for Identifying and Quantifying Single and Mixed Contaminants in Air with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hanying; Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Ryan, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has recently developed and built an electronic nose (ENose) using a polymer-carbon composite sensing array. This ENose is designed to be used for air quality monitoring in an enclosed space, and is designed to detect, identify and quantify common contaminants at concentrations in the parts-per-million range. Its capabilities were demonstrated in an experiment aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Flight STS-95. This paper describes a modified nonlinear least-squares based algorithm developed to analyze data taken by the ENose, and its performance for the identification and quantification of single gases and binary mixtures of twelve target analytes in clean air. Results from laboratory-controlled events demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm to identify and quantify a gas event if concentration exceeds the ENose detection threshold. Results from the flight test demonstrate that the algorithm correctly identifies and quantifies all registered events (planned or unplanned, as singles or mixtures) with no false positives and no inconsistencies with the logged events and the independent analysis of air samples.

  12. A Wireless Electronic Nose System Using a Fe2O3 Gas Sensing Array and Least Squares Support Vector Regression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hongquan; Cheng, Yingguo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless electronic nose (WEN) system which can online detect the combustible gases methane and hydrogen (CH4/H2) and estimate their concentrations, either singly or in mixtures. The system is composed of two wireless sensor nodes—a slave node and a master node. The former comprises a Fe2O3 gas sensing array for the combustible gas detection, a digital signal processor (DSP) system for real-time sampling and processing the sensor array data and a wireless transceiver unit (WTU) by which the detection results can be transmitted to the master node connected with a computer. A type of Fe2O3 gas sensor insensitive to humidity is developed for resistance to environmental influences. A threshold-based least square support vector regression (LS-SVR)estimator is implemented on a DSP for classification and concentration measurements. Experimental results confirm that LS-SVR produces higher accuracy compared with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and a faster convergence rate than the standard support vector regression (SVR). The designed WEN system effectively achieves gas mixture analysis in a real-time process. PMID:22346587

  13. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  14. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model (UMOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Martinez-Sierra, Luz Maria; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is the development of a comprehensive radiation model (UMOD) of the Uranian environment for JPL mission planning. The ultimate goal is to provide a description of the high energy electron and proton environments and the magnetic field at Uranus that can be used for engineering design. Currently no model exists at JPL. A preliminary electron radiation model employing Voyager 2 data was developed by Selesnick and Stone in 1991. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model extends that analysis, which modeled electrons between 0.7 MeV and 2.5 MeV based on the Voyager Cosmic Ray Subsystem electron telescope, down to an energy of 0.022 MeV for electrons and from 0.028 MeV to 3.5 MeV for protons. These latter energy ranges are based on measurements by the Applied Physics Laboratory Low Energy Charged Particle Detector on Voyager 2. As in previous JPL radiation models, the form of the Uranian model is based on magnetic field coordinates and requires a conversion from spacecraft coordinates to Uranian-centered magnetic "B-L" coordinates. Two magnetic field models have been developed for Uranus: 1) a simple "offset, tilted dipole" (OTD), and 2) a complex, multi-pole expansion model ("Q3"). A review of the existing data on Uranus and a search of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) were completed to obtain the latest, up to date descriptions of the Uranian high energy particle environment. These data were fit in terms of the Q3 B-L coordinates to extend and update the original Selesnick and Stone electron model in energy and to develop the companion proton flux model. The flux predictions of the new model were used to estimate the total ionizing dose for the Voyager 2 flyby, and a movie illustrating the complex radiation belt variations was produced to document the uses of the model for planning purposes.

  15. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  16. Effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples on diagnostic accuracy of electronic nose analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Brinkman, P; Bos, L D J; Angelo, M D; Nijsen, T M E; Raabe, R; Knobel, H H; Vink, T J; Sterk, P J

    2013-03-01

    Many (multi-centre) breath-analysis studies require transport and storage of samples. We aimed to test the effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples for diagnostic accuracy of eNose and GC-MS analysis. As a reference standard for diagnostic accuracy, breath samples of asthmatic patients and healthy controls were analysed by three eNose devices. Samples were analysed by GC-MS and eNose after 1, 7 and 14 days of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes. The diagnostic accuracy for eNose and GC-MS after storage was compared to the reference standard. As a validation, the stability was assessed of 15 compounds known to be related to asthma, abundant in breath or related to sampling and analysis. The reference test discriminated asthma and healthy controls with a median AUC (range) of 0.77 (0.72-0.76). Similar accuracies were achieved at t1 (AUC eNose 0.78; GC-MS 0.84), t7 (AUC eNose 0.76; GC-MS 0.79) and t14 (AUC eNose 0.83; GC-MS 0.84). The GC-MS analysis of compounds showed an adequate stability for all 15 compounds during the 14 day period. Short-term transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of breath samples does not influence the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between asthma and health by eNose and GC-MS.

  17. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  18. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  19. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  20. Improved Maturity and Ripeness Classifications of Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis Mangoes through Sensor Fusion of an Electronic Nose and Acoustic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Saad, Fathinul Syahir Ahmad; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. However, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. This paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electronic nose and an acoustic sensor. Three groups of samples each from two different harvesting times (week 7 and week 8) were evaluated by the e-nose and then followed by the acoustic sensor. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to discriminate the mango harvested at week 7 and week 8 based solely on the aroma and volatile gases released from the mangoes. However, when six different groups of different maturity and ripeness levels were combined in one classification analysis, both PCA and LDA were unable to discriminate the age difference of the Harumanis mangoes. Instead of six different groups, only four were observed using the LDA, while PCA showed only two distinct groups. By applying a low level data fusion technique on the e-nose and acoustic data, the classification for maturity and ripeness levels using LDA was improved. However, no significant improvement was observed using PCA with data fusion technique. Further work using a hybrid LDA-Competitive Learning Neural Network was performed to validate the fusion technique and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA-CLNN was also improved significantly when data fusion was applied. PMID:22778629

  1. Proceedings of the 11th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop forum held to report science research and applications results with spectral images measured by the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). These papers were presented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from March 5-8, 2001. Electronic versions of these papers may be found at the A VIRIS Web http://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.proceedings.html

  2. Electronic nose screening of ethanol release during sol-gel encapsulation. A novel non-invasive method to test silica polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Lovino, Magalí; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Zubiri, Diana B V; Bernik, Delia L

    2005-12-15

    Porous silica matrices prepared by sol-gel process yield biocompatible materials adequate for encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs. The procedure is simple and fast, but when alkoxyde precursors like tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) are used the polymerisation reaction leads to the formation of alcohol as a by-product, which can produce undesirable effects on the activity of entrapped enzymes or modify a drug release kinetic. Therefore, it is critical to determine that no remnant ethanol is left prior using or storing the obtained biomaterial. In this regard, the technique used in the alcohol determination should be non-invasive and non-destructive to preserve the encapsulation device intact and ready to use. In this work we have successfully used a portable electronic nose (e-nose) for the screening of silica polymerisation process during theophylline encapsulation. TEOS reaction was "smelt" since precursor pre-hydrolysis until the end of ethanol release, sensed directly at the headspace of matrices slabs. Measurements showed that ethanol was negligible since 10th day in polymeric slabs of 10 mm width and 2 cm diameter. This first use of e-nose following a polymerisation reaction opens a wide number of putative applications in pharmaceutical and biochemical fields.

  3. A miniature electronic nose system based on an MWNT-polymer microsensor array and a low-power signal-processing chip.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Chou, Ting-I; Chen, Hsin; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces a power-efficient, miniature electronic nose (e-nose) system. The e-nose system primarily comprises two self-developed chips, a multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-polymer based microsensor array, and a low-power signal-processing chip. The microsensor array was fabricated on a silicon wafer by using standard photolithography technology. The microsensor array comprised eight interdigitated electrodes surrounded by SU-8 "walls," which restrained the material-solvent liquid in a defined area of 650 × 760 μm(2). To achieve a reliable sensor-manufacturing process, we used a two-layer deposition method, coating the MWNTs and polymer film as the first and second layers, respectively. The low-power signal-processing chip included array data acquisition circuits and a signal-processing core. The MWNT-polymer microsensor array can directly connect with array data acquisition circuits, which comprise sensor interface circuitry and an analog-to-digital converter; the signal-processing core consists of memory and a microprocessor. The core executes the program, classifying the odor data received from the array data acquisition circuits. The low-power signal-processing chip was designed and fabricated using the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company 0.18-μm 1P6M standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process. The chip consumes only 1.05 mW of power at supply voltages of 1 and 1.8 V for the array data acquisition circuits and the signal-processing core, respectively. The miniature e-nose system, which used a microsensor array, a low-power signal-processing chip, and an embedded k-nearest-neighbor-based pattern recognition algorithm, was developed as a prototype that successfully recognized the complex odors of tincture, sorghum wine, sake, whisky, and vodka.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  5. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  6. JPL Development Ephemeris number 96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.; Keesey, M. S. W.; Newhall, X. X.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth issue of JPL Planetary Ephemerides, designated JPL Development Ephemeris No. 96 (DE96), is described. This ephemeris replaces a previous issue which has become obsolete since its release in 1969. Improvements in this issue include more recent and more accurate observational data, new types of data, better processing of the data, and refined equations of motion which more accurately describe the actual physics of the solar system. The descriptions in this report include these new features as well as the new export version of the ephemeris. The tapes and requisite software will be distributed through the NASA Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  7. Bioconversion study conducted by JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of Caltech conducted a study of bioconversion as a means of identifying the role of biomass for meeting the national energy fuel and chemical requirements and the role and means for JPL-Caltech involvement in bioconversion. The bioconversion study included the following categories; biomass sources, chemicals from biomass, thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels, biological conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals, and basic bioconversion sciences. A detailed review is included of the bioconversion fields cited with specific conclusions and recommendations given for future research and development and overall biomass system engineering and economic studies.

  8. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  9. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process. PMID:25330048

  10. Development of electronic nose and near infrared spectroscopy analysis techniques to monitor the critical time in SSF process of feed protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-10-17

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  11. Space Images for NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

  12. JPL nuclear electric propulsion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Tom; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, Jay

    1993-01-01

    The development of lithium magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters at JPL is discussed. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: mercury vapor mass flow control; porous tungsten vaporizer and housing; the lithium vaporizer experiment; a dry box for handling solid lithium; MPD thruster electrode modeling; engine lifetime definitions; cathode failure modeling; cathode erosion modeling; cathode thermal modeling; near cathode plasma model regions; cathode work function modeling; anode work function modeling; and radiation-cooled anodes.

  13. Nose Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable. Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include Deviated septum - ...

  14. Electronic nose and isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for the characterization of the geographical origin of Italian sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Ventrella, A; Mazzilli, V; Nardelli, A; Sacco, D; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A

    2015-03-01

    Sweet cherries from two Italian regions, Apulia and Emilia Romagna, were analysed using electronic nose (EN) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), with the aim of distinguishing them according to their geographic origin. The data were elaborated by statistical techniques, examining the EN and IRMS datasets both separately and in combination. Preliminary exploratory overviews were performed and then linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were used for classification. Regarding EN, different approaches for variable selection were tested, and the most suitable strategies were highlighted. The LDA classification results were expressed in terms of recognition and prediction abilities and it was found that both EN and IRMS performed well, with IRMS showing better cross-validated prediction ability (91.0%); the EN-IRMS combination gave slightly better results (92.3%). In order to validate the final results, the models were tested using an external set of samples with excellent results.

  15. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  16. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  17. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa; 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential. PMID:27484292

  18. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  19. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  20. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+ and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses, and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted by using a steady state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge-exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  1. Love Acoustic Wave-Based Devices and Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers as Versatile Sensors for Electronic Nose or Tongue for Cancer Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Dejous, Corinne; Hallil, Hamida; Raimbault, Vincent; Lachaud, Jean-Luc; Plano, Bernard; Delépée, Raphaël; Favetta, Patrick; Agrofoglio, Luigi; Rebière, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and actual analytical techniques are restrictive in detecting it. Thus, there is still a challenge, as well as a need, for the development of quantitative non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of cancers and the follow-up care of patients. We introduce first the overall interest of electronic nose or tongue for such application of microsensors arrays with data processing in complex media, either gas (e.g., Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs as biomarkers in breath) or liquid (e.g., modified nucleosides as urinary biomarkers). Then this is illustrated with a versatile acoustic wave transducer, functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized for adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) as a model for nucleosides. The device including the thin film coating is described, then static measurements with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical characterization after each step of the sensitive MIP process (deposit, removal of AMP template, capture of AMP target) demonstrate the thin film functionality. Dynamic measurements with a microfluidic setup and four targets are presented afterwards. They show a sensitivity of 5 Hz·ppm−1 of the non-optimized microsensor for AMP detection, with a specificity of three times compared to PMPA, and almost nil sensitivity to 3′AMP and CMP, in accordance with previously published results on bulk MIP. PMID:27331814

  2. 2012 Robotics Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Robotics Section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, is engaged in a full spectrum of flight project and research activities. This paper will provide an overview of these efforts, and discuss the recent accomplishments and future directions of them. Specific activities will be high- lighted based on their level of accomplishment, impact on the community, maturity, or novelty. Robotics activities on flight projects are a significant subset of the full effort for these large missions. Complementing flight activities is a diverse set of research efforts for NASA and other U.S. Government agencies. Future directions will be motivated by NASA and other sponsor objectives, as well as success experienced in these current endeavours.

