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Sample records for jpl process

  1. Developing the JPL Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

  2. Reengineering the JPL Spacecraft Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, C.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes the factors that have emerged in the evolved process of reengineering the unmanned spacecraft design process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Topics discussed include: New facilities, new design factors, new system-level tools, complex performance objectives, changing behaviors, design integration, leadership styles, and optimization.

  3. The process of developing an instrument: the JPL electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    An electronic nose is a sensing array designed to monitor for targeted chemical species or mixtures. From 1995 to 2008, an electronic nose was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor the environment in human occupied spacecraft for the sudden release, such as leaks or spills, of targeted chemical species. The JPL ENose was taken through three generations of device, from basic exploratory research into polymer-carbon composite chemiresistive sensors to a fully operating instrument which was demonstrated on the International Space Station for several months. The Third Generation JPL ENose ran continuously in the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station to monitor for sudden releases of a targeted group of chemical species. It is capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying targeted species in the parts-per-million range in air, and of operating at a range of temperatures, humidities and pressures.

  4. JPL process for tailoring mission assurance to specific projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, K. K.; Schlue, J. W.; Grammier, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies a processs for tailoring Mission Assurance (MA) activities to JPL flight projects. These MA activities are to be accomplished during appropriate phases of projects involved in design, development, test, fabrication, launch and mission operations. MA is the responsibility of all participants on a project; it enhances their contribution to the success of the mission.

  5. JPL Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knosp, Brian W.; Li, P. Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.; Turk, Francis J.; Shen, Tsae-Pyng J.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Licata, Stephen J.; Poulsen, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations can play a very important role in airborne field campaigns, since they provide a comprehensive description of the environment that is essential for the experiment design, flight planning, and post-experiment scientific data analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to fully utilize data from multiple NASA satellites due to the large data volume, the complexity of accessing NASA s data in near-real-time (NRT), as well as the lack of software tools to interact with multi-sensor information. The JPL GRIP Portal is a Web portal that serves a comprehensive set of NRT observation data sets from NASA and NOAA satellites describing the atmospheric and oceanic environments related to the genesis and intensification of the tropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Together with the model forecast data from four major global atmospheric models, this portal provides a useful tool for the scientists and forecasters in planning and monitoring the NASA GRIP field campaign during the 2010 Atlantic Ocean hurricane season. This portal uses the Google Earth plug-in to visualize various types of data sets, such as 2D maps, wind vectors, streamlines, 3D data sets presented at series of vertical cross-sections or pointwise vertical profiles, and hurricane best tracks and forecast tracks. Additionally, it allows users to overlap multiple data sets, change the opacity of each image layer, generate animations on the fly with selected data sets, and compare the observation data with the model forecast using two independent calendars. The portal also provides the capability to identify the geographic location of any point of interest. In addition to supporting the airborne mission planning, the NRT data and portal will serve as a very rich source of information during the post-field campaign analysis stage of the airborne experiment. By including a diverse set of satellite observations and model forecasts, it provides a good spatial and temporal context for the

  6. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  7. Assimilation and implications of AE-9/AP-9 in the design process of JPL missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Jun, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA AE-8/AP-8 has been the standard geospace environment specification for decades. This model describes the energetic particle environment around the Earth and is currently the default model used in the design of space missions at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Moreover, the model plays a critical role in the determination of the shielding and survivability of the satellites orbiting our planet. A recent update supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the AE-9/AP-9 model, was released in September 2012 and included many improvements like increased spatial resolution and the specification of the uncertainty due to instrument errors or space weather variability. A current effort at JPL is in place with the objective of making a decision within the Laboratory on the transition from AE-8/AP-8 to the new AE-9/AP-9. In this study we present the results of this effort, which involves the comparison between both versions of the model for different satellite orbits, the comparison between AE-9/AP-9 and in-situ satellite data from the Van Allen Probes and the OSTM/Jason 2 satellite, and the implications of adopting the new model for spacecraft design in terms of survivability, shielding, single event effects, and spacecraft charging.

  8. JPL Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, continuously operating event monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks in the crew habitat in the International Space Station. It fills the long-standing gap between onboard alarms and complex analytical instruments. ENose provides rapid, early identification and quantification of atmospheric changes caused by chemical species to which it has been trained. ENose can also be used to monitor cleanup processes after a leak or a spill.

  9. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  10. Visualization of Earth and Space Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of systems in use at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing data returned by space exploration and earth observations spacecraft. Graphical and visualization techniques used to query and retrieve data from large scientific data bases will be described.

  11. Recent developments at JPL in the application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.; Benton, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques of a digital image-processing nature are illustrated which have proved useful in visual analysis of astronomical pictorial data. Processed digital scans of photographic plates of Stephans Quintet and NGC 4151 are used as examples to show how faint nebulosity is enhanced by high-pass filtering, how foreground stars are suppressed by linear interpolation, and how relative color differences between two images recorded on plates with different spectral sensitivities can be revealed by generating ratio images. Analyses are outlined which are intended to compensate partially for the blurring effects of the atmosphere on images of Stephans Quintet and to obtain more detailed information about Saturn's ring structure from low- and high-resolution scans of the planet and its ring system. The employment of a correlation picture to determine the tilt angle of an average spectral line in a low-quality spectrum is demonstrated for a section of the spectrum of Uranus.

  12. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  13. JPL Development Ephemeris number 96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.; Keesey, M. S. W.; Newhall, X. X.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth issue of JPL Planetary Ephemerides, designated JPL Development Ephemeris No. 96 (DE96), is described. This ephemeris replaces a previous issue which has become obsolete since its release in 1969. Improvements in this issue include more recent and more accurate observational data, new types of data, better processing of the data, and refined equations of motion which more accurately describe the actual physics of the solar system. The descriptions in this report include these new features as well as the new export version of the ephemeris. The tapes and requisite software will be distributed through the NASA Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  14. JPL web team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) WEB Team activities were reported for activities which were directed toward identifying and attacking areas in the growth of dendritic web ribbon, to complement the program at Westinghouse Electric Corp.

  15. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  16. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

  17. Radar Technology Development at NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar at JPL and worldwide is enjoying a period of unprecedented development. JPL's science-driven program focuses on exploiting commercially available components to build new technologies to meet NASA's science goals. Investments in onboard-processing, advanced digital systems, and efficient high-power devices, point to a new generation of high-performance scientific SAR systems in the US. Partnerships are a key strategy for US missions in the coming decade

  18. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  19. JPL Innovation Foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  20. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  1. Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmann, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

  2. Summary of JPL Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight programs, including past, present and future missions targeting Solar System exploration. Details, including launch dates and batteries used, are given for Deep Space 1 (Asteroid Rendezvous), Deep Space 2 (Mars Penetrator), Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Surveyor '98, Stardust, Europa Orbiter, Mars Surveyor 2001, Mars 2003 Lander and Rover, and Genesis (Solar Dust Return). Earth science projects are also outlined: Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ARIMSAT), Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon), Jason-1 (TOPEX follow-on), and QuikScat/Seawinds (Ocean Winds Tracking). The status, background, and plans are given for several batteries: (1) 2.5 inch common pressure vessel (CPV), (2) 3.5 inch CPV, (3) Ni-H2, and (4) Li-Ion.

  3. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Plans for evaluating, designing, fabricating, transporting and deploying cost effective and STS compatible offset wrap rib antennas up to 300 meters in diameter for mobile communications, Earth resources observation, and for the orbiting VLBI are reviewed. The JPL surface measurement system, intended for large mesh deployable antenna applications will be demonstrated and validated as part of the antenna ground based demonstration program. Results of the offset wrap rib deployable antenna technology development will include: (1) high confidence structural designs for antennas up to 100 meters in diameter; (2) high confidence estimates of functional performance and fabrication cost for a wide range of antenna sizes (up to 300 meters in diameter); (3) risk assessment for fabricating the large size antennas; and (4) 55 meter diameter flight quality hardware that can be cost effectively completed toto accommodate a flight experiment and/or application.

  4. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  5. The JPL/KSC telerobotic inspection demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David; Bon, Bruce; Collins, Carol; Fleischer, Gerry; Litwin, Todd; Morrison, Jack; Omeara, Jacquie; Peters, Stephen; Brogdon, John; Humeniuk, Bob

    1990-01-01

    An ASEA IRB90 robotic manipulator with attached inspection cameras was moved through a Space Shuttle Payload Assist Module (PAM) Cradle under computer control. The Operator and Operator Control Station, including graphics simulation, gross-motion spatial planning, and machine vision processing, were located at JPL. The Safety and Support personnel, PAM Cradle, IRB90, and image acquisition system, were stationed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Images captured at KSC were used both for processing by a machine vision system at JPL, and for inspection by the JPL Operator. The system found collision-free paths through the PAM Cradle, demonstrated accurate knowledge of the location of both objects of interest and obstacles, and operated with a communication delay of two seconds. Safe operation of the IRB90 near Shuttle flight hardware was obtained both through the use of a gross-motion spatial planner developed at JPL using artificial intelligence techniques, and infrared beams and pressure sensitive strips mounted to the critical surfaces of the flight hardward at KSC. The Demonstration showed that telerobotics is effective for real tasks, safe for personnel and hardware, and highly productive and reliable for Shuttle payload operations and Space Station external operations.

  6. MEMS Reliability Assurance Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, S.; Lawton, R.; Stark, B.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) reliability assurance and qualification activities at JPL is presented along with the a discussion of characterization of MEMS structures implemented on single crystal silicon, polycrystalline silicon, CMOS, and LIGA processes. Additionally, common failure modes and mechanisms affecting MEMS structures, including radiation effects, are discussed. Common reliability and qualification practices contained in the MEMS Reliability Assurance Guideline are also presented.

  7. Natural Satellite Ephemerides at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert Arthur; Brozovic, Marina

    2015-08-01

    There are currently 176 known natural planetary satellites in the solar system; 150 are officially recognized by the IAU and 26 have IAU provisional designations. We maintain ephemerides for all of the satellites at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and make them available electronically through the On-Line Solar System Data Service known as Horizons(http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons) and in the form of generic Spice Kernels (SPK files) from NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/naif). General satellite information such as physical constants and descriptive orbital elements can be found on the JPL Solar System Dynamics Website (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov). JPL's ephemerides directly support planetary spacecraft missions both in navigation and science data analysis. They are also used in general scientific investigations of planetary systems. We produce the ephemerides by fitting numerically integrated orbits to observational data. Our model for the satellite dynamics accounts for the gravitational interactions within a planetary system and the external gravitational perturbations from the Sun and planets. We rely on an extensive data set to determine the parameters in our dynamical models. The majority of the observations are visual, photographic, and CCD astrometry acquired from Earthbased observatories worldwide and the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional observations include optical and photoelectric transits, eclipses, occultations, Earthbased radar ranging, spacecraft imaging,and spacecraft radiometric tracking. The latter data provide information on the planet and satellite gravity fields as well as the satellite position at the times of spacecraft close encounters. In this paper we report on the status of the ephemerides and our plan for future development, specifically that in support of NASA's Juno, Cassini, and New Horizons missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto, respectively.

  8. Bioconversion study conducted by JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of Caltech conducted a study of bioconversion as a means of identifying the role of biomass for meeting the national energy fuel and chemical requirements and the role and means for JPL-Caltech involvement in bioconversion. The bioconversion study included the following categories; biomass sources, chemicals from biomass, thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels, biological conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals, and basic bioconversion sciences. A detailed review is included of the bioconversion fields cited with specific conclusions and recommendations given for future research and development and overall biomass system engineering and economic studies.

  9. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  10. Lesson Learning at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  11. JPL Counterfeit Parts Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risse, Lori

    2012-01-01

    SPACE ARCHITECTURE / ENGINEERING: It brings an extreme test bed for both technologies/concepts as well as procedures/processes. Design and construction (engineering) always go together, especially with complex systems. Requirements (objectives) are crucial. More important than the answers are the questions/Requirements/Tools-Techniques/Processes. Different environments force architects and engineering to think out of the box. For instance there might not be gravity forces. Architectural complex problems have common roots: in Space and on Earth. Let us bring Space down on Earth so we can keep sending Mankind to the stars from a better world. Have fun being architects and engineers...!!! This time is amazing and historical. We are changing the way we inhabit the solar systems!

  12. Space Images for NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

  13. JPL nuclear electric propulsion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Tom; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, Jay

    1993-01-01

    The development of lithium magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters at JPL is discussed. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: mercury vapor mass flow control; porous tungsten vaporizer and housing; the lithium vaporizer experiment; a dry box for handling solid lithium; MPD thruster electrode modeling; engine lifetime definitions; cathode failure modeling; cathode erosion modeling; cathode thermal modeling; near cathode plasma model regions; cathode work function modeling; anode work function modeling; and radiation-cooled anodes.

  14. JPL preferred parts list: Reliable electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, R. E.; Scott, W. R.; Hess, L. M.; Steffy, T. G.; Stott, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    The JPL Preferred Parts List was prepared to provide a basis for selection of electronic parts for JPL spacecraft programs. Supporting tests for the listed parts were designed to comply with specific spacecraft environmental requirements. The list tabulates the electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical parts applicable to all JPL electronic equipment wherein reliability is a major concern. The parts listed are revelant to equipment supplied by subcontractors as well as fabricated at the laboratory.

  15. 2012 Robotics Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Robotics Section of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, is engaged in a full spectrum of flight project and research activities. This paper will provide an overview of these efforts, and discuss the recent accomplishments and future directions of them. Specific activities will be high- lighted based on their level of accomplishment, impact on the community, maturity, or novelty. Robotics activities on flight projects are a significant subset of the full effort for these large missions. Complementing flight activities is a diverse set of research efforts for NASA and other U.S. Government agencies. Future directions will be motivated by NASA and other sponsor objectives, as well as success experienced in these current endeavours.

  16. Modernizing the JPL VLBI Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogstad, S.; Goodhart, C. E.; Clark, J. E.; Finley, S.; Lanyi, G. E.; White, L. A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.>

    This poster will present the current capabilities of the JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) and the general architecture of the equipment. In addition, the scientific and navigation uses of the JVC will be enumerated for background purposes. The JVC is a software correlator based on a Beowulf cluster of computers. It replaces a thirty year old correlator based on custom designed digital hardware. General comparisons between the old and new equipment will be made. The JVC makes use of a separate program, SoftC, to do the actual correlations. The JVC manages the sending of data to multiple machines in a Beowulf cluster each running SoftC in parallel on small chunks of the data. The basic architecture of SoftC will also be described.

  17. A run-time control architecture for the JPL telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Lokshin, A.; Kreutz, K.; Beahan, J.

    1987-01-01

    An architecture for implementing the process-level decision making for a hierarchically structured telerobot currently being implemented at the Jet Propolusion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Constraints on the architecture design, architecture partitioning concepts, and a detailed description of the existing and proposed implementations are provided.

  18. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  19. Mars Observer Press Conference JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a press briefing, held after the spacecraft had not responded to attempts to communicate with it, to explain to the press the problems and the steps that were being taken to re-establish communication with the spacecraft. The communications had been shutdown prior to the orbital insertion burn to protect the instruments. At the time of the press conference, the communications system was still not operational, and attempts were being made to re-establish communication. Bob McMillan of the Public Affairs Office at JPL gives the initial announcement of the continuing communication problem with the spacecraft. Mr. McMillan introduces William Piotrowski, acting director of solar system exploration, who reiterates that there is indeed no communication with the Observer spacecraft. He is followed by Glenn Cunningham, the Project Manager of the Mars Observer who speaks about the attempts to re-establish contact. Mr. Cunningham is followed by Satenios Dallas, the Mission Manager for the Mars Observer Project, who speaks about the sequence of events leading up to the communication failure, and shows an animated video presenting the orbital insertion maneuvers. The briefing was then opened up for questions from the assembled press, both at JPL and at the other NASA Centers. The questions are about the possible reasons for the communication failure, and the attempts to restore communications with the spacecraft. Dr. Arden L. Albee, chief scientist for the Mars Observer Mission, joins the other panel members to answer questions. At the end of the press briefing the animation of the Mars orbital insertion is shown again.

  20. Status of the JPL Horizons Ephemeris System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgini, Jon D.

    2015-08-01

    Since 1996, the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on-line Horizons system has provided open access to the latest JPL orbit solutions through customizable ephemeris generation and searches. Currently, high-precision ephemerides for more than 683,000 objects are available: all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, system barycenters, and some libration points.Since inception, Horizons has produced 150 million ephemeris products in response to 70.4 million connections by 800,000 unique IP addresses. Recent usage is typically 6000 unique users requesting 4,000,000 ephemeris products per month.Horizons is freely accessible without an account and may be used and automated through any of three interfaces: interactive telnet connection, web-browser form, or by sending e-mail command-files.Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated on request using JPL's DASTCOM5 database of initial conditions which is kept current by a separate process; as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center, they are automatically processed into new JPL orbit solutions. Radar targets and other objects of high interest have their orbit solutions manually examined and updated into the database.For asteroids and comets, SPK files may be dynamically created using Horizons. This is effectively a recording of the integrator output. The binary files may then be efficiently interpolated by user software to exactly reproduce the trajectory without having to duplicate the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion.Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, and close-approach tables. More than one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For asteroids and comets, statistical uncertainties can be mapped to output times to assess position and motion uncertainties.Horizons is consistent with the DE431 solar system solution

  1. Uncertainties in the JPL planetary ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, W. M.

    2011-10-01

    The numerically integrated planetary ephemerides by JPL, IMCCE, and IPA are largely based on the same observation set and dynamical models. The differences between ephemerides are expected to be consistent within uncertainties. Uncertainties in the orbits of the major planets and the dwarf planet Pluto based on recent analysis at JPL are described.

  2. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  3. Mobile antenna development at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Jamnejad, V.; Densmore, A.; Tulintseff, A.; Thomas, R.; Woo, K.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), under the sponsorship of NASA, has pioneered the development of land vehicle antennas for commercial mobile satellite communications. Several novel antennas have been developed at L-band frequencies for the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) program initiated about a decade ago. Currently, two types of antennas are being developed at K- and Ka-band frequencies for the ACTS (Advanced Communications Technology Satellite) Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. For the future, several hand-held antenna concepts are proposed for the small terminals of the Ka-band Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). For the L-band MSAT program, a number of omni-directional low-gain antennas, such as the crossed drooping-dipoles, the higher-order-mode circular microstrip patch, the quadrifilar helix, and the wrapped-around microstrip 'mast' array, have been developed for lower data rate communications. Several medium-gain satellite tracking antennas, such as the electronically scanned low-profile phased array, the mechanically steered tilted microstrip array, the mechanically steered low-profile microstrip Yagi array, and the hybrid electronically/mechanically steered low-profile array, have been developed for the MSAT's higher data rate and voice communications. To date, for the L-band vehicle application, JPL has developed the world's lowest-profile phased array (1.8 cm height), as well as the lowest-profile mechanically steered antenna (3.7 cm height). For the 20/30 GHz AMT project, a small mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna with a gain of 23 dBi has recently been developed to transmit horizontal polarization at 30 GHz and receive vertical polarization at 20 GHz. Its hemispherical radome has a height of 10 cm and a base diameter of 23 cm. In addition to the reflector, a mechanically steered printed MMIC active array is currently being developed to achieve the same electrical requirements with a low profile capability. These AMT antenna developments

  4. The Snow Data System at NASA JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, R.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Brodzik, M. J.; Rittger, K.; Bormann, K. J.; Burgess, A. B.; Zimdars, P.; McGibbney, L. J.; Goodale, C. E.; Joyce, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snow Data System at NASA JPL includes a data processing pipeline built with open source software, Apache 'Object Oriented Data Technology' (OODT). It produces a variety of data products using inputs from satellites such as MODIS, VIIRS and Landsat. Processing is carried out in parallel across a high-powered computing cluster. Algorithms such as 'Snow Covered Area and Grain-size' (SCAG) and 'Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow' (DRFS) are applied to satellite inputs to produce output images that are used by many scientists and institutions around the world. This poster will describe the Snow Data System, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the future. Advancements for 2015 include automated daily processing of historic MODIS data for SCAG (MODSCAG) and DRFS (MODDRFS), automation of SCAG processing for VIIRS satellite inputs (VIIRSCAG) and an updated version of SCAG for Landsat Thematic Mapper inputs (TMSCAG) that takes advantage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for faster processing speeds. The pipeline has been upgraded to use the latest version of OODT and its workflows have been streamlined to enable computer operators to process data on demand. Additional products have been added, such as rolling 8-day composites of MODSCAG data, a new version of the MODSCAG 'annual minimum ice and snow extent' (MODICE) product, and recoded MODSCAG data for the 'Satellite Snow Product Intercomparison and Evaluation Experiment' (SnowPEx) project.

  5. MEMS Micropropulsion Activities at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Juergen; Chakraborty, Indrani; Vargo, Stephen; Bame, David; Marrese, Colleen; Tang, William C.

    1999-01-01

    A status of MEMS-based micropropulsion activities conducted at JPL will be given. These activities include work conducted on the so called Vaporizing Liquid Micro-Thruster (VLM) which recently underwent proof-of-concept testing, demonstrating the ability to vaporize water propellant at 2 W and 2 V. Micro-ion engine technologies, such m field emitter arrays and micro-grids are being studied. Focus in the field emitter area is on arrays able to survive in thruster plumes and micro-ion engine plasmas to serve as neutralizers aW engine cathodes. Integrated, batch-fabricated Ion repeller grid structures are being studied as well as different emitter tip materials are being investigated to meet these goals. A micro-isolation valve is being studied to isolate microspacecraft feed system during long interplanetary cruises, avoiding leakage and prolonging lifetime and reliability of such systems. This concept relies on the melting of a thin silicon barrier. Burst pressure values as high as 2,900 psig were obtained for these valves and power requirements to melt barriers ranging between 10 - 50 microns in thickness, as determined through thermal finite element calculations, varied between 10 - 30 W to be applied over a duration of merely 0.5 ms.

  6. The JPL telerobot operator control station: Operational experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1990-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstration System provides an efficient man-machine interface for the performance of telerobot tasks. Its hardware and software have been designed with high flexibility. It provides a feedback-rich interactive environment in which the Operator performs teleoperation tasks, robotic tasks, and telerobotic tasks with ease. The to-date operational experiences of this system, particularly related to the Object Designate Process and the Voice Input/Output Process are discussed.

  7. An Operations Concept for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Cooney, Lauren A.; Delp, Christopher L.; Dutenhoffer, Chelsea A.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Ingham, Michel D.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Smith, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    As JPL's missions grow more complex, the need for improved systems engineering processes is becoming clear. Of significant promise in this regard is the move toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. The Integrated Model-Centric Engineering (IMCE) Initiative, now underway at JPL, seeks to lay the groundwork for these improvements. This paper will report progress on three fronts: articulating JPL's need for IMCE; characterizing the enterprise into which IMCE capabilities will be deployed; and constructing an operations concept for a flight project development in an integrated model-centric environment.

  8. Structural analyses of the JPL Mars Pathfinder impact

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, K.W.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that finite element analysis can be used in the design process for high performance fabric structures. These structures exhibit extreme geometric nonlinearity; specifically, the contact and interaction of fabric surfaces with the large deformation which necessarily results from membrane structures introduces great complexity to analyses of this type. All of these features are demonstrated here in the analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Mars Pathfinder impact onto Mars. This lander system uses airbags to envelope the lander experiment package, protecting it with large deformation upon contact. Results from the analysis show the stress in the fabric airbags, forces in the internal tendon support system, forces in the latches and hinges which allow the lander to deploy after impact, and deceleration of the lander components. All of these results provide the JPL engineers with design guidance for the success of this novel lander system.

  9. The NASA-JPL advanced propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) consists of two main areas: The first involves cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; the second involves research at universities and industry that is directly supported by JPL. The cooperative research program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C-60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry- supported research includes research (modeling and proof-of-concept experiments) in advanced, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion. These propulsion concepts were selected primarily to cover a range of applications from near-term to far-term missions. For example, the long-lived pulsed-xenon thruster research that JPL is supporting at Princeton University addresses the near-term need for efficient, long-life attitude control and station-keeping propulsion for Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The C-60-propellant ion engine has the potential for good efficiency in a relatively low specific impulse (Isp) range (10,000 - 30,000 m/s) that is optimum for relatively fast (less than 100 day) cis-lunar (LEO/GEO/Lunar) missions employing near-term, high-specific mass electric propulsion vehicles. Research and modeling on the C-60-ion engine are currently being performed by JPL (engine demonstration), Caltech (C-60 properties), MIT (plume modeling), and USC (diagnostics). The Li-propellant LFA engine also has good efficiency in the modest Isp range (40,000 - 50,000 m/s) that is optimum for near-to-mid-term megawatt-class solar- and nuclear-electric propulsion vehicles used for Mars missions transporting cargo (in support of a piloted mission). Research and modeling on the Li-LFA engine are currently being performed by JPL (cathode development), Moscow Aviation

  10. The MPD thruster program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John; Goodfellow, Keith; Polk, James; Pivirotto, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The main topics covered include: (1) the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) context; (2) critical issues of MPD Thruster design; and (3) the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster Program at JPL. Under the section on the SEI context the nuclear electric propulsion system and some electric thruster options are addressed. The critical issues of MPD Thruster development deal with the requirements, status, and approach taken. The following areas are covered with respect to the MPD Thruster Program at JPL: (1) the radiation-cooled MPD thruster; (2) the High-Current Cathode Test Facility; (3) thruster component thermal modeling; and (4) alkali metal propellant studies.

  11. Progress in interferometry for LISA at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, Robert; Bachman, Brian; de Vine, Glenn; Dickson, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; Ozawa, Tetsuo; McKenzie, Kirk; Shaddock, Daniel; Robison, David; Sutton, Andrew; Ware, Brent

    2011-05-01

    Recent advances at JPL in experimentation and design for LISA interferometry include the demonstration of time delay interferometry using electronically separated end stations, a new arm-locking design with improved gain and stability, and progress in flight readiness of digital and analog electronics for phase measurements.

  12. JPL Testbed Image of Airbag Retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the deflated airbags retracted underneath the lander petal at the JPL In-Situ Instrument Laboratory. Retracting the airbags helps clear the path for the rover to roll off the lander and onto the martian surface.

  13. In-Situ Mosaic Production at JPL/MIPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions: (1) Mars Pathfinder (2) Mars Polar Lander (3) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) (4) Phoenix (5) Mars Science Lab (MSL) Mosaics are probably the most visible products from MIPL (1) Generated for virtually every rover position at which a panorama is taken (2) Provide better environmental context than single images (3) Valuable to operations and science personnel (4) Arguably the signature products for public engagement

  14. Comet Simulation Experiments at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. R.; Bruesch, L. S.; Oakes, R.; Pinkham, B.; Folsom, C. L.

    1999-12-01

    A new laboratory for the physical simulation of cometary nuclei and cometary surface processes has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In this paper we will present our experimental setup and first results of the laboratory simulation of cometary nuclei. This work is in direct support of upcoming NASA missions to cometary nuclei. Over the past two years we have developed a variety of laboratory hardware and methodologies to: create cryogenic ice-dust mixtures, contain and process the materials in a specially designed cryogenic high vacuum chamber, and study the effects of insolation from measurements of the changing physical properties of the cometary mixtures. In particular, we create suspensions of water and minerals with a composition similar to those expected of cometary nuclei, based on telescopic and spacecraft observations. We can finely specify the particle size range of the minerals through the use of an air jet sieve system that allows us to grade particles to sizes less than 5 microns. After a mixing procedure that includes the ultrasonic break-up of flocculated particles, the suspension is atomized and sprayed into a liquid nitrogen bath contained in a LN2-cooled, instrumented sample canister (cylinder: diameter =3D 0.20 m; depth =3D 0.25 m), which is adaptable enough to provide cooling for the back-plate only, sides only, or for the entire canister. Upon completion of the formation of the cometary analog materials, we transfer the sample canister to the cryogenic vacuum chamber (10e-4 Pa). Once in the vacuum chamber, the canister can be oriented from 0-45 degrees with respect to the incoming insolation. The solar simulator output covers 0.1-2.1 Solar Constant. Temperatures are measured with 10 sensors in the ice-dust mixture inside the canister. The gas release is monitored as a function of time with two mass spectrometers: one for the lower pressures and one for the higher pressures that may develop during an outburst. Dust release is

  15. GRACE Harmonic and Mascon Solutions at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Yuan, D.; Kuang, D.; Bertiger, W.; Kim, M.; Kruizinga, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    Gravity field solutions at JPL over the past few years have explored use of range, range-rate, and range-acceleration K/Ka-band satellite-satellite data types (with and without GPS), and with both spherical harmonic and mascon-type local mass representations. Until recently, resource and computing limitations have limited the scope of our mascon and other local solutions to a few months and/or small spatial regions and the standard GRACE products have remained spherical harmonic fields. The use of a new very large (~500 node) beowulf machine at JPL is now enabling a wider range of solutions over longer time spans and deeper understanding of their characteristics. These include much higher spherical harmonic degrees, mascons, and hybrids of the two. We will present the current status for several solution types, strengths and weaknesses of each, and our assessments of limiting errors including data noise and aliasing sensitivity.

  16. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model (UMOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry; Martinez-Sierra, Luz Maria; Evans, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is the development of a comprehensive radiation model (UMOD) of the Uranian environment for JPL mission planning. The ultimate goal is to provide a description of the high energy electron and proton environments and the magnetic field at Uranus that can be used for engineering design. Currently no model exists at JPL. A preliminary electron radiation model employing Voyager 2 data was developed by Selesnick and Stone in 1991. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model extends that analysis, which modeled electrons between 0.7 MeV and 2.5 MeV based on the Voyager Cosmic Ray Subsystem electron telescope, down to an energy of 0.022 MeV for electrons and from 0.028 MeV to 3.5 MeV for protons. These latter energy ranges are based on measurements by the Applied Physics Laboratory Low Energy Charged Particle Detector on Voyager 2. As in previous JPL radiation models, the form of the Uranian model is based on magnetic field coordinates and requires a conversion from spacecraft coordinates to Uranian-centered magnetic "B-L" coordinates. Two magnetic field models have been developed for Uranus: 1) a simple "offset, tilted dipole" (OTD), and 2) a complex, multi-pole expansion model ("Q3"). A review of the existing data on Uranus and a search of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) were completed to obtain the latest, up to date descriptions of the Uranian high energy particle environment. These data were fit in terms of the Q3 B-L coordinates to extend and update the original Selesnick and Stone electron model in energy and to develop the companion proton flux model. The flux predictions of the new model were used to estimate the total ionizing dose for the Voyager 2 flyby, and a movie illustrating the complex radiation belt variations was produced to document the uses of the model for planning purposes.

  17. JPL's role in the SETI program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the JPL SETI Team is to develop the strategies and the instrumentation required to carry out an effective, yet affordable, SETI Microwave Observing Program. The primary responsibility for JPL is the development and implementation of the Sky Survey component of the bimodal search program recommended by the SETI Science Working Group (NASA Technical Paper 2244, 1983). JPL is also responsible for the design and implementation of microwave analog instrumentation (including antenna feed systems, low noise RF amplifiers, antenna monitor and control interfaces, etc.) to cover the microwave window for the Sky Survey and the Target Search observations. The primary site for the current SETI Field Test activity is the Venus Station of the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. A SETI controller was constructed and installed so that pre-programmed and real time SETI monitor and control data can be sent to and from the station controller. This unit will be interfaced with the MCSA. A SETI Hardware Handbook was prepared to describe the various systems that will be used by the project at the Venus Station; the handbook is frequently being expanded and updated. The 65,000 channel FFT Spectrum analyzer in the RFI Surveillance System was modified to permit operation with variable resolutions (300 Hz to less than 1 Hz) and with real-time accumulation, which will enhance the capability of the system for testing Sky Survey search strategies and signal detection algorithms.

  18. JPL Earth Science Center Visualization Multitouch Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.

    2014-12-01

    JPL Earth Science Center Visualization table is a specialized software and hardware to allow multitouch, multiuser, and remote display control to create seamlessly integrated experiences to visualize JPL missions and their remote sensing data. The software is fully GIS capable through time aware OGC WMTS using Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal as the GIS backend to continuously ingest and retrieve realtime remote sending data and satellite location data. 55 inch and 82 inch unlimited finger count multitouch displays allows multiple users to explore JPL Earth missions and visualize remote sensing data through very intuitive and interactive touch graphical user interface. To improve the integrated experience, Earth Science Center Visualization Table team developed network streaming which allows table software to stream data visualization to near by remote display though computer network. The purpose of this visualization/presentation tool is not only to support earth science operation, but specifically designed for education and public outreach and will significantly contribute to STEM. Our presentation will include overview of our software, hardware, and showcase of our system.

  19. Advancing the practice of systems engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansma, Patti A.; Jones, Ross M.

    2006-01-01

    In FY 2004, JPL launched an initiative to improve the way it practices systems engineering. The Lab's senior management formed the Systems Engineering Advancement (SEA) Project in order to "significantly advance the practice and organizational capabilities of systems engineering at JPL on flight projects and ground support tasks." The scope of the SEA Project includes the systems engineering work performed in all three dimensions of a program, project, or task: 1. the full life-cycle, i.e., concept through end of operations 2. the full depth, i.e., Program, Project, System, Subsystem, Element (SE Levels 1 to 5) 3. the full technical scope, e.g., the flight, ground and launch systems, avionics, power, propulsion, telecommunications, thermal, etc. The initial focus of their efforts defined the following basic systems engineering functions at JPL: systems architecture, requirements management, interface definition, technical resource management, system design and analysis, system verification and validation, risk management, technical peer reviews, design process management and systems engineering task management, They also developed a list of highly valued personal behaviors of systems engineers, and are working to inculcate those behaviors into members of their systems engineering community. The SEA Project is developing products, services, and training to support managers and practitioners throughout the entire system lifecycle. As these are developed, each one needs to be systematically deployed. Hence, the SEA Project developed a deployment process that includes four aspects: infrastructure and operations, communication and outreach, education and training, and consulting support. In addition, the SEA Project has taken a proactive approach to organizational change management and customer relationship management - both concepts and approaches not usually invoked in an engineering environment. This paper'3 describes JPL's approach to advancing the practice of

  20. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Environmental Verification Processes and Test Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan R.; Green, Nelson W.

    2006-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the JPL processes for enviornmental verification and testing of aerospace systems is presented. The topics include: 1) Processes: a) JPL Design Principles b) JPL Flight Project Practices; 2) Environmental Verification; and 3) Test Effectiveness Assessment: Inflight Anomaly Trends.

  1. Space Images for NASA JPL Android Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Jon D.; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Strom, Joshua R.; Arca, Jeremy M.; Perez, Martin; Boggs, Karen; Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the demand for easily accessible NASA JPL images and videos by providing a user friendly and simple graphical user interface that can be run via the Android platform from any location where Internet connection is available. This app is complementary to the iPhone version of the application. A backend infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal and Institutional Communications Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure. This system consists of four distinguishing components: image repository, database, server-side logic, and Android mobile application. The image repository contains images from various JPL flight projects. The database stores the image information as well as the user rating. The server-side logic retrieves the image information from the database and categorizes each image for display. The Android mobile application is an interfacing delivery system that retrieves the image information from the server for each Android mobile device user. Also created is a reporting and tracking system for charting and monitoring usage. Unlike other Android mobile image applications, this system uses the latest emerging technologies to produce image listings based directly on user input. This allows for countless combinations of images returned. The backend infrastructure uses industry-standard coding and database methods, enabling future software improvement and technology updates. The flexibility of the system design framework permits multiple levels of display possibilities and provides integration capabilities. Unique features of the software include image/video retrieval from a selected set of categories, image Web links that can be shared among e-mail users, sharing to Facebook/Twitter, marking as user's favorites, and image metadata searchable for instant results.

  2. Multimission Telemetry Visualization (MTV) system: A mission applications project from JPL's Multimedia Communications Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberlein, Ernest, III; Pender, Shaw Exum

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission Telemetry Visualization (MTV) data acquisition/distribution system. MTV was developed by JPL's Multimedia Communications Laboratory (MCL) and designed to process and display digital, real-time, science and engineering data from JPL's Mission Control Center. The MTV system can be accessed using UNIX workstations and PC's over common datacom and telecom networks from worldwide locations. It is designed to lower data distribution costs while increasing data analysis functionality by integrating low-cost, off-the-shelf desktop hardware and software. MTV is expected to significantly lower the cost of real-time data display, processing, distribution, and allow for greater spacecraft safety and mission data access.

  3. DOE/JPL advanced thermionic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments in the DOE program include: continuing stable output from the combustion life test of the one-inch diameter hemispherical silicon carbine diode (Converter No. 239) at an emitter temperature of 1730 K for a period of over 4200 hours; construction of four diode module completed; favorable results obtained from TAM combustor-gas turbine system analyses; and obtained a FERP work function of 2.3 eV with the W(100)-O-Zr-C electrode. JPL program accomplishments include: the average minimum barrier index of the last six research diodes built with sublimed molybdenum oxide collectors was 20 eV (WHK).

  4. JPL VLBI Analysis Center Report for 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI Analysis Center for the year 2012. The highlight of the year was the successful MSL rover Mars landing, which was supported by VLBI-based navigation using our combined spacecraft, celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, earth orientation, and planetary ephemeris VLBI systems. We also supported several other missions with VLBI navigation measurements. A combined NASA-ESA network was demonstrated with first Ka-band fringes to ESA's Malargue, Argentina 35 m. We achieved first fringes with our new digital back end and Mark 5C recorders.

  5. NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, N. (Editor); Evans, D. L. (Editor); Held, D. N. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Speaker-supplied summaries of the talks given at the NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop on February 4 and 5, 1985, are provided. These talks dealt mostly with composite quadpolarization imagery from a geologic or ecologic prespective. An overview and summary of the system characteristics of the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) flown on the NASA CV-990 aircraft are included as supplementary information. Other topics ranging from phase imagery and interferometric techniques classifications of specific areas, and the potentials and limitations of SAR imagery in various applications are discussed.

  6. Terrain Generation from Stereo Imagery in the JPL/MIPL Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert; Pariser, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions. Terrains and meshes are probably the most important products from MIPL for in-situ operations

  7. How Engineers Really Think About Risk: A Study of JPL Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Valerdi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: To improve risk assessment practices as used during the mission design process by JPL's concurrent engineering teams. (1) Developing effective ways to identify and assess mission risks (2) Providing a process for more effective dialog between stakeholders about the existence and severity of mission risks (3) Enabling the analysis of interactions of risks across concurrent engineering roles.

  8. NASA/JPL aircraft SAR operations for 1984 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The NASA/JPL aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was used to conduct major data acquisition expeditions in 1983 through 1985. Substantial improvements to the aircraft SAR were incorporated in 1981 through 1984 resulting in an imaging radar that could simultaneously record all four combinations of linear horizontal and vertical polarization (HH, HV, VH, VV) using computer control of the radar logic, gain setting, and other functions. Data were recorded on high-density digital tapes and processed on a general-purpose computer to produce 10-km square images with 10-m resolution. These digital images yield both the amplitude and phase of the four polarizations. All of the digital images produced so far are archived at the JPL Radar Data Center and are accessible via the Reference Notebook System of that facility. Sites observed in 1984 and 1985 included geological targets in the western United States, as well as agricultural and forestry sites in the Midwest and along the eastern coast. This aircraft radar was destroyed in the CV-990 fire at March Air Force Base on 17 July 1985. It is being rebuilt for flights in l987 and will likely be operated in a mode similar to that described here. The data from 1984 and 1985 as well as those from future expeditions in 1987 and beyond will provide users with a valuable data base for the multifrequency, multipolarization Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) scheduled for orbital operations in the early 1990's.

  9. JPL stories: story on the story (series) Careering through JPL, presented by Alice M. Fairhurst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alice Fairhurst, co-author of Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, presented an enthusiastic overview of her tenure as a JPL career development and mentoring coordinator (1991-2001). Among other things, Alice is an expert in Keirseyian Temperament and Myers-Briggs typology.

  10. JPL Project Information Management: A Continuum Back to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiz, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the practices and architecture that support information management at JPL. This practice has allowed concurrent use and reuse of information by primary and secondary users. The use of this practice is illustrated in the evolution of the Mars Rovers from the Mars Pathfinder to the development of the Mars Science Laboratory. The recognition of the importance of information management during all phases of a project life cycle has resulted in the design of an information system that includes metadata, has reduced the risk of information loss through the use of an in-process appraisal, shaping of project's appreciation for capturing and managing the information on one project for re-use by future projects as a natural outgrowth of the process. This process has also assisted in connection of geographically disbursed partners into a team through sharing information, common tools and collaboration.

  11. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  12. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  13. Archived 1976-1985 JPL Aircraft SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Blom, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes archived data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) aircraft radar expeditions in the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s collected by Ron Blom, JPL Radar Geologist. The dataset was collected during Ron's career at JPL from the 1970s through 2015. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data in the 1970s and 1980s were recorded optically on long strips of film. SAR imagery was produced via an optical, holographic technique that resulted in long strips of film imagery.

  14. JPL Ultrastable Trapped Ion Atomic Frequency Standards.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric A; Yi, Lin; Tucker, Blake; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Recently, room temperature trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on three directions: 1) ultrastable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate stability performance and autonomous timekeeping; 2) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements; and 3) miniature clocks. In this paper, we concentrate on the first direction and present a design and the initial results from a new ultrastable clock referred to as L10 that achieves a short-term stability of 4.5 ×10(-14)/τ(1/2) and an initial measurement of no significant drift with an uncertainty of 2.4 ×10(-16) /day over a two-week period.

  15. Operations at the JPL OCTL Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit; Roberts, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) is a 200 sq-m located at 2.2.km altitude in Wrightwood California and houses a state-of-the-art 1-m telescope. The OCTL team is involved in the development of operational strategies for ground-to-space laser beam propagation for future NASA optical communications missions. Strategies include safe beam propagation through navigable air space, line of sight optical attenuation monitoring, adaptive optics, and multi-beam scintillation mitigation. This paper presents the results of recent operations at the OCTL facility including telescope characterization data and laser beam propagation experiments to Earth-orbiting retro-reflecting satellites; experiments that validate the telescope's tracking and blind-pointing performance and safe laser beam transmission procedures for propagating through navigable airspace.

  16. Test results of JPL LiSOCl sub 2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Subbarao, S.; Dawson, S.; Ang, V.; Deligiannis, E.

    1986-01-01

    In the development of high rate Li-SO-Cl2 cells for various applications, the goal is to achieve 300 watt-hours per kilogram at the C/2 (5 amp) rate in a D cell configuration. The JPL role is to develop the understanding of the performance, life, and safety limiting characteristics in the cell and to transfer the technology to a manufacturer to produce a safe, high quality product in a reproducible manner. The approach taken to achieve the goals is divided into four subject areas: cathode processes and characteristics; chemical reactions and safety; cell design and assembly; and performance and abuse testing. The progress made in each of these areas is discussed.

  17. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  18. Desirements of Next Generation Spacecraft Interconnects : The JPL NEXUS Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yutao; Some, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of NEXUS (NEXt bUS) (1) A research task funded by JPL R&TD program (2) Develop a common highly-capable next generation avionics interconnect with the following features: (a) Transparently compatible with wired, fiber-optic, and RF physical layers (b) A clear and feasible path-to-flight to ensure infusion into future NASA/JPL missions

  19. Nonaerospace uses of JPL technology: a report on technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This report examines various nonaerospace applications of JPL technology. JPL has developed and applied a number of models for the effective transfer of space technology to uses in the public and private sector. Successful technology transfers were achieved in the following areas: chromosome analysis mass spectrometry manufacturing cost prediction gas detection by lasers blood substitutes ultrasound imaging composite materials and detonation and flame arresters.

  20. 2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northwest at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northwest at Test Stand 'B' set up to test a 20,000 pound thrust rocket engine. (JPL negative no. 384-1509-B, 22 October 1956) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand B, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 7. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south on west side of Test Stand 'A' during excavation for new intra-stand tunnel system. Note equipment, tanks and piping installed in tower. (JPL negative no. 384-1540-D, 7 January 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  3. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  4. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  5. 2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, looking northeast at unfinished original Test Stand 'C' construction. A portion of the corrugated steel tunnel tube connecting Test Stand 'C' to the first phase of JPL tunnel system construction is visible in the foreground. The steel frame used to support propellant tanks and engine equipment has been erected. The open trap door leads to a chamber inside the Test Stand 'C' base where gaseous nitrogen is distributed via manifolds to Test Stand 'C' control valves. (JPL negative no. 384-1568-A, 19 March 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study.

    The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg.

    The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn 'moons' seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device.

  7. Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

  8. The JPL imaging radar experiment in GATE: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1975-01-01

    The type of data that was taken with the JPL imaging radar during the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) mission is summarized. A representative sample of the data is given.

  9. NASA's Mobile and Telecom Antenna Development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John

    1997-01-01

    Chartered by NASA to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies for mobile and satellite telecommuniation systems, JPL has developed various antenna technologies throughout the microwave spectrum in the past two decades.

  10. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  11. Proceedings of the 11th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop forum held to report science research and applications results with spectral images measured by the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). These papers were presented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from March 5-8, 2001. Electronic versions of these papers may be found at the A VIRIS Web http://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.proceedings.html

  12. A modeling analysis program for the JPL table mountain Io sodium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Goldberg, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Progress and achievements in the first year are discussed in three main areas: (1) review and assessment of the massive JPL Table Mountain Io sodium cloud data set, (2) formulation and execution of a plan to perform further processing of this data set, and (3) initiation of modeling activities. The complete 1976-79 and 1981 data sets are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the superior 1981 Region B/C images which provide a rich base of information for studying the structure and escape of gases from Io as well as possible east-west and magnetic longitudinal asymmetries in the plasma torus. A data processing plan is developed and is undertaken by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of JPL for the purpose of providing a more refined and complete data set for our modeling studies in the second year. Modeling priorities are formulated and initial progress in achieving these goals is reported.

  13. Virtual time and time warp on the JPL hypercube. [operating system implementation for distributed simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David; Beckman, Brian

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of virtual time and its implementation in the Time Warp Operating System at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Virtual time is a distributed synchronization paradigm that is appropriate for distributed simulation, database concurrency control, real time systems, and coordination of replicated processes. The Time Warp Operating System is targeted toward the distributed simulation application and runs on a 32-node JPL Mark II Hypercube.

  14. Experiences with Text Mining Large Collections of Unstructured Systems Development Artifacts at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Port, Dan; Nikora, Allen; Hihn, Jairus; Huang, LiGuo

    2011-01-01

    Often repositories of systems engineering artifacts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are so large and poorly structured that they have outgrown our capability to effectively manually process their contents to extract useful information. Sophisticated text mining methods and tools seem a quick, low-effort approach to automating our limited manual efforts. Our experiences of exploring such methods mainly in three areas including historical risk analysis, defect identification based on requirements analysis, and over-time analysis of system anomalies at JPL, have shown that obtaining useful results requires substantial unanticipated efforts - from preprocessing the data to transforming the output for practical applications. We have not observed any quick 'wins' or realized benefit from short-term effort avoidance through automation in this area. Surprisingly we have realized a number of unexpected long-term benefits from the process of applying text mining to our repositories. This paper elaborates some of these benefits and our important lessons learned from the process of preparing and applying text mining to large unstructured system artifacts at JPL aiming to benefit future TM applications in similar problem domains and also in hope for being extended to broader areas of applications.

  15. 2013 - JPL's Snow Data System Year in Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodale, C. E.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Rittger, K. E.; Burgess, A.

    2013-12-01

    2013 has been a big year for JPL's Snow Data Processing System. This year our efforts have been focused on supporting the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center, working on products in the Western United States and Alaska for the National Climate Assessment, as well as research efforts in the Hindu Kush Himalaya Region of Asia through the generation and publication of our MODSCAG, MODDRFS and MODICE products. We have revisited the processing stream for our snow properties products as we expand to global coverage providing a higher quality, consistent dataset. We have enabled lossless compression as well as using more efficient data types for our data arrays. This has enabled our archive to expand its coverage while conserving disk space, which comes with the added benefit of making the data downloads smaller and faster. Storage and compression aren't the only changes we have made; there have also been several improvements with cloud masking and missing data identification. These improvements have resulted in products that are smaller and more concise. Our source for MOD09GA data is the LP.DAAC. In June of this year the DAAC switched from an FTP server to HTTP. Our team has been able to adapt to this change by using NASA's ECHO Catalog to search for links to download the MOD09GA HDF files our processing pipeline uses to create the SCAG and DRFS products. We looked at using Reverb, but they limit the search results to only 2000 granules, where our typical granule count for a single tile exceeds 4000. We would like to share our improvements to the output products, the lessons we learned from the DAAC changing to HTTP and how others can learn from us, and share the tools we have created. Our plan is to also show our current archive coverage of products, and where we will are planning to process data in 2014 and beyond.

  16. A spaceborne optical interferometer: The JPL CSI mission focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskin, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The JPL Control Structure Interaction (CSI) program is part of the larger NASA-wide CSI program. Within this larger context, the JPL CSI program will emphasize technology for systems that demand micron or sub-micron level control, so-called Micro-Precision Controlled Structures (u-PCS). The development of such technology will make it practical to fly missions with large optical or large precision antenna systems. In keeping with the focused nature of the desired technology, the JPL approach is to identify a focus mission, develop the focus mission CSI system design to a preliminary level, and then use this design to drive out requirements for CSI technology development in the design and analysis, ground test bed, and flight experiment areas.

  17. Capability Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Merida, Sofia; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future missions are ready as needed. The responsibilities include development of a Strategic Plan (Antonsson, E., 2005). As part of the planning effort, a structured approach to technology prioritization, based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) (Weisbin, C.R., 2004) team, was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this approach and present its current status relative to the JPL technology investment.

  18. JPL initiative on historically black colleges and universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Lew; Forte, Paul, Jr.; Leipold, Martin H.

    1989-01-01

    Executive order number 12320 of September 15, 1981, established a program designed to significantly increase the participation of historically black colleges and universities (HBCU's) in Federal programs. Because of its geographical remoteness and position as a contractor operated center, JPL had not participated in grant and training programs with the HBCU's. In recognition of JPL's responsibility to the national commitment on behalf of the historically black colleges and universities, an initiative with effective, achievable guidelines and early progress for a better and more productive interaction between JPL and the HBCU's is described. Numerous areas of interaction with the historically black colleges and universities have been identified and are being inplemented. They have two broad objectives: research interactions and faculty/student interactions. Plans and progress to date for each specific area are summarized.

  19. 8. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view west down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view west down from Test Stand 'A' tower across newly installed tunnel tube to corner of Building 4201/E-2, Test Stand 'A' Workshop (demolished in 1985). Note the wooden retaining structure erected in the foreground to retain earth once the tunnel trench is backfilled (this retaining wall remained in 1994). Note also the propellant control piping on the Test Stand 'A' platform in the immediate foreground. (JPL negative no. 384-1547-C, 6 February 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. JPL IGS Analysis Center Report, 2001-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, M. B.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Jefferson, D. C.; Meyer, R. F.; Newport, B. J.; Vigue-Rodi, Y.; Webb, F. H.; Zumberge, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Three GPS orbit and clock products are currently provided by JPL for consideration by the IGS. Each differs in its latency and quality, with later results being more accurate. Results are typically available in both IGS and GIPSY formats via anonymous ftp. Current performance based on comparisons with the IGS final products is summarized. Orbit performance was determined by computing the 3D RMS difference between each JPL product and the IGS final orbits based on 15 minute estimates from the sp3 files. Clock performance was computed as the RMS difference after subtracting a linear trend based on 15 minute estimates from the sp3 files.

  1. 3. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south into ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of photograph, view south into oxidizer tank enclosure and controls on the north side of Test Stand 'C' shortly after the stand's construction in 1957 (oxidizer contents not determined). To the extreme left appear fittings for mounting an engine for tests. Note the robust stainless steel flanges and fittings necessary to contain highly pressurized corrosive chemicals. (JPL negative no. 384-1608-C, 29 August 1957) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Ka-band mobile and personal systems development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, K.; Estabrook, P.; Jedrey, T.; Sue, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Expanding the commercial applications of space is one of the primary goals of NASA. Throughout the eighties NASA has pursued this objective by sponsoring and undertaking the development of system concepts, enabling high risk technologies, and actual proof of concept demonstration hardware. In the mobile and personal arena, or the so-called low data rate applications area, JPL is NASA's lead center. JPL's focus of activities has been the Mobile Satellite-Experiment (MSAT-X) project, which developed mobile communication technologies at L-band, and its present successors, which aim to expand the mobile arena by exploiting Ka-band.

  3. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Explorations. Part 1; History of JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation briefly reviews the history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from its founding by Dr von Karman in 1936 for research in rocketry through the post-Sputnik shift to unmanned space exploration in 1957. The presentation also reviews the major JPL missions with views of the spacecraft.

  4. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  5. An industrial application of the JPL ACTS with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Wilson, G. E.; Schroepfer, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) uses sewage solids derived from municipal wastewater treatment systems as a source of organic material for powdered activated carbons (PAC). The PAC is used for the COD removal from wastewater and as a filter aid in the recovery of additional sewage solids.

  6. The NASA/JPL three-frequency polarimetric AIRSAR system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, J.; Carande, R.; Lou, Y.; Miller, T.; Wheeler, K.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL AIRSAR) system has now completed four flight campaigns. The authors describe the current state of this system and provide insight into how flight seasons are planned for this instrument. The data processors and data products are described. A table containing relevant system parameters is provided.

  7. Payload test philosophy. [JPL views on qualification/acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindorf, T.

    1979-01-01

    The general philosophy of how JPL views payload qualification/acceptance testing for programs that are done either in-house or by contractors is described. Particular attention is given to mission risk classifications, preliminary critical design reviews, environmental design requirements, the thermal and dynamics development tests, and the flight spacecraft system test.

  8. JPL Robotics Laboratory computer vision software library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, R.

    1984-01-01

    The past ten years of research on computer vision have matured into a powerful real time system comprised of standardized commercial hardware, computers, and pipeline processing laboratory prototypes, supported by anextensive set of image processing algorithms. The software system was constructed to be transportable via the choice of a popular high level language (PASCAL) and a widely used computer (VAX-11/750), it comprises a whole realm of low level and high level processing software that has proven to be versatile for applications ranging from factory automation to space satellite tracking and grappling.

  9. JTRF2014, the 2014 JPL Realization of the ITRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio; Gross, Richard; Heflin, Michael; Parker, Jay; van Dam, Tonie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    KALREF, JPL's KALman filter and smoother for REference Frames, has been used to determine the JTRF2014, a combined terrestrial reference frame (TRF) obtained by analyzing the input SINEX files submitted by the IDS, IGS, ILRS, and IVS for the computation of ITRF2014. JTRF2014 is determined by combining on a weekly basis time series of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) along with local ties at co-located sites. JTRF2014 is a sub-secular reference frame whose origin is at the quasi-instantaneous Center of Mass (CM) as measured by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). Both SLR and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) contribute to the scale of the combined frame. The frame orientation is conventionally defined through a no-net-rotation condition to ITRF2008. In the JTRF2014 the temporal evolution of the station positions is formulated by accounting for linear and seasonal terms (annual and semi-annual periodic modes). Non-secular and non-seasonal motions of the geodetic sites are included in the smoothed time series by properly defining the station position process noise whose variance is characterized by analyzing station displacements induced by temporal changes of planetary fluid masses (atmosphere, oceans and continental surface water). JTRF2014 is going to be delivered as a time series of weekly SINEX files containing the filtered and smoothed station positions and EOPs observed from the early 80s through the end of 2014. Through the geocentric coordinates reported in the KALREF weekly SINEX files, users will have access to the quasi-instantaneous CM as detected by SLR and to the quasi-instantaneous scale defined by VLBI and SLR. Datum specification (origin, scale and orientation) of JTRF2014 will be discussed and combination metrics such as post-adjustment residuals at co-located ties will be analyzed. Comparisons with ITRF2014 will be provided.

  10. JPL/Student Independent Research Internship (SIRI): Research and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Alvidrez, R. F.; Kahn, R. A.; Whitney, W.

    2006-09-01

    One of NASA's Strategic goals is the education and retention of students in math and science, and providing outreach experiences to all levels of the public (formal and informal). At JPL, an innovative program, SIRI, was initiated in 2003 with the following goals: 1. Provide local college students, with strong support from their faculty advisors, hands-on experience in scientific research and engineering while they are still forming their higher-education and career plans. 2. JPL and NASA education office interests in providing more help to college students in preparing for careers in science and engineering. Following its initial pilot program with eight students from two local community colleges, the SIRI program branched out in two directions: (1) providing research opportunities to students from a wider range of colleges and (2) research apprenticeship or RA program, so eligible students could continue their research after completing their semester. With support of their JPL mentors, students derived educational and technical benefits. Currently, the SIRI Program includes eight local 2-year and 4-year colleges; serves approximately 25-30 students per year. To date, nearly 50% of interns become apprentices to their JPL mentors. The SIRI program is currently complementary to many undergraduate internship programs as the SIRI interns participate during school year for credit. The RA students are empowered to attend scientific meetings; co-author peer-reviewed papers; continue their research through fellowships, and mentor other students. The success of the SIRI program stems both from the contributions of the students to their mentors’ efforts and JPL's outreach efforts to afford exposure and research experience to students in all fields of science to develop the next generation of scientists. Specific examples of SIRI projects will be showcased.

  11. JPL Thermal Design Modeling Philosophy and NASA-STD-7009 Standard for Models and Simulations - A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avila, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The Standard JPL thermal engineering practice prescribes worst-case methodologies for design. In this process, environmental and key uncertain thermal parameters (e.g., thermal blanket performance, interface conductance, optical properties) are stacked in a worst case fashion to yield the most hot- or cold-biased temperature. Thus, these simulations would represent the upper and lower bounds. This, effectively, represents JPL thermal design margin philosophy. Uncertainty in the margins and the absolute temperatures is usually estimated by sensitivity analyses and/or by comparing the worst-case results with "expected" results. Applicability of the analytical model for specific design purposes along with any temperature requirement violations are documented in peer and project design review material. In 2008, NASA released NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations. The scope of this standard covers the development and maintenance of models, the operation of simulations, the analysis of the results, training, recommended practices, the assessment of the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) credibility, and the reporting of the M&S results. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project thermal control system M&S activity was chosen as a case study determining whether JPL practice is in line with the standard and to identify areas of non-compliance. This paper summarizes the results and makes recommendations regarding the application of this standard to JPL thermal M&S practices.

  12. Mobile Timekeeping Application Built on Reverse-Engineered JPL Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witoff, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, non-exempt employees cumulatively waste over one man-year tracking their time and using the timekeeping Web page to save those times. This app eliminates this waste. The innovation is a native iPhone app. Libraries were built around a reverse- engineered JPL API. It represents a punch-in/punch-out paradigm for timekeeping. It is accessible natively via iPhones, and features ease of access. Any non-exempt employee can natively punch in and out, as well as save and view their JPL timecard. This app is built on custom libraries created by reverse-engineering the standard timekeeping application. Communication is through custom libraries that re-route traffic through BrowserRAS (remote access service). This has value at any center where employees track their time.

  13. Mass spectrometry technology at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of mass spectrometry taking place at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory are highlighted. The pertinent research and development is aimed at producing an ultrahigh sensitivity mass spectrograph for both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. The unique aspect of the JPL developed technology is an integrating focal plane ion detector that obviates the need for spectral scanning since all ions over a wide mass range are monitored simultaneously. The ion detector utilizes electro-optical technology and is therefore referred to as an Electro-Optical Ion Detector (EOID). A technical description of the JPL MS/EOID, some of the current applications, and its potential benefits for internal contamination analysis are discussed.

  14. Case Study of 'Engineering Peer Meetings' in JPL's ST-6 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Lawrence P.; Tumer, Irem

    2004-01-01

    This design process error-proofing case study describes a design review practice implemented by a project manager at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. There are many types of reviews at NASA: required and not, formalized and informal, programmatic and technical. Standing project formal reviews such as the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR) are a required part of every project and mission development. However, the engineering peer reviews that support teams technical work on such projects are often informal, ad hoc, and inconsistent across the organization. This case study discusses issues and innovations identified by a project manager at JPL and implemented in 'engineering peer meetings' for his group.

  15. Case Study of "Engineering Peer Meetings" in JPL's ST-6 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Chao, Lawrence P.

    2003-01-01

    This design process error-proofing case study describes a design review practice implemented by a project manager at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. There are many types of reviews at NASA: required and not, formalized and informal, programmatic and technical. Standing project formal reviews such as the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR) are a required part of every project and mission development. However, the engineering peer reviews that support teams technical work on such projects are often informal, ad hoc, and inconsistent across the organization. This case study discusses issues and innovations identified by a project manager at JPL and implemented in "engineering peer meetings" for his group.

  16. Geometric rectification and geocoding of JPL's AIRSAR data over hilly terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroof, H.; Degrandi, G.; Sieber, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    A post-processing system was developed to georeference and geocode airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the JPL-Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) System over hilly terrain during the 1990 MAESTRO1 campaign. Georectification relates image coordinates and object coordinates while the geocoding involves resampling. The georectification method uses a hybrid method based upon a number of navigational parameters and minimal two ground-control points which are referenced in both image and map space. The calculation of the intersection of the SAR signal wavefront and a digital elevation model allowed, within certain error bounds, acquisition of the object-to-image and image-to-object relationships.

  17. Modeling and control of the Stanford/JPL hand

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Johnson, V.J.; Boissiere, P.T.; Starr, G.P.; Steele, J.P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Improved dexterity is an area of current research in robotics. Research in this area is being pursued with the aid of a Stanford/JPL hand from Salisbury Robotics. This paper presents some of the issues raised in studying the characteristics and control of a single finger of the dexterous hand. The issues presented are dynamic modeling, friction based hysteresis, and identification of the finger system. The present method for sensing and control is also discussed.

  18. Use of Reference Frames for Interplanetary Navigation at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael; Jacobs, Chris; Sovers, Ojars; Moore, Angelyn; Owen, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Navigation of interplanetary spacecraft is typically based on range, Doppler, and differential interferometric measurements made by ground-based telescopes. Acquisition and interpretation of these observations requires accurate knowledge of the terrestrial reference frame and its orientation with respect to the celestial frame. Work is underway at JPL to reprocess historical VLBI and GPS data to improve realizations of the terrestrial and celestial frames. Improvements include minimal constraint alignment, improved tropospheric modeling, better orbit determination, and corrections for antenna phase center patterns.

  19. Involving Scientists in the NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, E.; Hill, J.

    2001-11-01

    The NASA / JPL Solar System Educators Program (SSEP) is a professional development program with the goal of inspiring America's students, creating learning opportunities, and enlightening inquisitive minds by engaging them in the Solar System exploration efforts conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). SSEP is a Jet Propulsion Laboratory program managed by Space Explorers, Inc. (Green Bay, WI) and the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (Hampton, VA). The heart of the program is a large nationwide network of highly motivated educators. These Solar System Educators, representing more than 40 states, lead workshops around the country that show teachers how to successfully incorporate NASA materials into their teaching. During FY2001, more than 9500 educators were impacted through nearly 300 workshops conducted in 43 states. Solar System Educators attend annual training institutes at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during their first two years in the program. All Solar System Educators receive additional online training, materials and support. The JPL missions and programs involved in SSEP include: Cassini Mission to Saturn, Galileo Mission to Jupiter, STARDUST Comet Sample Return Mission, Deep Impact Mission to a Comet, Mars Exploration Program, Outer Planets Program, Deep Space Network, JPL Space and Earth Science Directorate, and the NASA Office of Space Science Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach Forum. Scientists can get involved with this program by cooperatively presenting at workshops conducted in their area, acting as a content resource or by actively mentoring Solar System Educators. Additionally, SSEP will expand this year to include other missions and programs related to the Solar System and the Sun.

  20. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  1. This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This overview displays the concentration of JPL solid propellant production buildings as seen looking directly north (6 degrees) from the roof of the Administration Building (4231-E-32). The structures closest to the camera contain the equipment for weighing, grinding, mixing, and casting solid propellant grain for motors. Structures in the distance generally house curing or inspection activities. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. An improved celestial radio reference frame: JPL 1982-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanselow, J. L.; Sovers, O. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Purcell, G. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of a celestial radio reference frame, there are now over 100 sources whose relative positions are known with an average uncertainty less than 5 milliarcseconds. These sources are fairly uniformly distributed over the celestial sphere north of -40 deg declination. Their positions are expressed in the new IAU system. This presentation describes the analysis involved in obtaining these results, as well as future plans for linking this system to the JPL planetary ephemerides.

  3. 4. Credit JPL. Original 4" x 5" black and white ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit JPL. Original 4" x 5" black and white negative housed in the JPL Archives, Pasadena, California. This interior view displays the machine shop in the Administration/Shops Building (the compass angle of the view is undetermined). Looking clockwise from the lower left, the machine tools in view are a power hacksaw, a heat-treatment oven (with white gloves on top), a large hydraulic press with a tool grinder at its immediate right; along the wall in the back of the view are various unidentified machine tool attachments and a vertical milling machine. In the background, a machinist is operating a radial drilling machine, to the right of which is a small drill press. To the lower right, another machinist is operating a Pratt & Whitney engine lathe; behind the operator stand a workbench and vertical bandsaw (JPL negative no. 384-10939, 29 July 1975). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Administration & Shops Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Data Management System Reuse for Visualization of JPL's SMAP Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Quach, N. T.; De Cesare, C.; Hall, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Imagery Exchange (TIE) is a scalable and efficient imagery data management system that powers the WMS web server OnEarth. Designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), TIE's primary purpose was to power the NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. The SMAP project at JPL had just about all of its requirements met with GIBS but required very project-specific behavior and automation for the Cal-Val phase of the project. Thanks to the extendable design of TIE (already an extension of JPL's Horizon framework) and Amazon's GovCloud services, we were able to meet the needs of the project without any rewrite of the system while significantly expanding the capabilities of an already robust system through well modularized feature additions. In this presentation, we will talk about the efforts made to re-use the already developed data system TIE for SMAP with minimal turn around. Leveraging cloud resources and standard interfaces, we were able to satisfy new project requirements in a very short amount of time.