  3. Modernizing the JPL VLBI Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogstad, S.; Goodhart, C. E.; Clark, J. E.; Finley, S.; Lanyi, G. E.; White, L. A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.>

    This poster will present the current capabilities of the JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) and the general architecture of the equipment. In addition, the scientific and navigation uses of the JVC will be enumerated for background purposes. The JVC is a software correlator based on a Beowulf cluster of computers. It replaces a thirty year old correlator based on custom designed digital hardware. General comparisons between the old and new equipment will be made. The JVC makes use of a separate program, SoftC, to do the actual correlations. The JVC manages the sending of data to multiple machines in a Beowulf cluster each running SoftC in parallel on small chunks of the data. The basic architecture of SoftC will also be described.

  4. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  5. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  6. Uncertainties in the JPL planetary ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.

    2011-10-01

    The numerically integrated planetary ephemerides by JPL, IMCCE, and IPA are largely based on the same observation set and dynamical models. The differences between ephemerides are expected to be consistent within uncertainties. Uncertainties in the orbits of the major planets and the dwarf planet Pluto based on recent analysis at JPL are described.

  7. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun

    2013-07-01

    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils.

  8. Using multilayer perceptron computation to discover ideal insect olfactory receptor combinations in the mosquito and fruit fly for an efficient electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae use 60 and 79 odorant receptors, respectively, to sense their olfactory world. However, a commercial "electronic nose" in the form of an insect olfactory biosensor demands very low numbers of receptors at its front end of detection due to the difficulties of receptor/sensor integration and functionalization. In this letter, we demonstrate how computation via artificial neural networks (ANNs), in the form of multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), can be successfully incorporated as the signal processing back end of the biosensor to drastically reduce the number of receptors to three while still retaining 100% performance of odorant detection to that of a full complement of receptors. In addition, we provide a detailed performance comparison between D. melanogaster and A. gambiae odorant receptors and demonstrate that A. gambiae receptors provide superior olfaction detection performance over D. melanogaster for very low receptor numbers. The results from this study present the possibility of using the computation of MLPs to discover ideal biological olfactory receptors for an olfactory biosensor device to provide maximum classification performance of unknown odorants.

  9. The crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Papel, Ira D

    2011-04-01

    Straightening a crooked nose is a challenge. Several techniques exist ranging from simple to technically complex. It is important to approach the nose systematically and to remember that perfection may be impossible to achieve. If straightening is not attainable, softening grafts or onlay grafts should be used to camouflage subtle irregularities.

  10. MEMS Micropropulsion Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen; Chakraborty, Indrani; Vargo, Stephen; Bame, David; Marrese, Colleen; Tang, William C.

    1999-01-01

    A status of MEMS-based micropropulsion activities conducted at JPL will be given. These activities include work conducted on the so called Vaporizing Liquid Micro-Thruster (VLM) which recently underwent proof-of-concept testing, demonstrating the ability to vaporize water propellant at 2 W and 2 V. Micro-ion engine technologies, such m field emitter arrays and micro-grids are being studied. Focus in the field emitter area is on arrays able to survive in thruster plumes and micro-ion engine plasmas to serve as neutralizers aW engine cathodes. Integrated, batch-fabricated Ion repeller grid structures are being studied as well as different emitter tip materials are being investigated to meet these goals. A micro-isolation valve is being studied to isolate microspacecraft feed system during long interplanetary cruises, avoiding leakage and prolonging lifetime and reliability of such systems. This concept relies on the melting of a thin silicon barrier. Burst pressure values as high as 2,900 psig were obtained for these valves and power requirements to melt barriers ranging between 10 - 50 microns in thickness, as determined through thermal finite element calculations, varied between 10 - 30 W to be applied over a duration of merely 0.5 ms.

  11. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  12. Radar Technology Development at NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar at JPL and worldwide is enjoying a period of unprecedented development. JPL's science-driven program focuses on exploiting commercially available components to build new technologies to meet NASA's science goals. Investments in onboard-processing, advanced digital systems, and efficient high-power devices, point to a new generation of high-performance scientific SAR systems in the US. Partnerships are a key strategy for US missions in the coming decade

  13. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She…

  14. Electronic nose to detect volatile compound profile and quality changes in 'spring Belle' peach (Prunus persica L.) during cold storage in relation to fruit optical properties measured by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Bianchi, Giulia; Vanoli, Maristella; Lurie, Susan; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to study the relationships between electronic nose (E-nose) pattern, maturity class of peaches assessed at harvest by means of absorption coefficient at 670 nm (μ(a)670) measured in fruit pulp by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), and quality evolution during a 4 week cold storage. 'Spring Belle' peaches were measured for μ(a)670 by TRS, ranked according to decreasing μ(a)670 value, divided into three TRS maturity classes (less (LeM), medium (MeM), and more (MoM) mature), and randomized into 9 samples of 30 fruit each, so that fruits from the whole μ(a)670 range were present in each sample. At harvest and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 0 and 4 °C, fruits of each sample were evaluated for firmness, expressible juice, μ(a)670, and ethylene production. LeM and MoM peaches of each sample were analyzed for aroma pattern by a commercial electronic nose and by static HS-GC and for sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) and organic acid (quinic, malic, and citric acids) compositions by HPLC. Principal component analysis (PCA) of electronic nose data emphasized the ability of the E-nose to assess the ripening stage of fruit associated with maturity class, storage time, and storage temperature. The sensors having the highest influence on the pattern were W5S in PC-1, W1S in PC-2, and W2S in PC-3. From linear correlation analysis between PCs and firmness, flavor, and volatile compounds, it was found that PC-1 was related to ethylene production and volatile compounds (mainly acetate esters and ethanol); the highest PC-1 scores were found for fruit belonging to the MoM class after 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C, which showed the rise in ethylene production coupled with the highest total volatile production and sugar and acid composition of ripe peach fruits. PC-2 correlated with hexanal, ethyl acetate, and sugar composition, and PC-3 was mainly related to flavor compounds; both functions significantly changed with

  15. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  16. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, Brian Arthur; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  17. The NASA-JPL advanced propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) consists of two main areas: The first involves cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; the second involves research at universities and industry that is directly supported by JPL. The cooperative research program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C-60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry- supported research includes research (modeling and proof-of-concept experiments) in advanced, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion. These propulsion concepts were selected primarily to cover a range of applications from near-term to far-term missions. For example, the long-lived pulsed-xenon thruster research that JPL is supporting at Princeton University addresses the near-term need for efficient, long-life attitude control and station-keeping propulsion for Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The C-60-propellant ion engine has the potential for good efficiency in a relatively low specific impulse (Isp) range (10,000 - 30,000 m/s) that is optimum for relatively fast (less than 100 day) cis-lunar (LEO/GEO/Lunar) missions employing near-term, high-specific mass electric propulsion vehicles. Research and modeling on the C-60-ion engine are currently being performed by JPL (engine demonstration), Caltech (C-60 properties), MIT (plume modeling), and USC (diagnostics). The Li-propellant LFA engine also has good efficiency in the modest Isp range (40,000 - 50,000 m/s) that is optimum for near-to-mid-term megawatt-class solar- and nuclear-electric propulsion vehicles used for Mars missions transporting cargo (in support of a piloted mission). Research and modeling on the Li-LFA engine are currently being performed by JPL (cathode development), Moscow Aviation

  18. The MPD thruster program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, James; Pivirotto, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The main topics covered include: (1) the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) context; (2) critical issues of MPD Thruster design; and (3) the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster Program at JPL. Under the section on the SEI context the nuclear electric propulsion system and some electric thruster options are addressed. The critical issues of MPD Thruster development deal with the requirements, status, and approach taken. The following areas are covered with respect to the MPD Thruster Program at JPL: (1) the radiation-cooled MPD thruster; (2) the High-Current Cathode Test Facility; (3) thruster component thermal modeling; and (4) alkali metal propellant studies.

  19. Stuffy or runny nose - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Common Cold Drug Reactions Nose Injuries and Disorders Sinusitis Browse ...

  20. Runny and stuffy nose (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny or stuffy nose can be due to colds, allergies, sinus infections or the flu. When there is an excess of mucus secretions the nose is runny. The additional secretions drain from the front of the nose, or down the back (post- ...

  1. The JPL/KSC telerobotic inspection demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David; Bon, Bruce; Collins, Carol; Fleischer, Gerry; Litwin, Todd; Morrison, Jack; Omeara, Jacquie; Peters, Stephen; Brogdon, John; Humeniuk, Bob

    1990-01-01

    An ASEA IRB90 robotic manipulator with attached inspection cameras was moved through a Space Shuttle Payload Assist Module (PAM) Cradle under computer control. The Operator and Operator Control Station, including graphics simulation, gross-motion spatial planning, and machine vision processing, were located at JPL. The Safety and Support personnel, PAM Cradle, IRB90, and image acquisition system, were stationed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Images captured at KSC were used both for processing by a machine vision system at JPL, and for inspection by the JPL Operator. The system found collision-free paths through the PAM Cradle, demonstrated accurate knowledge of the location of both objects of interest and obstacles, and operated with a communication delay of two seconds. Safe operation of the IRB90 near Shuttle flight hardware was obtained both through the use of a gross-motion spatial planner developed at JPL using artificial intelligence techniques, and infrared beams and pressure sensitive strips mounted to the critical surfaces of the flight hardward at KSC. The Demonstration showed that telerobotics is effective for real tasks, safe for personnel and hardware, and highly productive and reliable for Shuttle payload operations and Space Station external operations.

  2. JPL Testbed Image of Airbag Retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the deflated airbags retracted underneath the lander petal at the JPL In-Situ Instrument Laboratory. Retracting the airbags helps clear the path for the rover to roll off the lander and onto the martian surface.

  3. The JPL Cryogenic Dilatometer: Measuring the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Dudick, Matthew J.; Karlmann, Paul; Klein, Kerry J.; Levine, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Parker, Tyler J.; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart; VanBuren, David

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation details the cryogenic dilatometer, which is used by JPL to measure the thermal expansion coefficient of materials used in Aerospace. Included is a system diagram, a picture of the dilatometer chamber and the laser source, a description of the laser source, pictures of the interferometer, block diagrams of the electronics and software and a picture of the electronics, and software. Also there is a brief review of the accurace.error budget. The materials tested are also described, and the results are shown in strain curves, JPL measured strain fits are described, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is also shown for the materials tested.

  4. GRACE Harmonic and Mascon Solutions at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Yuan, D.; Kuang, D.; Bertiger, W.; Kim, M.; Kruizinga, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    Gravity field solutions at JPL over the past few years have explored use of range, range-rate, and range-acceleration K/Ka-band satellite-satellite data types (with and without GPS), and with both spherical harmonic and mascon-type local mass representations. Until recently, resource and computing limitations have limited the scope of our mascon and other local solutions to a few months and/or small spatial regions and the standard GRACE products have remained spherical harmonic fields. The use of a new very large (~500 node) beowulf machine at JPL is now enabling a wider range of solutions over longer time spans and deeper understanding of their characteristics. These include much higher spherical harmonic degrees, mascons, and hybrids of the two. We will present the current status for several solution types, strengths and weaknesses of each, and our assessments of limiting errors including data noise and aliasing sensitivity.

  5. MEMS Reliability Assurance Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, S.; Lawton, R.; Stark, B.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) reliability assurance and qualification activities at JPL is presented along with the a discussion of characterization of MEMS structures implemented on single crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, CMOS, and LIGA processes. Additionally, common failure modes and mechanisms affecting MEMS structures, including radiation effects, are discussed. Common reliability and qualification practices contained in the MEMS Reliability Assurance Guideline are also presented.