  5. Galileo Press Conference from JPL. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This two-tape Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) video production presents a Dec. 8, 1992 press conference held at JPL to discuss the final Galileo spacecraft encounter with Earth before beginning its journey to Jupiter. The main theme of the conference was centered on the significance of the 2nd and final Earth/Moon flyby as being the spacecraft's last planetary encounter in the solar system before reaching Jupiter, as well as final flight preparations prior to its final journey. Each person of the five member panel was introduced by Robert MacMillan (JPL Public Information Mgr.) before giving brief presentations including slides and viewgraphs covering their area of expertise regarding Galileo's current status and future plans. After the presentations, the media was given an opportunity to ask questions of the panel regarding the mission. Mr. Wesley Huntress (Dir. of Solar System Exploration (NASA)), William J. ONeill (Galileo Project Manager), Neal E. Ausman, Jr. (Galileo Mission Director), Dr. Torrence V. Johnson (Galileo Project Scientist) and Dr. Ronald Greeley (Member, Imaging Team, Colorado St. Univ.) made up the panel and discussed topics including: Galileo's interplanetary trajectory; project status and performance review; instrument calibration activities; mission timelines; lunar observation and imaging; and general lunar science. Also included in the last three minutes of the video are simulations and images of the 2nd Galileo/Moon encounter.

  6. Research and Development of External Occultor Technology for the Direct Observation of Extrasolar Planetary Systems : JPL Starshades Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Herbert; Stadeler, Mehnert

    2012-01-01

    Our group conducted work during the Summer of 2012 assembling and developing JPL's Starshades Project under the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions(TDEM) initiative created by NASA, specifically TDEM stage 2. The goal of the work conducted at JPL by our group was to construct four occultor petals, the main optical components of the Starshade, for the analysis of joint deployment characteristics and of mechanical strain. A Starshade is an optical structure measuring approximately 30 meters in diameter that uses the effects of light diffraction off sheer edges, light scattering, and negative interference between waves to negate all on-axis light in a telescope's image, providing very high contrast that allows planets orbiting a target star to be observed. We completed our engineering goals in the time span of 10 weeks, during which the assembly processes of manufacture, alignment, and structural bonding took place. The Starshade technology and construction process is further discussed in the body of this paper.

  7. JPL VLBI Analysis Center IVS Annual Report for 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI Analysis Center for the year 2003. We continue to do celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, and spacecraft navigation work using the VLBI technique. Tracking the two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft was the highlight for the year. We continued improvements in the first sub-milliarcsecond global celestial reference frames at K-band (24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz). The K-band catalog more than doubled in size from 108 to 230 sources.

  8. An evaluation of the 1997 JPL Summer Teacher Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Slovacek, Simeon P.; Doyle-Nichols, Adelaide R.

    1997-10-20

    There were two major components in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Summer Teacher Enhancement Project (STEP). First, the Summer Institute was structured as a four-week, 4-credit-unit University course for middle school science teachers, and consisted of workshops, lectures, labs, and tours as activities. The second component consists of follow-up activities related to the summer institute's contents, and again is structured as a University credit-bearing course for participants to reinforce their summer training. Considerable information from the comments and course ratings as given by the participants is included.

  9. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 2: Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Landell, B. Patrick; Oxenberg, Sheldon; Morimoto, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The software design of the operator control system is discussed.

  10. Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.

  11. The JPL telerobot operator control station. Part 1: Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.; Tower, John T.; Hunka, George W.; Vansant, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    The Operator Control Station of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System provides the man-machine interface between the operator and the system. It provides all the hardware and software for accepting human input for the direct and indirect (supervised) manipulation of the robot arms and tools for task execution. Hardware and software are also provided for the display and feedback of information and control data for the operator's consumption and interaction with the task being executed. The hardware design, system architecture, and its integration and interface with the rest of the Telerobot Demonstrator System are discussed.

  12. Retrieval of pine forest biomass using JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.; Zagolski, F.; Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data over the Landes forest in South-West France revealed strong correlation between L- and especially P-band sigma degrees and the pine forest biomass. To explain the physical link of radar backscatter to biomass, a polarimetric backscattering model was developed and validated. Then the model was used in a simulation study to predict sigma degree sensitivity to undesired canopy and environmental parameters. Main results concerning the data analysis, modeling, and simulation at P-band are reported.

  13. 9. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of drawing, engineering drawing showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Credit JPL. Photographic copy of drawing, engineering drawing showing structure of Test Stand 'A' (Building 4202/E-3) and its relationship to the Monitor Building or blockhouse (Building 4203/E-4) when a reinforced concrete machinery room was added to the west side of Test Stand 'A' in 1955. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Electrical Layout - Muroc, Test Stand & Refrigeration Equipment Room,' drawing no. E3/7-0, April 6, 1955. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast of JPL Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, view looking northeast of JPL Edwards Test Station as it looked in 1945. To the immediate right of the Test Stand 'A' tower stands a concrete monitor building or blockhouse (now Building 4203/E-4) for observation and control of tests. Other frame buildings housed workshop and administrative functions. Long structure behind automobiles was designated 4207/E-8 and was used for instrument repair and storage, a cafeteria, machine and welding shops. To the immediate south of 4207/E-8 were 4200/E-1 (used as an office and photographic laboratory) and 4205/E-6 (guardhouse, with fire extinguisher mounted on it). To the northeast of 4205/E-6 was 4204/E-5 (a propellant storage dock, with shed roof). Buildings 4200/E-1, 4205/E-6 and 4207/E-8 were demolished in 1983. Note the absence of trees. (JPL negative no. 383-1297, July 1946) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. JPL, NASA and the Historical Record: Key Events/Documents in Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, Michael Q.

    1999-01-01

    This document represents a presentation about the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) historical archives in the area of Lunar and Martian Exploration. The JPL archives documents the history of JPL's flight projects, research and development activities and administrative operations. The archives are in a variety of format. The presentation reviews the information available through the JPL archives web site, information available through the Regional Planetary Image Facility web site, and the information on past missions available through the web sites. The presentation also reviews the NASA historical resources at the NASA History Office and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  16. A modeling analysis program for the JPL Table Mountain Io sodium cloud data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Goldberg, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Progress and achievements in the second year are discussed in three main areas: (1) data quality review of the 1981 Region B/C images; (2) data processing activities; and (3) modeling activities. The data quality review revealed that almost all 1981 Region B/C images are of sufficient quality to be valuable in the analyses of the JPL data set. In the second area, the major milestone reached was the successful development and application of complex image-processing software required to render the original image data suitable for modeling analysis studies. In the third area, the lifetime description of sodium atoms in the planet magnetosphere was improved in the model to include the offset dipole nature of the magnetic field as well as an east-west electric field. These improvements are important in properly representing the basic morphology as well as the east-west asymmetries of the sodium cloud.

  17. New reflective symmetry design capability in the JPL-IDEAS Structure Optimization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, D.; Levy, R.

    1986-01-01

    The JPL-IDEAS antenna structure analysis and design optimization computer program was modified to process half structure models of symmetric structures subjected to arbitrary external static loads, synthesize the performance, and optimize the design of the full structure. Significant savings in computation time and cost (more than 50%) were achieved compared to the cost of full model computer runs. The addition of the new reflective symmetry analysis design capabilities to the IDEAS program allows processing of structure models whose size would otherwise prevent automated design optimization. The new program produced synthesized full model iterative design results identical to those of actual full model program executions at substantially reduced cost, time, and computer storage.

  18. System identification of the JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer truss

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.; Carne, T.G.; Marek, E.L.; Mayes, R.L. ); Neat, G.W.; Sword, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer (MPI) is a testbed for studying the use of control-structure interaction technology in the design of space-based interferometers. A layered control architecture will be employed to regulate the interferometer optical system to tolerances in the nanometer range. An important aspect of designing and implementing the control schemes for such a system is the need for high fidelity, test-verified analytical structural models. This paper summarizes coordinated test and analysis efforts aimed at producing such a model for the MPI structure. Pretest analysis, modal testing and test-analysis reconciliation results are summarized for a series of tests at both the component and full system levels.

  19. JPL VLBI Analysis Center IVS Annual Report for 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the JPL VLBI analysis center for the year 2004. We continue to be celestial reference frame, terrestrial reference frame, earth orientation, and spacecraft navigation work using the VLBI technique. There are several areas of our work that are undergoing active development. In 2004 we demonstrated 1 mm level troposphere calibration on an intercontinental baseline. We detected our first X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) VLBI fringes. We began to deploy Mark 5 recorders and to interface the Mark 5 units to our software correlator. We also have actively participated in the international VLBI community through our involvement in six papers at the February IVS meeting and by collaborating on a number of projects such as densifying the S/X celestial frame creating celestial frames at K (24 GHz) and Q-bands ($# GHz)>

  20. Experiences with the JPL telerobot testbed: Issues and insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Balaram, Bob; Beahan, John

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Telerobot Testbed is an integrated robotic testbed used to develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of advanced concepts in autonomous, tele-autonomous, and tele-operated control of robotic manipulators. Using the Telerobot Testbed, researchers demonstrated several of the capabilities and technological advances in the control and integration of robotic systems which have been under development at JPL for several years. In particular, the Telerobot Testbed was recently employed to perform a near completely automated, end-to-end, satellite grapple and repair sequence. The task of integrating existing as well as new concepts in robot control into the Telerobot Testbed has been a very difficult and timely one. Now that researchers have completed the first major milestone (i.e., the end-to-end demonstration) it is important to reflect back upon experiences and to collect the knowledge that has been gained so that improvements can be made to the existing system. It is also believed that the experiences are of value to the others in the robotics community. Therefore, the primary objective here will be to use the Telerobot Testbed as a case study to identify real problems and technological gaps which exist in the areas of robotics and in particular systems integration. Such problems have surely hindered the development of what could be reasonably called an intelligent robot. In addition to identifying such problems, researchers briefly discuss what approaches have been taken to resolve them or, in several cases, to circumvent them until better approaches can be developed.

  1. MACSIGMA0 - MACINTOSH TOOL FOR ANALYZING JPL AIRSAR, ERS-1, JERS-1, AND MAGELLAN MIDR DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norikane, L.

    1994-01-01

    MacSigma0 is an interactive tool for the Macintosh which allows you to display and make computations from radar data collected by the following sensors: the JPL AIRSAR, ERS-1, JERS-1, and Magellan. The JPL AIRSAR system is a multi-polarimetric airborne synthetic aperture radar developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes the single-frequency L-band sensor mounted on the NASA CV990 aircraft and its replacement, the multi-frequency P-, L-, and C-band sensors mounted on the NASA DC-8. MacSigma0 works with data in the standard JPL AIRSAR output product format, the compressed Stokes matrix format. ERS-1 and JERS-1 are single-frequency, single-polarization spaceborne synthetic aperture radars launched by the European Space Agency and NASDA respectively. To be usable by MacSigma0, The data must have been processed at the Alaska SAR Facility and must be in the "low-resolution" format. Magellan is a spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft carries a single-frequency, single-polarization synthetic aperture radar. MacSigma0 works with framelets of the standard MIDR CD-ROM data products. MacSigma0 provides four basic functions: synthesis of images (if necessary), statistical analysis of selected areas, analysis of corner reflectors as a calibration measure (if appropriate and possible), and informative mouse tracking. For instance, the JPL AIRSAR data can be used to synthesize a variety of images such as a total power image. The total power image displays the sum of the polarized and unpolarized components of the backscatter for each pixel. Other images which can be synthesized are HH, HV, VV, RL, RR, HHVV*, HHHV*, HVVV*, HHVV* phase and correlation coefficient images. For the complex and phase images, phase is displayed using color and magnitude is displayed using intensity. MacSigma0 can also be used to compute statistics from within a selected area. The

  2. A modeling analysis program for the JPL table mountain Io sodium cloud data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.; Goldberg, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Research in the third and final year of this project is divided into three main areas: (1) completion of data processing and calibration for 34 of the 1981 Region B/C images, selected from the massive JPL sodium cloud data set; (2) identification and examination of the basic features and observed changes in the morphological characteristics of the sodium cloud images; and (3) successful physical interpretation of these basic features and observed changes using the highly developed numerical sodium cloud model at AER. The modeling analysis has led to a number of definite conclusions regarding the local structure of Io's atmosphere, the gas escape mechanism at Io, and the presence of an east-west electric field and a System III longitudinal asymmetry in the plasma torus. Large scale stability, as well as some smaller scale time variability for both the sodium cloud and the structure of the plasma torus over a several year time period are also discussed.

  3. JPL activities on development of acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    Recent activities of JPL in the development of a new type of imaging spectrometers for earth observation and planetary exploration are reported. This instrument uses the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as high resolution and fast programmable bandpass filter. AOTF operates in the principle of acousto-optic interaction in an anisotropic medium. This filter can be tuned in sequential, random, and multiwavelength access modes, providing observational flexibility. The diffraction process in the filter generates two diffracted monochromatic beams with polarization orthogonal to each other, creating a unique capability to measure both polarimetric and spectral properties of the incoming light simultaneously with a single instrument. The device gives wide wavelength operations with reasonably large throughput. In addition, it is in a compact solid-state structure without moving parts, providing system reliability. These attractive features give promising opportunities to develop a new generation of airborne/spaceborne and ground, real-time, imaging spectrometer systems for remote sensing applications.

  4. Project Bibliographies: Tracking the Expansion of Knowledge Using JPL Project Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppin, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Library defines a project bibliography as a bibliography of publicly available publications relating to a specific JPL instrument or mission. These bibliographies may be used to share information between distant project team members, as part of the required Education and Public Outreach effort, or as part of…

  5. Quantifying and reducing leakage errors in the JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, David N.; Landerer, Felix W.; Watkins, Michael M.

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in processing data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have led to a new generation of gravity solutions constrained within a Bayesian framework to remove correlated errors rather than relying on empirical filters. The JPL RL05M mascon solution is one such solution, solving for mass variations using spherical cap mass concentration elements (mascons), while relying on external information provided by near-global geophysical models to constrain the solution. This new gravity solution is fundamentally different than the traditional spherical harmonic gravity solution, and as such, requires different care when postprocessing. Here we discuss two classes of postprocessing considerations for the JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution: (1) reducing leakage errors across land/ocean boundaries, and (2) scaling the solutions to account for leakage errors introduced through parameterizing the gravity solution in terms of mascons. A Coastline Resolution Improvement (CRI) filter is developed to reduce leakage errors across coastlines. Synthetic simulations reveal a reduction in leakage errors of ˜50%, such that residual leakage errors are ˜1 cm equivalent water height (EWH) averaged globally. A set of gain factors is derived to reduce leakage errors for continental hydrology applications. The combined effect of the CRI filter coupled with application of the gain factors, is shown to reduce leakage errors when determining the mass balance of large (>160,000 km2) hydrological basins from 11% to 30% (0.6-1.5 mm EWH) averaged globally, with local improvements up to 38%-81% (9-19 mm EWH).

  6. Genesis failure investigation report : JPL Failure Review Board, Avionics Sub-Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John; Manning, Rob; Barry, Ed; Donaldson, Jim; Rivellini, Tom; Battel, Steven; Savino, Joe; Lee, Wayne; Dalton, Jerry; Underwood, Mark; Surampudi, Rao; Accord, Arden; Perkins, Dave; Barrow, Kirk; Wilson, Bob

    2004-01-01

    On January 7, 2001, the Genesis spacecraft lifted off from Cape Canaveral. Its mission was to collect solar wind samples and return those samples to Earth for detailed analysis by scientists. The mission proceeded successfully for three-and-a-half years. On September 8, 2004, the spacecraft approached Earth, pointed the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) at its entry target, and then fired pyros that jettisoned the SRC. The SRC carried the valuable samples collected over the prior 29 months. The SRC also contained the requisite hardware (mechanisms, parachutes, and electronics) to manage the process of entry, descent, and landing (EDL). After entering Earthas atmosphere, the SRC was expected to open a drogue parachute. This should have been followed by a pyro event to release the drogue chute, and then by a pyro event to deploy the main parachute at an approximate elevation of 6.7 kilometers. As the SRC descended to the Utah landing site, helicopters were in position to capture the SRC before the capsule touched down. On September 8, 2004, observers of the SRCas triumphant return became concerned as the NASA announcer fell silent, and then became even more alarmed as they watched the spacecraft tumble as it streaked across the sky. Long-distance cameras clearly showed that the drogue parachute had not deployed properly. On September 9, 2004, General Eugene Tattini, Deputy Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory formed a Failure Review Board (FRB). This board was charged with investigating the cause of the Genesis mishap in close concert with the NASA Mishap Investigation Board (MIB). The JPL-FRB was populated with experts from within and external to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The JPL-FRB participated with the NASA-MIB through all phases of the investigation, working jointly and concurrently as one team to discover the facts of the mishap.

  7. Customizing the JPL Multimission Ground Data System: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Susan C.; Louie, John J.; Guerrero, Ana Maria; Hurley, Daniel; Flora-Adams, Dana

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has brought improvements and new technologies to mission operations. It was designed as a generic data system to meet the needs of multiple missions and avoid re-inventing capabilities for each new mission and thus reduce costs. It is based on adaptable tools that can be customized to support different missions and operations scenarios. The MGDS is based on a distributed client/server architecture, with powerful Unix workstations, incorporating standards and open system architectures. The distributed architecture allows remote operations and user science data exchange, while also providing capabilities for centralized ground system monitor and control. The MGDS has proved its capabilities in supporting multiple large-class missions simultaneously, including the Voyager, Galileo, Magellan, Ulysses, and Mars Observer missions. The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has been leading Customer Adaptation Training (CAT) teams for adapting and customizing MGDS for the various operations and engineering teams. These CAT teams have typically consisted of only a few engineers who are familiar with operations and with the MGDS software and architecture. Our experience has provided a unique opportunity to work directly with the spacecraft and instrument operations teams and understand their requirements and how the MGDS can be adapted and customized to minimize their operations costs. As part of this work, we have developed workstation configurations, automation tools, and integrated user interfaces at minimal cost that have significantly improved productivity. We have also proved that these customized data systems are most successful if they are focused on the people and the tasks they perform and if they are based upon user confidence in the development team resulting from daily interactions. This paper will describe lessons learned in adapting JPL's MGDS to fly the Voyager, Galileo, and Mars

  8. 1393 Ring Bus at JPL: Description and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry R.

    2007-01-01

    Completed Ring Bus IC V&V Phase - Ring Bus Test Plan Completed for SIM Project - Applicable to Other Projects Implemented a Avionics Bus Based upon the IEEE 1393 Standard - Excellent Starting Point for a General Purpose High-Speed Spacecraft Bus - Designed to Meet SIM Requirements for - Real-time deterministic, distributed systems. - Control system requirements - Fault detection and recovery Other JPL Projects Considering Implementation F'light Software Ring Bus Driver Module Began in 2006, Continues Participating in Standard Revision. Search for Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and measure the masses and orbits of the planets it finds. Survey 2000 nearby stars for planetary systems to learn whether our Solar System is unusual, or typical. Make a new catalog of star position 100 times more accurate than current measurements. Learn how our galaxy formed and will evolve by studying the dynamics of its stars. Critically test models of exactly how stars shine, including exotic objects like black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs.

  9. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project 1976 Through 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, P. (Compiler); Gray, V. (Compiler); Marsh, C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Bibliographical listings are documentation products associated with the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1986. Documents are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports (i.e., deliverable documents produced under contract to JPL). Alphabetical listings by titles are used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference; an author index; and a topical index.

  10. A cognitive operating system (COGNOSYS) for JPL's robot, phase 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    The most important software requirement for any robot development is the COGNitive Operating SYStem (COGNOSYS). This report describes the Stanford University Artificial Intelligence Laboratory's hand eye software system from the point of view of developing a cognitive operating system for JPL's robot. In this, the Phase 1 of the JPL robot COGNOSYS task the installation of a SAIL compiler and a FAIL assembler on Caltech's PDP-10 have been accomplished and guidelines have been prepared for the implementation of a Stanford University type hand eye software system on JPL-Caltech's computing facility. The alternatives offered by using RAND-USC's PDP-10 Tenex operating sytem are also considered.

  11. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  12. Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes.

  13. Calling Home in 2003: JPL Roadmap to Standardized TT&C Customer Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtik, S.; Berner, J.; Levesque, M.

    2000-01-01

    The telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) provides tracking, telemetry and command (TT&C) services for execution of a broad spectrum of deep space missions.

  14. Publications of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Project, 1976 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. (Compiler); Marsh, C. (Compiler); Panda, P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The bibliographical listings in this publication are documentation products associated with the solar thermal power system project carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1976 to 1983. Documents listed are categorized as conference and journal papers, JPL external reports, JPL internal reports, or contractor reports. Alphabetical listings by title were used in the bibliography itself to facilitate location of the document by subject. Two indexes are included for ease of reference: one, an author index; the other, a topical index.

  15. Kinematic and dynamic analyses of the Stanford/JPL robot hand. [MACSYMA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.J.; Starr, G.P.

    1987-11-01

    This report develops the kinematic and dynamic equations for one finger of the three-fingered Stanford/JPL robot hand and documents the physical parameters needed to implement the equations. The equations can be used in control schemes for position and force control of the Stanford/JPL robot hand. The output file for the MACSYMA program is given. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996, was divided into two smaller workshops:(1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop. This current paper, Volume 2 of the Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, presents the summaries for The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop.

  17. JPL/USC GAIM: Validating COSMIC and Ground-Based GPS Assimilation Results to Estimate Ionospheric Electron Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Wilson, B.; Akopian, V.; Pi, X.; Mannucci, A.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    tracing applications and trans-ionospheric path delay calibration. In the presentation, we will discuss the expected impact of NRT COSMIC occultation and NRT ground-based measurements and present validation results for ingest of COSMIC data into GAIM using measurements from World Days. We will quality check our COSMIC-derived products by comparing Abel profiles and JPL- processed results. Furthermore, we will validate GAIM assimilation results using Incoherent Scatter Radar measurements from Arecibo, Jicamarca and Millstone Hill datasets. We will conclude by characterizing the improved electron density states using dual-frequency altimeter-derived Jason vertical TEC measurements.

  18. A new approach for performing contamination control bakeouts in JPL thermal vacuum test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Taylor, Daniel M.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.; Anderson, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Contamination control requirements for the Wide Field/Planetary Camera II (WF/PC II) are necessarily stringent to protect against post-launch contamination of the sensitive optical surfaces, particularly the cold charge coupled device (CCD) imaging surfaces. Typically, thermal vacuum test chambers have employed a liquid nitrogen (LN2) cold trap to collect outgassed contaminants. This approach has the disadvantage of risking recontamination of the test article from shroud offgassing during post-test warmup of the chamber or from any shroud warming of even a few degrees during the bakeout process. By using an enclave, essentially a chamber within a chamber, configured concentrically and internally within an LN2 shroud, a method was developed, based on a design concept by Taylor, for preventing recontamination of test articles during bakeouts and subsequent post-test warmup of the vacuum chamber. Enclaves for testing WF/PC II components were designed and fabricated, then installed in three of JPL's Environmental Test Lab chambers. The design concepts, operating procedures, and test results of this development are discussed.

  19. Applications of different design methodologies in navigation systems and development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA/JPL deep space navigation system consists of a complex array of measurement systems, data processing systems, and support facilities, with components located both on the ground and on-board interplanetary spacecraft. From its beginings nearly 30 years ago, this system has steadily evolved and grown to meet the demands for ever-increasing navigation accuracy placed on it by a succession of unmanned planetary missions. Principal characteristics of this system are its capabilities and great complexity. Three examples in the design and development of interplanetary space navigation systems are examined in order to make a brief assessment of the usefulness of three basic design theories, known as normative, rational, and heuristic. Evaluation of the examples indicates that a heuristic approach, coupled with rational-based mathematical and computational analysis methods, is used most often in problems such as orbit determination strategy development and mission navigation system design, while normative methods have seen only limited use is such applications as the development of large software systems and in the design of certain operational navigation subsystems.

  20. Performance of the Satellite Test Assistant Robot in JPL's Space Simulation Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaffee, Douglas; Long, Mark; Johnson, Ken; Siebes, Georg

    1995-01-01

    An innovative new telerobotic inspection system called STAR (the Satellite Test Assistant Robot) has been developed to assist engineers as they test new spacecraft designs in simulated space environments. STAR operates inside the ultra-cold, high-vacuum, test chambers and provides engineers seated at a remote Operator Control Station (OCS) with high resolution video and infrared (IR) images of the flight articles under test. STAR was successfully proof tested in JPL's 25-ft (7.6-m) Space Simulation Chamber where temperatures ranged from +85 C to -190 C and vacuum levels reached 5.1 x 10(exp -6) torr. STAR's IR Camera was used to thermally map the entire interior of the chamber for the first time. STAR also made several unexpected and important discoveries about the thermal processes occurring within the chamber. Using a calibrated test fixture arrayed with ten sample spacecraft materials, the IR camera was shown to produce highly accurate surface temperature data. This paper outlines STAR's design and reports on significant results from the thermal vacuum chamber test.

  1. Processing and Analysis of Mars Pathfinder Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaVoie, S.; Green, W.; Runkle, A.; Alexander, D.; Andres, P.; DeJong, E.; Duxbury, E.; Freda, D.; Gorjian, Z.; Hall, J.; Hartman, F.; Levoe, S.; Lorre, J.; McAuley, J.; Suzuki, S.; Woncik, P.; Wright, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission required new capabilities and adaptation of existing capabilities in order to support science analysis and flight operations requirements imposed by the in-situ nature of the mission.

  2. Navigation Support at JPL for the JAXA Akatsuki (PLANET-C) Venus Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryne, Mark S.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; You, Tung-Han; Higa, Earl; Helfrich, Cliff; Berry, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the orbit determination activities undertaken at JPL in support of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Akatsuki (a.k.a. Plan-et-C and/or Venus Climate Orbiter) mission. The JPL navigation team's role was to provide independent navigation support as a point of comparison with the JAXA generated orbit determination solutions. Topics covered include a mis-sion and spacecraft overview, dynamic forces modeling, cruise and approach or-bit determination results, and the international teaming arrangement. Significant discussion is dedicated to the events surrounding recovery from the unsuccessful Venus orbit insertion maneuver.

  3. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  4. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  5. The JPL Cryogenic Dilatometer: Measuring the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Aerospace Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Dudick, Matthew J.; Karlmann, Paul; Klein, Kerry J.; Levine, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Parker, Tyler J.; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart; VanBuren, David

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation details the cryogenic dilatometer, which is used by JPL to measure the thermal expansion coefficient of materials used in Aerospace. Included is a system diagram, a picture of the dilatometer chamber and the laser source, a description of the laser source, pictures of the interferometer, block diagrams of the electronics and software and a picture of the electronics, and software. Also there is a brief review of the accurace.error budget. The materials tested are also described, and the results are shown in strain curves, JPL measured strain fits are described, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is also shown for the materials tested.

  6. VSOP-2 Mission Simulations Using the JPL-developed Fakesat Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.

    In this paper we discuss recent upgrades which have been made to the JPL-developed Fakesat software which was originally developed to simulate the ISAS-led VSOP Space VLBI mission launched in 1997 to support the proposed follow-on mission VSOP-2 We show some examples of the new VSOP-2 specific software capabilities and how they may be used to great effect as a VSOP-2 mission planning tool Other potential JPL contributions to the VSOP-2 mission will also be presented This work has been undertaken at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  7. Methods for Retrievals of CO2 Mixing Ratios from JPL Laser Absorption Spectrometer Flights During a Summer 2011 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. This instrument employs CW laser transmitters and coherent detection receivers in the 2.05- micro m spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the evolving LAS signal processing and data analysis algorithms and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from 2011 flights in various U.S. locations include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest and high spatial resolution plume detection during a leg downwind of the Four Corners power plant in New Mexico.

  8. The software product assurance metrics study: JPL's software systems quality and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Marilyn W.

    1989-01-01

    The findings are reported of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Software Product Assurance (SPA) Metrics Study, conducted as part of a larger JPL effort to improve software quality and productivity. Until recently, no comprehensive data had been assembled on how JPL manages and develops software-intensive systems. The first objective was to collect data on software development from as many projects and for as many years as possible. Results from five projects are discussed. These results reflect 15 years of JPL software development, representing over 100 data points (systems and subsystems), over a third of a billion dollars, over four million lines of code and 28,000 person months. Analysis of this data provides a benchmark for gauging the effectiveness of past, present and future software development work. In addition, the study is meant to encourage projects to record existing metrics data and to gather future data. The SPA long term goal is to integrate the collection of historical data and ongoing project data with future project estimations.

  9. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  10. Analysis of Drift Errors in the JPL/UCLA Micromachined Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraborty, I.

    1996-01-01

    The model of the JPL/UCLA micromachined vibratory gyroscope will be enhanced to include time varying effects. First, they will be shown to exist through trends in the experimental results. Causes of mechanical error will be further explained by analyzing possible perturbations to the physical model.

  11. Telerobot task planning and reasoning: Introduction to JPL artificial intelligence research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    A view of the capabilities and areas of artificial intelligence research which are required for autonomous space telerobotics extending through the year 2000 is given. In the coming years, JPL will be conducting directed research to achieve these capabilities, as well as drawing heavily on collaborative efforts conducted with other research laboratories.

  12. Developing sensor activity relationships for the JPL electronic nose sensors using molecular modeling and QSAR techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Jewell, A. D.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.; Kisor, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) study using Genetic Function Approximations (GFA) to describe the polymer-carbon composite sensor activities in the JPL Electronic Nose, when exposed to chemical vapors at parts-per-million concentration levels.

  13. Antenna Autocalibration and Metrology Approach for the AFR/JPL Space-Based Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Michel, Thierry; Freedman, Adam; Cable, Vaughn

    2003-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating in the technology development for a space based radar (SBR) system that would feature a large aperture lightweight antenna for a joint mission later in this decade.

  14. Expanding the analyte set of the JPL Electronic Nose to include inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Zhou, H.; Mannat, K.; Manfreda, A.; Kisor, A.; Shevade, A.; Yen, S. P. S.

    2005-01-01

    An array-based sensing system based on 32 polymer/carbon composite conductometric sensors is under development at JPL. Until the present phase of development, the analyte set has focuses on organic compounds and a few selected inorganic compounds, notably ammonia and hydrazine.

  15. Performance evaluation of the JPL interim digital SAR processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Barkan, B.; Curlander, J.; Jin, M.; Pang, S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the Interim Digital SAR Processor (IDP) was evaluated. The IDP processor was originally developed for experimental processing of digital SEASAT SAR data. One phase of the system upgrade which features parallel processing in three peripheral array processors, automated estimation for Doppler parameters, and unsupervised image pixel location determination and registration was executed. The method to compensate for the target range curvature effect was improved. A four point interpolation scheme is implemented to replace the nearest neighbor scheme used in the original IDP. The processor still maintains its fast throughput speed. The current performance and capability of the processing modes now available on the IDP system are updated.

  16. Exploring Mission Concepts with the JPL Innovation Foundry A-Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, John K.; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Innovation Foundry has established a new approach for exploring, developing, and evaluating early concepts called the A-Team. The A-Team combines innovative collaborative methods with subject matter expertise and analysis tools to help mature mission concepts. Science, implementation, and programmatic elements are all considered during an A-Team study. Methods are grouped by Concept Maturity Level (CML), from 1 through 3, including idea generation and capture (CML 1), initial feasibility assessment (CML 2), and trade space exploration (CML 3). Methods used for each CML are presented, and the key team roles are described from two points of view: innovative methods and technical expertise. A-Team roles for providing innovative methods include the facilitator, study lead, and assistant study lead. A-Team roles for providing technical expertise include the architect, lead systems engineer, and integration engineer. In addition to these key roles, each A-Team study is uniquely staffed to match the study topic and scope including subject matter experts, scientists, technologists, flight and instrument systems engineers, and program managers as needed. Advanced analysis and collaborative engineering tools (e.g. cost, science traceability, mission design, knowledge capture, study and analysis support infrastructure) are also under development for use in A-Team studies and will be discussed briefly. The A-Team facilities provide a constructive environment for innovative ideas from all aspects of mission formulation to eliminate isolated studies and come together early in the development cycle when they can provide the biggest impact. This paper provides an overview of the A-Team, its study processes, roles, methods, tools and facilities.

  17. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  18. Project - line interaction implementing projects in JPL's Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.

    2006-01-01

    Can programmatic and line organizations really work interdependently, to accomplish their work as a community? Does the matrix produce a culture in which individuals take personal responsibility for both immediate mission success and long-term growth? What is the secret to making a matrix enterprise actually work? This paper will consider those questions, and propose that developing an effective project-line partnership demands primary attention to personal interactions among people. Many potential problems can be addressed by careful definition of roles, responsibilities, and work processes for both parts of the matrix -- and by deliberate and clear communication between project and line organizations and individuals.

  19. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  20. The JPL telerobotic Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad; Lee, Thomas S.; Tso, Kam; Backes, Paul; Kan, Edwin; Lloyd, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) subsystem of the telerobot system provides the real-time control of the robot manipulators in autonomous and teleoperated modes and real time input/output for a variety of sensors and actuators. Substantial hardware and software are included in this subsystem which interfaces in the hierarchy of the telerobot system with the other subsystems. The other subsystems are: run time control, task planning and reasoning, sensing and perception, and operator control subsystem. The architecture of the MCM subsystem, its capabilities, and details of various hardware and software elements are described. Important improvements in the MCM subsystem over the first version are: dual arm coordinated trajectory generation and control, addition of integrated teleoperation, shared control capability, replacement of the ultimate controllers with motor controllers, and substantial increase in real time processing capability.

  1. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  2. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and

  3. The 2014 JPL Realization of the ITRS: JTRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Chin, M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; van Dam, T. M.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    A Kalman filter and smoother, KALREF, is used to determine the JTRF2014, a combined terrestrial reference frame (TRF) obtained by analyzing the input SINEX files submitted by the IDS, IGS, ILRS, and IVS for the computation of ITRF2014. JTRF2014 is determined by combining on a weekly basis time series of station positions and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) along with local ties at co-located sites. In the JTRF2014 the temporal evolution of the station positions is formulated by accounting for linear and seasonal terms (annual and semi-annual periodic modes). The residual station position is modeled as a white noise process whose variance is characterized by analyzing station displacements induced by temporal changes of planetary fluid masses (atmosphere, oceans and continental surface water). The JTRF2014 frame will be delivered as a time series of weekly SINEX files containing the filtered and smoothed station positions and EOPs observed from the early 80s through the end of 2014 and predictions of station positions afterwards. Datum specification (origin, scale and orientation) of the resulting frame will be discussed and comparisons with previous ITRS realizations will be provided.

  4. Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Measurements of Water Vapor by the JPL Laser Hygrometer Mark 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere has a significant impact on climate. Over the last sixteen years, the JPL Laser Hygrometers have collected a significant data record of atmospheric humidity from several platforms, including the NASA ER-2, WB-57, DC-8, and Global Hawk. Here, we describe the observed relation between atmospheric humidity and temperature in-cloud and out of cloud near the tropopause. The relation between cloud microphysical properties and humidity is also explored. We feature measurements of water vapor from a substantially improved instrument, JPL Laser Hygrometer Mark 2, made during the 2013 NASA SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) field mission.

  5. Performance capabilities of a JPL dual-arm advanced teleoperation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Z. F.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1991-01-01

    The system comprises: (1) two PUMA 560 robot arms, each equipped with the latest JPL developed smart hands which contain 3-D force/moment and grasp force sensors; (2) two general purpose force reflecting hand controllers; (3) a NS32016 microprocessors based distributed computing system together with JPL developed universal motor controllers; (4) graphics display of sensor data; (5) capabilities for time delay experiments; and (6) automatic data recording capabilities. Several different types of control modes are implemented on this system using different feedback control techniques. Some of the control modes and the related feedback control techniques are described, and the achievable control performance for tracking position and force trajectories are reported. The interaction between position and force trajectory tracking is illustrated. The best performance is obtained by using a novel, task space error feedback technique.

  6. Man-machine interface issues in space telerobotics: A JPL research and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Technology issues related to the use of robots as man-extension or telerobot systems in space are discussed and exemplified. General considerations are presentd on control and information problems in space teleoperation and on the characteristics of Earth orbital teleoperation. The JPL R and D work in the area of man-machine interface devices and techniques for sensing and computer-based control is briefly summarized. The thrust of this R and D effort is to render space teleoperation efficient and safe through the use of devices and techniques which will permit integrated and task-level (intelligent) two-way control communication between human operator and telerobot machine in Earth orbit. Specific control and information display devices and techniques are discussed and exemplified with development results obtained at JPL in recent years.

  7. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  8. Forest Structure Characterization Using JPL's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  9. Results from the Galileo Laser Uplink: A JPL Demonstration of Deep-Space Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Lesh, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The successful completion of the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX), represented the accomplishment of a significant milestone in JPL's optical communication plan. The experiment demonstrated the first transmission of a narrow laser beam to a deep-space vehicle. Laser pulses were beamed to the Galileo spacecraft by Earth-based transmitters at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California, and Starfire Optical Range (SOR), New Mexico. The experiment took place over an eight-day period (December 9 through December 16, 1992) as Galileo receded from Earth on its way to Jupiter, and covered ranges from 1 to 6 million kilometers (15 times the Earth-Moon distance), the laser uplink from TMF covered the longest known range for laser beam transmission and detection. This demonstration is the latest in a series of accomplishments by JPL in the development of deep-space optical communications technology.

  10. Optical figure testing of prototype mirrors for JPL's Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochberg, Eric B.

    1991-01-01

    JPL's PSR program is developing enabling technologies for large space telescopes employing segmented optics, and in particular, lightweight, thermally stable mirrors for telescopes operating at sub-mm wavelengths. JPL's vacuum cryointerferometric optical test facility includes a computer-controlled phase shifting interferometer operating at 10.59 microns and laser metrology for measurement of piston and absolute radius of curvature. The optical metrology has been integrated with a large vacuum chamber including a liquid nitrogen shroud capable of radiatively cooling 1.5 meter aperture mirrors down to 150 K. The facility is now being used to characterize prototype mirrors in both their room-temperature 'as-replicated' condition, and under orbital temperature conditions. The performance and limitations of the optical metrology hardware and software components are noted. Representative test results on prototype one meter-class composite mirrors being developed for PSR and related ground-based programs are also presented.

  11. New mode switching algorithm for the JPL 70-meter antenna servo controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The design of control mode switching algorithms and logic for JPL's 70 m antenna servo controller are described. The old control mode switching logic was reviewed and perturbation problems were identified. Design approaches for mode switching are presented and the final design is described. Simulations used to compare old and new mode switching algorithms and logic show that the new mode switching techniques will significantly reduce perturbation problems.

  12. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  13. Commercialization of JPL Virtual Reality calibration and redundant manipulator control technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Seraji, Homayoun; Fiorini, Paolo; Brown, Robert; Christensen, Brian; Beale, Chris; Karlen, James; Eismann, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA's recent thrust for industrial collaboration, JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has recently established two technology cooperation agreements in the robotics area: one on virtual reality (VR) calibration with Deneb Robotics, Inc., and the other on redundant manipulator control with Robotics Research Corporation (RRC). These technology transfer cooperation tasks will enable both Deneb and RRC to commercialize enhanced versions of their products that will greatly benefit both space and terrestrial telerobotic applications.

  14. Propagation Effects of Importance to the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents Propagation Effects of Importance To The NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The topics include: 1) DSN Antennas; 2) Deep Space Telecom Link Basics; 3) DSN Propagation Region of Interest; 4) Ka-Band Weather Effects Models and Examples; 5) Existing Goldstone Ka-Band Atmosphere Attenuation Model; 6) Existing Goldstone Atmosphere Noise Temperature Model; and 7) Ka-Band delta (G/T) Relative to Vacuum Condition. This paper summarizes the topics above.

  15. Improved OSC Amtec generator design to meet goals of JPL's candidate Europa Orbiter mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding paper (Paper IECEC.98.244) described OSC's initial designs of AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) power systems, consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and with 16 refractory AMTEC cells containing 5 Beta Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) tubes; and presented the effect of heat input and voltage output on the generator's BOM evaporator and clad temperatures and on its EOM system efficiency and power output. Comparison of the computed results with JPL's goals for the Europa Orbiter mission showed that all of the initial 16-cell design options yielded either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures or insufficient EOM power to satisfy the JPL-specified mission goals. The present paper describes modified OSC generator designs with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell. These efforts succeeded in identifying generator designs with only half the number of AMTEC cells which -- for the same assumptions -- can produce EOM power outputs substantially in excess of JPL's goals for NASA's Europa Orbiter mission while operating well below the prescribed BOM limits on evaporator and clad temperature; and revealed that lowering the emissivity of the generator's housing to raise the cells' condenser temperatures can achieve substantial additional performance improvement. Finally, the paper culminates in programmatic recommendations.

  16. A new approach for data acquisition at the JPL space simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Terry C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, a personal computer based data acquisition system was put into service for the Space Simulators and Environmental Test Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. The new system replaced an outdated minicomputer system which had been in use since 1980. This new data acquisition system was designed and built by JPL for the specific task of acquiring thermal test data in support of space simulation and thermal vacuum testing at JPL. The data acquisition system was designed using powerful personal computers and local-area-network (LAN) technology. Reliability, expandability, and maintainability were some of the most important criteria in the design of the data system and in the selection of hardware and software components. The data acquisition system is used to record both test chamber operational data and thermal data from the unit under test. Tests are conducted in numerous small thermal vacuum chambers and in the large solar simulator and range in size from individual components using only 2 or 3 thermocouples to entire planetary spacecraft requiring in excess of 1200 channels of test data. The system supports several of these tests running concurrently. The previous data system is described along with reasons for its replacement, the types of data acquired, the new data system, and the benefits obtained from the new system including information on tests performed to date.

  17. Mars Polar Lander Landing Zone Compared With JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    have the form of cracks and depressions expanded by wall- and head-enlargement by processes such as sapping (removal of wall support by fluid seepage or the evaporation of ground ice) or ablation (removal of ices by sublimation and wind). Low Relief with Subtle Depressions and Small Knobs Some areas show little or no topographic relief (i.e., the area is relatively flat with no hills, ridges, or gullies). One class of this type of surface displays small, subtle, isolated depressions and areas of the rough texture made up of light-toned patches of knobs that resemble large boulders or pinnacles. Dark Sand Dunes and Bright Low Relief Surface with Gullies The darkest surface in the landing ellipse, now seen without its seasonal bright frost cover, shows the unmistakable form of dark sand dunes. This image shows the margin of the dune field that crosses the center of the MOC image. Note that in some places the sand depth is shallow and the shape and slopes of the underlying features can be seen. Weakly-organized Ridges/Mounds and Gullies/Depressions The second-most abundant surface texture in this portion of the landing ellipse consists of poorly aligned ridges and depressions which occasionally display steep wall slopes. This surface appears rugged at the scale of tens of meters, but may be smoother at small scales(meters). Smooth Surface with Occasional Ridges and Pits The southern-most portion of the November 26th MOC image shows a pattern of small, isolated ridges and a few irregular depressions and pits. However, much of the surface is actually quite smooth compared to other portions of the landing ellipse. Representative Features of the Central Landing Ellipse The illustration above shows a summary of the landforms seen within the November 26thMOC image in different colors. It is clear that the smoothest surface (green at bottom of frame) is rare in this part of the landing ellipse. Sand dunes (black) and really rou

  18. Mars Polar Lander Landing Zone Compared With JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    have the form of cracks and depressions expanded by wall- and head-enlargement by processes such as sapping (removal of wall support by fluid seepage or the evaporation of ground ice) or ablation (removal of ices by sublimation and wind). Low Relief with Subtle Depressions and Small Knobs Some areas show little or no topographic relief (i.e., the area is relatively flat with no hills, ridges, or gullies). One class of this type of surface displays small, subtle, isolated depressions and areas of the rough texture made up of light-toned patches of knobs that resemble large boulders or pinnacles. Dark Sand Dunes and Bright Low Relief Surface with Gullies The darkest surface in the landing ellipse, now seen without its seasonal bright frost cover, shows the unmistakable form of dark sand dunes. This image shows the margin of the dune field that crosses the center of the MOC image. Note that in some places the sand depth is shallow and the shape and slopes of the underlying features can be seen. Weakly-organized Ridges/Mounds and Gullies/Depressions The second-most abundant surface texture in this portion of the landing ellipse consists of poorly aligned ridges and depressions which occasionally display steep wall slopes. This surface appears rugged at the scale of tens of meters, but may be smoother at small scales(meters). Smooth Surface with Occasional Ridges and Pits The southern-most portion of the November 26th MOC image shows a pattern of small, isolated ridges and a few irregular depressions and pits. However, much of the surface is actually quite smooth compared to other portions of the landing ellipse. Representative Features of the Central Landing Ellipse The illustration above shows a summary of the landforms seen within the November 26thMOC image in different colors. It is clear that the smoothest surface (green at bottom of frame) is rare in this part of the landing ellipse. Sand dunes (black) and really rough terrain (orange) are also fairly rare. Much of

  19. Studying the Sky/Planets Can Drown You in Images: Machine Learning Solutions at JPL/Caltech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, U. M.

    1995-01-01

    JPL is working to develop a domain-independent system capable of small-scale object recognition in large image databases for science analysis. Two applications discussed are the cataloging of three billion sky objects in the Sky Image Cataloging and Analysis Tool (SKICAT) and the detection of possibly one million small volcanoes visible in the Magellan synthetic aperture radar images of Venus (JPL Adaptive Recognition Tool, JARTool).

  20. JPL highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deep-space exploration; information systems and space technology development; technology applications; energy and energy conversion technology; and earth observational systems and orbital applications are discussed.

  1. JPL Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Voyager, Infrared Astronomical Satellite, Galileo, Viking, Solar Mesosphere Explorer, Wide-field/Planetary Camera, Venus Mapper, International Solar Polar Mission - Solar Interplanetary Satellite, Extreme Ultraviolet Explores, Starprobe, International Halley Watch, Marine Mark II, Samex, Shuttle Imaging Radar-A, Deep Space Network, Biomedical Technology, Ocean Studies and Robotics are summarized.

  2. The browse file of NASA/JPL quick-look radar images from the Loch Linnhe 1989 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Walter E., Jr. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Aircraft Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) was deployed to Scotland to obtain radar imagery of ship wakes generated in Loch Linnhe. These observations were part of a joint US and UK experiment to study the internal waves generated by ships under partially controlled conditions. The AIRSAR was mounted on the NASA-Ames DC-8 aircraft. The data acquisition sequence consisted of 8 flights, each about 6 hours in duration, wherein 24 observations of the instrumented site were made on each flight. This Browse File provides the experimenters with a reference of the real time imagery (approximately 100 images) obtained on the 38-deg track. These radar images are copies of those obtained at the time of observation and show the general geometry of the ship wake features. To speed up processing during this flight, the images were all processed around zero Doppler, and thus azimuth ambiguities often occur when the drift angel (yaw) exceeded a few degrees. However, even with the various shortcomings, it is believed that the experimenter will find the Browse File useful in establishing a basis for further investigations.

  3. Cdms and JPL Molecular Spectroscopy Catalogues in a Common Infrastructure: Vamdc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, S.; Endres, C. P.; Drouin, B. J.; Yu, S.; Pearson, J. C.; Müller, H. S. P.; Schilke, P.; Stutzki, J.

    2012-06-01

    The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC, http://www.vamdc.org/) is a collection of databases with a common data model. It combines molecular spectroscopy databases; like the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy (CDMS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory microwave, millimeter and submillimeter spectral line catalogue (JPL) and the HITRAN databases, with other databases, e.g., on molecular collisions (BASECOL, KIDA). VAMDC is open to include other databases adopting the same data structure and access protocols to the data. Due to the common data model all data can be accessed through one portal. The individual databases are located on a system of distributed servers which all can handle a common query language which enables the combined access to the very different data. In this presentation requests to CDMS and JPL will be used to explain the basic ideas behind the very powerful VAMDC instrument, its portal and the query possibilities. A new portal to CDMS allows access to all old and new spectroscopic data. In addition CDMS has a number of new features, in particular meaningful quantum numbers, references linked to data points, and improved documentation. In addition, fit files are accessible for download and queries to other databases are possible. Due to the new format the long anticipated unified spectroscopy database including all relevant information is realized. Together with other groups within the VAMDC consortium we are working on common user tools to simplify the access for new customers and to tailor data requests for users with specified needs, e.g. HFS information. The development of CDMS and JPL within the VAMDC infrastructure will allow a much more sophisticated analysis of complex observational data which, e.g., come from the ALMA telescope.

  4. Color enhancement of landsat agricultural imagery: JPL LACIE image processing support task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.; Green, W. B.; Wherry, D. B.; Lewis, S. D.

    1978-01-01

    Color enhancement techniques were applied to LACIE LANDSAT segments to determine if such enhancement can assist analysis in crop identification. The procedure involved increasing the color range by removing correlation between components. First, a principal component transformation was performed, followed by contrast enhancement to equalize component variances, followed by an inverse transformation to restore familiar color relationships. Filtering was applied to lower order components to reduce color speckle in the enhanced products. Use of single acquisition and multiple acquisition statistics to control the enhancement were compared, and the effects of normalization investigated. Evaluation is left to LACIE personnel.

  5. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the third containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  6. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the second volume of the summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume.

  7. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5. The summaries are contained in Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  8. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  9. Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This publication is the first of three containing summaries for the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 23-26, 1995. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on January 23-24. The summaries for this workshop appear in this volume; (2) The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on January 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3; and (3) The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on January 26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  10. Summaries of the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the preliminary agenda and summaries for the Third Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, on 1-5 June 1992. This main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: (1) the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on June 1 and 2; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1; (2) the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on June 3; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2; and (3) the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on June 4 and 5; the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  11. Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems.

    PubMed

    McDermid, I S; Godin, S M; Lindqvist, L O; Walsh, T D; Burris, J; Butler, J; Ferrare, R; Whiteman, D; McGee, T J

    1990-11-01

    For approximately one month during October and November 1988 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center mobile lidar system was brought to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, to make side-byside measurements with the JPL lidar of stratospheric ozone concentration profiles. Measurements were made by both excimer laser DIAL systems on fifteen nights during this period. The results showed good agreement of the ozone profiles measured between 20- and 40-km altitude. This is the first (to the best of our knowledge) reported side-by-side measurement intercomparison of two stratospheric ozone lidar systems.

  12. An application of the IMC software to controller design for the JPL LSCL Experiment Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Guoming; Skelton, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A software package which Integrates Model reduction and Controller design (The IMC software) is applied to design controllers for the JPL Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment Facility. Modal Cost Analysis is used for the model reduction, and various Output Covariance Constraints are guaranteed by the controller design. The main motivation is to find the controller with the 'best' performance with respect to output variances. Indeed it is shown that by iterating on the reduced order design model, the controller designed does have better performance than that obtained with the first model reduction.

  13. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D. C. October 25-29, 1993 The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, October 25-26 (the summaries for this workshop appear in this volume, Volume 1); The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TMIS) workshop, on October 27 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2); and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, October 28-29 (the summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3).

  14. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 2: TIMS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of a three volume set of publications that contain the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 3.

  15. Contents of the JPL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive, version 2-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Elizabeth A. (Editor); Lassanyi, Ruby A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea surface height, surface wind vector, sea surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and surface pigment concentration. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and will be the United States distribution site for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  16. Summaries of the 4th Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop. Volume 3: AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Fourth Annual JPL Airborne Geoscience Workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on October 25-29, 1993. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on October 25-26, whose summaries appear in Volume 1; The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) workshop, on October 27, whose summaries appear in Volume 2; and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on October 28-29, whose summaries appear in this volume, Volume 3.

  17. JPL's Approach for Helping Flight Project Managers Meet Today's Management Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    All across NASA project managers are facing tough new challenges. NASA has imposed increased oversight and the number of projects at Centers such as JPL has exploded from a handful of large projects to a much greater number of smaller ones. Experienced personnel are retiring at increasing rates and younger, less experienced managers are being rapidly promoted up the ladder. Budgets are capped, competition among NASA Centers and Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) has increased significantly and there is no longer any tolerance to cost overruns. On top of all this, implementation schedules have been reduced by 25 to 50% to reduce run-out costs, making it even more difficult to define requirements, validate heritage assumptions and make accurate cost estimates during the early phases of the life-cycle.JPL's executive management, under the leadership of the Associate Director for Flight Projects and Mission Success, have attempted to meet these challenges by improving operations in five areas: (1) increased standardization, where it is judged to have significant benefit; (2) better balance and more effective partnering between projects and the line management; (3) increased infrastructure support; (4) improved management training; and (5) more effective review and oversight.

  18. Global features of ionospheric slab thickness derived from JPL TEC and COSMIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Liu, Libo

    2016-04-01

    The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST) is the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2-layer peak electron density (NmF2), describing the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) TEC data and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of JPL TEC and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions; and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The pre-sunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the post-sunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. The dependence of EST on solar activity is very complicated. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon is found that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120° E in longitude and 30° to 75° S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and southern hemisphere summer.

  19. Transit Time Distribution based on the ECCO-JPL Ocean Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takamitsu; Wang, Ou

    2017-03-01

    Oceanic water mass is a mixture of waters with varying ages, and the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) measures its age spectrum. We construct a model-based TTD using the data-constrained circulation fields from the ECCO-JPL Ocean Data Assimilation, and test it against the observed and directly simulated distribution of pCFC-11 from the Pacific and Atlantic basins. The ECCO-JPL circulation provides overall reliable estimates of the upper ocean ventilation rates suitable for biogeochemical studies. Observed distributions of pCFC-11 in the upper ocean thermocline are well reproduced by the convolution integral of the model-based TTD (mean bias < 6%, spatial correlation > 0.87) but there are significant regional biases in particular near the base of the thermocline and in the deep water formation regions. The model underestimates the deep pCFC-11 (> 2000 m) in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. The ratio between the mean and the spread of the age spectrum (Γ/Δ) is close to unity (mean = 1.04, median = 0.99) in the ventilated thermocline of the Pacific basin but there are significant regional variations of the ratio.

  20. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  1. System identification and structural control on the JPL Phase B testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Cheng-Chih; Obrien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of NASA's CSI program at JPL is to develop and demonstrate the CSI technology required to achieve high precision structural stability on large complex optical class spacecraft. The focus mission for this work is an orbiting interferometer telescope. Toward the realization of such a mission, a series of evolutionary testbed structures are being constructed. The JPL's CSI Phase B testbed is the second structure constructed in this series which is designed to study the pathlength control problem of the optical train of a stellar interferometer telescope mounted on a large flexible structure. A detailed description of this testbed can be found. This paper describes our efforts in the first phase of active structural control experiments of Phase B testbed using the active control approach where a single piezoelectric active member is used as an actuation device and the measurements include both colocated and noncolocated sensors. Our goal for this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of active structural control using both colocated and noncolocated measurements by means of successive control design and loop closing. More specifically, the colocated control loop was designed and closed first to provide good damping improvement over the frequency range of interest. The noncolocated controller was then designed with respect to a partially controlled structure to further improve the performance. Based on our approach, experimental closed-loop results have demonstrated significant performance improvement with excellent stability margins.

  2. System identification and structural control on the JPL Phase B testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cheng-Chih; Obrien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.

    1993-02-01

    The primary objective of NASA's CSI program at JPL is to develop and demonstrate the CSI technology required to achieve high precision structural stability on large complex optical class spacecraft. The focus mission for this work is an orbiting interferometer telescope. Toward the realization of such a mission, a series of evolutionary testbed structures are being constructed. The JPL's CSI Phase B testbed is the second structure constructed in this series which is designed to study the pathlength control problem of the optical train of a stellar interferometer telescope mounted on a large flexible structure. A detailed description of this testbed can be found. This paper describes our efforts in the first phase of active structural control experiments of Phase B testbed using the active control approach where a single piezoelectric active member is used as an actuation device and the measurements include both colocated and noncolocated sensors. Our goal for this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of active structural control using both colocated and noncolocated measurements by means of successive control design and loop closing. More specifically, the colocated control loop was designed and closed first to provide good damping improvement over the frequency range of interest. The noncolocated controller was then designed with respect to a partially controlled structure to further improve the performance. Based on our approach, experimental closed-loop results have demonstrated significant performance improvement with excellent stability margins.

  3. USC/JPL GAIM: A Real-Time Global Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrake, L.; Wilson, B. D.; Hajj, G.; Wang, C.; Pi, X. `; Iijima, B.

    2004-12-01

    We are in the midst of a revolution in ionospheric remote sensing driven by the illuminating powers of ground and space-based GPS receivers, new UV remote sensing satellites, and the advent of data assimilation techniques for space weather. The University of Southern Califronia (USC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed a Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for DoD customers and NASA flight projects. GAIM is a physics-based 3D data assimilation model that uses both 4DVAR and Kalman filter techniques to solve for the ion & electron density state and key drivers such as equatorial electrodynamics, neutral winds, and production terms. GAIM accepts as input ground GPS TEC data from 900+ sites, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, IOX, and the coming COSMIC constellation, UV limb and nadir scans from the TIMED and DMSP satellites, and in situ data from a variety of satellites (C/NOFS & DMSP). GAIM can ingest multiple data sources in real time, updates the 3D electron density grid every 5 minutes, and solves for improved drivers every 1-2 hours. GAIM density retrievals have been validated by comparisons to vertical TEC measurements from TOPEX & JASON, slant TEC measurements from independent GPS sites, density profiles from ionosondes & incoherent scatter radars, and alternative tomographic retrievals. Daily USC/JPL GAIM runs have been operational since March 2003 using 100-200 ground GPS sites as input and TOPEX/JASON and ionosondes for daily validation. A prototype real-time GAIM system has been running since May 2004. RT GAIM ingests TEC data from 77+ streaming GPS sites every 5 minutes, adds more TEC for better global coverage every hour from hourly GPS sites, and updates the ionospheric state every 5 minutes using the Kalman filter. We plan to add TEC links from COSMIC occultations and UV radiance data from the DMSP satellites, when they become

  4. The JPL near-real-time VLBI system and its application to clock synchronization and earth orientation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.; Eubanks, T. M.; Roth, M. G.; Steppe, J. A.; Esposito, P. B.

    1983-01-01

    The JPL near-real-time VLBI system called Block I is discussed. The hardware and software of the system are described, and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations (TEMPO) which utilize Block I are discussed. These observations are designed to provide interstation clock synchronization to 10 nsec and to determine earth orientation (UT1 and polar motion - UTPM) to 30 cm or better in each component. TEMPO results for clock synchronization and UTPM are presented with data from the July 1980-August 1981 analyzed using the most recent JPL solution software and source catalog. Future plans for TEMPO and Block I are discussed.

  5. Application of symmetry properties to polarimetric remote sensing with JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on symmetry properties, polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical media is studied. From the viewpoint of symmetry groups, media with reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetries are considered. The symmetries impose relations among polarimetric scattering coefficients, which are valid to all scattering mechanisms in the symmetrical configurations. Various orientation distributions of non-spherical scatterers can be identified from the scattering coefficients by a comparison with the symmetry calculations. Experimental observations are then analyzed for many geophysical scenes acquired with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne polarimetric SAR at microwave frequencies over sea ice and vegetation. Polarimetric characteristics of different ice types are compared with symmetry behaviors. The polarimetric response of a tropical rain forest reveals characteristics close to the centrical symmetry properties, which can be used as a distributed target to relatively calibrate polarimetric radars without any deployment of manmade calibration targets.

  6. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL geodetic (GPS) modeling software 'GPSOMC'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.

    1990-01-01

    The physical models employed in GPSOMC, the modeling module of the GIPSY software system developed at JPL for analysis of geodetic Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements are described. Details of the various contributions to range and phase observables are given, as well as the partial derivatives of the observed quantities with respect to model parameters. A glossary of parameters is provided to enable persons doing data analysis to identify quantities with their counterparts in the computer programs. The present version is the second revision of the original document which it supersedes. The modeling is expanded to provide the option of using Cartesian station coordinates; parameters for the time rates of change of universal time and polar motion are also introduced.

  7. Report on the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter Mission : JPL special review board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, Richard; Casani, John; Farquhar, Robert; Haynes, Norm; Jordan, Frank; Kohlhase, Charles; Mitchell, Robert; Polutchko, Robert J.; Schallenmuller, Al; Slonski, John P.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) was launched on December 11, 1998. The MCO was to arrive at Mars and begin orbit insertion on September 23, 1999. The Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) burn, a 16-minute maneuver to slow the spacecraft and enable capture into an orbit around Mars, began on schedule. Five minutes into the maneuver, and approximately 49 seconds before the anticipated time for loss of communication, the MCO was occulted by Mars. Thereafter, no contact with the spacecraft could be established. On September 24, 1999, an internal JPL team (the MCO Peer Review Team) was appointed to help investigate the reason for the loss of spacecraft signal. The Peer Review Team's findings are presented in this report.

  8. An Analysis of Near Fields of 34m Antennas of JPL/NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Juan, Nuria Llombart

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of calculating near fields of the 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas of the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). Calculating the near fields of DSN antennas are of interest in receive mode where the transmitting signals from nearby flying objects such as helicopters and airplanes could interfere with the operation of sensitive RF receiving system of DSN antennas, and in the transmit mode where fields from high-powered DSN antennas interfere with receivers on nearby flying objects, as well as safety considerations for the operators and visitors to the grounds surrounding the antenna sites. A complete and detailed analysis has been performed using PO/PTD techniques, including surface errors and support struts effects. Some results are presented, including comparisons with preliminary field tests.

  9. System identification of the JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer truss. A overview

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.; Carne, T.G.; Marek, E.L.; Mayes, R.L.; Neat, G.W.; Sword, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer (MPI) is a testbed for studying the use of control-structure interaction technology in the design of space-based interferometers. A layered control architecture will be employed to regulate the interferometer optical system to tolerances in the nanometer range. An important aspect of designing and implementing the control schemes for such a system is the need for high fidelity, test-verified analytical structural models. This paper summarizes coordinated test and analysis efforts aimed at producing such a model for the MPI structure. Pretest analysis, modal testing and test-analysis reconciliation results are summarized for a series of tests at both the component and full system levels.

  10. Photographer : JPL Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Callisto , The outermost Galilean Satellite , or Moon , of Jupiter, as taken by Voyager I . Range : About 7 Million km (5 Million miles) . Callisto, the darkest of the Galilean Satellites, still nearly twice as bright as the Earth's Moon, is seen here from the face that always faces Jupiter. All of the Galilean Satellites always show the same face to Jupiter, as the Earth's moon does to Earth. The Surface shows a mottled appearance of bright and dark patches. The former reminds scientists of rayed or bright haloed craters, similiar to those seen on earth's Moon. This color photo is assembled from 3 black and wite images taken though violet, orange, & green filters

  11. Update - Concept of Operations for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Bennett, Matthew; Delp, Christopher L.; Dvorak, Daniel; Jenkins, Steven J.; Mandutianu, Sanda

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly ambitious requirements levied on JPL's space science missions, and the development pace of such missions, challenge our current engineering practices. All the engineering disciplines face this growth in complexity to some degree, but the challenges are greatest in systems engineering where numerous competing interests must be reconciled and where complex system level interactions must be identified and managed. Undesired system-level interactions are increasingly a major risk factor that cannot be reliably exposed by testing, and natural-language single-viewpoint specifications areinadequate to capture and expose system level interactions and characteristics. Systems engineering practices must improve to meet these challenges, and the most promising approach today is the movement toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. This approach elevates engineering models to a principal role in systems engineering, gradually replacing traditional document centric engineering practices.

  12. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL geodetic GPS modeling software GPSOMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Border, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    The physical models employed in GPSOMC and the modeling module of the GIPSY software system developed at JPL for analysis of geodetic Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements are described. Details of the various contributions to range and phase observables are given, as well as the partial derivatives of the observed quantities with respect to model parameters. A glossary of parameters is provided to enable persons doing data analysis to identify quantities in the current report with their counterparts in the computer programs. There are no basic model revisions, with the exceptions of an improved ocean loading model and some new options for handling clock parametrization. Such misprints as were discovered were corrected. Further revisions include modeling improvements and assurances that the model description is in accord with the current software.

  13. JPL Developments in Retrieval Algorithms for Geostationary Observations - Applications to H2CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurosu, Thomas P.; Kulawik, Susan; Natraj, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    JPL has strong expertise in atmospheric retrievals from UV and thermal IR, and a wide range of tools to apply to observations and instrument characterization. Radiative Transfer, AMF, Inversion, Fitting, Assimilation. Tools were applied for a preliminary study of H2CO sensitivities from GEO. Results show promise for moderate/strong H2CO lading but also that low background conditions will prove a challenge. H2CO DOF are not too strongly dependent on FWHM. GEMS (Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer) choice of 0.6 nm FWHM (?) spectral resolution is adequate for H2CO retrievals. Case study can easily be adapted to GEMS observations/instrument model for more in-depth sensitivity characterization.

  14. An update of the JPL program to develop Li-SOCl2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, S.; Ang, V.; Banes, R.; Dawson, S.; Frank, H.; Subbarao, S.; Whitcanack, L.

    1985-07-01

    The goal of producing spiral wound D cell was met. The cell design and electrodes, particularly the carbon cathodes were produced in-house. Also all parts were assembled, the welding performed, the electrolyte aided and the cells sealed in-house. The lithium capacity (theoretical) was 19.3 Ah and that of the SOCl2 in the 1.8 m LiAlCl4 electrolyte, 16.4 Ah (a greater excess of SOCl2 is necessary for safe high rate operation). The electrode surface area was 452 sq cm. The carbon electrode comprised Shawinigen Black/Teflon -30 (90/10 by weight) mixture 0.020 inches thick on an expanded metal screen prepared in the JPL laboratory. There were two tab connections to the cathode. The 0.0078 inch thick lithium foil was rolled into an expanded nickel screen. The separator was Mead 934-5 fiberglass material.