  6. JPL's role in the SETI program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the JPL SETI Team is to develop the strategies and the instrumentation required to carry out an effective, yet affordable, SETI Microwave Observing Program. The primary responsibility for JPL is the development and implementation of the Sky Survey component of the bimodal search program recommended by the SETI Science Working Group (NASA Technical Paper 2244, 1983). JPL is also responsible for the design and implementation of microwave analog instrumentation (including antenna feed systems, low noise RF amplifiers, antenna monitor and control interfaces, etc.) to cover the microwave window for the Sky Survey and the Target Search observations. The primary site for the current SETI Field Test activity is the Venus Station of the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. A SETI controller was constructed and installed so that pre-programmed and real time SETI monitor and control data can be sent to and from the station controller. This unit will be interfaced with the MCSA. A SETI Hardware Handbook was prepared to describe the various systems that will be used by the project at the Venus Station; the handbook is frequently being expanded and updated. The 65,000 channel FFT Spectrum analyzer in the RFI Surveillance System was modified to permit operation with variable resolutions (300 Hz to less than 1 Hz) and with real-time accumulation, which will enhance the capability of the system for testing Sky Survey search strategies and signal detection algorithms.

  7. JPL Earth Science Center Visualization Multitouch Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.

    2014-12-01

    JPL Earth Science Center Visualization table is a specialized software and hardware to allow multitouch, multiuser, and remote display control to create seamlessly integrated experiences to visualize JPL missions and their remote sensing data. The software is fully GIS capable through time aware OGC WMTS using Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal as the GIS backend to continuously ingest and retrieve realtime remote sending data and satellite location data. 55 inch and 82 inch unlimited finger count multitouch displays allows multiple users to explore JPL Earth missions and visualize remote sensing data through very intuitive and interactive touch graphical user interface. To improve the integrated experience, Earth Science Center Visualization Table team developed network streaming which allows table software to stream data visualization to near by remote display though computer network. The purpose of this visualization/presentation tool is not only to support earth science operation, but specifically designed for education and public outreach and will significantly contribute to STEM. Our presentation will include overview of our software, hardware, and showcase of our system.

  8. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  9. Nose: Applied Aspects in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Dammaningala Venkataramaiah; Shilpa, Kanathur; Nataraja, Holavanahally Veerabhadrappa; Divya, Kallapa Gorur

    2016-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the mid-face and has important physiological, aesthetic and psychological functions. Skin diseases on the nose are commonly seen by dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and plastic surgeons. Because of its exposed, highly visible localization, lesions on the skin of the nose are often noticed by patients themselves, typically very early in the course of the disease. Similarly, the dermatological lexicon is well known with descriptive terminologies, synonyms, acronyms, eponyms, toponyms, misnomers. We have tried to compile the anatomical applications of nose in cosmetology and dermatosurgery subspecialities with nasal eponyms and signs encountered in clinical dermatology that would be helpful for residents. PMID:27057038

  10. Space Images for NASA JPL Android Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Jon D.; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Strom, Joshua R.; Arca, Jeremy M.; Perez, Martin; Boggs, Karen; Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the demand for easily accessible NASA JPL images and videos by providing a user friendly and simple graphical user interface that can be run via the Android platform from any location where Internet connection is available. This app is complementary to the iPhone version of the application. A backend infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal and Institutional Communications Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure. This system consists of four distinguishing components: image repository, database, server-side logic, and Android mobile application. The image repository contains images from various JPL flight projects. The database stores the image information as well as the user rating. The server-side logic retrieves the image information from the database and categorizes each image for display. The Android mobile application is an interfacing delivery system that retrieves the image information from the server for each Android mobile device user. Also created is a reporting and tracking system for charting and monitoring usage. Unlike other Android mobile image applications, this system uses the latest emerging technologies to produce image listings based directly on user input. This allows for countless combinations of images returned. The backend infrastructure uses industry-standard coding and database methods, enabling future software improvement and technology updates. The flexibility of the system design framework permits multiple levels of display possibilities and provides integration capabilities. Unique features of the software include image/video retrieval from a selected set of categories, image Web links that can be shared among e-mail users, sharing to Facebook/Twitter, marking as user's favorites, and image metadata searchable for instant results.

  11. DOE/JPL advanced thermionic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments in the DOE program include: continuing stable output from the combustion life test of the one-inch diameter hemispherical silicon carbine diode (Converter No. 239) at an emitter temperature of 1730 K for a period of over 4200 hours; construction of four diode module completed; favorable results obtained from TAM combustor-gas turbine system analyses; and obtained a FERP work function of 2.3 eV with the W(100)-O-Zr-C electrode. JPL program accomplishments include: the average minimum barrier index of the last six research diodes built with sublimed molybdenum oxide collectors was 20 eV (WHK).

  12. JPL VLBI Analysis Center Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI Analysis Center for the year 2012. The highlight of the year was the successful MSL rover Mars landing, which was supported by VLBI-based navigation using our combined spacecraft, celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, earth orientation, and planetary ephemeris VLBI systems. We also supported several other missions with VLBI navigation measurements. A combined NASA-ESA network was demonstrated with first Ka-band fringes to ESA's Malargue, Argentina 35 m. We achieved first fringes with our new digital back end and Mark 5C recorders.

  13. NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, N. (Editor); Evans, D. L. (Editor); Held, D. N. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Speaker-supplied summaries of the talks given at the NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop on February 4 and 5, 1985, are provided. These talks dealt mostly with composite quadpolarization imagery from a geologic or ecologic prespective. An overview and summary of the system characteristics of the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) flown on the NASA CV-990 aircraft are included as supplementary information. Other topics ranging from phase imagery and interferometric techniques classifications of specific areas, and the potentials and limitations of SAR imagery in various applications are discussed.

  14. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  15. JPL stories: story on the story (series) Careering through JPL, presented by Alice M. Fairhurst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alice Fairhurst, co-author of Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, presented an enthusiastic overview of her tenure as a JPL career development and mentoring coordinator (1991-2001). Among other things, Alice is an expert in Keirseyian Temperament and Myers-Briggs typology.

  16. Evaluating Soil Moisture Status Using an e-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Bieganowski, Andrzej; Jaromin-Glen, Katarzyna; Guz, Łukasz; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jozefaciuk, Grzegorz; Franus, Wojciech; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of distinguishing different soil moisture levels by electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. Ten arable soils of various types were investigated. The measurements were performed for air-dry (AD) soils stored for one year, then moistened to field water capacity and finally dried within a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints changed during the course of drying. At the end of the drying cycle, the fingerprints were similar to those of the initial AD soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that e-nose results can be used to distinguish soil moisture. It was also shown that different soils can give different e-nose signals at the same moistures. PMID:27338404

  17. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  18. Archived 1976-1985 JPL Aircraft SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Blom, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes archived data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) aircraft radar expeditions in the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s collected by Ron Blom, JPL Radar Geologist. The dataset was collected during Ron's career at JPL from the 1970s through 2015. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in the 1970s and 1980s were recorded optically on long strips of film. SAR imagery was produced via an optical, holographic technique that resulted in long strips of film imagery.

  19. Status of the JPL Horizons Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.

    2015-08-01

    Since 1996, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on-line Horizons system has provided open access to the latest JPL orbit solutions through customizable ephemeris generation and searches. Currently, high-precision ephemerides for more than 683,000 objects are available: all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, system barycenters, and some libration points.Since inception, Horizons has produced 150 million ephemeris products in response to 70.4 million connections by 800,000 unique IP addresses. Recent usage is typically 6000 unique users requesting 4,000,000 ephemeris products per month.Horizons is freely accessible without an account and may be used and automated through any of three interfaces: interactive telnet connection, web-browser form, or by sending e-mail command-files.Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated on request using JPL's DASTCOM5 database of initial conditions which is kept current by a separate process; as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center, they are automatically processed into new JPL orbit solutions. Radar targets and other objects of high interest have their orbit solutions manually examined and updated into the database.For asteroids and comets, SPK files may be dynamically created using Horizons. This is effectively a recording of the integrator output. The binary files may then be efficiently interpolated by user software to exactly reproduce the trajectory without having to duplicate the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion.Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, and close-approach tables. More than one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For asteroids and comets, statistical uncertainties can be mapped to output times to assess position and motion uncertainties.Horizons is consistent with the DE431 solar system solution

  20. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  1. Electronic neuroprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1991-01-01

    The JPL Center for Space Microelectronics Technology (CSMT) is actively pursuing research in the neural network theory, algorithms, and electronics as well as optoelectronic neural net hardware implementations, to explore the strengths and application potential for a variety of NASA, DoD, as well as commercial application problems, where conventional computing techniques are extremely time-consuming, cumbersome, or simply non-existent. An overview of the JPL electronic neural network hardware development activities and some of the striking applications of the JPL electronic neuroprocessors are presented.

  2. JPL Ultrastable Trapped Ion Atomic Frequency Standards.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric A; Yi, Lin; Tucker, Blake; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Recently, room temperature trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on three directions: 1) ultrastable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate stability performance and autonomous timekeeping; 2) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements; and 3) miniature clocks. In this paper, we concentrate on the first direction and present a design and the initial results from a new ultrastable clock referred to as L10 that achieves a short-term stability of 4.5 ×10(-14)/τ(1/2) and an initial measurement of no significant drift with an uncertainty of 2.4 ×10(-16) /day over a two-week period.

  3. Operations at the JPL OCTL Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit; Roberts, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) is a 200 sq-m located at 2.2.km altitude in Wrightwood California and houses a state-of-the-art 1-m telescope. The OCTL team is involved in the development of operational strategies for ground-to-space laser beam propagation for future NASA optical communications missions. Strategies include safe beam propagation through navigable air space, line of sight optical attenuation monitoring, adaptive optics, and multi-beam scintillation mitigation. This paper presents the results of recent operations at the OCTL facility including telescope characterization data and laser beam propagation experiments to Earth-orbiting retro-reflecting satellites; experiments that validate the telescope's tracking and blind-pointing performance and safe laser beam transmission procedures for propagating through navigable airspace.

  4. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cold day, your nose tries its best to warm up the cold air you breathe before sending it ... inside your nostrils open wider (dilate), helping to warm up that air. But that extra blood flow leads ...

  5. Stuffy or runny nose - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 143. Read More Common cold Flu H1N1 influenza (Swine flu) Otitis Sinusitis Patient ...

  6. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  7. Desirements of Next Generation Spacecraft Interconnects : The JPL NEXUS Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yutao; Some, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of NEXUS (NEXt bUS) (1) A research task funded by JPL R&TD program (2) Develop a common highly-capable next generation avionics interconnect with the following features: (a) Transparently compatible with wired, fiber-optic, and RF physical layers (b) A clear and feasible path-to-flight to ensure infusion into future NASA/JPL missions

  8. Nonaerospace uses of JPL technology: a report on technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This report examines various nonaerospace applications of JPL technology. JPL has developed and applied a number of models for the effective transfer of space technology to uses in the public and private sector. Successful technology transfers were achieved in the following areas: chromosome analysis mass spectrometry manufacturing cost prediction gas detection by lasers blood substitutes ultrasound imaging composite materials and detonation and flame arresters.

  9. 2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northwest at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northwest at Test Stand 'B' set up to test a 20,000 pound thrust rocket engine. (JPL negative no. 384-1509-B, 22 October 1956) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand B, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 7. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south on west side of Test Stand 'A' during excavation for new intra-stand tunnel system. Note equipment, tanks and piping installed in tower. (JPL negative no. 384-1540-D, 7 January 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  12. Correction of the crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jason K

    2012-02-01

    Correction of the deviated nose is one of the most difficult tasks in rhinoplasty surgery and should be approached in a systematic manner to ensure a satisfied patient and surgeon. Correction of the deviated nose is unique in that the patient's complaints frequently include aesthetic and functional characteristics. Equal importance should be given to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative aspects of the patient's treatment to ensure a favorable outcome.

  13. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  14. Detection of hydrazine (H) and (MMH) using cyranose E-nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Young, Rebecca; Ryan, Margaret A.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyranose electronic nose (e-nose) has been used for the first time to detect hydrazine (H) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The concentrations of hydrazine chosen in this study were 52 ppm (parts per million), 18 ppm, and 1.1 ppm and the concentrations of MMH was 14 ppm and 1 ppm. The Cyranose E-nose has detected hydrazine of 52 ppm and 18 ppm with a good response. The response of the E-Nose for 1.1 ppm hydrazine was insignificant. The response of E-Nose for 14 ppm MMH was significant and 1 ppm MMH was reasonably identifiable. The Cyranose E-Nose may be used to detect hydrazine and MMH with concentrations of at least 18 ppm and 1 ppm, respectively.