  15. Summary of the NASA/JPL workshop on advanced quantum/relativity theory propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sponsored a workshop on advanced quantum/relativity theory propulsion in May 1994 to consider the possibilities of faster-than-light (FTL) travel and/or communication. The workshop specifically focused on three {open_quotes}scientific windows{close_quotes} that might permit FTL travel: (1) tunnels through spacetime; (2) a hypothetical physics where the speed of light is a lower bound; and (3) the physics of additional space dimensions. A number of open issues in physics were noted that may leave open the possibility of FTL travel or communication although no obvious method to achieve such travel or communication was found. Several experiments were identified that would help clarify the possible existence of FTL phenomena. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Operation of a Third Generation JPL Electronic Nose in the Regenerative ECLSS Module Simulator at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Manatt, K. S.; Haines, B. E.; Perry, J. L.; Roman, M. C.; Scott, J. P.; Frederick, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor spacecraft cabin air for anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids with near-real-time analysis. It is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on ISS and was deployed on the International Space Station for a seven-month experiment in 2008-2009. In order improve understanding of ENose response to crew activities, an ENose was installed in the Regenerative ECLSS Module Simulator (REMS) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for several months. The REMS chamber is operated with continuous analysis of the air for presence and concentration of CO, CO2, ethane, ethanol and methane. ENose responses were analyzed and correlated with logged activities and air analyses in the REMS.

  17. An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.

  18. The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System: Data and Tools for Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B. W.; Ao, C. O.; Chao, Y.; Dang, V.; Garay, M.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Park, K.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rosenman, M. A.; Su, H.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q. A.; Willis, J. K.; Wu, D.

    2008-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) is now open to the public. This web portal is designed to assist researchers by providing a one-stop shop for hurricane related data and analysis tools. While there are currently many places that offer storm data, plots, and other information, none offer an extensive archive of data files and images in a common space. The JPL TCIS was created to fill this gap. As currently configured, the JPL Tropical Cyclone Portal has three main features for researchers. The first feature consists of storm-scale data and plots for both observed and modeled data. As of the TCIS' first release, the entire 2005 storm season has been populated with data and plots from AIRS, MLS, AMSU-A, QuikSCAT, Argo floats, WRF models, GPS, and others. Storm data is subsetted to a 1000x1000 km window around the hurricane track for all six oceanic cyclone basins, and all the available data during the life time of any storm can be downloaded with one mouse click. Users can also view pre-generated storm-scale plots from all these data sets that are all co-located to the same temporal and spatial parameters. Work is currently underway to backfill all storm seasons to 1998 with as many relevant data sets as possible. The second offering from this web portal are large-scale data sets and associated visualization tools powered by Google Maps. On this interactive map, researchers can view a particular storm's intensity and track. Users may also overlay large-scale data such as aerosol maps from MODIS and MISR, and a blended microwave sea-surface temperature (SST) to gain an understanding of the large-scale environment of the storm. For example, by using this map, the cold sea-surface temperature wake can be tracked as a storm passes by. The third feature of this portal deals with interactive model and data analysis. A single-parameter analysis tools has recently been developed and added to this portal where users can plot maps, profiles, and histograms of

  19. System identification of the JPL micro-precision interferometer truss - Test-analysis reconciliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Red-Horse, J. R.; Marek, E. L.; Levine-West, M.

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Micro-Precision Interferometer (MPI) is a testbed for studying the use of control-structure interaction technology in the design of space-based interferometers. A layered control architecture will be employed to regulate the interferometer optical system to tolerances in the nanometer range. An important aspect of designing and implementing the control schemes for such a system is the need for high fidelity, test-verified analytical structural models. This paper focuses on one aspect of the effort to produce such a model for the MPI structure, test-analysis model reconciliation. Pretest analysis, modal testing, and model refinement results are summarized for a series of tests at both the component and full system levels.

  20. JPL Technology Development for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Lazio, J.; Sanchez Barbetty, M.; Sigel, D.; O'Dwyer, I.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) proposal team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been investigating several technologies for this mission. The goal of DARE is to measure the sky-integrated spectrum of highly redshifted Hydrogen from the radio-quiet region above the far side of the Moon. The detailed shape of the spectrum in the 40-120 MHz region contains information on the epoch compact object formation and subsequent re-heating of the intergalactic medium. However, the expected Hydrogen signal strength is orders of magnitude weaker than the galactic foreground, and extreme instrumental stability and calibration accuracy will be needed to extract the signal of interest from the stronger foreground signal. JPL has developed a deployable bi-conical dipole antenna and measured its RF performance against a full-size, solid dipole to verify that the deployable concept will not compromise the spectral bandpass of the instrument. In addition, variations in bandpass response as a function of physical temperature of the front-end electronics (active balun and receiver) have been made over a wide temperature range. These data can be used to determine the required level of thermal control on the DARE spacecraft. This work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We also acknowledge support from the Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR). The LUNAR consortium has been funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon via cooperative agreement NNA09DB30A.

  1. Stress Rupture Testing and Analysis of the NASA WSTF-JPL Carbon Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael; Yoder, Tommy; Saulsberry, Regor; Grimes, Lorie; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Carbon composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) are widely used in applications from spacecraft to life support. COPV technology provides a pressurized media storage advantage over amorphous technology with weight savings on the order of 30 percent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been supporting the development of this technology since the early 1970's with an interest in safe application of these components to reduce mass to orbit. NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has been testing components in support of this objective since the 1980s and has been involved in test development and analysis to address affects of impact, propellant and cryogenic fluids exposure on Kevlar and carbon epoxy. The focus of this paper is to present results of a recent joint WSTF-Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) effort to assess safe life of these components. The WSTF-JPL test articles consisted of an aluminum liner and a carbon fiber overwrap in an industry standard epoxy resin system. The vessels were specifically designed with one plus-minus helical wrap and one hoop wrap over the helical and they measured 4.23 x 11.4 in. long. 120 test articles were manufactured in August of 1998 of one lot fiber and resin and the 110 test articles were delivered to WSTF for test. Ten of the 120 test articles were burst tested at the manufacturer to establish the delivered fiber stress. Figure 1 shows a test article in a pre burst condition and with a hoop fiber failure (no leak of pressurized media) and post burst (failure of liner and loss of pressurized media).

  2. Performance of OSC's initial Amtec generator design, and comparison with JPL's Europa Orbiter goals

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-07-01

    The procedure for the analysis (with overpotential correction) of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells described in Paper IECEC 98-243 was applied to a wide range of multicell radioisotope space power systems. System design options consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 stacked GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) modules, identical to those used on previous NASA missions, were analyzed and performance-mapped. The initial generators analyzed by OSC had 8 AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack, with five beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tubes per cell. The heat source and converters in the Orbital generator designs are embedded in a thermal insulation system consisting of Min-K fibrous insulation surrounded by graded-length molybdenum multifoils. Detailed analyses in previous Orbital studies found that such an insulation system could reduce extraneous heat losses to about 10%. For the above design options, the present paper presents the system mass and performance (i.e., the EOM system efficiency and power output and the BOM evaporator and clad temperatures) for a wide range of heat inputs and load voltages, and compares the results with JPL's preliminary goals for the Europa Orbiter mission to be launched in November 2003. The analytical results showed that the initial 16-cell generator designs resulted in either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures and/or insufficient power outputs to meet the JPL-specified mission goals. The computed performance of modified OSC generators with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell are described in Paper IECEC.98.245 in these proceedings.

  3. Multivariate analysis of GPS position time series of JPL second reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Mohammadloo, T. H.; Argus, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The second reprocessing of all GPS data gathered by the Analysis Centers of IGS was conducted in late 2013 using the latest models and methodologies. Improved models of antenna phase center variations and solar radiation pressure in JPL's reanalysis are expected to significantly reduce errors. In an earlier work, JPL estimates of position time series, termed first reprocessing campaign, were examined in terms of their spatial and temporal correlation, power spectra, and draconitic signal. Similar analyses are applied to GPS time series at 89 and 66 sites of the second reanalysis with the time span of 7 and 21 years, respectively, to study possible improvements. Our results indicate that the spatial correlations are reduced on average by a factor of 1.25. While the white and flicker noise amplitudes for all components are reduced by 29-56 %, the random walk amplitude is enlarged. The white, flicker, and random walk noise amount to rate errors of, respectively, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.09 mm/yr in the horizontal and 0.04, 0.41 and 0.3 mm/yr in the vertical. Signals reported previously, such as those with periods of 13.63, 14.76, 5.5, and 351.4 / n for n=1,2,ldots,8 days, are identified in multivariate spectra of both data sets. The oscillation of the draconitic signal is reduced by factors of 1.87, 1.87, and 1.68 in the east, north and up components, respectively. Two other signals with Chandlerian period and a period of 380 days can also be detected.

  4. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  5. Results of the 1995 JPL balloon flight solar cell calibration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Weiss, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) solar cell calibration program was conceived to produce reference standards for the purpose of accurately setting solar simulator intensities. The concept was to fly solar cells on a high-altitude balloon, to measure their output at altitudes near 120,000 ft (36.6 km), to recover the cells, and to use them as reference standards. The procedure is simple. The reference cell is placed in the simulator beam, and the beam intensity is adjusted until the reference cell reads the same as it read on the balloon. As long as the reference cell has the same spectral response as the cells or panels to be measured, this is a very accurate method of setting the intensity. But as solar cell technology changes, the spectral response of the solar cells changes also, and reference standards using the new technology must be built and calibrated. Until the summer of 1985, there had always been a question as to how much the atmosphere above the balloon modified the solar spectrum. If the modification was significant, the reference cells might not have the required accuracy. Solar cells made in recent years have increasingly higher blue responses, and if the atmosphere has any effect at all, it would be expected to modify the calibration of these newer blue cells much more so than for cells made in the past. JPL has been flying calibration standards on high-altitude balloons since 1963 and continues to organize a calibration balloon flight at least once a year. The 1995 flight was the 48th flight in this series. The 1995 flight incorporated 46 solar cell modules from 7 different participants. The payload included Si, amorphous Si, GaAs, GaAs/Ge, dual junction cells, top and bottom sections of dual junction cells, and a triple junction cell. A new data acquisition system was built for the balloon flights and flown for the first time on the 1995 flight. This system allows the measurement of current-voltage (I-V) curves for 20 modules in addition to

  6. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  7. NASA/JPL CLIMATE DAY: Middle and High School Students Get the Facts about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena

  8. Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Don (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.

  9. NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program: Twelve Years of Success and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, K.; NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program

    2011-12-01

    Since 1999, the NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program (SSEP) has been the model of a successful master teacher volunteer program. Integrating nationwide volunteers in this professional development program helped optimize agency funding set aside for education. Through the efforts of these volunteers, teachers across the country became familiarized with NASA's STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) educational materials, schools added these products to their curriculum and students benefitted. The years since 1999 have brought about many changes. There have been advancements in technology that allow more opportunities for telecon and web based learning methods. Along with those advancements have also come significant challenges. With NASA budgets for education shrinking, this already frugal program has become more spartan. Teachers face their own hardships with school budget cuts, limited classroom time and little support for professional development. In order for SSEP to remain viable in the face of these challenges, the program management, mission funders and volunteers themselves are working together to find ways of maintaining the quality that made the program a success and at the same time incorporate new, cost-effective methods of delivery. The group will also seek new partnerships to provide enhancements that will aid educators in advancing their careers at the same time as they receive professional development. By working together and utilizing the talent and experience of these master teachers, the Solar System Educators Program can enjoy a revitalization that will meet the needs of today's educators at the same time as renewing the enthusiasm of the volunteers.

  10. Photographer : JPL Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 312, 000 kilometers (195,000 miles) This photo of Ganymede (Ice Giant) was taken from Voyager 2 and shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across. Different types of terrain common on Ganymede's surface are visible. The boundary of the largest region of dark ancient terrain on Ganymede can be seen to the east (right), revealing some of the light linear features which may be all that remains of a large ancient impact structure similar to the large ring structure on Callisto. The broad light regions running through the image are the typical grooved structures seen within another example of what might be evidence of large scale lateral motion in Ganymede's crust. The band of grooved terrain (about 100 kilometers wide) in this region appears to be offset by 50 kilometers or more on the left hand edge by a linear feature perpendicular to it. A feature similar to this one was previously discovered by Voyager 1. These are the first clear examples of strike-slip style faulting on any planet other than Earth. Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, ranging from fresh, bright ray craters to large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts that have been flatteded by glacier-like flows.

  11. JPL pulsar timing observations. V - Macro and microjumps in the Vela pulsar 0833-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, J. M.; Downs, G. S.; Krause-Polstorff, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, 14.5 yr of JPL timing data are analyzed to study the spindown of the Vela pulsar. Discontinuities in the spin frequency and its derivatives have bimodal amplitude distributions. Macrojumps are characterized by relative changes in spin rate of about 10 to the -6th with a derivative of 0.01, while microjumps have relative changes in spin rate of less than about 10 to the -9th with derivative of less than about 0.0001. Macrojumps display a (+,-) signature with a well-defined ratio of the amplitudes. Microjumps, however, show all possible signs of events and a larger range in signature. Six macrojumps and their associated transients are quantified using a 10-parameter model for each jump. Amplitude and decay time parameters vary by a factor of about five over the set of jumps. The results are discussed in terms of superfluid vortex models. The macrojumps are consistent with a model in which angular momentum is suddenly transferred to the crust from a more rapidly rotating superfluid core, followed by relaxation of the spin-down rate.

  12. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL VLBI parameter estimation software MODEST, 19 94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of the document Observation Model and Parameter Partials for the JPL VLBI Parameter Estimation Software 'MODEST'---1991, dated August 1, 1991. It supersedes that document and its four previous versions (1983, 1985, 1986, and 1987). A number of aspects of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) model were improved from 1991 to 1994. Treatment of tidal effects is extended to model the effects of ocean tides on universal time and polar motion (UTPM), including a default model for nearly diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tidal UTPM variations, and partial derivatives for all (solid and ocean) tidal UTPM amplitudes. The time-honored 'K(sub 1) correction' for solid earth tides has been extended to include analogous frequency-dependent response of five tidal components. Partials of ocean loading amplitudes are now supplied. The Zhu-Mathews-Oceans-Anisotropy (ZMOA) 1990-2 and Kinoshita-Souchay models of nutation are now two of the modeling choices to replace the increasingly inadequate 1980 International Astronomical Union (IAU) nutation series. A rudimentary model of antenna thermal expansion is provided. Two more troposphere mapping functions have been added to the repertoire. Finally, corrections among VLBI observations via the model of Treuhaft and lanyi improve modeling of the dynamic troposphere. A number of minor misprints in Rev. 4 have been corrected.

  13. Infrared Cloud Imager Development for Atmospheric Optical Communication Characterization, and Measurements at the JPL Table Mountain Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, P. W.; Shaw, J. A.; Piazzolla, S.

    2013-02-01

    The continuous demand for high data return in deep space and near-Earth satellite missions has led NASA and international institutions to consider alternative technologies for high-data-rate communications. One solution is the establishment of wide-bandwidth Earth-space optical communication links, which require (among other things) a nearly obstruction-free atmospheric path. Considering the atmospheric channel, the most common and most apparent impairments on Earth-space optical communication paths arise from clouds. Therefore, the characterization of the statistical behavior of cloud coverage for optical communication ground station candidate sites is of vital importance. In this article, we describe the development and deployment of a ground-based, long-wavelength infrared cloud imaging system able to monitor and characterize the cloud coverage. This system is based on a commercially available camera with a 62-deg diagonal field of view. A novel internal-shutter-based calibration technique allows radiometric calibration of the camera, which operates without a thermoelectric cooler. This cloud imaging system provides continuous day-night cloud detection with constant sensitivity. The cloud imaging system also includes data-processing algorithms that calculate and remove atmospheric emission to isolate cloud signatures, and enable classification of clouds according to their optical attenuation. Measurements of long-wavelength infrared cloud radiance are used to retrieve the optical attenuation (cloud optical depth due to absorption and scattering) in the wavelength range of interest from visible to near-infrared, where the cloud attenuation is quite constant. This article addresses the specifics of the operation, calibration, and data processing of the imaging system that was deployed at the NASA/JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Data are reported from July 2008 to July 2010. These data describe seasonal variability in cloud cover at the TMF site

  14. Design of a D-Strut and its application results in the JPL, MIT, and LaRC test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. P.; Workman, Brian J.; Chu, Cheng-Chih; Anderson, Eric H.

    1992-01-01

    High damping at very low magnitudes of vibration is provided by an 'Arched Flexure' D-Strut. Five of these devices have been incorporated in JPL's CSI truss structure, and five more in MIT's interferometer test bed. Two were also temporarily installed in the LaRC CSI test structure. Damping factors in the 50 percent category are being provided at vibration motions as small as 50 nm. The 'Arched Flexure' used in the D-Strut maximizes the volumetric stiffness parameter relative to its axial stiffness. In turn, this enables high damping factors, even in a very rigid truss structure. This paper includes a presentation and discussion of both element and system test data taken at JPL, LaRC, and MIT. Also provided is a detailed description of the D-Strut, the dynamic model, and several graphs showing design parameter variations that will make it possible to evaluate the D-Strut for other applications.

  15. A systems approach to the commercialization of space communications technology - The NASA/JPL Mobile Satellite Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J., III; Gray, Valerie W.; Jackson, Byron; Steele, Laura C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusss the systems approach taken by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the commercialization of land-mobile satellite services (LMSS) in the United States. As the lead center for NASA's Mobile Satellite Program, JPL was involved in identifying and addressing many of the key barriers to commercialization of mobile satellite communications, including technical, economic, regulatory and institutional risks, or uncertainties. The systems engineering approach described here was used to mitigate these risks. The result was the development and implementation of the JPL Mobile Satellite Experiment Project. This Project included not only technology development, but also studies to support NASA in the definition of the regulatory, market, and investment environments within which LMSS would evolve and eventually operate, as well as initiatives to mitigate their associated commercialization risks. The end result of these government-led endeavors was the acceleration of the introduction of commercial mobile satellite services, both nationally and internationally.

  16. NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Object-Oriented Component Approach for Software Inter-Operability and Reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Laverne; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Lin, Imin

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of NASA JPL Distributed Systems Technology (DST) Section's object-oriented component approach to open inter-operable systems software development and software reuse. It will address what is meant by the terminology object component software, give an overview of the component-based development approach and how it relates to infrastructure support of software architectures and promotes reuse, enumerate on the benefits of this approach, and give examples of application prototypes demonstrating its usage and advantages. Utilization of the object-oriented component technology approach for system development and software reuse will apply to several areas within JPL, and possibly across other NASA Centers.

  17. Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop January 12-16, 1998. Volume 1; AVIRIS Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Seventh JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on January 12-16, 1998. The main workshop is divided into three smaller workshops, and each workshop has a volume as follows: (1) Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Workshop; (2) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) Workshop; and (3) Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Workshop. This Volume 1 publication contains 58 papers taken from the AVIRIS workshop.

  18. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, March 4-8, 1996. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yunjin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the summaries for the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996. The main workshop is divided into two smaller workshops as follows: The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, on March 4-6. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 1. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop, on March 6-8. The summaries for this workshop appear in Volume 2.

  19. Photographer: JPL P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed.

  20. Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed.

  1. The NASA/JPL Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Minton, Timothy K.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1994-01-01

    The deleterious effects of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) found in low-earth-orbit (LEO) environments on critical flight materials has been known since early shuttle flights. This corrosive effect is of considerable concern because it compromises the performance and longevity of spacecraft/satellite materials deployed for extended periods in LEO. The NASA Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3) experiment served as a testbed for a variety of candidate flight materials for space assets. A total of 57 JPL test specimens were present in six subexperiments aboard EOIM-3. In addition to a number of passive exposure materials for flight and advanced technology programs, several subexperiments were included to provide data for understanding the details of atomic oxygen interactions with materials. Data and interpretations are presented for the heated tray, heated strips, solar ultraviolet exposure, and scatterometer subexperiments, along with a detailed description of the exposure conditions experienced by materials in the various experiments. Mass spectra of products emerging from identical samples of a (sup 13)C-enriched polyimide polymer (chemically equivalent to Kapton) under atomic oxygen bombardment in space and in the laboratory were collected. Reaction products unambiguously detected in space were (sup 13)CO, NO, (sup 12)CO2, and (sup 13)CO2. These reaction products and two others, H2O and (sup 12)CO, were detected in the laboratory, along with inelastically scattered atomic and molecular oxygen. Qualitative agreement was seen in the mass spectra taken in space and in the laboratory; the agreement may be improved by reducing the fraction of O2 in the laboratory molecular beam.

  2. (Nearly) Fifteen Years of Altimetry Outreach at CNES and NASA/JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, V.; Richardson, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-07-01

    Since the 1992 launch of Topex/Poseidon, CNES and NASA/JPL have been involved in providing information about satellite altimetry techniques, applications, and ocean science to the world. From the beginning, the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 Outreach Team has focused on reaching out to a wide range of people: from educators, students and the general public, to scientists and professionals who use the data. Our objective is to provide information and support appropriate to each audience. We have developed an extensive series of products on many relevant topics related to ocean science and altimetry, with levels ranging from easy-to-read to the expert point of view. Through presentation of mission first results, the focus in the early years was on data quality and the varied data applications. Since 1997, El Niño forecasting was of major interest to the public, whereas the oceanographic community sought contributions to true operational oceanography. With the launch of Jason-1, the focus is now on the need for a long-term data series and continuity in the missions. Educational activities related to ocean altimetry are continuing and expanding. Our aim in this realm is to help teachers and students across the world appreciate the ocean environment and the role satellites play in increasing our understanding of this crucial resource. The evolution in our outreach activities is mirrored in the printed material distributed as hardcopy, and significantly in the regular updates to the web sites. As we approach nearly 15 years of continuous altimetry outreach our efforts are directed toward supporting the move toward operational oceanography (with GODAE and Jason-2/OSTM) and converging upon an integrated, multi-institutional outreach program.

  3. The NASA/JPL Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brinza, D.E.; Chung, S.Y.; Minton, T.K.; Liang, R.H.

    1994-12-01

    The deleterious effects of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) found in low-earth-orbit (LEO) environments on critical flight materials has been known since early shuttle flights. This corrosive effect is of considerable concern because it compromises the performance and longevity of spacecraft/satellite materials deployed for extended periods in LEO. The NASA Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3) experiment served as a testbed for a variety of candidate flight materials for space assets. A total of 57 JPL test specimens were present in six subexperiments aboard EOIM-3. In addition to a number of passive exposure materials for flight and advanced technology programs, several subexperiments were included to provide data for understanding the details of atomic oxygen interactions with materials. Data and interpretations are presented for the heated tray, heated strips, solar ultraviolet exposure, and scatterometer subexperiments, along with a detailed description of the exposure conditions experienced by materials in the various experiments. Mass spectra of products emerging from identical samples of a (sup 13)C-enriched polyimide polymer (chemically equivalent to Kapton) under atomic oxygen bombardment in space and in the laboratory were collected. Reaction products unambiguously detected in space were (sup 13)CO, NO, (sup 12)CO2, and (sup 13)CO2. These reaction products and two others, H2O and (sup 12)CO, were detected in the laboratory, along with inelastically scattered atomic and molecular oxygen. Qualitative agreement was seen in the mass spectra taken in space and in the laboratory; the agreement may be improved by reducing the fraction of O2 in the laboratory molecular beam.

  4. From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

  5. Using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System to study the climatology of hurricane precipitation structure from 10 years of passive microwave satellite observations in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Haddad, Ziad; Knosp, Brian; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Li, P. Peggy; Poulsen, William; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Turk, Francis J.; Vu, Quoc

    2013-04-01

    In spite of recent improvements in hurricane track forecast accuracy, currently there are still many unanswered questions about the physical processes that determine hurricane genesis, and evolution. Furthermore, a significant amount of work remains to be done in validating and improving hurricane forecast models. None of this can be accomplished without a comprehensive set of multi-parameter observations that are relevant to both the large-scale and the storm-scale processes in the atmosphere and in the ocean. Despite the significant amount of satellite observations today, they are still underutilized in hurricane research and operations, due to complexity and volume. To facilitate hurricane research, we developed the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) of multi-instrument satellite observations pertaining to: i) the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; ii) the air-sea interaction processes; iii) the larger-scale environment as depicted by the SST and the Total Precipitable Water of the environment (Hristova-Veleva et al., 2008, 2011). Our goal was to create a one-stop place to provide the researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane data, and their graphical representation, organized in an easy way to determine when coincident observations from multiple instruments are available. In this study we use the 10+ years of passive microwave observations of Atlantic hurricanes to create composite structures that are segregated by hurricane category and by intensification rate. The use of composite structures provides a statistically robust framework (e.g. Rogers et al., 2012). We analyze the storm asymmetry as depicted by several factors - brightness temperatures and their derivatives such as a newly-develop Rain Indicator and a new convective/stratiform separation that is based on the value and the spatial variability of this Rain Indicator. The goal is to determine whether the storm morphology (in particular, the storm

  6. Evaluation of JPL Version-5.9.12 Temperature Profiles, Ocean Skin Temperature, Surface Emissivity, and Cloud Cleared Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Slide presentation discusses: (1) Modifications to JPL 5.9.12 compared to V5.9.1, (2) Some results showing that V5.9.12 O, with original water vapor sounding channels, is preferable to V5.9.12 N with Antonia Gambacorta s new water vapor channels. (3) Comparison of V5.9.12, V5.9.12 AO, V5.9.1, and V5.0, (4) Accuracy and yield of channel by channel Quality Controlled clear-column radiances R(sub i) and (5) Plans for Version-7.

  7. The JPL Mars gravity field, Mars50c, based upon Viking and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the current JPL efforts of generating a Mars gravity field from Viking 1 and 2 and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data. The Mars 50c solution is a complete gravity field to degree and order 50 with solutions as well for the gravitational mass of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. The constants and models used to obtain the solution are given and the method for determining the gravity field is presented. The gravity field is compared to the best current gravity GMM1 of Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  9. Photographer: JPL P-21740 BW Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21740 BW Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification.

  10. Photographer: JPL P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21740 C Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification.

  11. An assembly to provide a time reference for the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Lopez, J. G.; Kelley, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is described which provides the value of date coordinated universal time (date UTC) to the JPL Network Operations Control Center, Real Time (NOCC-RT) facility. The NOCC-RT is the real time portion of the NOCC upgrade task. The time scale is generated in the NOCC-RT clock processor; however, there is a continuous reference to UTC, as realized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and transmitted by Earth orbiting satellites. An important functional design requirement is the 99.9 pct. availability.

  12. Airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping of snow depth and albedo in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA by the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, and is paired with a hyperspectral imager to provide an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR and hyperspectral mapping. During the snowmelt seasons of 2013 and 2014, the ASO mapped snow depth and albedo in the Uncompahgre River Basin in Colorado's Upper Colorado River Basin on a nominally monthly basis. These products enable an assessment and comparison of spatial snow accumulation and melt processes in two years with very different snowmelt hydrographs.

  13. Certification of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Koukol, R.; Foster, T. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the selection process and research activities JPL is planning to conduct for certification of hydrogen peroxide as a NASA approved technique for sterilization of various spacecraft parts/components and entire modern spacecraft.

  14. JPL/USC GAIM: Using COSMIC Occultations in a Real-Time Global Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrake, L.; Komjathy, A.; Wilson, B. D.; Pi, X.; Hajj, G.; Iijima, B.; Wang, C.

    2006-12-01

    We are in the midst of a revolution in ionospheric remote sensing driven by the illuminating powers of ground and space-based GPS receivers, new UV remote sensing satellites, and the advent of data assimilation techniques for space weather. In particular, the COSMIC 6-satellite constellation launched in April 2006. COSMIC will provide unprecedented global coverage of GPS occultations (~5000 per day), each of which yields electron density information with unprecedented ~1 km vertical resolution. Calibrated measurements of ionospheric delay (total electron content or TEC) suitable for input into assimilation models will be available in near real-time (NRT) from the COSMIC project with a latency of 30 to 120 minutes. Similarly, NRT TEC data are available from two worldwide NRT networks of ground GPS receivers (~75 5-minute sites and ~125 more hourly sites, operated by JPL and others). The combined NRT ground and space-based GPS datasets provide a new opportunity to more accurately specify the 3-dimensional ionospheric density with a time lag of only 15 to 120 minutes. With the addition of the vertically-resolved NRT occultation data, the retrieved profile shapes will model the hour-to-hour ionospheric "weather" much more accurately. The University of Southern California (USC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed a real-time Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM) to monitor space weather, study storm effects, and provide ionospheric calibration for DoD customers and NASA flight projects. JPL/USC GAIM is a physics- based 3D data assimilation model that uses both 4DVAR and Kalman filter techniques to solve for the ion & electron density state and key drivers such as equatorial electrodynamics, neutral winds, and production terms. Daily (delayed) GAIM runs can accept as input ground GPS TEC data from 1000+ sites, occultation links from CHAMP, SAC-C, and the COSMIC constellation, UV limb and nadir scans from the TIMED and DMSP satellites

  15. Low frequency VLBI in space using GAS-Can satellites: Report on the May 1987 JPL Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.; Jones, D. L.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Preston, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a workshop held at JPL on May 28 and 29, 1987, to study the feasibility of using small, very inexpensive spacecraft for a low-frequency radio interferometer array. Many technical aspects of a mission to produce high angular resolution images of the entire sky at frequencies from 2 to 20 MHz were discussed. The workshop conclusion was that such a mission was scientifically valuable and technically practical. A useful array could be based on six or more satellites no larger than those launched from Get-Away-Special canisters. The cost of each satellite could be $1-2M, and the mass less than 90 kg. Many details require further study, but as this report shows, there is good reason to proceed. No fundamental problems have been discovered involving the use of untraditional, very inexpensive spacecraft for this type of mission.

  16. Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and three of its satellites. A series of dark and light cloud bands appears through high altitude haze in the northern hemisphere. Cosiderable structure can be seen in the rings. The Cassini division, between the A-ring and B-ring, is readily visible. The shadow of rings on the planet's disk can also be seeen. The three satellites visible are, left to right, Enceladus (off the left edge of rings), Dione (just below the planet), and Tethys (at right edge of frame). The spacecraft will make its closest approach, 124,200 km. (77,174 miles) abovr the cloud tops, at 3:45 pm PST on Nov. 12, 1980. Nine months later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 will encounter Saturn and then continue on to Uranus.

  17. Lessons learned - MO&DA at JPL. [Mission Operations and Data Analysis cost reduction of planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The issues of how to avoid future surprise growth in Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA) costs and how to minimize total MO&DA costs for planetary missions are discussed within the context of JPL mission operations support. It is argued that there is no simple, single solution: the entire Project life-cycle must be addressed. It is concluded that cost models that can predict both MO&DA cost as well as Ground System development costs are needed. The first year MO&DA budget plotted against the total of ground and flight systems developments is shown. In order to better recognize changes and control costs in general, a modified funding line item breakdown is recommended to distinguish between development costs (prelaunch and postlaunch) and MO&DA costs.

  18. Cost and reliability study for a large array of small reflector antennas for JPL/NASA Deep Space Network (DSN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Cwik, Tom; Resch, George

    1993-01-01

    A study performed to estimate the cost of an array of small aperture reflector antennas to be used instead of or in conjunction with the current large reflector antennas of the JPL/NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The arrays are used for servicing present and future NASA missions that involve smaller spacecraft with limited power and smaller, lower-gain antennas. The advantages of the array configuration in terms of cost and reliability are discussed. A probabilistic determination of the reliability and availability of the array as a function of the number of array elements and the availability of individual array elements is made. The impact of additional marginal elements on the operational availability of the array is studied. Parametric cost and reliability plots are presented and directions for further investigation are outlined.

  19. Re-Engineering JPL's Mission Planning Ground System Architecture for Cost Efficient Operations in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, Jess

    1996-01-01

    Work carried out to re-engineer the mission analysis segment of JPL's mission planning ground system architecture is reported on. The aim is to transform the existing software tools, originally developed for specific missions on different support environments, into an integrated, general purpose, multi-mission tool set. The issues considered are: the development of a partnership between software developers and users; the definition of key mission analysis functions; the development of a consensus based architecture; the move towards evolutionary change instead of revolutionary replacement; software reusability, and the minimization of future maintenance costs. The current status and aims of new developments are discussed and specific examples of cost savings and improved productivity are presented.

  20. Photographer : JPL Range : 1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callisto was taken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 1,094,666 km (677,000 mi.) This false color picture of Callisto was taken by Voyager 2 and is centered on 11 degrees N and 171 degrees W. This rendition uses an ultraviolet image for the blue component. Because the surface displays regional contrast in UV, variations in surface materials are apparent. Notice in particular the dark blue haloes which surround bright craters in the eastern hemisphere. The surface of Callisto is the most heavily cratered of the Galilean satellites and resembles ancient heavily cratered terrains on the moon, Mercury and Mars. The bright areas are ejecta thrown out by relatively young impact craters. A large ringed structure, probably an impact basin, is shown in the upper left part of the picture. The color version of this picture was constructed by compositing black and white images taken through the ultraviolet, clear and orange filters.

  1. Customer Support Operations In Support Of The NASA/JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S. L.; Chen, Y. M.

    2004-12-01

    PO.DAAC is responsible for the ingest, archive and distribution of data relevant to the physical state of the ocean. The PO.DAAC provides a level of service for customer support for core Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) missions such as TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason, SeaWinds on QuikSCAT, SeaWinds on ADEOS-II, NOAA AVHRR and MODIS. PO.DAAC's level of support has broadened recently to include missions outside of the EOSDIS including, WindSat, GHRSST, Naval Oceanographic, Monterey Bay Aquarium, AirSAR and GOES. Customer support operations is managed and conducted in partnership between Raytheon ITSS and JPL and includes a full complement of services to accommodate the various PO.DAAC and Earth Observing System user communities. Customer support activities are ubiquitous to service industries from banking to shopping and this presentation will detail how two operational applications have been adopted for use in Earth Science data communities. Customer Response Management Operations System Integrated system that combines PO.DAAC's communications channels including web, email, phone and personal interactions into one intelligent knowledge base. The knowledge is shared with customers and the entire team to deliver consistent and timely information. The system allows 24 x 7 customer support service via extensive on-line searchable knowledge base. PO.DAAC has customized the system to fully integrate with PO.DAAC's existing legacy database and order tracking system. Website Communication Channel The newly redesigned PO.DAAC website (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov) is the central gateway to all of the Data, Tools and Services offered at the data center. The consistent look and feel was developed to enhance the ease of searching and ordering earth science data in particular. Data is accessible within a few clicks using the improved dynamic data catalog interface. New data products and information are delivered quickly to customers via the dynamic system and

  2. A modeling analysis program for the JPL table mountain Io sodium cloud data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, W. H.; Goldberg, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed review of 110 of the 263 Region B/C images of the 1981 data set is undertaken and a preliminary assessment of 39 images of the 1976-79 data set is presented. The basic spatial characteristics of these images are discussed. Modeling analysis of these images after further data processing will provide useful information about Io and the planetary magnetosphere. Plans for data processing and modeling analysis are outlined. Results of very preliminary modeling activities are presented.

  3. Silicon material task - Low cost solar array project /JPL/DOE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the silicon material task of the low-cost solar array project, which has the objective of establishing a silicon production capability equivalent to 500 mW per year at a price less than 10 dollars/kg (1975 dollars) in 1986. The task program is divided into four phases: technical feasibility, scale-up studies (the present phase), experimental process system development units, and implementation of large-scale production plants, and it involves the development of processes for two groups of materials, that is, semiconductor grade and solar cell grade. In addition, the effects of impurities on solar cell performance are being investigated. Attention is given to problem areas of the task program, such as environmental protection, material compatibility between the reacting chemicals and materials of construction of the equipment, and waste disposal.

  4. Software Reuse in the Planetary Context: The JPL/MIPL Mars Program Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Reuse greatly reduces development costs. Savings can be invested in new/improved capabilities Or returned to sponsor Worth the extra time to "do it right" Operator training greatly reduced. MIPL MER personnel can step into MSL easily because the programs are familiar. Application programs much easier to write. Can assume core capabilities exist already. Multimission Instrument (Image) Processing Lab at MIPL Responsible for the ground-based instrument data processing for (among other things) all recent in-situ Mars missions: Mars Pathfinder Mars Polar Lander (MPL) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Phoenix Mars Science Lab (MSL) Responsibilities for in-situ missions Reconstruction of instrument data from telemetry Systematic creation of Reduced Data Records (RDRs) for images Creation of special products for operations, science, and public outreach In the critical path for operations MIPL products required for planning the next Sol s activities

  5. Software forecasting as it is really done: A study of JPL software engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griesel, Martha Ann; Hihn, Jairus M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Fouser, Thomas J.; Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the results to date of a Jet Propulsion Laboratory internally funded research task to study the costing process and parameters used by internally recognized software cost estimating experts. Protocol Analysis and Markov process modeling were used to capture software engineer's forecasting mental models. While there is significant variation between the mental models that were studied, it was nevertheless possible to identify a core set of cost forecasting activities, and it was also found that the mental models cluster around three forecasting techniques. Further partitioning of the mental models revealed clustering of activities, that is very suggestive of a forecasting lifecycle. The different forecasting methods identified were based on the use of multiple-decomposition steps or multiple forecasting steps. The multiple forecasting steps involved either forecasting software size or an additional effort forecast. Virtually no subject used risk reduction steps in combination. The results of the analysis include: the identification of a core set of well defined costing activities, a proposed software forecasting life cycle, and the identification of several basic software forecasting mental models. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the results for current individual and institutional practices.

  6. Weekly LiDAR snow depth mapping for operational snow hydrology - the NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Painter, T. H.; McGurk, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Operational hydrologic simulation and forecasting in snowmelt-dominated watersheds currently relies on indices of snow accumulation and melt from measurements at a small number of point locations or geographically-limited manual surveys. These data sources cannot adequately characterize the spatial distribution of snow depth/water equivalent, which is the primary determinant of snowpack volume and runoff rates. The NASA JPL Airborne Snow Observatory's airborne laser scanning system maps snow depth at high spatial and temporal resolutions, providing an unprecedented snowpack monitoring capability and enabling a new operational paradigm. In the Spring of 2013, the ASO mapped snow depth in the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Yosemite National Park on a nominally weekly basis, and provided fast-turnaround spatial snow depth and water equivalent maps to the operators of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the water supply for 2.5 million people on the San Francisco peninsula. These products enabled more accurate runoff simulation and optimal reservoir management in a year of very low snow accumulation. We present the initial results from this new application of multi-temporal LiDAR mapping in operational snow hydrology.

  7. The Motion of the Earth-Moon System Between 1700 and 2100 IN Newcomb's Theory and in Jpl-Ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpff, P.

    1981-08-01

    The motion of the barycenter (EMB) in Newcomb's (1898) theory is compared with the JPL ephemerides DE102 (relativistic) and DE28 (newtonian) within the 400-year interval 1700-2100. In the analysis, both the conventional and the new (IAU, 1976) precession theories are applied. Newcomb's periodic perturbations are corrected by least-square methods, and additional periodic terms are obtained by harmonic analysis. With Newcomb's theory modified in this manner, corrections to all orbital elements are determined, including secular terms in T and T2. The final residuals are ≤ 0".05 within the entire 400-year interval. It is shown that the instantaneous mean orbital plane of the DE102 deviates from the IAU ecliptic by a small amount which is nearly constant during the 400 years; it corresponds to a change in obliquity of ˜ 0".04 and to an equinox correction of ˜0".12. For the newtonian, inertial portion of Newcomb's perihelion motion, the sane correction (+1".11 per century) is obtained from both ephemerides if one takes into account the different masses in the ephemerides, and employs the theoretical relativity effect (+3".84 per century) and Bretagnon's value +6".56 per century) for the secular lunar perturbation (instead of Newcomb's value +7".68). The DE102 in connection with the IAU 1976 precession requires the correction ΔL=-0".235+l".081T+0".039T2 to Newcomb's expression for the mean longitude.

  8. Prototyping and implementing flight qualifiable semicustom CMOS P-well bulk integrated circuits in the JPL environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Presently, there are many difficulties associated with implementing application specific custom or semi-custom (standard cell based) integrated circuits (ICs) into JPL flight projects. One of the primary difficulties is developing prototype semi-custom integrated circuits for use and evaluation in engineering prototype flight hardware. The prototype semi-custom ICs must be extremely cost-effective and yet still representative of flight qualifiable versions of the design. A second difficulty is encountered in the transport of the design from engineering prototype quality to flight quality. Normally, flight quality integrated circuits have stringent quality standards, must be radiation resistant and should consume minimal power. It is often not necessary or cost effective, however, to impose such stringent quality standards on engineering models developed for systems analysis in controlled lab environments. This article presents work originally initiated for ground based applications that also addresses these two problems. Furthermore, this article suggests a method that has been shown successful in prototyping flight quality semi-custom ICs through the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS) program run by the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. The method has been used successfully to design and fabricate through the MOSIS three different semi-custom prototype CMOS p-well chips. The three designs make use of the work presented and were designed consistent with design techniques and structures that are flight qualifiable, allowing one hour transfer of the design from engineering model status to flight qualifiable foundry-ready status through methods outlined in this article.

  9. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  10. Controlled flexibility in technical editing - The levels-of-edit concept at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    The levels-of-edit concept, which can be used to specify the amount of editorial effort involved in the preparation of a manuscript for publication, is discussed. Nine types of editing are identified and described. These include coordination edit (preparing estimates, gathering cost data, monitoring production processes), policy edit, integrity edit (making sure that parts of a publication match in a physical or numerical sense), screening edit (ensuring that the quality of camera-ready copy is sufficient for external publication), copy clarification edit, format edit, mechanical style edit, language edit, and substantive edit (reviewing the manuscript for content coherence, emphasis, subordination and parallelism). These functions are grouped into five levels of edit. An edit-level number is assigned to each manuscript, providing a quantitative and qualitative indicator of the editing to be done which is clearly understood by authors, managers, and editors alike. In addition, clear boundaries are drawn between normal and extraordinary editing tasks. Individual organizations will group various edits in different ways to reflect their needs and priorities; the essential element of the system is unambiguous definition and coding of the types and amount of work to be done.

  11. Performance Testing of Lithium Li-ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(super 0)C to +40(super 0)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., including pre-launch and cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the inability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The primary focus of this paper is to communicate the latest results regarding Mars surface operation mission simulation testing, as well as, the corresponding performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by Yardney Technical Products, Inc.) have been demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, being able to support the operation of the rovers for over three years, and are projected to support an even further extended mission.

  12. Ground testing of the Li-ion batteries in support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2005-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20(deg)C to +4O(deg)C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit (RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 8 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The testing performed includes, (a) performing initial characterization tests (discharge capacity at different temperatures), (b) simulating the launch conditions, (c) simulating the cruise phase conditions (including trajectory corrections), (d) simulating the entry, decent, and landing pulse load profile (if required to support the pyros) (e) simulating the Mars surface operation mission simulation conditions, as well as, (f) assessing performance capacity loss and impedance characteristics as a function of temperature and life. As will be discussed, the lithium-ion batteries (fabricated by LithiodYardney, Inc.) were demonstrated to far exceed the requirements defined by the mission, and are projected to support an extended mission (> 2 years) with margin to spare.

  13. Performance Testing of Yardney Li-Ion Cells and Batteries in Support of JPL's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.C.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Dewell, E. A.; Jones, L. E.; Salvo, C. G.; Puglia, F. J.; Cohen, S.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2008-01-01

    In 2009, JPL is planning to launch an unmanned rover mission to the planet Mars. This mission, referred to as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), will involve the use of a rover that is much larger than the previously developed Spirit and Opportunity Rovers for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, that are currently still in operation on the surface of the planet after more than three years. Part of the reason that the MER rovers have operated so successfully, far exceeding the required mission duration of 90 sols, is that they possess robust Li-ion batteries, manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, which have demonstrated excellent life characteristics. Given the excellent performance characteristics displayed, similar lithium-ion batteries have been projected to successfully meet the mission requirements of the up-coming MSL mission. Although comparable in many facets, such as being required to operate over a wide temperature range (-20 to 40 C), the MSL mission has more demanding performance requirements compared to the MER mission, including much longer mission duration (approx. 687 sols vs. 90 sols), higher power capability, and the need to withstand higher temperature excursions. In addition, due to the larger rover size, the MSL mission necessitates the use of a much larger battery to meet the energy, life, and power requirements. In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, a number of performance verification tests were performed on 10 Ah Yardney lithium-ion cells (MER design) under MSL-relevant conditions, including mission surface operation simulation testing. In addition, the performance of on-going ground life testing of 10 Ah MER cells and 8-cell batteries will be discussed in the context of capacity loss and impedance growth predictions.

  14. The JPL ASTER Volcano Archive: the development and capabilities of a 15 year global high resolution archive of volcano data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linick, J. P.; Pieri, D. C.; Sanchez, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and temporal systematics of the world's volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for the exercise of orbital remote sensing techniques, informing studies ranging from basic volcanology to societal risk. Comprised of over 160,000 frames and spanning 15 years of the Terra platform mission, the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) is the world's largest (100+Tb) high spatial resolution (15-30-90m/pixel), multi-spectral (visible-SWIR-TIR), downloadable (kml enabled) dedicated archive of volcano imagery. We will discuss the development of the AVA, and describe its growing capability to provide new easy public access to ASTER global volcano remote sensing data. AVA system architecture is designed to facilitate parameter-based data mining, and for the implementation of archive-wide data analysis algorithms. Such search and analysis capabilities exploit AVA's unprecedented time-series data compilations for over 1,550 volcanoes worldwide (Smithsonian Holocene catalog). Results include thermal anomaly detection and mapping, as well as detection of SO2 plumes from explosive eruptions and passive SO2 emissions confined to the troposphere. We are also implementing retrospective ASTER image retrievals based on volcanic activity reports from Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). A major planned expansion of the AVA is currently underway, with the ingest of the full 1972-present LANDSAT, and NASA EO-1, volcano imagery for comparison and integration with ASTER data. Work described here is carried out under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Mission to the Trojan asteroids: Lessons learned during a JPL Planetary Science Summer School mission design exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Balcerski, Jeffrey; Carande, Bryce; Diaz-Silva, Ricardo A.; Fraeman, Abigail A.; Guzewich, Scott D.; Hudson, Jennifer; Nahm, Amanda L.; Potter-McIntyre, Sally; Route, Matthew; Urban, Kevin D.; Vasisht, Soumya; Benneke, Bjoern; Gil, Stephanie; Livi, Roberto; Williams, Brian; Budney, Charles J.; Lowes, Leslie L.

    2013-02-01

    The 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified a detailed investigation of the Trojan asteroids occupying Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points as a priority for future NASA missions. Observing these asteroids and measuring their physical characteristics and composition would aid in identification of their source and provide answers about their likely impact history and evolution, thus yielding information about the makeup and dynamics of the early Solar System. We present a conceptual design for a mission to the Jovian Trojan asteroids: the Trojan ASteroid Tour, Exploration, and Rendezvous (TASTER) mission, that is consistent with the NASA New Frontiers candidate mission recommended by the Decadal Survey and the final result of the 2011 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. Our proposed mission includes visits to two Trojans in the L4 population: a 500 km altitude fly-by of 1999 XS143, followed by a rendezvous with and detailed observations of 911 Agamemnon at orbital altitudes of 1000-100 km over a 12 month nominal science data capture period. Our proposed instrument payload - wide- and narrow-angle cameras, a visual and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a neutron/gamma ray spectrometer - would provide unprecedented high-resolution, regional-to-global datasets for the target bodies, yielding fundamental information about the early history and evolution of the Solar System. Although our mission design was completed as part of an academic exercise, this study serves as a useful starting point for future Trojan mission design studies. In particular, we identify and discuss key issues that can make large differences in the complex trade-offs required when designing a mission to the Trojan asteroids.

  16. Noise characteristics in DORIS station positions time series derived from IGN-JPL, INASAN and CNES-CLS analysis centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Using wavelet transform and Allan variance, we have analysed the solutions of weekly position residuals of 09 high latitude DORIS stations in STCD (STation Coordinate Difference) format provided from the three Analysis Centres : IGN-JPL (solution ign11wd01), INASAN (solution ina10wd01) and CNES-CLS (solution lca11wd02), in order to compare the spectral characteristics of their residual noise. The temporal correlations between the three solutions, two by two and station by station, for each component (North, East and Vertical) reveal a high correlation in the horizontal components (North and East). For the North component, the correlation average is about 0.88, 0.81 and 0.79 between, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions, then for the East component it is about 0.84, 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. However, the correlations for the Vertical component are moderate with an average of 0.64, 0.57 and 0.58 in, respectively, IGN-INA, IGN-LCA and INA-LCA solutions. After removing the trends and seasonal components from the analysed time series, the Allan variance analysis shows that the three solutions are dominated by a white noise in the all three components (North, East and Vertical). The wavelet transform analysis, using the VisuShrink method with soft thresholding, reveals that the noise level in the LCA solution is less important compared to IGN and INA solutions. Indeed, the standard deviation of the noise for the three components is in the range of 5-11, 5-12 and 4-9mm in the IGN, INA, and LCA solutions, respectively.

  17. JPL encapsulation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed summary of the diverse encapsulation materials and techniques that evolved to meet the cost goals of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project is presented. A typical solar cell now consists of low iron glass, two layers of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers, a porous space, primers/adhesives, a back cover of Tedlar, and a gasket/seal for a volume cost of $1.30/sq ft. This compares well with the project goal of $1.40/sq ft.

  18. JPL noise control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    Exposures of personnel to noise pollution at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Pasadena, California, were investigated. As a result of the study several protective measures were taken: (1) employees exposed to noise hazards were required to wear ear-protection devices, (2) mufflers and air diversion devices were installed around the wind tunnels; and (3) all personnel that are required to wear ear protection are given annual audimeter tests.

  19. JPL solar power experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial use. Discussion focuses on technological problems impeding further systems development. Experiments and test data on seven types of solar panels and six material test specimens are described in detail.

  20. JPL highlights, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The most significant accomplishments during fiscal year 1983 in a wide range of ongoing research and development tasks at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are discussed. Deep space exploration, information systems and space technology development, technology applications, energy and energy conversion technology, and Earth observational systems are discussed.

  1. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  2. JPL Test Effectiveness Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreck, Stephanie; Sharratt, Stephen; Smith, Joseph F.; Strong, Edward

    2008-01-01

    1) The pilot study provided meaningful conclusions that are generally consistent with the earlier Test Effectiveness work done between 1992 and 1994: a) Analysis of pre-launch problem/failure reports is consistent with earlier work. b) Analysis of post-launch early mission anomaly reports indicates that there are more software issues in newer missions, and the no-test category for identification of post-launch failures is more significant than in the earlier analysis. 2) Future work includes understanding how differences in Missions effect these analyses: a) There are large variations in the number of problem reports and issues that are documented by the different Projects/Missions. b) Some missions do not have any reported environmental test anomalies, even though environmental tests were performed. 3) Each project/mission has different standards and conventions for filling out the PFR forms, the industry may wish to address this issue: a) Existing problem reporting forms are to document and track problems, failures, and issues (etc.) for the projects, to ensure high quality. b) Existing problem reporting forms are not intended for data mining.

  3. Full polarimetric display of NASA/JPL AIRSAR P-band data from Gilmore Creek, AK (1993), Half Moon Bay, CA (1994), and Bishop, CA (1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Howard; Cameron, William L.

    1997-06-01

    Full polarization data gathered by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR P-band radar in Gilmore Creek, Alaska (1993), Half Moon Bay, California (1994), and Bishop, California (1995) are imaged using full polarization displays. Full polarization symbol displays of reflector signatures and of simulated small aircraft crash sites are presented. In addition, ideal polarimetric reflector responses are compared to measured reflector signatures extracted from ADTS MMW SAR scenes and AIRSAR scenes. It is demonstrated that full polarization displays can be used to quickly identify polarization calibration errors based on clutter responses alone.

  4. Use of a multimission system for cost effective support of planetary science data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1994-01-01

    JPL's Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) provides a multimission facility at JPL for processing science instrument data from NASA's planetary missions. This facility, the Multimission Image Processing System (MIPS), is developed and maintained by MOSO to meet requirements that span the NASA family of planetary missions. Although the word 'image' appears in the title, MIPS is used to process instrument data from a variety of science instruments. This paper describes the design of a new system architecture now being implemented within the MIPS to support future planetary mission activities at significantly reduced operations and maintenance cost.

  5. Development of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Knight, J.; Quigley, M.; Forsberg, G.; Ganapathi, G.; Yarbrough, C.; Koukol, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present test data and discussion on the work we are conducting at JPL to address the following issues: 1) efficacy of sterilization process; 2) diffusion of hydrogen peroxide under sterilization process conditions into hard to reach places; 3) materials and components compatibility with the sterilization process and 4) development of methodology to protect sensitive components from hydrogen peroxide vapor.

  6. Containerless processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Elleman, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and space-based containerless processing levitation devices are described. Experiments performed in the MSFC drop tube, the JPL drag-free drop facilities, a single-axis tuned cavity acoustic levitator furnace on TEXUS-I, and a three-axis acoustic levitator and furnace on the STS-11 mission are discussed. Neither acoustic interference nor aerodynamic levitation trials have yielded promising results in sounding rocket and STS based experiments. An electrostatic levitator has furnished a high degree of positioning control with multiple objects in a terrestrial laboratory.

  7. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  8. Multimission image processing and science data visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1993-01-01

    The Operational Science Analysis (OSA) Functional area supports science instrument data display, analysis, visualization and photo processing in support of flight operations of planetary spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This paper describes the data products generated by the OSA functional area, and the current computer system used to generate these data products. The objectives on a system upgrade now in process are described. The design approach to development of the new system are reviewed, including use of the Unix operating system and X-Window display standards to provide platform independence, portability, and modularity within the new system, is reviewed. The new system should provide a modular and scaleable capability supporting a variety of future missions at JPL.

  9. Reengineering the Acquisition/Procurement Process: A Methodology for Requirements Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall; Vanek, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper captures the systematic approach taken by JPL's Acquisition Reengineering Project team, the methodology used, challenges faced, and lessons learned. It provides pragmatic "how-to" techniques and tools for collecting requirements and for identifying areas of improvement in an acquisition/procurement process or other core process of interest.

  10. Hydrogen Transport to Mars Enables the Sabatier/Electrolysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, P. J.; Rapp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Sabatier/Electrolysis (S/E) process is an attractive approach to in situ propellant production (ISPP), and a breadboard demonstration of this process at Lockheed Martin Astronautics funded by JPL performed very well, with high conversion efficiency, and reliable diurnal operation. There is a net usage of hydrogen in the S/E process, and this has been the principal problem for this approach to ISPP.

  11. Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

  12. AVIRIS ground data-processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimer, John H.; Heyada, Jan R.; Carpenter, Steve C.; Deich, William T. S.; Lee, Meemong

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been under development at JPL for the past four years. During this time, a dedicated ground data-processing system has been designed and implemented to store and process the large amounts of data expected. This paper reviews the objectives of this ground data-processing system and describes the hardware. An outline of the data flow through the system is given, and the software and incorporated algorithms developed specifically for the systematic processing of AVIRIS data are described.

  13. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  14. The Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE): a Pathfinder for Next-Generation Extragalactic FIR Spectroscopy— JPL Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Charles

    This is the JPL co-I submission for the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE). Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies is one of the foremost goals of astrophysics and cosmology today. The cosmic star formation rate has undergone a dramatic evolution of the course of the last seven billion years. Dust-obscured star forming galaxies (DSFGs) offer the perfect tracers of this evolution as they contain much of the star-forming activity. By their very nature, DSFGs are difficult to study and have, until recently, been poorly understood. A variety of unextincted diagnostic lines are present in the far-infrared (FIR) which can provide insight into the conditions of star formation, including the instantaneous star formation rate, the effect of AGN feedback on star formation, the mass function of the stars, and the spectrum of their ionizing radiation. Spectroscopy in the far-infrared is thus scientifically crucial, yet remains technically difficult. To obtain this science requires the development a telescope having low-emissivity, high-throughput optics with a dispersive spectrometer and high-sensitivity, large-format detector arrays operating above atmosphere to perform large-area, wide-bandwidth spatial/spectral mapping. Stratospheric balloons such a platform, and with proper design, can outperform current instruments. A promising route for economical, large-format submillimeter detector arrays are so-called kinetic-inductance detectors (KIDs). We propose a program of instrumentation development to enable one such a future mission, the Spectroscopic Terahertz Airborne Receiver for Far-InfraRed Exploration (STARFIRE), an integral-field spectrometer from 240 - 420 microns coupled to a 2.5 meter low-emissivity carbon-fiber telescope. STARFIRE will provide a technological stepping stone to future space-borne instrumentation such as the Far- IR Surveyor or a Probe mission. This proposal has the goal of demonstrating a

  15. Software-Engineering Process Simulation (SEPS) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. Y.; Abdel-Hamid, T.; Sherif, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Software Engineering Process Simulation (SEPS) model is described which was developed at JPL. SEPS is a dynamic simulation model of the software project development process. It uses the feedback principles of system dynamics to simulate the dynamic interactions among various software life cycle development activities and management decision making processes. The model is designed to be a planning tool to examine tradeoffs of cost, schedule, and functionality, and to test the implications of different managerial policies on a project's outcome. Furthermore, SEPS will enable software managers to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of software project development and perform postmodern assessments.

  16. The NASA/JPL 64-meter-diameter antenna at Goldstone, California: Project report, technical staff, tracking and data acquisition organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The significant management and technical aspects of the JPL Project to develop and implement a 64-meter-diameter antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California, which was the first of the Advanced Antenna Systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Network are described. The original need foreseen for a large-diameter antenna to accomplish communication and tracking support of NASA's solar system exploration program is reviewed, and the translation of those needs into the technical specification of an appropriate ground station antenna is described. The antenna project is delineated by phases to show the key technical and managerial skills and the technical facility resources involved. There is a brief engineering description of the antenna and its closely related facilities. Some difficult and interesting engineering problems, then at the state-of-the-art level, which were met in the accomplishment of the Project, are described. The key performance characteristics of the antenna, in relation to the original specifications and the methods of their determination, are stated.

  17. Near-field testing of the 15-meter model of the hoop column antenna. Volume 3: Near- and far-field plots for the JPL feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, J.; Kefauver, N.; Cencich, T.; Osborn, J.

    1986-01-01

    Technical results from near-field testing of the 15-meter model of the hoop column antenna at the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace facility are discussed. The antenna consists of a deployable central column and a 15 meter hoop, stiffened by cables into a structure with a high tolerance repeatable surface and offset feed location. The surface has been configured to have four offset parabolic apertures, each about 6 meters in diameter, and is made of gold plated molybdenum wire mesh. Pattern measurements were made with feed system radiating at frequencies of 7.73, 11.60, 2.27, 2.225, and 4.26 (all in GHz). This report (Volume 3) gives the detailed patterns measured with the JPL feed (2.225 GHz). Volume 1 covers the testing from an overall viewpoint and contains information of generalized interest for testing large antennas, including the deployment of the antenna in the Martin Facility and the measurements to determine mechanical stability and trueness of the reflector surface, the test program outline, and a synopsis of antenna electromagnetic performance. A detailed listing of the antenna patterns for the LaRC feeds (7.3, 11.60, 2.27, and 4.26 GHz) are given in Volume 2 of this report.

  18. Fabrication and Design Testing of 4 Petals for Deployable Starshade Prototype : JPL Summer Internship Program : Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxton, Laurel

    2012-01-01

    One of the next steps in the exoplanet search is the development of occulter technology. Starlight suppression for a telescope would provide the ability to more accurately find and characterize potential true-Earth analogs. Coronagraphs have been the subject of much research in recent years but have yet to prove themselves a feasible approach. Attention has now turned to external occulters or starshades. A large occulting mask in front of a telescope should provide a comparable optical resolution to a coronagraph. Under a TDEM grant, a proposed starshade design was demonstrated to exceed coronagraph resolution by at least an order of magnitude. The current project is to demonstrate that the current design can be manufactured and then properly deployed. 4 sample starshade petals were constructed, ready to be attached to a pre-existing deployment truss. Time was spent detailing and modifying the petal construction process, so that future petals could be constructed at a more accurate and faster pace.

  19. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  20. Argus: A concept study for an Io observer mission from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Patricio; Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Hays, Lindsay E.; Keane, James T.; Neveu, Marc; Basu, Ko; Davis, Byron; Mendez-Ramos, Eugina; Nelessen, Adam; Fox, Valerie; Herman, Jonathan F.; Parrish, Nathan L.; Hughes, Andrea C.; Marcucci, Emma; Scheinberg, Aaron; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2014-11-01

    Jupiter’s moon Io is the ideal target to study extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two major processes shaping the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose an Io Observer mission concept named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io). This concept was developed by the students of the August 2014 session of NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School, together with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Team X.The science objectives of our mission are: (1) study the physical process of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (2) investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for volcanism on early Earth; (3) analyze the interaction between Io and the Jovian system via material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (4) study Io’s chemistry and geologic history to gain insight into the formation and evolution of the Galilean satellites. Our mission consists of a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft performing ten close flybys of Io. The orbital inclination of ~31 degrees minimizes the total radiation dose received, at the cost of having to perform fast flybys (13 km/s).The instrument payload includes: (1) IGLOO, a multi-band camera for regional (500 m/pixel) and high-resolution (50 m/pixel) imaging; (2) IoLA, a laser altimeter to measure the triaxial shape and diurnal tidal deformation, and topographic profiles of individual surface features; (3) IGNITERS, a thermal emission radiometer/spectrometer to map nighttime temperatures, thermal inertia, and characterize Io’s atmosphere; (4) IoNIS, a near-infrared spectrometer to map global (10 km/pixel) and local (2 km/pixel) surface composition; (5) IoFLEX, a magnetometer and (6) IoPEX, a plasma particle analyzer to characterize the magnetic environment and understand the nature of Io’s induced and possible intrinsic magnetic fields; (7) IRAGE, a gravity science experiment to probe Io’s interior

  1. New Raman Water Vapor and Temperature Lidar at JPL Table Mountain Facility: Optimization, Validations and Sonde Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspey, R. A.; McDermid, I. S.; Leblanc, T.; Walsh, D.; Howe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory currently operates lidar systems at Table Mountain Facility (TMF), California (34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg W at 2300m) and Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii (19.5 deg N, 155.6 deg W at 3400m) under the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, formerly NDSC). To complement existing NDACC lidars at TMF, which acts as a primary site for inter-comparisons, a new water vapor and temperature lidar has begun routine operation with typically 3-4 nightly profiles per week. As water vapor is a key greenhouse gas, and is highly variable on annual and seasonal cycles, accurate long term measurements are necessary for predictions of climate change and to increase our understanding of the atmospheric processes it contributes to. The new TMF lidar has demonstrated high spatial and temporal resolution, with a high degree of optimization being achieved over the past year, although the authors believe further improvement may yet be possible. The lidar has been designed for accuracies of 5% up to 12km in the free troposphere with the capability to measure to the tropopause and lower stratosphere with accuracies of 1 ppm. It is anticipated that the data sets produced will be used for Aura validation and for incorporation into NDACC archives. Validation results for the optimized system are presented with intercomparisons using Vaisala RS92-K radiosondes.

  2. Analysis of Near-field of Circular Aperture Antennas with Application to Study of High Intensity Radio Frequency (HIRF) Hazards to Aviation from JPL/NASA Deep Space Network Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Statman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This work includes a simplified analysis of the radiated near to mid-field from JPL/NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) reflector antennas and uses an averaging technique over the main beam region and beyond for complying with FAA regulations in specific aviation environments. The work identifies areas that require special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN transmitters. The paper derives the maximum averaged power densities allowed and identifies zones where mitigation measures are required.

  3. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  4. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  5. Digital processing of Mariner 9 television data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.; Seidman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The digital image processing performed by the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) at JPL in support of the Mariner 9 mission is summarized. The support is divided into the general categories of image decalibration (the removal of photometric and geometric distortions from returned imagery), computer cartographic projections in support of mapping activities, and adaptive experimenter support (flexible support to provide qualitative digital enhancements and quantitative data reduction of returned imagery). Among the tasks performed were the production of maximum discriminability versions of several hundred frames to support generation of a geodetic control net for Mars, and special enhancements supporting analysis of Phobos and Deimos images.

  6. A Look Under the Hood: How the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System Uses Database Technologies to Present Big Data to Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2015-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data and model forecast related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been running a near-real time (NRT) data portal during North Atlantic hurricane season that typically runs from June through October each year, since 2010. Data collected by the TCIS varies by type, format, contents, and frequency and is served to the user in two ways: (1) as image overlays on a virtual globe and (2) as derived output from a suite of analysis tools. In order to support these two functions, the data must be collected and then made searchable by criteria such as date, mission, product, pressure level, and geospatial region. Creating a database architecture that is flexible enough to manage, intelligently interrogate, and ultimately present this disparate data to the user in a meaningful way has been the primary challenge. The database solution for the TCIS has been to use a hybrid MySQL + Solr implementation. After testing other relational database and NoSQL solutions, such as PostgreSQL and MongoDB respectively, this solution has given the TCIS the best offerings in terms of query speed and result reliability. This database solution also supports the challenging (and memory overwhelming) geospatial queries that are necessary to support analysis tools requested by users. Though hardly new technologies on their own, our implementation of MySQL + Solr had to be customized and tuned to be able to accurately store, index, and search the TCIS data holdings. In this presentation, we will discuss how we arrived on our MySQL + Solr database architecture, why it offers us the most consistent fast and reliable results, and how it supports our front end so that we can offer users a look into our "big data" holdings.

  7. LISA technology department at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harb, Charles C.; Chiao, Meng P.; Gromov, Konstantin

    2003-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) project requires technology developments on many fronts. A physical understanding of the LISA subsystems is a precursor to tacjling the requirements needed to ensure a successful mission. This can only be achieved by developing the concepts in the lab prior to developing the payload. This poster presents updates on laboratory activities intended to prove the feasibility of measuring proof mass back reaction forces of less than 3fN/(square root)Hz at 1 mHz; the sensing of the proof mass position with in 2 nm/(square root)above the 3 mHz; and the resolution and accuracy of the phase-meter to better than 10 pm/(square root)Hz above the 3 mHz.

  8. STEPS: JPL's Astrometric Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart; Pravdo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Presentation topics include: STEPS ground-based astrometry at Hale Telescope; the instrument; why astronomy and why M-dwarfs; motion of center of light about center of mass in photocentric orbit; photocentric motion vs. fractional mass; high-resolution imaging of STEPS targets; GU 802 p one possible orbit plotted with data, Keplerian frame; GJ 802 results; STEPS future; and a bibliography of STEPS papers.