  15. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  16. The Snow Data System at NASA JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, R.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Brodzik, M. J.; Rittger, K.; Bormann, K. J.; Burgess, A. B.; Zimdars, P.; McGibbney, L. J.; Goodale, C. E.; Joyce, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snow Data System at NASA JPL includes a data processing pipeline built with open source software, Apache 'Object Oriented Data Technology' (OODT). It produces a variety of data products using inputs from satellites such as MODIS, VIIRS and Landsat. Processing is carried out in parallel across a high-powered computing cluster. Algorithms such as 'Snow Covered Area and Grain-size' (SCAG) and 'Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow' (DRFS) are applied to satellite inputs to produce output images that are used by many scientists and institutions around the world. This poster will describe the Snow Data System, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the future. Advancements for 2015 include automated daily processing of historic MODIS data for SCAG (MODSCAG) and DRFS (MODDRFS), automation of SCAG processing for VIIRS satellite inputs (VIIRSCAG) and an updated version of SCAG for Landsat Thematic Mapper inputs (TMSCAG) that takes advantage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for faster processing speeds. The pipeline has been upgraded to use the latest version of OODT and its workflows have been streamlined to enable computer operators to process data on demand. Additional products have been added, such as rolling 8-day composites of MODSCAG data, a new version of the MODSCAG 'annual minimum ice and snow extent' (MODICE) product, and recoded MODSCAG data for the 'Satellite Snow Product Intercomparison and Evaluation Experiment' (SnowPEx) project.

  17. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  18. 2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at unfinished original Test Stand 'C' construction. A portion of the corrugated steel tunnel tube connecting Test Stand 'C' to the first phase of JPL tunnel system construction is visible in the foreground. The steel frame used to support propellant tanks and engine equipment has been erected. The open trap door leads to a chamber inside the Test Stand 'C' base where gaseous nitrogen is distributed via manifolds to Test Stand 'C' control valves. (JPL negative no. 384-1568-A, 19 March 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study.

    The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg.

    The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn 'moons' seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device.

  20. Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

  1. The JPL imaging radar experiment in GATE: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1975-01-01

    The type of data that was taken with the JPL imaging radar during the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) mission is summarized. A representative sample of the data is given.

  2. NASA's Mobile and Telecom Antenna Development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1997-01-01

    Chartered by NASA to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies for mobile and satellite telecommuniation systems, JPL has developed various antenna technologies throughout the microwave spectrum in the past two decades.

  3. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  4. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  5. Odor source identification by grounding linguistic descriptions in an artificial nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutfi, Amy; Coradeschi, Silvia; Duckett, Tom; Wide, Peter

    2001-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling autonomous agents (e.g., robots) to carry out human oriented tasks using an electronic nose. The nose consists of a combination of passive gas sensors with different selectivity, the outputs of which are fused together with an artificial neural network in order to recognize various human-determined odors. The basic idea is to ground human-provided linguistic descriptions of these odors in the actual sensory perceptions of the nose through a process of supervised learning. Analogous to the human nose, the paper explains a method by which an electronic nose can be used for substance identification. First, the receptors of the nose are exposed to a substance by means of inhalation with an electric pump. Then a chemical reaction takes place in the gas sensors over a period of time and an artificial neural network processes the resulting sensor patterns. This network was trained to recognize a basic set of pure substances such as vanilla, lavender and yogurt under controlled laboratory conditions. The complete system was then validated through a series of experiments on various combinations of the basic substances. First, we showed that the nose was able to consistently recognize unseen samples of the same substances on which it had been trained. In addition, we presented some first results where the nose was tested on novel combinations of substances on which it had not been trained by combining the learned descriptions - for example, it could distinguish lavender yogurt as a combination of lavender and yogurt.

  6. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  8. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  9. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  10. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry is one of the major fresh market commodities in Florida. Strawberry must be harvested at the proper time, to keep its fruit quality and shelf life. Generally, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity and/or color are the major indices for fruity quality control. However, the...

  11. A spaceborne optical interferometer: The JPL CSI mission focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskin, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The JPL Control Structure Interaction (CSI) program is part of the larger NASA-wide CSI program. Within this larger context, the JPL CSI program will emphasize technology for systems that demand micron or sub-micron level control, so-called Micro-Precision Controlled Structures (u-PCS). The development of such technology will make it practical to fly missions with large optical or large precision antenna systems. In keeping with the focused nature of the desired technology, the JPL approach is to identify a focus mission, develop the focus mission CSI system design to a preliminary level, and then use this design to drive out requirements for CSI technology development in the design and analysis, ground test bed, and flight experiment areas.

  12. Capability Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Merida, Sofia; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future missions are ready as needed. The responsibilities include development of a Strategic Plan (Antonsson, E., 2005). As part of the planning effort, a structured approach to technology prioritization, based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) (Weisbin, C.R., 2004) team, was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this approach and present its current status relative to the JPL technology investment.

  13. JPL initiative on historically black colleges and universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Lew; Forte, Paul, Jr.; Leipold, Martin H.

    1989-01-01

    Executive order number 12320 of September 15, 1981, established a program designed to significantly increase the participation of historically black colleges and universities (HBCU's) in Federal programs. Because of its geographical remoteness and position as a contractor operated center, JPL had not participated in grant and training programs with the HBCU's. In recognition of JPL's responsibility to the national commitment on behalf of the historically black colleges and universities, an initiative with effective, achievable guidelines and early progress for a better and more productive interaction between JPL and the HBCU's is described. Numerous areas of interaction with the historically black colleges and universities have been identified and are being inplemented. They have two broad objectives: research interactions and faculty/student interactions. Plans and progress to date for each specific area are summarized.

  14. Nose-only exposure system

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, William C.; Bass, Edward W.; Decker, Jr., John R.

    1988-01-01

    An exposure system for supplying a gaseous material, i.e. an aerosol, gas or a vapor, directly to the noses of experimental animals includes concentric vertical inner and outer manifolds. The outer manifold connects with the necks of a large number of bottles in which the animals are confined with their noses adjacent the bottle necks. Readily detachable small tubes communicate with the inner manifold and extend to the necks of the bottles. The upper end of the outer manifold and the lower end of the inner manifold are closed. Gaseous material is supplied to the upper end of the inner manifold, flows through the small tubes to points adjacent the noses of the individual animals, then is drawn out through the bottom of the outer manifold. The bottles are readily removable and the device can be disassembled, e.g., for cleaning, by removing the bottles, removing the small tubes, and lifting the inner manifold from the outer manifold. The bottles are supported by engagement of their necks with the outer manifold supplemented, if additional support is required, by individual wire cradles. The outer ends of the bottles are closed by plugs, through which pass metal tubes which receive the tails of the animals (usually rodents) and which serve to dissipate body heat. The entire device is mounted for rotation on turntable bearings.

  15. 8. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view west down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view west down from Test Stand 'A' tower across newly installed tunnel tube to corner of Building 4201/E-2, Test Stand 'A' Workshop (demolished in 1985). Note the wooden retaining structure erected in the foreground to retain earth once the tunnel trench is backfilled (this retaining wall remained in 1994). Note also the propellant control piping on the Test Stand 'A' platform in the immediate foreground. (JPL negative no. 384-1547-C, 6 February 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. JPL IGS Analysis Center Report, 2001-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, M. B.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Jefferson, D. C.; Meyer, R. F.; Newport, B. J.; Vigue-Rodi, Y.; Webb, F. H.; Zumberge, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Three GPS orbit and clock products are currently provided by JPL for consideration by the IGS. Each differs in its latency and quality, with later results being more accurate. Results are typically available in both IGS and GIPSY formats via anonymous ftp. Current performance based on comparisons with the IGS final products is summarized. Orbit performance was determined by computing the 3D RMS difference between each JPL product and the IGS final orbits based on 15 minute estimates from the sp3 files. Clock performance was computed as the RMS difference after subtracting a linear trend based on 15 minute estimates from the sp3 files.

  17. 3. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south into ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south into oxidizer tank enclosure and controls on the north side of Test Stand 'C' shortly after the stand's construction in 1957 (oxidizer contents not determined). To the extreme left appear fittings for mounting an engine for tests. Note the robust stainless steel flanges and fittings necessary to contain highly pressurized corrosive chemicals. (JPL negative no. 384-1608-C, 29 August 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Ka-band mobile and personal systems development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, K.; Estabrook, P.; Jedrey, T.; Sue, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Expanding the commercial applications of space is one of the primary goals of NASA. Throughout the eighties NASA has pursued this objective by sponsoring and undertaking the development of system concepts, enabling high risk technologies, and actual proof of concept demonstration hardware. In the mobile and personal arena, or the so-called low data rate applications area, JPL is NASA's lead center. JPL's focus of activities has been the Mobile Satellite-Experiment (MSAT-X) project, which developed mobile communication technologies at L-band, and its present successors, which aim to expand the mobile arena by exploiting Ka-band.

  19. Revision rhinoplasty for the Asian nose.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose requires a combination of cultural sensitivity and unique surgical strategies to achieve a successful outcome. Cultural sensitivity means understanding some of the folkloric motivations to undergo rhinoplasty and divergent ethnic standards of beauty. Basic techniques for Asian rhinoplasty are reviewed as a prerequisite knowledge for revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose, specifically a combination technique of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for bridge augmentation and autogenous cartilage tip grafting. Revision Asian nose surgery oftentimes involves removal of a previously placed solid silicone implant, which remains the most popular option for augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia. Strategies for revision rhinoplasty in the Asian nose are then reviewed.

  20. JPL process for tailoring mission assurance to specific projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, K. K.; Schlue, J. W.; Grammier, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies a processs for tailoring Mission Assurance (MA) activities to JPL flight projects. These MA activities are to be accomplished during appropriate phases of projects involved in design, development, test, fabrication, launch and mission operations. MA is the responsibility of all participants on a project; it enhances their contribution to the success of the mission.

  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations. Part 1; History of JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation briefly reviews the history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from its founding by Dr von Karman in 1936 for research in rocketry through the post-Sputnik shift to unmanned space exploration in 1957. The presentation also reviews the major JPL missions with views of the spacecraft.

  2. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  3. A run-time control architecture for the JPL telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Lokshin, A.; Kreutz, K.; Beahan, J.

    1987-01-01

    An architecture for implementing the process-level decision making for a hierarchically structured telerobot currently being implemented at the Jet Propolusion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Constraints on the architecture design, architecture partitioning concepts, and a detailed description of the existing and proposed implementations are provided.

  4. An industrial application of the JPL ACTS with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Wilson, G. E.; Schroepfer, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) uses sewage solids derived from municipal wastewater treatment systems as a source of organic material for powdered activated carbons (PAC). The PAC is used for the COD removal from wastewater and as a filter aid in the recovery of additional sewage solids.

  5. The NASA/JPL three-frequency polarimetric AIRSAR system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, J.; Carande, R.; Lou, Y.; Miller, T.; Wheeler, K.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL AIRSAR) system has now completed four flight campaigns. The authors describe the current state of this system and provide insight into how flight seasons are planned for this instrument. The data processors and data products are described. A table containing relevant system parameters is provided.

  6. Payload test philosophy. [JPL views on qualification/acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindorf, T.

    1979-01-01

    The general philosophy of how JPL views payload qualification/acceptance testing for programs that are done either in-house or by contractors is described. Particular attention is given to mission risk classifications, preliminary critical design reviews, environmental design requirements, the thermal and dynamics development tests, and the flight spacecraft system test.

  7. JPL/Student Independent Research Internship (SIRI): Research and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Alvidrez, R. F.; Kahn, R. A.; Whitney, W.

    2006-09-01

    One of NASA's Strategic goals is the education and retention of students in math and science, and providing outreach experiences to all levels of the public (formal and informal). At JPL, an innovative program, SIRI, was initiated in 2003 with the following goals: 1. Provide local college students, with strong support from their faculty advisors, hands-on experience in scientific research and engineering while they are still forming their higher-education and career plans. 2. JPL and NASA education office interests in providing more help to college students in preparing for careers in science and engineering. Following its initial pilot program with eight students from two local community colleges, the SIRI program branched out in two directions: (1) providing research opportunities to students from a wider range of colleges and (2) research apprenticeship or RA program, so eligible students could continue their research after completing their semester. With support of their JPL mentors, students derived educational and technical benefits. Currently, the SIRI Program includes eight local 2-year and 4-year colleges; serves approximately 25-30 students per year. To date, nearly 50% of interns become apprentices to their JPL mentors. The SIRI program is currently complementary to many undergraduate internship programs as the SIRI interns participate during school year for credit. The RA students are empowered to attend scientific meetings; co-author peer-reviewed papers; continue their research through fellowships, and mentor other students. The success of the SIRI program stems both from the contributions of the students to their mentors’ efforts and JPL's outreach efforts to afford exposure and research experience to students in all fields of science to develop the next generation of scientists. Specific examples of SIRI projects will be showcased.