  9. JPL's parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established in the California Mojave Desert to carry out work in testing solar point focusing concentrator systems and related hardware. The site was chosen because of its high solar insolation level and year around clear sky conditions. The various facilities and equipment at the PDTS, and the concentrator experiments being performed are described.

  10. An Update of the Ground Testing of the Li-ion Batteries in Support of JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2004, JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling > 300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration (>9 months), both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which have enabled operation for over 854 and 834 Sols of operation, respectively, to date. Given that the batteries were required to support the mission for 90 Sols of operation by design, it is significant that the batteries have demonstrated over a nine fold increase in life over mission objectives. In addition to supporting the surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays, the batteries were designed to aid in the launch and the EDL pyros, and allow for anomalies during cruise. In summary, the requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +30 C), withstand long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted orientation, and support high current pulses (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of meeting these requirements, ground testing was performed on a Rover Battery Assembly Unit (RBAU), consisting of two 8-cell 10 Ah lithium-ion batteries connected in parallel. The RBAU upon which the performance testing was performed is nearly identical to the batteries incorporated into the two Rovers currently on Mars. The testing includes, (a) performing initial characterization tests (discharge capacity at different temperatures), (b) simulating the launch conditions, (c) simulating the cruise phase conditions (including trajectory correction maneuvers), (d) simulating the entry, decent, and landing (EDL) pulse load profile (required to support the pyros) (e) simulating the Mars surface operation mission simulation conditions, as well as, (f) assessing capacity loss and impedance characteristics as

  11. Noise in DORIS station position time series provided by IGN-JPL, INASAN and CNES-CLS Analysis Centres for the ITRF2014 realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifa, Sofiane

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the noise characteristics in DORIS station positions between the three solutions derived by IGN-JPL (named as IGN), INASAN (named as INA) and CNES-CLS (named as LCA) Analysis Centres for ITRF2014 contribution, and to evaluate the improvements of these reprocessed solutions in terms of noise level with the previous ITRF2008 solutions. To the weekly STCD (STation Coordinate Difference) residual position time series of 23 stations referred to ITRF2008 and expressed in the local frame (North, East and Up), we calculated the Allan variance to identify their noise type, and applied the wavelet transform to assess their annual and semi-annual signals, and their noise level. The results reveal that the three solutions are dominated by white noise in all three components. The noise level is the lowest in the LCA solution; the average noise level in respectively, North, East and Vertical components is around 5.9 mm, 9.3 mm and 6.6 mm for LCA, 9 mm, 11.6 mm and 9 mm for IGN, and 8.7 mm, 11.6 mm and 9.1 mm for INA. The results also show that the tropical (±23.5°) stations are more distorted than mid-latitude and high latitude stations. In terms of noise level, the reprocessed LCA solution (lca14wd40) and its previous solution (lca11wd02) converge to similar results, while the reprocessed IGN (ign14wd15) and INA (ina14wd08) solutions show improvements with respect to their previous solutions (ign11wd01) and (ina12wd01) respectively, especially in the East component. Furthermore, the possible origin of the estimated annual signal was also investigated by comparing it with hydrology and atmospheric loading displacements. The annual Vertical component for the three solutions is more correlated with the GLDAS/Noah hydrology model with an average correlation of about 0.35, and shows a strong correlation of about 0.76 with ECMWF-IB and ECMWF-MOG2D atmospheric models for the station Krasnoyarsk (KRBB) in Siberia.

  12. Photochemical Processes in the Condensed Haze of Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Couturier, I.; Jacovi, R.; Lignell, A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently we have shown that condensed-phase photochemical processes continue to occur at altitudes where gas-phase photochemistry would not be significant due to extinction of higher energy short-wavelength photons and availability of only longer wavelength low-energy photons (>250 nm). Accretion of Titan's molecules into weakly bound van der Waals aggregates would trigger new channels of photochemical reaction pathways that are not available for gas-phase isolated molecules. Laboratory studies carried out at JPL and AMU will be discussed. Nature of Titan's haze aerosol particles will be extrapolated in the light of these laboratory studies. Ref: Gudipati et al., Nat. Commun. 4 (2013) 1648

  13. A low-cost polysilicon process based on the synthesis and decomposition of dichlorosilane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J. R.; Plahutnik, F.; Sawyer, D.; Arvidson, A.; Goldfarb, S.

    1982-01-01

    Major process steps of a dichlorosilane based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the production of polycrystalline silicon have been evaluated. While an economic analysis of the process indicates that it is not capable of meeting JPL/DOE price objectives ($14.00/kg in 1980 dollars), product price in the $19.00/kg to $25.00/kg range may be achieved. Product quality has been evaluated and ascertained to be comparable to semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon. Solar cells fabricated from the material are also equivalent to those fabricated from semiconductor-grade polycrystalline silicon.

  14. Image processing and products for the Magellan mission to Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jerry; Alexander, Doug; Andres, Paul; Lewicki, Scott; Mcauley, Myche

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus is providing planetary scientists with massive amounts of new data about the surface geology of Venus. Digital image processing is an integral part of the ground data system that provides data products to the investigators. The mosaicking of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data from the spacecraft is being performed at JPL's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). MIPL hosts and supports the Image Data Processing Subsystem (IDPS), which was developed in a VAXcluster environment of hardware and software that includes optical disk jukeboxes and the TAE-VICAR (Transportable Applications Executive-Video Image Communication and Retrieval) system. The IDPS is being used by processing analysts of the Image Data Processing Team to produce the Magellan image data products. Various aspects of the image processing procedure are discussed.

  15. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  16. Revisiting Training and Verification Process Implementation for Risk Reduction on New Missions at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Fragoso, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 we proposed an effort to develop a core program of standardized training and verification practices and standards against which the implementation of these practices could be measured. The purpose was to provide another means of risk reduction for deep space missions to preclude the likelihood of a repeat of the tragedies of the 1998 Mars missions. We identified six areas where the application of standards and standardization would benefit the overall readiness process for flight projects at JPL. These are Individual Training, Team Training, Interface and Procedure Development, Personnel Certification, Interface and procedure Verification, and Operations Readiness Testing. In this paper we will discuss the progress that has been made in the tasks of developing the proposed infrastructure in each of these areas. Specifically we will address the Position Training and Certification Standards that are now available for each operational position found on our Flight Operations Teams (FOT). We will also discuss the MGSS Baseline Flight Operations Team Training Plan which can be tailored for each new flight project at JPL. As these tasks have been progressing, the climate and emphasis for Training and for V and V at JPL has changed, and we have learned about the expansion, growth, and limitations in the roles of traditional positions at JPL such as the Project's Training Engineer, V and V Engineer, and Operations Engineer. The need to keep a tight rein on budgets has led to a merging and/or reduction in these positions which pose challenges to individual capacities and capabilities. We examine the evolution of these processes and the roles involved while taking a look at the impact or potential impact of our proposed training related infrastructure tasks. As we conclude our examination of the changes taking place for new flight projects, we see that the importance of proceeding with our proposed tasks and adapting them to the changing climate remains an important

  17. NISAR ISRO science data processing and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Krishna Murari; Mehra, Raghav; Ryali, Usha Sundari

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a Dual Frequency (L & S band) mission which will be operating in SweepSAR mode. As compared to traditional SAR imaging modes in which Swath and resolution are at trade-off, SweepSAR imaging concept can acquire data over large swath (240 Km) without compromising azimuth resolution (6m approximately). NISAR L-band & S-band sensors will be developed by JPL-NASA and ISRO respectively. NISAR science data will be downloaded at both NASA and ISRO ground stations. SAC-ISRO will develop the SAR processor for both L & S band data to generate products in compliance with science requirements. Moreover, JPL will develop L-band SAR processor and all data products will be available to users. Distributed data processing architecture will be used for handling large volume of data resulting from moderate resolution and larger swath in SweepSAR mode. Data products will be available in multiple processing levels like raw signal products, signal processed single-look and multi-look products, ground range products and Geo-Referenced products in HDF5 & GeoTiff formats. Derived Geo-Referenced Polarimetric and Interferometric data products will also be available for dissemination to the users. A rigorous calibration exercise will be performed by acquiring data over reference targets like Amazon rain-forest & corner reflectors sites for the generation of calibrated data products. Furthermore, various science data products (for science applications) will also be derived from basic data products for operational dissemination.

  18. Guidelines for the air-sea interaction special study: An element of the NASA climate research program, JPL/SIO workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A program in the area of air sea interactions is introduced. A space capability is discussed for global observations of climate parameters which will contribute to the understanding of the processes which influence climate and its predictability. The following recommendations are some of the suggestions made for air sea interaction studies: (1) a major effort needs to be devoted to the preparation of space based climatic data sets; (2) NASA should create a group or center for climatic data analysis due to the substantial long term effort that is needed in research and development; (3) funding for the analyses of existing data sets should be augmented and continued beyond the termination of present programs; (4) NASA should fund studies in universities, research institutions and governments' centers; and (5) the planning for an air sea interaction mission should be an early task.

  19. Bootstrapping Process Improvement Metrics: CMMI Level 4 Process Improvement Metrics in a Level 3 World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Lewicki, Scott; Morgan, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The measurement techniques for organizations which have achieved the Software Engineering Institutes CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 are well documented. On the other hand, how to effectively measure when an organization is Maturity Level 3 is less well understood, especially when there is no consistency in tool use and there is extensive tailoring of the organizational software processes. Most organizations fail in their attempts to generate, collect, and analyze standard process improvement metrics under these conditions. But at JPL, NASA's prime center for deep space robotic exploration, we have a long history of proving there is always a solution: It just may not be what you expected. In this paper we describe the wide variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques we have been implementing over the last few years, including the various approaches used to communicate the results to both software technical managers and senior managers.

  20. SMAP Radar Processing and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is part of the NASA space-based Earth observation program, and consists of an L-band radar and radiometer scheduled for launch into sun synchronous orbit in late 2014. A joint effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the SMAP mission draws heavily on the design and risk reduction heritage of the Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission [1], [2]. The SMAP science and applications objectives are to: 1) understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, 2) estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface, 3) quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes, 4) enhance weather and climate forecast skill, and 5) develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability. To meet these science objectives, SMAP ground processing will combine the attributes of the radar and radiometer observations (in terms of their spatial resolution and sensitivity to soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation) to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB (1 sigma) at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This paper will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Bonding Strength Enhancement Using Metal "Wicking" Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Kowalczyk, Robert S.; Liao, Anna; Bronikowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes grown from a surface typically have poor bonding strength at the interface. A process has been developed for adding a metal coat to the surface of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) through a wicking process, which could lead to an enhanced bonding strength at the interface. This process involves merging CNTs with indium as a bump-bonding enhancement. Classical capillary theory would not normally allow materials that do not wet carbon or graphite to be drawn into the spacings by capillary action because the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees. However, capillary action can be induced through JPL's ability to fabricate oriented CNT bundles to desired spacings, and through the use of deposition techniques and temperature to control the size and mobility of the liquid metal streams and associated reservoirs. A reflow and plasma cleaning process has also been developed and demonstrated to remove indium oxide, and to obtain smooth coatings on the CNT bundles.

  2. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Cooper, Gregory T.; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1988-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are discussed. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark IIIfp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules; (1) user interface, (2) host-resident executive, (3) hypercube-resident executive, and (4) application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented.

  3. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  4. Processes of Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 July 2003

    This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Data processing pipeline with transaction-oriented data sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Thomas; Preheim, Larry

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes three contributions to the area of modern science data processing systems. First, the paper describes the science data processing pipeline, developed at the Multi-mission Image Processing Lab of JPL, for transforming raw space data into high quality image data and automating the distribution of data using a high-performance file transaction service. File Exchange Interface is the file transaction service developed MIPL. Second, it presents the FEI component architecture in the are of file transaction management, security,a nd file integrity verfication. Finally, the paper presents the federated model for the FEI service to demonstrate how to create a pool of file trasaction services to support load balancing and service fallover, and simplify service management.

  6. Selenide technology evaluation program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapfer, G.; Garvey, L.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for experimental and analytical investigations of the overall performance of a selenide radioisotope thermoelectric generator intended to provide the electrical power for interplanetary spaceprobes such as the Galileo mission to Jupiter. The discussion focuses on technology areas of concern, electrical properties of the selenide thermoelectric materials used, and thermal conductivity of these materials for superior performance. It is shown that the selenide thermoelectric materials offer the advantage of high conversion efficiency. The long-life requirement on the power system for the Galileo mission necessitates proper design, known fabrication techniques, and reproducible assembly techniques in order to ensure stability of the thermoelectric properties. However, the thermophysical properties - sublimation and creep - of the p-material remains an area of considerable concern.

  7. DOE/JPL advanced thermionic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in different tasks of the advanced thermionic technology program is described. The tasks include surface and plasma investigations (surface characterization, spectroscopic plasma experiments, and converter theory); low temperature converter development (tungsten emitter, tungsten oxide collector and tungsten emitter, nickel collector); component hardware development (hot shell development); flame-fired silicon carbide converters; high temperature and advanced converter studies; postoperational diagnostics; and correlation of design interfaces.

  8. JPL Large Advanced Antenna Station Array Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with study requirements, two antennas are described: a 30 meter standard antenna and a 34 meter modified antenna, along with a candidate array configuration for each. Modified antenna trade analyses are summarized, risks analyzed, costs presented, and a final antenna array configuration recommendation made.

  9. The JPL isolated application experiment series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The technical, operational, and economic readiness of parabolic dish power systems for a variety of applications in the power range below 10 MWe are discussed. Power systems are developed and tested to the point where commercialization efforts lead to successful market penetration. A key element in this strategy is the use of experiments to test hardware and assess operational readiness. The Isolated Application Experiments are described and their objectives discussed.

  10. Space Telerobotics and Rover Research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Hayati, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our program is to develop, integrate and demonstrate the science and technology of remote telerobotics leading to increases in operational capability, safety, cost effectiveness and probability of success of NASA missions. To that end, the program fosters the development of innovative system concepts for on-orbit servicing and planetary surface missions which use telerobotic systems as an important central component. These concepts are carried forward into develoments which are used to evaluate and demonstrate technology in realistic flight and ground experiments.

  11. The JAU-JPL anthropomorphic telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1989-01-01

    Work in progress on the new anthropomorphic telerobot is described. The initial robot configuration consists of a seven DOF arm and a sixteen DOF hand, having three fingers and a thumb. The robot has active compliance, enabling subsequent dual arm manipulations. To control the rather complex configuration of this robot, an exoskeleton master arm harness and a glove controller were built. The controller will be used for teleoperational tasks and as a research tool to efficiently teach the computer controller advanced manipulation techniques.

  12. Titan In Situ Exploration Concepts at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Jones, Jack; Reh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews concepts for exploring Titan via balloon vehicles. The presentation includes information about the baseline options, the deployment scenario, and the balloon technology development.

  13. The MPD thruster program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodfellow, Keith; Pivirotto, Tom; Polk, Jay

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: engine lifetime assessment; lithium magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster development; and radiation-cooled, applied-field engine testing.

  14. Distributed science operations for JPL planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Richard D.; Kahn, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in spacecraft, flight instruments, and ground systems provide an impetus and an opportunity for scientific investigation teams to take direct control of their instruments' operations and data collection while at the same time, providing a cost effective and flexible approach in support of increasingly complex science missions. Operations of science instruments have generally been integrated into planetary flight and ground systems at a very detailed level. That approach has been successful, but the cost of incorporating instrument expertise into the central mission operations system has been high. This paper discusses an approach to simplify planetary science operations by distributing instrument computing and data management tasks from the central mission operations system to each investigator's home center of observational expertise. Some early results of this operations concept will be presented based on the Mars Observer (MO) Project experience and Cassini Project plans.

  15. The JPL roadmap for Deep Space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Abraham, Douglas S.; Berry, David; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Cesarone, Robert J.; Wood, Lincoln

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the tentative set of deep space missions that will be supported by NASA's Deep Space Mission System in the next twenty-five years, and extracts the driving set of navigation capabilities that these missions will require. There will be many challenges including the support of new mission navigation approaches such as formation flying and rendezvous in deep space, low-energy and low-thrust orbit transfers, precise landing and ascent vehicles, and autonomous navigation. Innovative strategies and approaches will be needed to develop and field advanced navigation capabilities.

  16. Short-Period Seismometer Development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R.

    1995-01-01

    Determining the structure of the interior of Mars has been a high priority for every Mars exploration strategy developed in the past 20 years, and is one of the primary goals of the InterMarsnet mission. Seismology is by far the most effective and detailed tool for investigating the radial and lateral distribution of density and elastic properties within a planet. Whereas long-period signals contain information from surface waves and normal modes from relatively large events, as well as the tidal response of the planet, the ability to record the high-frequency portion of the seismic spectrum (0.05 > f > 50 Hz) is essential for using the body waves of small to moderate events for probing the interior and analyzing the source characteristics of martian quakes.

  17. JPL Robotics Technology Applicable to Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, Suraphol Gabriel; Kyte, L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes several technologies that are developed for robotics that are applicable for agriculture. The technologies discussed are detection of humans to allow safe operations of autonomous vehicles, and vision guided robotic techniques for shoot selection, separation and transfer to growth media,

  18. The JPL Library Information Retrieval System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Josephine

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. (Author)

  19. The thermoelectric generator test program at JPL.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapfer, G.; Rouklove, P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the test results and analysis performed on data obtained from eight thermoelectric generators exhibiting a total combined operating time of about 21 years. Three (3) SNAP-19 type generators are discussed. Generator SN-20, the engineering model of the units presently operating on the Nimbus S/C, has been in operation for over 4 years and has shown drastic degradation after losing the internal cover gas. Generator SN-21, with more than four years of operating time, is operated in an air environment. The performance of this generator appears predictable and stable. For the last 2 years of operation generator degradation has been negligible. Generator SN-31, which utilizes the TAGS material for the P thermoelectric leg, is similar in design to the units to be used on the Pioneer S/C and has operated for over two years in an all-argon atmosphere.

  20. The JPL trapped mercury ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide frequency standards for the Deep Space Network (DSN) which are more stable than present-day hydrogen masers, a research task was established under the Advanced Systems Program of the TDA to develop a Hg-199(+) trapped ion frequency standard. The first closed-loop operation of this kind is described. Mercury-199 ions are confined in an RF trap and are state-selected through the use of optical pumping with 194 nm UV light from a Hg-202 discharge lamp. Absorption of microwave radiation at the hyperfine frequency (40.5 GHz) is signaled by atomic fluorescence of the UV light. The frequency of a 40.5 GHz oscillator is locked to a 1.6 Hz wide atomic absorption line of the trapped ions. The measured Allan variance of this locked oscillator is currently gamma sub y (pi) = 4.4 x 10 to the minus 12th/square root of pi for 20 is less than pi is less than 320 seconds, which is better stability than the best commercial cesium standards by almost a factor of 2. This initial result was achieved without magnetic shielding and without regulation of ion number.

  1. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  2. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  3. A software architecture for automating operations processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has developed a software architecture based on an integrated toolkit approach for simplifying and automating mission operations tasks. The toolkit approach is based on building adaptable, reusable graphical tools that are integrated through a combination of libraries, scripts, and system-level user interface shells. The graphical interface shells are designed to integrate and visually guide a user through the complex steps in an operations process. They provide a user with an integrated system-level picture of an overall process, defining the required inputs and possible output through interactive on-screen graphics. The OEL has developed the software for building these process-oriented graphical user interface (GUI) shells. The OEL Shell development system (OEL Shell) is an extension of JPL's Widget Creation Library (WCL). The OEL Shell system can be used to easily build user interfaces for running complex processes, applications with extensive command-line interfaces, and tool-integration tasks. The interface shells display a logical process flow using arrows and box graphics. They also allow a user to select which output products are desired and which input sources are needed, eliminating the need to know which program and its associated command-line parameters must be executed in each case. The shells have also proved valuable for use as operations training tools because of the OEL Shell hypertext help environment. The OEL toolkit approach is guided by several principles, including the use of ASCII text file interfaces with a multimission format, Perl scripts for mission-specific adaptation code, and programs that include a simple command-line interface for batch mode processing. Projects can adapt the interface shells by simple changes to the resources configuration file. This approach has allowed the development of sophisticated, automated software systems that are easy, cheap, and fast to build. This paper will

  4. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  5. Models of Plasma Processes in Electrostatic Ion Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Ira

    2004-11-01

    Under the Project Prometheus Program, NASA is studying the feasibility of large, interplanetary spacecraft using nuclear reactors to provide electricity for multi-kilowatt ion thrusters. For these missions, such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), ion thrusters will be required to operate for as long as 15 years, several times the longest demonstrated ion thruster life. In order to predict thruster life, a team of researchers at JPL is developing a suite of computer models that describe in two and three dimensions the dominant plasma processes that take place in electrostatic ion xenon thrusters. These models are being developed in close coordination with researchers who measure the plasma properties inside the thruster components. This paper reviews the physics contained in models of plasma generation and current flow in the hollow cathode insert region, discharge chamber ionization processes, grid ion optics, and thruster plumes including primary beam ions, ion-neutral scattering, and charge exchange.

  6. Reinventing The Design Process: Teams and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    The future of space mission designing will be dramatically different from the past. Formerly, performance-driven paradigms emphasized data return with cost and schedule being secondary issues. Now and in the future, costs are capped and schedules fixed-these two variables must be treated as independent in the design process. Accordingly, JPL has redesigned its design process. At the conceptual level, design times have been reduced by properly defining the required design depth, improving the linkages between tools, and managing team dynamics. In implementation-phase design, system requirements will be held in crosscutting models, linked to subsystem design tools through a central database that captures the design and supplies needed configuration management and control. Mission goals will then be captured in timelining software that drives the models, testing their capability to execute the goals. Metrics are used to measure and control both processes and to ensure that design parameters converge through the design process within schedule constraints. This methodology manages margins controlled by acceptable risk levels. Thus, teams can evolve risk tolerance (and cost) as they would any engineering parameter. This new approach allows more design freedom for a longer time, which tends to encourage revolutionary and unexpected improvements in design.

  7. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  8. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 2: Programmer's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for application programmers using the Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). CIPE is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation. In its current configuration CIPE utilizes a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube with a Sun-4 host. CIPE's design is capable of incorporating other concurrent architectures as well. CIPE provides a programming environment to applications' programmers to shield them from various user interfaces, file transactions, and architectural complexities. A programmer may choose to write applications to use only the Sun-4 or to use the Sun-4 with the hypercube. A hypercube program will use the hypercube's data processors and optionally the Weitek floating point accelerators. The CIPE programming environment provides a simple set of subroutines to activate user interface functions, specify data distributions, activate hypercube resident applications, and to communicate parameters to and from the hypercube.

  9. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  10. Digital image processing of bone - Problems and potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey, E. R.; Wronski, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a digital image processing system for bone histomorphometry and fluorescent marker monitoring is discussed. The system in question is capable of making measurements of UV or light microscope features on a video screen with either video or computer-generated images, and comprises a microscope, low-light-level video camera, video digitizer and display terminal, color monitor, and PDP 11/34 computer. Capabilities demonstrated in the analysis of an undecalcified rat tibia include the measurement of perimeter and total bone area, and the generation of microscope images, false color images, digitized images and contoured images for further analysis. Software development will be based on an existing software library, specifically the mini-VICAR system developed at JPL. It is noted that the potentials of the system in terms of speed and reliability far exceed any problems associated with hardware and software development.

  11. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system. Quarterly report No. 2, July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Siesling, R.

    1980-07-01

    The basic objectives of the program are the following: (1) to design, develop, construct and deliver a junction processing system which will be capable of producing solar cell junctions by means of ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing; (2) to include in the system a wafer transport mechanism capable of transferring 4-inch-diameter wafers into and out of the vacuum chamber where the ion implantation and pulsed electron beam annealing processes take place; (3) to integrate, test and demonstrate the system prior to its delivery to JPL along with detailed operating and maintenance manuals; and (4) to estimate component lifetimes and costs, as necessary for the contract, for the performance of comprehensive analyses in accordance with the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS). Under this contract the automated junction formation equipment to be developed involves a new system design incorporating a modified, government-owned, JPL-controlled ion implanter into a Spire-developed pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system. When modified, the ion implanter will deliver a 16 mA beam of /sup 31/P/sup +/ ions with a fluence of 2.5 x 10/sup 15/ ions per square centimeter at an energy of 10 keV. The throughput design goal rate for the junction processor is 10/sup 7/ four-inch-diameter wafers per year.

  12. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  13. New Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize announced for 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    At the 2011 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., AGU announced the creation of a new award: the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. The prize, which is being made possible by a generous contribution from longtime AGU members and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, scientists Bruce Tsurutani and Olga Verkhoglyadova, will recognize an AGU member scientist and will come with a $10,000 award. Tsurutani has served as a researcher with JPL since 1972 and is currently a senior research scientist. He was also the president of AGU's Space Physics and Aeronomy section from 1990 to 1992 and is a recipient of AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal, given “for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences.” Verkhoglyadova served as a professor of space physics in the Department of Astrophysics and Space Physics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, in the Ukraine, prior to coming to the United States. Their leadership and dedication to AGU and to their field are apparent in their passion for this prize.

  14. Parametric Cost Modeling of Space Missions Using the Develop New Projects (DMP) Implementation Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Hihn, Jairus; Roust, Kevin; Warfield, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a parametric cost model that has been built at JPL to estimate costs of future, deep space, robotic science missions. Due to the recent dramatic changes in JPL business practices brought about by an internal reengineering effort known as develop new products (DNP), high-level historic cost data is no longer considered analogous to future missions. Therefore, the historic data is of little value in forecasting costs for projects developed using the DNP process. This has lead to the development of an approach for obtaining expert opinion and also for combining actual data with expert opinion to provide a cost database for future missions. In addition, the DNP cost model has a maximum of objective cost drivers which reduces the likelihood of model input error. Version 2 is now under development which expands the model capabilities, links it more tightly with key design technical parameters, and is grounded in more rigorous statistical techniques. The challenges faced in building this model will be discussed, as well as it's background, development approach, status, validation, and future plans.

  15. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  16. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system. Quarterly progress report No. 3, October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shiesling, R.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of the program are the following: (1) to design, develop, construct and deliver a junction processing system which will be capable of producing solar cell junctions by means of ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing; (2) to include in the system a wafer transport mechanism capable of transferring 4-inch-diameter wafers into and out of the vacuum chamber where the ion implantation and pulsed electron beam annealing processes take place; (3) to integrate, test and demonstrate the system prior to its delivery to JPL along with detailed operating and maintenance manuals; and (4) to estimate component lifetimes and costs, as necessary for the contract, for the performance of comprehensive analyses in accordance with the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS). Under this contract the automated junction formation equipment to be developed involves a new system design incorporating a modified, government-owned, JPL-controlled ion implanter into a spire-developed pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system. When modified, the ion implanter will deliver a 16 mA beam of /sup 31/P/sup +/ ions with a fluence of 2.5 x 10/sup 15/ ions per square centimeter at an energy of 10 keV. The throughput design goal rate for the junction processor is 10/sup 7/ four-inch-diameter wafers per year. Work on the pulsed electron beam subsystem development is described. (WHK)

  17. Implementation of an Antenna Array Signal Processing Breadboard for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Network Large Array will replace/augment 34 and 70 meter antenna assets. The array will mainly be used to support NASA's deep space telemetry, radio science, and navigation requirements. The array project will deploy three complexes in the western U.S., Australia, and European longitude each with 400 12m downlink antennas and a DSN central facility at JPL. THis facility will remotely conduct all real-time monitor and control for the network. Signal processing objectives include: provide a means to evaluate the performance of the Breadboard Array's antenna subsystem; design and build prototype hardware; demonstrate and evaluate proposed signal processing techniques; and gain experience with various technologies that may be used in the Large Array. Results are summarized..

  18. Rupture process of the 2015 Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake from the joint inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, J.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 25 April 2015 earthquake (Mw7.9) struck Nepal near the middle segment of Himalaya. Large earthquakes occurred around this region frequently in history. The rupture process could help us to investigate the characters of the disaster earthquakes. For this event many kinds of observation data could be used to constrain the rupture process. Data of some 1Hz GPS stations of the China Crustal Movement Observation Network were processed by the software GAMIT and we obtained the waveforms of this earthquake. The waveforms of several 5Hz GPS stations near the epicenter were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (http://aria-share.jpl.nasa.gov/events/20150425-Nepal_EQ/GPS/). The ALOS-2 satellite, operated by the Japanese Space Agency, collected a useful of L-band InSAR data and Lindsey et al. determined the coseismic displacement of the line-of-sight (http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal/). We resampled the coseismic displacement of Lindsey et al. to constrain the rupture process. In addition teleseismic broadband body waves, long period surface waves, waveforms of one regional broadband station and one local strong motion station were combined in the joint inversion. The epicenter of United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the mechanism of Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) were applied. The Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured a thrust fault orienting 293o and dipping 7o to the NE, locating near the middle segment of Himalaya. This earthquake was a unilateral event and the rupture of asperity mainly propagates to the southeast, spanning a depth range from 8 km to 18 km. The inverted slip distribution is dominated by a rectangle shape slip patch with the length of ~120km. The weighted rupture velocity is about 2.1 km/s and the total seismic moment is about 8.6x1020 Nm. The imaged fault slip correlates well with the aftershock distribution.

  19. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  20. Next Generation Astronomical Data Processing using Big Data Technologies from the Apache Software Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, Chris

    2014-04-01

    In this era of exascale instruments for astronomy we must naturally develop next generation capabilities for the unprecedented data volume and velocity that will arrive due to the veracity of these ground-based sensor and observatories. Integrating scientific algorithms stewarded by scientific groups unobtrusively and rapidly; intelligently selecting data movement technologies; making use of cloud computing for storage and processing; and automatically extracting text and metadata and science from any type of file are all needed capabilities in this exciting time. Our group at NASA JPL has promoted the use of open source data management technologies available from the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) in pursuit of constructing next generation data management and processing systems for astronomical instruments including the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) in Socorro, NM and the Atacama Large Milimetre/Sub Milimetre Array (ALMA); as well as for the KAT-7 project led by SKA South Africa as a precursor to the full MeerKAT telescope. In addition we are funded currently by the National Science Foundation in the US to work with MIT Haystack Observatory and the University of Cambridge in the UK to construct a Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Devices (RAPID) that will undoubtedly draw from the rich technology advances underway. NASA JPL is investing in a strategic initiative for Big Data that is pulling in these capabilities and technologies for astronomical instruments and also for Earth science remote sensing. In this talk I will describe the above collaborative efforts underway and point to solutions in open source from the Apache Software Foundation that can be deployed and used today and that are already bringing our teams and projects benefits. I will describe how others can take advantage of our experience and point towards future application and contribution of these tools.

  1. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  2. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

  3. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  4. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  5. Results of modern processing of the photographic observations of Uranus and Neptune from Archives of UkrVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Yuldoshev, Q. K.

    2017-02-01

    The bulk of planet observations was obtained in RI MAO and MAO NASU from 1961 to 1994. Plates from AI UAS were also used. Each plate of NAO was scanned 6 times, in other observatories - only once. All images are processed, most of them are identified and the equatorial coordinates of all objects were obtained. Positional accuracy of the reference stars has value of 0.04"-0.30". Standard deviation of the planets' position is in the range 0.10-0.12 pixels, that corresponds, depending on the scale, from 0".08 to 0".26. The comparison of the new topocentric positions of the planets with JPL/HORIZONS ephemeris was made. Calculation of (O-C) values and their standard deviation is obtained.

  6. Automating the training development process for mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carol J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional methods of developing training do not effectively support the changing needs of operational users in a multimission environment. The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) provides advantages over conventional methods in quality, quantity, turnaround, database maintenance, and focus on individualized instruction. The Operations System Training Group at the JPL performed a six-month study to assess the potential of ATDS to automate curriculum development and to generate and maintain course materials. To begin the study, the group acquired readily available hardware and participated in a two-week training session to introduce the process. ATDS is a building activity that combines training's traditional information-gathering with a hierarchical method for interleaving the elements. The program can be described fairly simply. A comprehensive list of candidate tasks determines the content of the database; from that database, selected critical tasks dictate which competencies of skill and knowledge to include in course material for the target audience. The training developer adds pertinent planning information about each task to the database, then ATDS generates a tailored set of instructional material, based on the specific set of selection criteria. Course material consistently leads students to a prescribed level of competency.

  7. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  8. Nuclear reactor system study for NASA/JPL. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.G.; Lundberg, L.B.; Keddy, E.S.; Koenig, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    Reactor shielding and safety studies and heat pipe development work undertaken for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the period March 1, 1981 to October 30, 1981 are described. Monte Carlo calculations of gamma and neutron shield configurations show that substantial weight penalties are incurred if exposures at 25 m to neutrons and gammas must be limited to 10/sup 12/ nvt and 10/sup 6/ rad, instead of the 10/sup 13/ nvt and 10/sup 7/ rad values used earlier. For a 1.6 MW/sub t/ reactor, the required shield weight increases from 400 to 815 kg. Water immersion criticality calculations have been extended to study the effect of water in fuel void spaces as well as in the core heat pipes. These show that the insertion into the core of eight blades of B/sub 4/C with a mass totaling 2.5 kg will guarantee subcriticality. The design, fabrication procedure, and testing of a 4-m-long molybdenum/lithium heat pipe are described. It appears that an excess of oxygen in the wick prevented the attainment of expected performance capability.