  8. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  9. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  11. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  12. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  13. Global features of ionospheric slab thickness derived from JPL TEC and COSMIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Liu, Libo

    2016-04-01

    The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST) is the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2-layer peak electron density (NmF2), describing the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) TEC data and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of JPL TEC and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions; and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The pre-sunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the post-sunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. The dependence of EST on solar activity is very complicated. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon is found that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120° E in longitude and 30° to 75° S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and southern hemisphere summer.

  14. Mobile Timekeeping Application Built on Reverse-Engineered JPL Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witoff, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, non-exempt employees cumulatively waste over one man-year tracking their time and using the timekeeping Web page to save those times. This app eliminates this waste. The innovation is a native iPhone app. Libraries were built around a reverse- engineered JPL API. It represents a punch-in/punch-out paradigm for timekeeping. It is accessible natively via iPhones, and features ease of access. Any non-exempt employee can natively punch in and out, as well as save and view their JPL timecard. This app is built on custom libraries created by reverse-engineering the standard timekeeping application. Communication is through custom libraries that re-route traffic through BrowserRAS (remote access service). This has value at any center where employees track their time.

  15. Mass spectrometry technology at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of mass spectrometry taking place at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory are highlighted. The pertinent research and development is aimed at producing an ultrahigh sensitivity mass spectrograph for both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. The unique aspect of the JPL developed technology is an integrating focal plane ion detector that obviates the need for spectral scanning since all ions over a wide mass range are monitored simultaneously. The ion detector utilizes electro-optical technology and is therefore referred to as an Electro-Optical Ion Detector (EOID). A technical description of the JPL MS/EOID, some of the current applications, and its potential benefits for internal contamination analysis are discussed.

  16. Structural analyses of the JPL Mars Pathfinder impact

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, K.W.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that finite element analysis can be used in the design process for high performance fabric structures. These structures exhibit extreme geometric nonlinearity; specifically, the contact and interaction of fabric surfaces with the large deformation which necessarily results from membrane structures introduces great complexity to analyses of this type. All of these features are demonstrated here in the analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Mars Pathfinder impact onto Mars. This lander system uses airbags to envelope the lander experiment package, protecting it with large deformation upon contact. Results from the analysis show the stress in the fabric airbags, forces in the internal tendon support system, forces in the latches and hinges which allow the lander to deploy after impact, and deceleration of the lander components. All of these results provide the JPL engineers with design guidance for the success of this novel lander system.

  17. Modeling and control of the Stanford/JPL hand

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Johnson, V.J.; Boissiere, P.T.; Starr, G.P.; Steele, J.P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Improved dexterity is an area of current research in robotics. Research in this area is being pursued with the aid of a Stanford/JPL hand from Salisbury Robotics. This paper presents some of the issues raised in studying the characteristics and control of a single finger of the dexterous hand. The issues presented are dynamic modeling, friction based hysteresis, and identification of the finger system. The present method for sensing and control is also discussed.

  18. Use of Reference Frames for Interplanetary Navigation at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael; Jacobs, Chris; Sovers, Ojars; Moore, Angelyn; Owen, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Navigation of interplanetary spacecraft is typically based on range, Doppler, and differential interferometric measurements made by ground-based telescopes. Acquisition and interpretation of these observations requires accurate knowledge of the terrestrial reference frame and its orientation with respect to the celestial frame. Work is underway at JPL to reprocess historical VLBI and GPS data to improve realizations of the terrestrial and celestial frames. Improvements include minimal constraint alignment, improved tropospheric modeling, better orbit determination, and corrections for antenna phase center patterns.

  19. Involving Scientists in the NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, E.; Hill, J.

    2001-11-01

    The NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program (SSEP) is a professional development program with the goal of inspiring America's students, creating learning opportunities, and enlightening inquisitive minds by engaging them in the Solar System exploration efforts conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). SSEP is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory program managed by Space Explorers, Inc. (Green Bay, WI) and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (Hampton, VA). The heart of the program is a large nationwide network of highly motivated educators. These Solar System Educators, representing more than 40 states, lead workshops around the country that show teachers how to successfully incorporate NASA materials into their teaching. During FY2001, more than 9500 educators were impacted through nearly 300 workshops conducted in 43 states. Solar System Educators attend annual training institutes at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during their first two years in the program. All Solar System Educators receive additional online training, materials and support. The JPL missions and programs involved in SSEP include: Cassini Mission to Saturn, Galileo Mission to Jupiter, STARDUST Comet Sample Return Mission, Deep Impact Mission to a Comet, Mars Exploration Program, Outer Planets Program, Deep Space Network, JPL Space and Earth Science Directorate, and the NASA Office of Space Science Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Scientists can get involved with this program by cooperatively presenting at workshops conducted in their area, acting as a content resource or by actively mentoring Solar System Educators. Additionally, SSEP will expand this year to include other missions and programs related to the Solar System and the Sun.

  20. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  1. The JPL telerobot operator control station: Operational experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1990-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstration System provides an efficient man-machine interface for the performance of telerobot tasks. Its hardware and software have been designed with high flexibility. It provides a feedback-rich interactive environment in which the Operator performs teleoperation tasks, robotic tasks, and telerobotic tasks with ease. The to-date operational experiences of this system, particularly related to the Object Designate Process and the Voice Input/Output Process are discussed.

  2. This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production buildings as seen looking directly north (6 degrees) from the roof of the Administration Building (4231-E-32). The structures closest to the camera contain the equipment for weighing, grinding, mixing, and casting solid propellant grain for motors. Structures in the distance generally house curing or inspection activities. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. An improved celestial radio reference frame: JPL 1982-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanselow, J. L.; Sovers, O. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Purcell, G. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of a celestial radio reference frame, there are now over 100 sources whose relative positions are known with an average uncertainty less than 5 milliarcseconds. These sources are fairly uniformly distributed over the celestial sphere north of -40 deg declination. Their positions are expressed in the new IAU system. This presentation describes the analysis involved in obtaining these results, as well as future plans for linking this system to the JPL planetary ephemerides.

  4. Determination of blueberry and strawberry maturity and aroma quality and effect of HLB on orange juice aroma: comparison of Z-nose, E-nose and GC-MS technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic nose technology could be very useful in quality control discrimination of products. The Z-nose (Electronic Sensory Technology, Model 4500) was equipped with a Tenax trap (2 mg, 225 ºC), and 1 m DB5 column, an acoustic wave detector and an oven set to ramp from 40-180 ºC at a rate of 10 ºC...

  5. 4. Credit JPL. Original 4" x 5" black and white ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit JPL. Original 4" x 5" black and white negative housed in the JPL Archives, Pasadena, California. This interior view displays the machine shop in the Administration/Shops Building (the compass angle of the view is undetermined). Looking clockwise from the lower left, the machine tools in view are a power hacksaw, a heat-treatment oven (with white gloves on top), a large hydraulic press with a tool grinder at its immediate right; along the wall in the back of the view are various unidentified machine tool attachments and a vertical milling machine. In the background, a machinist is operating a radial drilling machine, to the right of which is a small drill press. To the lower right, another machinist is operating a Pratt & Whitney engine lathe; behind the operator stand a workbench and vertical bandsaw (JPL negative no. 384-10939, 29 July 1975). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Administration & Shops Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Data Management System Reuse for Visualization of JPL's SMAP Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Quach, N. T.; De Cesare, C.; Hall, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Imagery Exchange (TIE) is a scalable and efficient imagery data management system that powers the WMS web server OnEarth. Designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), TIE's primary purpose was to power the NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. The SMAP project at JPL had just about all of its requirements met with GIBS but required very project-specific behavior and automation for the Cal-Val phase of the project. Thanks to the extendable design of TIE (already an extension of JPL's Horizon framework) and Amazon's GovCloud services, we were able to meet the needs of the project without any rewrite of the system while significantly expanding the capabilities of an already robust system through well modularized feature additions. In this presentation, we will talk about the efforts made to re-use the already developed data system TIE for SMAP with minimal turn around. Leveraging cloud resources and standard interfaces, we were able to satisfy new project requirements in a very short amount of time.

  7. Galileo Press Conference from JPL. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This two-tape Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) video production presents a Dec. 8, 1992 press conference held at JPL to discuss the final Galileo spacecraft encounter with Earth before beginning its journey to Jupiter. The main theme of the conference was centered on the significance of the 2nd and final Earth/Moon flyby as being the spacecraft's last planetary encounter in the solar system before reaching Jupiter, as well as final flight preparations prior to its final journey. Each person of the five member panel was introduced by Robert MacMillan (JPL Public Information Mgr.) before giving brief presentations including slides and viewgraphs covering their area of expertise regarding Galileo's current status and future plans. After the presentations, the media was given an opportunity to ask questions of the panel regarding the mission. Mr. Wesley Huntress (Dir. of Solar System Exploration (NASA)), William J. ONeill (Galileo Project Manager), Neal E. Ausman, Jr. (Galileo Mission Director), Dr. Torrence V. Johnson (Galileo Project Scientist) and Dr. Ronald Greeley (Member, Imaging Team, Colorado St. Univ.) made up the panel and discussed topics including: Galileo's interplanetary trajectory; project status and performance review; instrument calibration activities; mission timelines; lunar observation and imaging; and general lunar science. Also included in the last three minutes of the video are simulations and images of the 2nd Galileo/Moon encounter.

  8. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  13. An Ultrasensitive, Selective, Multiplexed Superbioelectronic Nose That Mimics the Human Sense of Smell.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; An, Ji Hyun; Park, Jin Wook; Yang, Heehong; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Bae, Joonwon; Park, Tai Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-10-14

    Human sensory-mimicking systems, such as electronic brains, tongues, skin, and ears, have been promoted for use in improving social welfare. However, no significant achievements have been made in mimicking the human nose due to the complexity of olfactory sensory neurons. Combinational coding of human olfactory receptors (hORs) is essential for odorant discrimination in mixtures, and the development of hOR-combined multiplexed systems has progressed slowly. Here, we report the first demonstration of an artificial multiplexed superbioelectronic nose (MSB-nose) that mimics the human olfactory sensory system, leading to high-performance odorant discriminatory ability in mixtures. Specifically, portable MSB-noses were constructed using highly uniform graphene micropatterns (GMs) that were conjugated with two different hORs, which were employed as transducers in a liquid-ion gated field-effect transistor (FET). Field-induced signals from the MSB-nose were monitored and provided high sensitivity and selectivity toward target odorants (minimum detectable level: 0.1 fM). More importantly, the potential of the MSB-nose as a tool to encode hOR combinations was demonstrated using principal component analysis.

  14. How to Use Nose Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use nose drops only as long as directed Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed ...

  15. NASA/JPL CLIMATE DAY: Middle and High School Students Get the Facts about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena

  16. JPL VLBI Analysis Center IVS Annual Report for 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI Analysis Center for the year 2003. We continue to do celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, and spacecraft navigation work using the VLBI technique. Tracking the two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft was the highlight for the year. We continued improvements in the first sub-milliarcsecond global celestial reference frames at K-band (24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz). The K-band catalog more than doubled in size from 108 to 230 sources.

  17. An evaluation of the 1997 JPL Summer Teacher Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; Doyle-Nichols, Adelaide R.

    1997-10-20

    There were two major components in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Summer Teacher Enhancement Project (STEP). First, the Summer Institute was structured as a four-week, 4-credit-unit University course for middle school science teachers, and consisted of workshops, lectures, labs, and tours as activities. The second component consists of follow-up activities related to the summer institute's contents, and again is structured as a University credit-bearing course for participants to reinforce their summer training. Considerable information from the comments and course ratings as given by the participants is included.

  18. In-Situ Mosaic Production at JPL/MIPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions: (1) Mars Pathfinder (2) Mars Polar Lander (3) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) (4) Phoenix (5) Mars Science Lab (MSL) Mosaics are probably the most visible products from MIPL (1) Generated for virtually every rover position at which a panorama is taken (2) Provide better environmental context than single images (3) Valuable to operations and science personnel (4) Arguably the signature products for public engagement

  19. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  20. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 2: Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Landell, B. Patrick; Oxenberg, Sheldon; Morimoto, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The software design of the operator control system is discussed.

  1. Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.

  2. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 1: Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Tower, John T.; Hunka, George W.; Vansant, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The hardware design, system architecture, and its integration and interface with the rest of the Telerobot Demonstrator System are discussed.

  3. Retrieval of pine forest biomass using JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.; Zagolski, F.; Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data over the Landes forest in South-West France revealed strong correlation between L- and especially P-band sigma degrees and the pine forest biomass. To explain the physical link of radar backscatter to biomass, a polarimetric backscattering model was developed and validated. Then the model was used in a simulation study to predict sigma degree sensitivity to undesired canopy and environmental parameters. Main results concerning the data analysis, modeling, and simulation at P-band are reported.

  4. 9. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of drawing, engineering drawing showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of drawing, engineering drawing showing structure of Test Stand 'A' (Building 4202/E-3) and its relationship to the Monitor Building or blockhouse (Building 4203/E-4) when a reinforced concrete machinery room was added to the west side of Test Stand 'A' in 1955. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Electrical Layout - Muroc, Test Stand & Refrigeration Equipment Room,' drawing no. E3/7-0, April 6, 1955. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. USC/JPL GAIM: A Real-Time Global Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrake, L.; Wilson, B. D.; Hajj, G.; Wang, C.; Pi, X. `; Iijima, B.

    2004-12-01

    We are in the midst of a revolution in ionospheric remote sensing driven by the illuminating powers of ground and space-based GPS receivers, new UV remote sensing satellites, and the advent of data assimilation techniques for space weather. The University of Southern Califronia (USC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed a Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for DoD customers and NASA flight projects. GAIM is a physics-based 3D data assimilation model that uses both 4DVAR and Kalman filter techniques to solve for the ion & electron density state and key drivers such as equatorial electrodynamics, neutral winds, and production terms. GAIM accepts as input ground GPS TEC data from 900+ sites, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, IOX, and the coming COSMIC constellation, UV limb and nadir scans from the TIMED and DMSP satellites, and in situ data from a variety of satellites (C/NOFS & DMSP). GAIM can ingest multiple data sources in real time, updates the 3D electron density grid every 5 minutes, and solves for improved drivers every 1-2 hours. GAIM density retrievals have been validated by comparisons to vertical TEC measurements from TOPEX & JASON, slant TEC measurements from independent GPS sites, density profiles from ionosondes & incoherent scatter radars, and alternative tomographic retrievals. Daily USC/JPL GAIM runs have been operational since March 2003 using 100-200 ground GPS sites as input and TOPEX/JASON and ionosondes for daily validation. A prototype real-time GAIM system has been running since May 2004. RT GAIM ingests TEC data from 77+ streaming GPS sites every 5 minutes, adds more TEC for better global coverage every hour from hourly GPS sites, and updates the ionospheric state every 5 minutes using the Kalman filter. We plan to add TEC links from COSMIC occultations and UV radiance data from the DMSP satellites, when they become

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast of JPL Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast of JPL Edwards Test Station as it looked in 1945. To the immediate right of the Test Stand 'A' tower stands a concrete monitor building or blockhouse (now Building 4203/E-4) for observation and control of tests. Other frame buildings housed workshop and administrative functions. Long structure behind automobiles was designated 4207/E-8 and was used for instrument repair and storage, a cafeteria, machine and welding shops. To the immediate south of 4207/E-8 were 4200/E-1 (used as an office and photographic laboratory) and 4205/E-6 (guardhouse, with fire extinguisher mounted on it). To the northeast of 4205/E-6 was 4204/E-5 (a propellant storage dock, with shed roof). Buildings 4200/E-1, 4205/E-6 and 4207/E-8 were demolished in 1983. Note the absence of trees. (JPL negative no. 383-1297, July 1946) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. NASA/JPL aircraft SAR operations for 1984 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/JPL aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was used to conduct major data acquisition expeditions in 1983 through 1985. Substantial improvements to the aircraft SAR were incorporated in 1981 through 1984 resulting in an imaging radar that could simultaneously record all four combinations of linear horizontal and vertical polarization (HH, HV, VH, VV) using computer control of the radar logic, gain setting, and other functions. Data were recorded on high-density digital tapes and processed on a general-purpose computer to produce 10-km square images with 10-m resolution. These digital images yield both the amplitude and phase of the four polarizations. All of the digital images produced so far are archived at the JPL Radar Data Center and are accessible via the Reference Notebook System of that facility. Sites observed in 1984 and 1985 included geological targets in the western United States, as well as agricultural and forestry sites in the Midwest and along the eastern coast. This aircraft radar was destroyed in the CV-990 fire at March Air Force Base on 17 July 1985. It is being rebuilt for flights in l987 and will likely be operated in a mode similar to that described here. The data from 1984 and 1985 as well as those from future expeditions in 1987 and beyond will provide users with a valuable data base for the multifrequency, multipolarization Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) scheduled for orbital operations in the early 1990's.

  8. JPL, NASA and the Historical Record: Key Events/Documents in Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, Michael Q.

    1999-01-01

    This document represents a presentation about the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) historical archives in the area of Lunar and Martian Exploration. The JPL archives documents the history of JPL's flight projects, research and development activities and administrative operations. The archives are in a variety of format. The presentation reviews the information available through the JPL archives web site, information available through the Regional Planetary Image Facility web site, and the information on past missions available through the web sites. The presentation also reviews the NASA historical resources at the NASA History Office and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  9. JPL Project Information Management: A Continuum Back to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiz, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the practices and architecture that support information management at JPL. This practice has allowed concurrent use and reuse of information by primary and secondary users. The use of this practice is illustrated in the evolution of the Mars Rovers from the Mars Pathfinder to the development of the Mars Science Laboratory. The recognition of the importance of information management during all phases of a project life cycle has resulted in the design of an information system that includes metadata, has reduced the risk of information loss through the use of an in-process appraisal, shaping of project's appreciation for capturing and managing the information on one project for re-use by future projects as a natural outgrowth of the process. This process has also assisted in connection of geographically disbursed partners into a team through sharing information, common tools and collaboration.

  10. System identification of the JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer truss

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.; Carne, T.G.; Marek, E.L.; Mayes, R.L. ); Neat, G.W.; Sword, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer (MPI) is a testbed for studying the use of control-structure interaction technology in the design of space-based interferometers. A layered control architecture will be employed to regulate the interferometer optical system to tolerances in the nanometer range. An important aspect of designing and implementing the control schemes for such a system is the need for high fidelity, test-verified analytical structural models. This paper summarizes coordinated test and analysis efforts aimed at producing such a model for the MPI structure. Pretest analysis, modal testing and test-analysis reconciliation results are summarized for a series of tests at both the component and full system levels.

  11. JPL VLBI Analysis Center IVS Annual Report for 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI analysis center for the year 2004. We continue to be celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, earth orientation, and spacecraft navigation work using the VLBI technique. There are several areas of our work that are undergoing active development. In 2004 we demonstrated 1 mm level troposphere calibration on an intercontinental baseline. We detected our first X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) VLBI fringes. We began to deploy Mark 5 recorders and to interface the Mark 5 units to our software correlator. We also have actively participated in the international VLBI community through our involvement in six papers at the February IVS meeting and by collaborating on a number of projects such as densifying the S/X celestial frame creating celestial frames at K (24 GHz) and Q-bands ($# GHz)>

  12. Test results of JPL LiSOCl sub 2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Subbarao, S.; Dawson, S.; Ang, V.; Deligiannis, E.

    1986-01-01

    In the development of high rate Li-SO-Cl2 cells for various applications, the goal is to achieve 300 watt-hours per kilogram at the C/2 (5 amp) rate in a D cell configuration. The JPL role is to develop the understanding of the performance, life, and safety limiting characteristics in the cell and to transfer the technology to a manufacturer to produce a safe, high quality product in a reproducible manner. The approach taken to achieve the goals is divided into four subject areas: cathode processes and characteristics; chemical reactions and safety; cell design and assembly; and performance and abuse testing. The progress made in each of these areas is discussed.

  13. JPL Technology Development for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Lazio, J.; Sanchez Barbetty, M.; Sigel, D.; O'Dwyer, I.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) proposal team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been investigating several technologies for this mission. The goal of DARE is to measure the sky-integrated spectrum of highly redshifted Hydrogen from the radio-quiet region above the far side of the Moon. The detailed shape of the spectrum in the 40-120 MHz region contains information on the epoch compact object formation and subsequent re-heating of the intergalactic medium. However, the expected Hydrogen signal strength is orders of magnitude weaker than the galactic foreground, and extreme instrumental stability and calibration accuracy will be needed to extract the signal of interest from the stronger foreground signal. JPL has developed a deployable bi-conical dipole antenna and measured its RF performance against a full-size, solid dipole to verify that the deployable concept will not compromise the spectral bandpass of the instrument. In addition, variations in bandpass response as a function of physical temperature of the front-end electronics (active balun and receiver) have been made over a wide temperature range. These data can be used to determine the required level of thermal control on the DARE spacecraft. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We also acknowledge support from the Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR). The LUNAR consortium has been funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon via cooperative agreement NNA09DB30A.

  14. Genesis failure investigation report : JPL Failure Review Board, Avionics Sub-Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John; Manning, Rob; Barry, Ed; Donaldson, Jim; Rivellini, Tom; Battel, Steven; Savino, Joe; Lee, Wayne; Dalton, Jerry; Underwood, Mark; Surampudi, Rao; Accord, Arden; Perkins, Dave; Barrow, Kirk; Wilson, Bob

    2004-01-01

    On January 7, 2001, the Genesis spacecraft lifted off from Cape Canaveral. Its mission was to collect solar wind samples and return those samples to Earth for detailed analysis by scientists. The mission proceeded successfully for three-and-a-half years. On September 8, 2004, the spacecraft approached Earth, pointed the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) at its entry target, and then fired pyros that jettisoned the SRC. The SRC carried the valuable samples collected over the prior 29 months. The SRC also contained the requisite hardware (mechanisms, parachutes, and electronics) to manage the process of entry, descent, and landing (EDL). After entering Earthas atmosphere, the SRC was expected to open a drogue parachute. This should have been followed by a pyro event to release the drogue chute, and then by a pyro event to deploy the main parachute at an approximate elevation of 6.7 kilometers. As the SRC descended to the Utah landing site, helicopters were in position to capture the SRC before the capsule touched down. On September 8, 2004, observers of the SRCas triumphant return became concerned as the NASA announcer fell silent, and then became even more alarmed as they watched the spacecraft tumble as it streaked across the sky. Long-distance cameras clearly showed that the drogue parachute had not deployed properly. On September 9, 2004, General Eugene Tattini, Deputy Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory formed a Failure Review Board (FRB). This board was charged with investigating the cause of the Genesis mishap in close concert with the NASA Mishap Investigation Board (MIB). The JPL-FRB was populated with experts from within and external to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The JPL-FRB participated with the NASA-MIB through all phases of the investigation, working jointly and concurrently as one team to discover the facts of the mishap.

  15. Experiences with the JPL telerobot testbed: Issues and insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Balaram, Bob; Beahan, John

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Telerobot Testbed is an integrated robotic testbed used to develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of advanced concepts in autonomous, tele-autonomous, and tele-operated control of robotic manipulators. Using the Telerobot Testbed, researchers demonstrated several of the capabilities and technological advances in the control and integration of robotic systems which have been under development at JPL for several years. In particular, the Telerobot Testbed was recently employed to perform a near completely automated, end-to-end, satellite grapple and repair sequence. The task of integrating existing as well as new concepts in robot control into the Telerobot Testbed has been a very difficult and timely one. Now that researchers have completed the first major milestone (i.e., the end-to-end demonstration) it is important to reflect back upon experiences and to collect the knowledge that has been gained so that improvements can be made to the existing system. It is also believed that the experiences are of value to the others in the robotics community. Therefore, the primary objective here will be to use the Telerobot Testbed as a case study to identify real problems and technological gaps which exist in the areas of robotics and in particular systems integration. Such problems have surely hindered the development of what could be reasonably called an intelligent robot. In addition to identifying such problems, researchers briefly discuss what approaches have been taken to resolve them or, in several cases, to circumvent them until better approaches can be developed.