  9. Users Guide to the JPL Doppler Gravity Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, P. M.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Local gravity accelerations and gravimetry have been determined directly from spacecraft Doppler tracking data near the Moon and various planets by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Researchers in many fields have an interest in planet-wide global gravimetric mapping and its applications. Many of them use their own computers in support of their studies and would benefit from being able to directly manipulate these gravity data for inclusion in their own modeling computations. Pubication of some 150 Apollo 15 subsatellite low-altitude, high-resolution, single-orbit data sets is covered. The doppler residuals with a determination of the derivative function providing line-of-sight-gravity are both listed and plotted (on microfilm), and can be ordered in computer readable forms (tape and floppy disk). The form and format of this database as well as the methods of data reduction are explained and referenced. A skeleton computer program is provided which can be modified to support re-reductions and re-formatted presentations suitable to a wide variety of research needs undertaken on mainframe or PC class microcomputers.

  10. Temperature Dependent Characteristics of the JPL Silcon MEMS Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, K.; Evans, C.; Gutierrez, R.; Tang, T.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in aeronautics and space technology have created a need for miniaturized navigation instruments such as gyroscopes, a need wich is currently beig addressed by a number of micromachined designs.

  11. NASA/JPL Plans for Fundamental Physics Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaelsson, Ulf E.; Lee, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, about 100 researchers met twice to develop plans for the future in this research area. The results of these meetings have been collected in a package titled "A Roadmap for Fundamental Physics in Space". A summary of the Roadmap will be presented along with an overview of the current program. Research is being performed in Low Temperature and Condensed Matter Physics, Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics, and Gravitational and Relativistic Physics. There are currently over 50 investigators in the program of which 8 are being evaluated as potential flight experiments. The number of investigators is expected to grow further during the next selection cycle, planned to start toward the end of this year. In the near future, our investigators will be able to take advantage of long duration experimentation in Space using a suite of different carriers under development.

  12. Nuclear reactor system study for NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. G.; Lundberg, L. B.; Keddy, E. S.; Koenig, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor shielding, safety studies, and heat pipe development work are described. Monte Carlo calculations of gamma and neutron shield configurations show that substantial weight penalties are incurred if exposure at 25 m to neutrons and gammas must be limited to 10 to the 12th power nvt and 10 to the 6th power rad, instead of the 10 to the 13th power nvt and 10 to the 7th power rad values used earlier. For a 1.6 MW sub t reactor, the required shield weight increases from 400 to 815 kg. Water immersion critically calculations were extended to study the effect of water in fuel void spaces as well as in the core heat pipes. These show that the insertion into the core of eight blades of B4C with a mass totaling 2.5 kg will guarantee subcriticality. The design, fabrication procedure, and testing of a 4m long molybdenum/lithium heat pipe are described. It appears that an excess of oxygen in the wick prevented the attainment of expected performance capability.

  13. Characterization of point focusing test bed concentrators at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The characterization data were measured using both a flux mapper and a cold water calorimeter. The flux mapper uses a Kendall Radiometer as the sensing device. It is mounted on an x, y, z motor-driven positioning mechanism that allows the sensor to take an x-y flux raster at several Z planes in the vicinity of the concentrators nominal focal plane. Various concepts were tried to protect the concentrator structure from being damaged by the Sun's energy during sun acquisition and deacquisition. A description of both the passive and active protective systems is presented.

  14. Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact on Jupiter Briefing From JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    A panel discussion held on July 17, 1994, about the impact of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) comet with Jupiter and its observable effects on Jupiter's atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetosphere, is presented. The panelists were Dr. Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker (from Lowell Observatory and US Geological Survey), the Shoemaker-Levy comet co-discoverers; David Levy, also the co-discoverer of the Shoemaker-Levy comet; and Dr. Heidi Hammel (from Massachusetts Institute of Technology). On this second day of impact, the discussion was focused on the impact of the fragments A, B, C, and D. Dr. Hammel, who is also a Principal Investigator for the Hubble Imaging Team at MIT, presents preliminary results of the study of images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A summary of the observations from different observatories was also given. Included in these observations were reports from the W.M. Keck Observatory, and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea Observatory.

  15. Time Scales in the JPL and CfA Ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decades, the IAU has repeatedly attempted to correct its definition of the basic fundamental argument used in the emphemerides. Finally, they have defined a time system which is physically possible, according to the accepted standard theory of gravitation.

  16. Design optimization of the JPL Phase B testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Salama, M.; Wette, M.; Chu, Cheng-Chih

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly complex spacecraft will benefit from integrated design and optimization of structural, optical, and control subsystems. Integrated design optimization will allow designers to make tradeoffs in objectives and constraints across these subsystems. The location, number, and types of passive and active devices distributed along the structure can have a dramatic impact on overall system performance. In addition, the manner in which structural mass is distributed can also serve as an effective mechanism for attenuating disturbance transmission between source and sensitive system components. This paper presents recent experience using optimization tools that have been developed for addressing some of these issues on a challenging testbed design problem. This particular testbed is one of a series of testbeds at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the sponsorship of the NASA Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Program to demonstrate nanometer level optical pathlength control on a flexible truss structure that emulates a spaceborne interferometer.

  17. System identification and control of the JPL active structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J. L.; Lurie, B. J.; O'Brien, J. F.; Chu, C.-C.; Smith, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in structural quieting technology as applied to active truss structures intended for high precision space based optics applications. Collocated active damping control loops are designed in order to impedance match piezoelectric active members to the structure. Noncollocated control loops are also studied in relation to controlling lightly damped structures.

  18. Status of JPL solar powered experiments for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Goldsmith, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an ongoing program set up to evaluate solar terrestrial photovoltaic power sources. The results of this program, which now includes a solar array encapsulant and materials test and a solar-powered buoy study, are updated, and the results of efforts to study the dynamic interaction of a solar photovoltaic array and a water electrolysis system coupled to produce hydrogen are reported for the first time.

  19. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  20. JPL tests of a LaJet concentrator facet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Argoud, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A LaJet Energy Company (LEC) concentrator facet, 60 in. in diameter, was tested for imaging quality. The following two methods were used: (1) autofocus tests with a point source of light at the facet's radius of curvature; and (2) tests with the Sun close to the horizon as a distant source. The tests of the LaJet facet indicate that all of the solar image reflected by an LEC 460 solar concentrator made of like facets should fall within a 9-in. aperture if the outer facets are carefully adjusted. Such a concentrator would have acceptable performance, but complete evaluation must be made with an assembled concentrator.

  1. JPL pulsar timing observations. IV - Excess phase noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, G. S.; Krause-Polstorff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Previously published tables of geocentric arrival times for 24 pulsars covering a 12 year span are extended here to 14.5 years. The list of pulsars is extended by nine, most of which were observed for about 4 years. Known positins of these new objects are confirmed, and limits on the proper motions are obtained. Large phase excursions in PSR 0525 + 21 are found. The orbital parameters of the binary pulsar 0820 + 02 are tentatively confirmed. Short-term timing noise in excess of that expected from receiver considerations alone is established. Variations in the timing residuals for the original 24 pulsars are analyzed for correlations with other observable parameters. Little significant correlation with changes in pulse shape or energy or with the drift correction is found on time scales of 500 pulses or longer.

  2. JPL space robotics: Present accomplishments and future thrusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Hayati, S. A.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    Complex missions require routine and unscheduled inspection for safe operation. The purpose of research in this task is to facilitate structural inspection of the planned Space Station while mitigating the need for extravehicular activity (EVA), and giving the operator supervisory control over detailed and somewhat mundane, but important tasks. The telerobotic system enables inspection relative to a given reference (e.g., the status of the facility at the time of the last inspection) and alerts the operator to potential anomalies for verification and action. There are two primary objectives of this project: (1) To develop technologies that enable well-integrated NASA ground-to-orbit telerobotics operations, and (2) to develop a prototype common architecture workstation which implements these capabilities for other NASA technology projects and planned NASA flight applications. This task develops and supports three telerobot control modes which are applicable to time delay operation: Preview teleoperation, teleprogramming, and supervised autonomy.

  3. JPL in-house fluidized bed reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1985-01-01

    The progress in the in-house program on the silane fluidized-bed system is reported. A seed-particle cleaning procedure was developed to obtain material purity near the level required to produce a semiconductor-grade product. The liner-seal design was consistently proven to withstand heating/cooling cycles in all of the experimental runs.

  4. Shoemaker-Levy Comet Impact on Jupiter Briefing From JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel discussion held on July 17, 1994, about the impact of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) comet with Jupiter and its observable effects on Jupiter's atmosphere, rings, satellites, and magnetosphere, is presented. The panelists were Dr. Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker (from Lowell Observatory and US Geological Survey), the Shoemaker-Levy comet co-discoverers; David Levy, also the co-discoverer of the Shoemaker-Levy comet; and Dr. Heidi Hammel (from Massachusetts Institute of Technology). On this second day of impact, the discussion was focused on the impact of the fragments A, B, C, and D. Dr. Hammel, who is also a Principal Investigator for the Hubble Imaging Team at MIT, presents preliminary results of the study of images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A summary of the observations from different observatories was also given. Included in these observations were reports from the W.M. Keck Observatory, and Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea Observatory.

  5. FQPSK Developments Recommended for CCSDS Standardization by NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, international space agencies became concerned that increasing frequency band congestion, together with attempts by the mobile telephone industry to obtain additional bandwidth, would result in substantially more interference incidents.

  6. NASA/JPL tumbleweed rover for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, J.; Behar, A.; Nicaise, F.; Lorenz, R.

    pagestyle empty begin document Planetary exploration rovers should be tough constructions able to travel swift and long distances on the surface This also means big and heavy something one wants to avoid when launching missions to space The Tumbleweed rover will use a small set of instruments and electronics at the core of its inflatable spherical outer hull Deflated this is a small and light package easily launched to a distant world for instance Mars Well there the hull inflates into a large spherical ball Moving around over rocks and out of craters powered only by the wind the rover makes its scientific measurements The motion can be controlled by the amount of inflation of the hull even stopping by deflation at a certain spot and reaching the ground for sampling The winds on Mars are strong but the atmosphere is also thinner than that of the Earths The force that acts on the Tumbleweed rover from the wind corresponds to the cross-sectional area of the rover the larger the diameter the larger the force The Tumbleweed rover concept is currently under development On Greenland a prototype version was tested and during two days traversed a distance of 130 km over the frozen landscape During the journey the rover sent back data of its position and the environmental conditions through an Iridium satellite network connection In February 2006 another prototype tumbleweed rover will be tested in the desert of Arizona with a new type of inflatable outer hull Wind models will be made with wind anemometers and GPS data which shows the path taken

  7. The Impact of Autonomous Systems Technology on JPL Mission Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: (1) Autonomy for Future Missions- Mars Outposts, Titan Aerobot, and Europa Cryobot / Hydrobot; (2) Emergence of Autonomy- Remote Agent Architecture, Closing Loops Onboard, and New Millennium Flight Experiment; and (3) Software Engineering Challenges- Influence of Remote Agent, Scalable Autonomy, Autonomy Software Validation, Analytic Verification Technology, and Autonomy and Software Software Engineering.

  8. Asynchronous Message Passing in the JPL Flight System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The flight mission simulation software in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flight System Testbed (FST) is a heterogeneous, distributed system that is built on an interprocess communication model of asynchronous message passing rather than remote procedure calls (RPCs). The reasoning behind this design decision is discussed; the mechanism used to implement it (.

  9. Desert soil collection at the JPL soil science laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. B.; Cameron, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Collection contains desert soils and other geologic materials collected from sites in the United States and foreign countries. Soils are useful for test purposes in research related to extraterrestrial life detection, sampling, harsh environmental studies, and determining suitable areas for training astronauts for lunar exploration.

  10. JPL Experience with the Mars Pathfinder, Mission Simulation Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, Dave; Ewell, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A summary of the Mars Pathfinder Battery is given. The battery survived 47 days at 25 deg. C; it survived a 7 month stand at 10 to -5 deg. C; it met and exceeded 40 ampere-hour capacity for EDL; it met the 30 cycle minimum for Mars surface operation; and the project power profile for MArs surface operation does not yield energy balance.

  11. Free-Space Optical Communications Program at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-functional optical instrument is underway for the X2000-Second Delivery Program. The transceiver will perform both free-space optical-communication and science imaging by sharing a common 10-cm aperture telescope.

  12. Planning and reasoning in the JPL telerobot testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Stephen; Mittman, David; Collins, Carol; Omeara, Jacquie; Rokey, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The Telerobot Interactive Planning System is developed to serve as the highest autonomous-control level of the Telerobot Testbed. A recent prototype is described which integrates an operator interface for supervisory control, a task planner supporting disassembly and re-assembly operations, and a spatial planner for collision-free manipulator motion through the workspace. Each of these components is described in detail. Descriptions of the technical problem, approach, and lessons learned are included.

  13. CSPICE - A C Version of JPL's SPICELIB Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E.

    1999-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science, built the SPICE data system to assist scientists with planning and interpretation of scientific observations from space borne-instruments.

  14. TARDIS: An Automation Framework for JPL Mission Design and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roundhill, Ian M.; Kelly, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Mission Design and Navigation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has implemented an automation framework tool to assist in orbit determination and maneuver design analysis. This paper describes the lessons learned from previous automation tools and how they have been implemented in this tool. In addition this tool has revealed challenges in software implementation, testing, and user education. This paper describes some of these challenges and invites others to share their experiences.

  15. JFLIP-JPL FORTRAN language with interval pre-processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germann, D. A.; Knowlton, P. H.; Smith, H. L.

    1969-01-01

    FLIP and TMG are a FORTRAN pre-processor and a Syntax-Directed-Compiler used to describe the language in which the former is written. They provide those who write in FORTRAN 4 with greater language flexibility and power.

  16. The NASA/JPL multifrequency, multipolarisation airborne SAR system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Brown, W. E.; Freeman, A.; Klein, J. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Sato, T.; Miller, T.; Nguyen, Q.; Lou, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radars, operating at L-, C- and P-band, were designed to replace and upgrade a system destroyed in an aircraft accident. Ground and flight tests were conducted, and the radar was flown over a calibration site in a sequence of experiments designed to calibrate the system. The radar also took part in science campaigns.

  17. The JPL Serpentine Robot: A 12 DOF System for Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paljug, E.; Ohm, T.; Hayati, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Serpentine Robot is a prototype hyper-redundant (snake-like) manipulator system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is designed to navigate and perform tasks in obstructed and constrained environments in which conventional 6 DOF manipulators cannot function. Described are the robot mechanical design, a joint assembly low level inverse kinematic algorithm, control development, and applications.

  18. Experiments with Single Trapped Ytterbium Ions at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of experiments performed with single trapped Ytterbium ions. The topics include: 1) Ytterbium ion level scheme; 2) Paul-Straubel rf trap and single ion image; 3) D5/2 state lifetime measurement; 4) D3/2 state lifetime measurement; 5) Trapped individual ions in an optical cavity; 6) Initial exploratory system: experimental goals; and 7) Future systems: trap-cavity integration II.

  19. Processible Polyazomethines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Processibility enhanced by incorporating trifluoromethylbenzene units into molecules. Results of two unexpected properties: high solubility in common organic solvents and lack of crystallinity. Properties coupled with ability of this class of polymers to undergo exchange reactions at elevated temperatures allow these materials to moderate their molecular weights during processing, which affects resulting mechanical properties after processing. Fluorinated polyazomethines form amorphous films that have excellent mechanical properties. Used in moisture-free environments as electronic semiconducting films and adhesives, and as matrix resins for advanced structural composites.

  20. Manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  1. Grants Process

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  2. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  3. Multifractal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Processes 1 Introduction and Summary Fractal processes have been instrumental in a variety of fields ranging from the theory of fully developed...formalism in a stochastic setting . Thereby, the importance of higher order statistics will become evident. It might be especially appealing to the...rates occur in multifractal ‘trading time’ [68, 69]. With the theory developed in this paper, it be- comes an easy task to explore B1/2(M(t)) from the

  4. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  5. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  6. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  7. Organosolv Processes.

    PubMed

    Brosse, Nicolas; Hussin, Mohd Hazwan; Rahim, Afidah Abdul

    2017-03-10

    Biofuels and chemicals can be produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks using biotechnological processes. The effective utilization of carbohydrates from biomass for the production of biofuels necessitates the development of pretreatment technologies to enhance their enzymatic digestibility. Among all the various pretreatment methods currently studied and developed, the organosolv processes, in which organic solvents or aqueous organic solvent mixtures are used as the pretreatment medium, appear to be specially promising in the context of the biorefinery because (1) they produce cellulosic pulp with a good enzymatic digestibility for monomeric glucose production and (2) they allow a clean fractionation of the major biomass components (cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses) into three process streams. In this chapter we give an updated overview of organosolv methods using conventional solvents and ionic liquids which have recently gained considerable interest as solvents for lignocellulosic biomass and pretreatment.

  8. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  9. FLUORINATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, T.S.

    1957-10-29

    A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

  10. Certification Processes for Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical Aerospace Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    This document is a quick reference guide with an overview of the processes required to certify safety-critical and mission-critical flight software at selected NASA centers and the FAA. Researchers and software developers can use this guide to jumpstart their understanding of how to get new or enhanced software onboard an aircraft or spacecraft. The introduction contains aerospace industry definitions of safety and safety-critical software, as well as, the current rationale for certification of safety-critical software. The Standards for Safety-Critical Aerospace Software section lists and describes current standards including NASA standards and RTCA DO-178B. The Mission-Critical versus Safety-Critical software section explains the difference between two important classes of software: safety-critical software involving the potential for loss of life due to software failure and mission-critical software involving the potential for aborting a mission due to software failure. The DO-178B Safety-critical Certification Requirements section describes special processes and methods required to obtain a safety-critical certification for aerospace software flying on vehicles under auspices of the FAA. The final two sections give an overview of the certification process used at Dryden Flight Research Center and the approval process at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL).

  11. Obtaining Positions of Asteroids from Digitized Processing of Photographic Observations in Baldone Observatory (Code 069)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglitis, I.; Eglite, M.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Andruk, V. M.

    Digital processing of photographic plates of star fields allows to determine with high accuracy the coordinates and stellar magnitudes for all registered objects on these plates. The processing results can be used for a broad search for images of small bodies of the Solar system and determination of their coordinates. From the observations of earlier epoch, we can extract information about the locations of these bodies well before discovering them. Modern approach to processing early photographic observations with new technologies can be an effective instrument for rediscovery of asteroids and correction their orbits. We analyzed the results of digital processing of observations of clusters in UBVR bands which were made on the 1.2-m Schmidt telescope of the Observatory of Institute of Astronomy of University of Latvia in Baldone (code 069). As a result 87 images of minor planets from 9.8 to 17.1 stellar magnitude and 2 images of comets were identified on 152 plates for 1967-1996. The catalogue of positions and stellar magnitudes of the searching asteroids was compiled. Among them 12 observations of asteroids are the earliest of the world's known observations of these asteroids. All positions of asteroids were compared with the ephemeris JPL DE431. Analysis was carried out.

  12. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  13. Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Colm T.

    2012-12-01

    Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

  14. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  15. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Images are prepared from data acquired by the multispectral scanner aboard Landsat, which views Earth in four ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, two visible bands and two infrared. Scanner picks up radiation from ground objects and converts the radiation signatures to digital signals, which are relayed to Earth and recorded on tape. Each tape contains "pixels" or picture elements covering a ground area; computerized equipment processes the tapes and plots each pixel, line be line to produce the basic image. Image can be further processed to correct sensor errors, to heighten contrast for feature emphasis or to enhance the end product in other ways. Key factor in conversion of digital data to visual form is precision of processing equipment. Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepared a digital mosaic that was plotted and enhanced by Optronics International, Inc. by use of the company's C-4300 Colorwrite, a high precision, high speed system which manipulates and analyzes digital data and presents it in visual form on film. Optronics manufactures a complete family of image enhancement processing systems to meet all users' needs. Enhanced imagery is useful to geologists, hydrologists, land use planners, agricultural specialists geographers and others.

  16. On Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxler, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Claims that the product approach to business writing prescribes a way of operating similar to imitation and creates an illusion of a static world when, in reality, the business environment is constantly in flux. Argues that the process approach to writing instruction should be used in business communication classes. (JD)

  17. Reliability and paste process optimization of eutectic and lead-free for mixed packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramkumar, S. M.; Ganeshan, V.; Thenalur, K.; Ghaffarian, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment that utilized the JPL's area array consortium test vehicle design, containing a myriad of mixed technology components with an OSP finish. The details of the reliability study are presented in this paper.

  18. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  19. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  20. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  1. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z.; Silverman, Jacob; Friedman, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  2. Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the

  3. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  4. Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    ORGANIZATION Univ of Minnesota (f*fto U. S. Army Research Office 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Wiy Stat, and ZIP Code...Minneapolis, MN 55455 P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Sa. NAME Of FUNDING ISPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PROJECT ITASK jWORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 EMNTO.I NO NO CESOIO 11. TITLE (Incudt Security Classifiratio") Signal Processing of, he auth

  5. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  6. RF processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    The Loran-C radio frequency processing is discussed. A diagram which generally illustrates the automatic gain control is presented. The augmented differentiator for pulse envelopes adapts conventional communications receiver with wideband AM capability to detect pulse signals such as Loran-C. The circuit enhances reception for surveillance and observation of HF over-the-horizon radar signals or others where time difference estimates between pulse returns are of interest. The high resolution VLF spectrum which receives weak VLF signals by using an HP 3581A wave analyzer detecting signals with a very narrow bandwidth of only 3 Hz is also presented.

  7. Nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, J C

    1971-08-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena have been studied for over half a century, particularly as a means to understanding the mechanism of energy transfer. Application of the insights and techniques of molecular physics to chemistry has resulted in a view of chemistry as constituting an aspect of the study of strong collisions, and chemical reaction as a special type of energy transfer. Increasing use has been made in experimental work of nonequilibrium environments for the study of chemical processes. The nature and purpose of such experiments are reviewed here, very briefly, and an attempt is made to point to areas that appear ripe for development over the coming decade.

  8. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

  9. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  10. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  11. Retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1984-06-19

    Fines in the overhead vapors from an oil shale retort process in which fresh shale together with hot recycle combusted shale from a combustor are fed to a retort and at least partly fluidized by a countercurrent stripping gas stream are handled by removing a portion of the fines in a vapor-solid separation optionally subjecting the portion of fines to additional retorting in a fines retort condensing the partially dedusted gas separating the condensate into a substantially finesfree liquid oil and a wet solids and recycling at least a portion of the wet solids to the retort, fines retort, and/or combustor whereby the liquid on the wet solids is recovered and/or burned and the wet solids are dried.

  12. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  13. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  14. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  15. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  16. WELDING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  17. Crystallization process

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  18. Polymerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, R.J.

    1987-03-03

    An improved process is described for preparing a hydrocarbon fluid friction reducing composition comprising mixing two or more alpha-monoolefins having 2 to about 30 carbon atoms in a diluent or an organic solvent and copolymerizing the alpha-monoolefins in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst is comprised of a reducible or reduced titanium halide and an organo metal catalyst activator consisting of, per each 100 total moles of activator, about 1 to 20 moles of at least one trialkylaluminium compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to 10 carbon atoms and about 99 to 80 moles of at least one dialkylaluminium halide compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. The mole ratio of activator to catalyst in the reaction mixture is in the range of about 0.001:1 to 50:1.

  19. Dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kenneth W

    2003-07-01

    The United States dairy processing sector is dynamic and adaptive to new changes in the market place. Changes in consumer preferences and manufacturing technologies are resulting in new challenges to the processing sector. Consumers want a wider array of quality dairy products. Fluid processors are adapting to changing consumer demands for beverage products by introducing new flavors, providing ultrapasteurization, and using creative packaging. In addition, United States food manufacturers are requesting dairy processors to provide new dairy fractions such as MPC for new nutrition products. United States dairy policy is attempting to adapt to these changes. Federal order reform has resulted in new market-oriented signals for dairy farmers to produce what the market wants; namely, quality milk components. US dairy farmers, however, also wants to maintain programs such as the DPSP that have had the unfortunate consequence of spurring demand for protein imports (i.e., MPCs, casein, and caseinates) and also resulted in a disincentive to produce these new innovative protein products here in the United States. Surplus skim milk solids are now moving into US Government warehouses rather than into commercial markets. The future of the United States dairy industry will clearly be toward producing innovative products that the market wants. There is a strong market for dairy products not only here in the United States but also overseas, which will mean learning to compete on a global scale. The challenge is to modernize our United States milk pricing programs to provide dairy farmers and processors proper price signals while providing a minimum level of support to dairy farmers. The benefit of a greater orientation toward the market place will be stronger rates of growth for United States-produced dairy products.

  20. Dynamic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  1. Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  2. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  3. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  4. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  5. Enhancement of Directional Ambiguity Removal Skill in Scatterometer Data Processing Using Planetary Boundary Layer Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Pak, Kyung S.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Hsiao, S. Vincent; Callahan, Philip S.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) models are utilized to enhance directional ambiguity removal skill in scatterometer data processing. The ambiguity in wind direction retrieved from scatterometer measurements is removed with the aid of physical directional information obtained from PBL models. This technique is based on the observation that sea level pressure is scalar and its field is more coherent than the corresponding wind. An initial wind field obtained from the scatterometer measurements is used to derive a pressure field with a PBL model. After filtering small-scale noise in the derived pressure field, a wind field is generated with an inverted PBL model. This derived wind information is then used to remove wind vector ambiguities in the scatterometer data. It is found that the ambiguity removal skill can be improved when the new technique is used properly in conjunction with the median filter being used for scatterometer wind dealiasing at JPL. The new technique is applied to regions of cyclone systems which are important for accurate weather prediction but where the errors of ambiguity removal are often large.

  6. Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

  7. Qualification of Bonding Process of Temperature Sensors to Extreme Temperature Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard; Sunada, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been explored based on the state-of-the-art technology to bond the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) on to potential aerospace material such as a flat aluminum surface and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cable for the flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a metal plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while attaching the sensor with braid to the base material for long duration deep space missions. Appropriate pretreatment has been implemented in this study to enhance the adhesion of the PRTs to the base material. NuSil product has been chosen in this research to attach PRT to the base materials. The resistance (approx.1.1 k(Omega)) of PRTs has been electrically monitored continuously during the qualification thermal cycling testing from -150 C to +120 C and -100 C to -35 C. The test hardware has been thermal cycled three times the mission life per JPL design principles for JUNO project. No PRT failures were observed during and after the PRT thermal cycling qualification test for extreme temperature environments. However, there were some failures associated with staking of the PRT pig tails as a result of thermal cycling qualification test.

  8. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  9. How do Data Processing Choices Affect Multiple Aperture InSAR (MAI) Precision?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor-Ben Dov, N.

    2015-12-01

    MAI data processing methods report different precisions, sometimes for the same data; we investigate these discrepancies here. MAI, a method to obtain phase-based along-track displacements from InSAR data, has been used for measuring volcanic, glacier, and earthquake displacements. However, different applications show vastly different precisions, ranging from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters per interferogram. While some spatial variability in precision is expected due to the InSAR phase noise dependence on terrain, some reports show different precisions for the same data. Here, I address the following questions: What is the true precision of MAI measurements? What are the MAI noise sources, and how do we mitigate them? We use data from 11 Envisat, 2 ERS, and 1 ALOS interferograms to analyze and quantify the MAI noise sources and their dependence on the method's implementation. To do that, we implement various processing steps with the JPL/Caltech InSAR data processor ROI_PAC. We find that there are several (sometimes surprising) nuances in data processing that together can reduce scatter noise by half, and other corrections that can reduce topography-related noise by up to 25 centimeters. We find that even with all the optimized data processing steps, the actual MAI errors (relative accuracy) are higher then the theoretical ones by a factor that depends on filter window size. We present an updated MAI data processor, which is capable of achieving relative accuracy and precision levels of 6 to 2 centimeters, respectively, in low to medium coherence terrains (correlation coefficient of 0.4 to 0.8), and provides error estimates that better reflect the actual relative accuracy of the measurement.

  10. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  11. Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frish, M. B.; Frank, J.; Baker, J. E.; Foutter, R. R.; Beerman, H.; Allen, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), under contract to NASA JPL, during a 2.5-year SBIR Phase 2 Program. The program goals were to design, construct, and program a prototype passive imaging pyrometer capable of measuring, as accurately as possible, and controlling the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space. These goals were achieved and the instrument was delivered to JPL in November 1989. The pyrometer utilizes an optical system which operates at short wavelengths compared to the peak of the black-body spectrum for the temperature range of interest, thus minimizing errors associated with a lack of knowledge about the heated sample's emissivity. To cover temperatures from 900 to 2500 K, six wavelengths are available. The preferred wavelength for measurement of a particular temperature decreases as the temperature increases. Images at all six wavelengths are projected onto a single CCD camera concurrently. The camera and optical system have been calibrated to relate the measured intensity at each pixel to the temperature of the heated object. The output of the camera is digitized by a frame grabber installed in a personal computer and analyzed automatically to yield temperature information. The data can be used in a feedback loop to alter the status of computer-activated switches and thereby control a heating system.

  12. Increases in efficiency and enhancements to the Mars Observer non-stored commanding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Robert N., Jr.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Observer team was, until the untimely loss of the spacecraft on August 21, 1993, performing flight operations with greater efficiency and speed than any previous JPL mission of its size. This level of through-put was made possible by a mission operations system which was composed of skilled personnel using sophisticated sequencing and commanding tools. During cruise flight operations, however, it was realized by the project that this commanding level was not going to be sufficient to support the activities planned for mapping operations. The project had committed to providing the science instrument principle investigators with a much higher level of commanding during mapping. Thus, the project began taking steps to enhance the capabilities of the flight team. One mechanism used by project management was a tool available from total quality management (TQM). This tool is known as a process action team (PAT). The Mars Observer PAT was tasked to increase the capacity of the flight team's nonstored commanding process by fifty percent with no increase in staffing and a minimal increase in risk. The outcome of this effort was, in fact, to increase the capacity by a factor of 2.5 rather than the desired fifty percent and actually reduce risk. The majority of these improvements came from the automation of the existing command process. These results required very few changes to the existing mission operations system. Rather, the PAT was able to take advantage of automation capabilities inherent in the existing system and make changes to the existing flight team procedures.

  13. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  14. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  15. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  16. Desalination processes and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L. J.

    1995-06-01

    Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

  17. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  18. Transferring Technology to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenbarger, J. Ken

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology transfer processes in which JPL has been involved to assist in transferring the technology derived from aerospace research and development to industry. California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organization that runs JPL, is the leading institute in patents for all U.S. universities. There are several mechanisms that are available to JPL to inform industry of these technological advances: (1) a dedicated organization at JPL, National Space Technology Applications (NSTA), (2) Tech Brief Magazine, (3) Spinoff magazine, and (4) JPL publications. There have also been many start-up organizations and businesses from CalTech.

  19. A user's manual for the NASA/JPL synthetic aperture radar and the NASA/JPL L and C band scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne synthetic aperture radars and scatterometers are operated with the goals of acquiring data to support shuttle imaging radars and support ongoing basic active microwave remote sensing research. The aircraft synthetic aperture radar is an L-band system at the 25-cm wavelength and normally operates on the CV-990 research aircraft. This radar system will be upgraded to operate at both the L-band and C-band. The aircraft scatterometers are two independent radar systems that operate at 6.3-cm and 18.8-cm wavelengths. They are normally flown on the C-130 research aircraft. These radars will be operated on 10 data flights each year to provide data to NASA-approved users. Data flights will be devoted to Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) underflights. Standard data products for the synthetic aperture radars include both optical and digital images. Standard data products for the scatterometers include computer compatible tapes with listings of radar cross sections (sigma-nought) versus angle of incidence. An overview of these radars and their operational procedures is provided by this user's manual.

  20. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists.

  1. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  2. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  3. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SPDPF) are highlighted. The capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of vital Spacelab data to various user facilities around the world are described.

  4. Polyamines in tea processing.

    PubMed

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  5. Test processing system (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulene, P.

    1986-01-01

    The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

  6. News: Process intensification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  7. GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

  8. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  9. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  10. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  11. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  12. Lyophilization process design space.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed.

  13. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  14. MITRE Adaptive Processing Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    gathering, Funded Research and Development transfer, processing , and interpretation of Center (FFRDC) under the primary data are provided. A strong state-of...1988: Unisys Reston Technology Center, Reston, VA Dr. Bronez was a Member of the Technical Staff. He performed research on signal processing and... processing , mathematical research , and sensor array processing . He was Project Leader and Principal Investigator for projects in adaptive beamforming

  15. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  16. Image processing in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Richard

    1994-04-01

    Today's personal computers are more powerful than the mainframes that processed images during the early days of space exploration. We have entered an age in which anyone can do image processing. Topics covering the following aspects of image processing are discussed: digital-imaging basics, image calibration, image analysis, scaling, spatial enhancements, and compositing.

  17. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  18. The Natural Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

  19. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  20. Current Duplicating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    While business instructors are still teaching spirit and stencil duplicating processes, most businesses now use copiers or offset printing processes. The article discusses offset and copier skills needed by office workers, pointing out that the processes being taught should be compatible with those used in business. (MF)