  16. NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

  17. Suppression of Strong Background Interference on E-Nose Sensors in an Open Country Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fengchun; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Simon X.; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liang, Zhifang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    The feature extraction technique for an electronic nose (e-nose) applied in tobacco smell detection in an open country/outdoor environment with periodic background strong interference is studied in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA), Independent component analysis (ICA), re-filtering and a priori knowledge are combined to separate and suppress background interference on the e-nose. By the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), it can be verified that a better separation of environmental temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure variation related background interference factors can be obtained with ICA. By re-filtering according to the on-site interference characteristics a composite smell curve was obtained which is more related to true smell information based on the tobacco curer’s experience. PMID:26891302

  18. E-Nose Vapor Identification Based on Dempster-Shafer Fusion of Multiple Classifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Winston; Leung, Henry; Kwan, Chiman; Linnell, Bruce R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) vapor identification is an efficient approach to monitor air contaminants in space stations and shuttles in order to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Data preprocessing (measurement denoising and feature extraction) and pattern classification are important components of an e-nose system. In this paper, a wavelet-based denoising method is applied to filter the noisy sensor measurements. Transient-state features are then extracted from the denoised sensor measurements, and are used to train multiple classifiers such as multi-layer perceptions (MLP), support vector machines (SVM), k nearest neighbor (KNN), and Parzen classifier. The Dempster-Shafer (DS) technique is used at the end to fuse the results of the multiple classifiers to get the final classification. Experimental analysis based on real vapor data shows that the wavelet denoising method can remove both random noise and outliers successfully, and the classification rate can be improved by using classifier fusion.

  19. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  20. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  1. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  2. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  3. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  4. Project Bibliographies: Tracking the Expansion of Knowledge Using JPL Project Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppin, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Library defines a project bibliography as a bibliography of publicly available publications relating to a specific JPL instrument or mission. These bibliographies may be used to share information between distant project team members, as part of the required Education and Public Outreach effort, or as part of…

  5. Drift paths of ions composing multiple-nose spectral structures near the inner edge of the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-11-01

    We present a case study of the H+, He+, and O+ multiple-nose structures observed by the Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron instrument on board Van Allen Probe A over one complete orbit on 28 September 2013. Nose structures are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and constitute the signatures of ion drift in the highly dynamic environment of the inner magnetosphere. We find that the multiple noses are intrinsically associated with variations in the solar wind. Backward ion drift path tracings show new details of the drift trajectories of these ions; i.e., multiple noses are formed by ions with a short drift time from the assumed source location to the inner region and whose trajectories (1) encircle the Earth different number of times or (2) encircle the Earth equal number of times but with different drift time, before reaching the observation site.

  6. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  7. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  9. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  10. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  11. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  12. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  13. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  14. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  16. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  17. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  18. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  19. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  20. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  1. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  2. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  3. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  4. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  5. Your Nose, the Guardian of Your Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion and a runny nose have a noticeable effect on quality of life, energy level, ability to breathe, ability to sleep, and ... saline nasal mist frequently during the flight, and drink lots of ... effects of other medications Diuretic blood pressure medications cause ...

  6. Sharpening ball-nose mill cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Economical attachment allows faster, more precise grinding. Vibrationless and rigid relation between grinding wheel and cutter allows for extremely high finish and accurate grinding. Leveling device levels flutes with respect to toolholder rotation that generates ball-nose radius. Constant relief around entire profile of cutting edge produces longer tool life.

  7. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the nose without paraproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Nagisa; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Hashimoto, Akira; Tagami, Hachiro

    2006-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a nodule on the nose near the left eye. Histological examination of the totally resected lesion revealed the typical features of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG). However, her laboratory investigation revealed no paraproteinemia. We believe that the present case represents a cutaneous variant of NXG without accompaniment of paraproteinemia or any systemic involvement.

  8. Customizing the JPL Multimission Ground Data System: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Susan C.; Louie, John J.; Guerrero, Ana Maria; Hurley, Daniel; Flora-Adams, Dana

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has brought improvements and new technologies to mission operations. It was designed as a generic data system to meet the needs of multiple missions and avoid re-inventing capabilities for each new mission and thus reduce costs. It is based on adaptable tools that can be customized to support different missions and operations scenarios. The MGDS is based on a distributed client/server architecture, with powerful Unix workstations, incorporating standards and open system architectures. The distributed architecture allows remote operations and user science data exchange, while also providing capabilities for centralized ground system monitor and control. The MGDS has proved its capabilities in supporting multiple large-class missions simultaneously, including the Voyager, Galileo, Magellan, Ulysses, and Mars Observer missions. The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has been leading Customer Adaptation Training (CAT) teams for adapting and customizing MGDS for the various operations and engineering teams. These CAT teams have typically consisted of only a few engineers who are familiar with operations and with the MGDS software and architecture. Our experience has provided a unique opportunity to work directly with the spacecraft and instrument operations teams and understand their requirements and how the MGDS can be adapted and customized to minimize their operations costs. As part of this work, we have developed workstation configurations, automation tools, and integrated user interfaces at minimal cost that have significantly improved productivity. We have also proved that these customized data systems are most successful if they are focused on the people and the tasks they perform and if they are based upon user confidence in the development team resulting from daily interactions. This paper will describe lessons learned in adapting JPL's MGDS to fly the Voyager, Galileo, and Mars

  9. Centaur D-1A nose fairing jettison test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prati, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to verify the functional and structural capability of the Centaur D-1A nose fairing. A full-scale flight-type nose fairing was jettisoned at the Lewis Research Center Space Power Chamber at simulated altitude. Two complete jettisons of the nose fairing were performed, one without aft helper springs and one with aft helper springs. A ''static'' rotation test was also performed to verify capability of the helper springs and to allow clearance measurements between the nose fairing and spacecraft envelope mock-up at certain discrete nose fairing rotation angles. Nose fairing trajectories, structural deflections, clearances, and hinge forces during jettison are presented. Data from subsequent Centaur D-1A flights, relative to nose fairing jettisons, are compared with the experimental results.

  10. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  11. JPL/USC GAIM: Using COSMIC Occultations in a Real-Time Global Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrake, L.; Komjathy, A.; Wilson, B. D.; Pi, X.; Hajj, G.; Iijima, B.; Wang, C.

    2006-12-01

    We are in the midst of a revolution in ionospheric remote sensing driven by the illuminating powers of ground and space-based GPS receivers, new UV remote sensing satellites, and the advent of data assimilation techniques for space weather. In particular, the COSMIC 6-satellite constellation launched in April 2006. COSMIC will provide unprecedented global coverage of GPS occultations (~5000 per day), each of which yields electron density information with unprecedented ~1 km vertical resolution. Calibrated measurements of ionospheric delay (total electron content or TEC) suitable for input into assimilation models will be available in near real-time (NRT) from the COSMIC project with a latency of 30 to 120 minutes. Similarly, NRT TEC data are available from two worldwide NRT networks of ground GPS receivers (~75 5-minute sites and ~125 more hourly sites, operated by JPL and others). The combined NRT ground and space-based GPS datasets provide a new opportunity to more accurately specify the 3-dimensional ionospheric density with a time lag of only 15 to 120 minutes. With the addition of the vertically-resolved NRT occultation data, the retrieved profile shapes will model the hour-to-hour ionospheric "weather" much more accurately. The University of Southern California (USC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed a real-time Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for DoD customers and NASA flight projects. JPL/USC GAIM is a physics- based 3D data assimilation model that uses both 4DVAR and Kalman filter techniques to solve for the ion & electron density state and key drivers such as equatorial electrodynamics, neutral winds, and production terms. Daily (delayed) GAIM runs can accept as input ground GPS TEC data from 1000+ sites, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, and the COSMIC constellation, UV limb and nadir scans from the TIMED and DMSP satellites

  12. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project 1976 Through 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, P. (Compiler); Gray, V. (Compiler); Marsh, C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Bibliographical listings are documentation products associated with the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1986. Documents are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports (i.e., deliverable documents produced under contract to JPL). Alphabetical listings by titles are used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference; an author index; and a topical index.

  13. A cognitive operating system (COGNOSYS) for JPL's robot, phase 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The most important software requirement for any robot development is the COGNitive Operating SYStem (COGNOSYS). This report describes the Stanford University Artificial Intelligence Laboratory's hand eye software system from the point of view of developing a cognitive operating system for JPL's robot. In this, the Phase 1 of the JPL robot COGNOSYS task the installation of a SAIL compiler and a FAIL assembler on Caltech's PDP-10 have been accomplished and guidelines have been prepared for the implementation of a Stanford University type hand eye software system on JPL-Caltech's computing facility. The alternatives offered by using RAND-USC's PDP-10 Tenex operating sytem are also considered.

  14. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  15. An Operations Concept for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Cooney, Lauren A.; Delp, Christopher L.; Dutenhoffer, Chelsea A.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Ingham, Michel D.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Smith, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    As JPL's missions grow more complex, the need for improved systems engineering processes is becoming clear. Of significant promise in this regard is the move toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. The Integrated Model-Centric Engineering (IMCE) Initiative, now underway at JPL, seeks to lay the groundwork for these improvements. This paper will report progress on three fronts: articulating JPL's need for IMCE; characterizing the enterprise into which IMCE capabilities will be deployed; and constructing an operations concept for a flight project development in an integrated model-centric environment.

  16. Reconstruction of the burned nose and ear.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S L

    2000-01-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer from severe disfigurement. When the nose and ear are involved, the resulting deformities are immediately obvious to all who see the patient. This level of injury results in a self-imposed confinement; the patients never leave their homes. It is therefore important that we plastic surgeons know, understand, and use all options available to improve our patients' appearance and ultimately their mental and physical well being.

  17. Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mr Mahmood F

    2007-01-01

    The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful—such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction may serve another and more important purpose, that of mate selection in sexual reproduction; indeed, olfaction may be an essential impetus for evolution. PMID:17541097

  18. Aesthetic septorhinoplasty in the burned nose.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad; Karimi, Hamid; Nouhi, Amirhosein

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer severe disfigurement from the devastating deformities of full-thickness facial burns. The nose is the prominent central organ of the face, which has crucial effect on Aesthetic appearance. The plastic surgeon's role to deal with such cases is to undertake procedures to produce a more pleasant look although the target organ could be the non-burned areas of the face. It is a common belief that surgical intervention under the scarred or grafted nose is risky and may result in skin or covering graft necrosis. For this reason, plastic surgeons are cautious and hesitate to perform Aesthetic surgery on burn scarred tissue. We present 13 cases, 10 women and three men with complete or subtotal nasal burn. Classic Aesthetic Rhinoplasty operations were performed to create a better appearance and correct any internal or external deviations. These procedures are carried out under severely burned skins, or previously grafted and reconstructed noses. Cases were followed for about a one-year period. There was no necrosis in any part of skin after surgery. We believe that Aesthetic rhinoplasty can be done safely in these victims with pleasing outcome. The problems that we encountered in these cases were irregularities of burned alar margins, multiple operations and intractable nasal deviation in severe cases.

  19. 2013 - JPL's Snow Data System Year in Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodale, C. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Rittger, K. E.; Burgess, A.

    2013-12-01

    2013 has been a big year for JPL's Snow Data Processing System. This year our efforts have been focused on supporting the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center, working on products in the Western United States and Alaska for the National Climate Assessment, as well as research efforts in the Hindu Kush Himalaya Region of Asia through the generation and publication of our MODSCAG, MODDRFS and MODICE products. We have revisited the processing stream for our snow properties products as we expand to global coverage providing a higher quality, consistent dataset. We have enabled lossless compression as well as using more efficient data types for our data arrays. This has enabled our archive to expand its coverage while conserving disk space, which comes with the added benefit of making the data downloads smaller and faster. Storage and compression aren't the only changes we have made; there have also been several improvements with cloud masking and missing data identification. These improvements have resulted in products that are smaller and more concise. Our source for MOD09GA data is the LP.DAAC. In June of this year the DAAC switched from an FTP server to HTTP. Our team has been able to adapt to this change by using NASA's ECHO Catalog to search for links to download the MOD09GA HDF files our processing pipeline uses to create the SCAG and DRFS products. We looked at using Reverb, but they limit the search results to only 2000 granules, where our typical granule count for a single tile exceeds 4000. We would like to share our improvements to the output products, the lessons we learned from the DAAC changing to HTTP and how others can learn from us, and share the tools we have created. Our plan is to also show our current archive coverage of products, and where we will are planning to process data in 2014 and beyond.

  20. JTRF2014, the 2014 JPL Realization of the ITRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio; Gross, Richard; Heflin, Michael; Parker, Jay; van Dam, Tonie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    KALREF, JPL's KALman filter and smoother for REference Frames, has been used to determine the JTRF2014, a combined terrestrial reference frame (TRF) obtained by analyzing the input SINEX files submitted by the IDS, IGS, ILRS, and IVS for the computation of ITRF2014. JTRF2014 is determined by combining on a weekly basis time series of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) along with local ties at co-located sites. JTRF2014 is a sub-secular reference frame whose origin is at the quasi-instantaneous Center of Mass (CM) as measured by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). Both SLR and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) contribute to the scale of the combined frame. The frame orientation is conventionally defined through a no-net-rotation condition to ITRF2008. In the JTRF2014 the temporal evolution of the station positions is formulated by accounting for linear and seasonal terms (annual and semi-annual periodic modes). Non-secular and non-seasonal motions of the geodetic sites are included in the smoothed time series by properly defining the station position process noise whose variance is characterized by analyzing station displacements induced by temporal changes of planetary fluid masses (atmosphere, oceans and continental surface water). JTRF2014 is going to be delivered as a time series of weekly SINEX files containing the filtered and smoothed station positions and EOPs observed from the early 80s through the end of 2014. Through the geocentric coordinates reported in the KALREF weekly SINEX files, users will have access to the quasi-instantaneous CM as detected by SLR and to the quasi-instantaneous scale defined by VLBI and SLR. Datum specification (origin, scale and orientation) of JTRF2014 will be discussed and combination metrics such as post-adjustment residuals at co-located ties will be analyzed. Comparisons with ITRF2014 will be provided.

  1. Calling Home in 2003: JPL Roadmap to Standardized TT&C Customer Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtik, S.; Berner, J.; Levesque, M.

    2000-01-01

    The telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) provides tracking, telemetry and command (TT&C) services for execution of a broad spectrum of deep space missions.

  2. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. (Compiler); Marsh, C. (Compiler); Panda, P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

  3. Kinematic and dynamic analyses of the Stanford/JPL robot hand. [MACSYMA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.J.; Starr, G.P.

    1987-11-01

    This report develops the kinematic and dynamic equations for one finger of the three-fingered Stanford/JPL robot hand and documents the physical parameters needed to implement the equations. The equations can be used in control schemes for position and force control of the Stanford/JPL robot hand. The output file for the MACSYMA program is given. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996, was divided into two smaller workshops:(1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop. This current paper, Volume 2 of the Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, presents the summaries for The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop.

  5. JPL Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knosp, Brian W.; Li, P. Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.; Turk, Francis J.; Shen, Tsae-Pyng J.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Licata, Stephen J.; Poulsen, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations can play a very important role in airborne field campaigns, since they provide a comprehensive description of the environment that is essential for the experiment design, flight planning, and post-experiment scientific data analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to fully utilize data from multiple NASA satellites due to the large data volume, the complexity of accessing NASA s data in near-real-time (NRT), as well as the lack of software tools to interact with multi-sensor information. The JPL GRIP Portal is a Web portal that serves a comprehensive set of NRT observation data sets from NASA and NOAA satellites describing the atmospheric and oceanic environments related to the genesis and intensification of the tropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Together with the model forecast data from four major global atmospheric models, this portal provides a useful tool for the scientists and forecasters in planning and monitoring the NASA GRIP field campaign during the 2010 Atlantic Ocean hurricane season. This portal uses the Google Earth plug-in to visualize various types of data sets, such as 2D maps, wind vectors, streamlines, 3D data sets presented at series of vertical cross-sections or pointwise vertical profiles, and hurricane best tracks and forecast tracks. Additionally, it allows users to overlap multiple data sets, change the opacity of each image layer, generate animations on the fly with selected data sets, and compare the observation data with the model forecast using two independent calendars. The portal also provides the capability to identify the geographic location of any point of interest. In addition to supporting the airborne mission planning, the NRT data and portal will serve as a very rich source of information during the post-field campaign analysis stage of the airborne experiment. By including a diverse set of satellite observations and model forecasts, it provides a good spatial and temporal context for the

  6. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  7. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: “Medieval” Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine’s cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, “What happens if we leave Afghanistan,” fuelled debate about the “medieval” practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband “lost his nose.” This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word “medieval” can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an “eastern” practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  8. S-IB Nose Cone Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions. The Saturn IB vehicle was a two-stage rocket and had a payload capability about 50 percent greater than the Saturn I vehicle. The first stage, S-IB stage, was a redesigned first stage of the Saturn I. This photograph is of the S-IB nose cone #3 during assembly in building 4752.

  9. Nose-Hoover dynamics in a shaker.

    PubMed

    Faou, Erwan

    2006-05-14

    We introduce a new class of systems based on the Nose-Hoover equations. We show that we can add time-dependent terms without destroying the measure and energy conservation properties of the initial system. These "shakers" are typically pseudoperiodic in time, i.e., depend on a collection of harmonic oscillators. We show by numerical examples that it strengthens the sampling properties of the initial system with respect to the Gibbs measure and helps the computation of averages in the canonical ensemble.

  10. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and Nose-Hoover dynamics.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Monnai, Takaaki

    2011-05-12

    We show that systems driven by an external force and described by Nose-Hoover dynamics allow for a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics description when the thermostatted variable is initially assumed in a state of canonical equilibrium. By treating the "real" variables as the system and the thermostatted variable as the reservoir, we establish the first and second law of thermodynamics. As for Hamiltonian systems, the entropy production can be expressed as a relative entropy measuring the system-reservoir correlations established during the dynamics.

  12. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  13. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH < 5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  14. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  15. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mariateresa; Serra, Demetrio; Suraci, Francesca; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Fuda, Salvatore; Postorino, Santo

    2014-12-15

    Licorice roots cultivated commercially in distinct geographical areas such as China, Iran, Italy (Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) and Turkey were classified using an artificial olfactive system (e-nose) based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS). The resultant instrumental data were processed using a multivariate statistical analysis method in order to classify the raw samples according to its origin. The e-nose odourprintings were obtained by a canonical discriminant analysis carried out with the aim of relating the specific data-sets corresponding to whole licorice roots aroma with the e-nose reference dataset. E-nose results were compared to those obtained by SPME/GC-MS. The HS-SPME/GC/MS analysis was used as a control system to check for the actual existence of differences in the chemical composition of sample headspace. These results imply the possibility to use an electronic nose as a tool for a quick, effective and non-destructive authentication of licorice roots.

  16. F-18 HARV With Nose Strakes For Forebody Vortex Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    1996-01-01

    Nose of F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) modified with conformal, mechanically actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). Forebody vortex control effected by use of actuated strakes and/or other flow-control devices. System provides means to evaluate design tradeoffs.

  17. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  18. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  19. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  20. Navigation Support at JPL for the JAXA Akatsuki (PLANET-C) Venus Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark S.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; You, Tung-Han; Higa, Earl; Helfrich, Cliff; Berry, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the orbit determination activities undertaken at JPL in support of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Akatsuki (a.k.a. Plan-et-C and/or Venus Climate Orbiter) mission. The JPL navigation team's role was to provide independent navigation support as a point of comparison with the JAXA generated orbit determination solutions. Topics covered include a mis-sion and spacecraft overview, dynamic forces modeling, cruise and approach or-bit determination results, and the international teaming arrangement. Significant discussion is dedicated to the events surrounding recovery from the unsuccessful Venus orbit insertion maneuver.

  1. Multimission Telemetry Visualization (MTV) system: A mission applications project from JPL's Multimedia Communications Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberlein, Ernest, III; Pender, Shaw Exum

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission Telemetry Visualization (MTV) data acquisition/distribution system. MTV was developed by JPL's Multimedia Communications Laboratory (MCL) and designed to process and display digital, real-time, science and engineering data from JPL's Mission Control Center. The MTV system can be accessed using UNIX workstations and PC's over common datacom and telecom networks from worldwide locations. It is designed to lower data distribution costs while increasing data analysis functionality by integrating low-cost, off-the-shelf desktop hardware and software. MTV is expected to significantly lower the cost of real-time data display, processing, distribution, and allow for greater spacecraft safety and mission data access.

  2. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  3. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  4. VSOP-2 Mission Simulations Using the JPL-developed Fakesat Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.

    In this paper we discuss recent upgrades which have been made to the JPL-developed Fakesat software which was originally developed to simulate the ISAS-led VSOP Space VLBI mission launched in 1997 to support the proposed follow-on mission VSOP-2 We show some examples of the new VSOP-2 specific software capabilities and how they may be used to great effect as a VSOP-2 mission planning tool Other potential JPL contributions to the VSOP-2 mission will also be presented This work has been undertaken at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed.

  6. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  7. Aspergillosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Blanshard, J D; Lucas, S; Michaels, L

    1989-01-01

    Fulminant aspergillosis was diagnosed on nasal biopsy in a 49 year old man who had features of an aspergilloma. Further postmortem examination of this area was performed and the results were contrasted with the histological features of other Aspergillus infections. The nasal biopsy specimen and postmortem examination showed infiltrating Aspergillus hyphae with tissue necrosis and little inflammatory response. The hyphae were easily seen with routine stains. This contrasts with the findings in invasive aspergillosis where there is fibrosis and a granulomatous response to the Aspergillus hyphae. The hyphae are seen in giant cells using fungal stains. In the saprophytic infections aspergilloma and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis there is no tissue invasion or destruction. Aspergillus infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses often require biopsy for accurate diagnosis. As treatment varies pathologists need to be able to distinguish the different patterns of infection. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2921352

  8. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  9. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  10. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  11. Treatment of the scoliotic nose with extracorporeal septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    A septal deformity with severe deviation of the septal L strut is seen in nearly every crooked or scoliotic nose. Unless the underlying septal deformity is properly diagnosed and treated, the nasal axis cannot be completely straightened. In addition, because standard septoplasty techniques often fail to adequately address severe L-strut deformities, extracorporeal septoplasty is often a prerequisite for straightening the crooked nose. This article presents a detailed explanation of the extracorporeal technique, as well as representative long-term clinical results showing the efficacy and durability of extracorporeal septoplasty. Extracorporeal septoplasty a safe and reliable method for straightening the severely deviated nose.

  12. F-18 HARV smoke flow visualization of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During the final phase of tests with the HARV, Dryden technicians installed nose strakes, which were panels that fitted flush against the sides of the forward nose. When the HARV was at a high alpha, the aerodynamics of the nose caused a loss of directional stability. Extending one or both of the strakes results in strong side forces that, in turn, generated yaw control. This approach, along with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring Control system, proved to be stability under flight conditions in which conventional surfaces, such as the vertical tails, were ineffective.

  13. The software product assurance metrics study: JPL's software systems quality and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Marilyn W.

    1989-01-01

    The findings are reported of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Software Product Assurance (SPA) Metrics Study, conducted as part of a larger JPL effort to improve software quality and productivity. Until recently, no comprehensive data had been assembled on how JPL manages and develops software-intensive systems. The first objective was to collect data on software development from as many projects and for as many years as possible. Results from five projects are discussed. These results reflect 15 years of JPL software development, representing over 100 data points (systems and subsystems), over a third of a billion dollars, over four million lines of code and 28,000 person months. Analysis of this data provides a benchmark for gauging the effectiveness of past, present and future software development work. In addition, the study is meant to encourage projects to record existing metrics data and to gather future data. The SPA long term goal is to integrate the collection of historical data and ongoing project data with future project estimations.

  14. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  15. Analysis of Drift Errors in the JPL/UCLA Micromachined Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraborty, I.

    1996-01-01

    The model of the JPL/UCLA micromachined vibratory gyroscope will be enhanced to include time varying effects. First, they will be shown to exist through trends in the experimental results. Causes of mechanical error will be further explained by analyzing possible perturbations to the physical model.

  16. Terrain Generation from Stereo Imagery in the JPL/MIPL Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert; Pariser, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions. Terrains and meshes are probably the most important products from MIPL for in-situ operations

  17. Telerobot task planning and reasoning: Introduction to JPL artificial intelligence research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    A view of the capabilities and areas of artificial intelligence research which are required for autonomous space telerobotics extending through the year 2000 is given. In the coming years, JPL will be conducting directed research to achieve these capabilities, as well as drawing heavily on collaborative efforts conducted with other research laboratories.

  18. How Engineers Really Think About Risk: A Study of JPL Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Valerdi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: To improve risk assessment practices as used during the mission design process by JPL's concurrent engineering teams. (1) Developing effective ways to identify and assess mission risks (2) Providing a process for more effective dialog between stakeholders about the existence and severity of mission risks (3) Enabling the analysis of interactions of risks across concurrent engineering roles.

  19. Antenna Autocalibration and Metrology Approach for the AFR/JPL Space-Based Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Michel, Thierry; Freedman, Adam; Cable, Vaughn

    2003-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating in the technology development for a space based radar (SBR) system that would feature a large aperture lightweight antenna for a joint mission later in this decade.

  20. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.