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Sample records for jrrd releases volume

  1. Flight set 360L007 (STS-33) insulation component. Volume 3: Final release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicken, Steve

    1990-01-01

    Volume 3 of this postfire report deals with the insulation component of the RSRM. The report is released twice for each flight set. The interim release contract date is on or before 60 days after the last field joint or nozzle to case joint is disassembled at KSC and contain the results of the KSC visual evaluation. The data contained in Volume 3 interim release supersedes the insulation data presented in the KSC 10 day report. The final release contract data is on or before 60 days after the last factory joint is disassembled at the Clearfield H-7 facility and contains the results of all visual evaluations and a thermal safety factor analysis. The data contained in the Volume 3 final release supersedes the interim release and the insulation data presented in the Clearfield 10 day report.

  2. Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takahiro; Kang, Jian; Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Simon, Sanford M.; Lin, Jane H.-C.; Yu, Yufei; Li, Yuxing; Yang, Jay; Dienel, Gerald; Zielke, H. Ronald; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2005-11-01

    Several lines of work have shown that astrocytes release glutamate in response to receptor activation, which results in a modulation of local synaptic activity. Astrocytic glutamate release is Ca2+-dependent and occurs in conjunction with exocytosis of glutamate containing vesicles. However, astrocytes contain a millimolar concentration of cytosolic glutamate and express channels permeable to small anions, such as glutamate. Here, we tested the idea that astrocytes respond to receptor stimulation by dynamic changes in cell volume, resulting in volume-sensitive channel activation, and efflux of cytosolic glutamate. Confocal imaging and whole-cell recordings demonstrated that astrocytes exhibited a transient Ca2+-dependent cell volume increase, which activated glutamate permeable channels. HPLC analysis revealed that glutamate was released in conjunction with other amino acid osmolytes. Our observations indicate that volume-sensitive channel may constitute a previously uncharacterized target for modulation of astrocyte-neuronal interactions. electrophysiology | exocytosis | neurotransmitters | osmolarity | synapses

  3. Nonsynaptic Communication Through ATP Release from Volume-Activated Anion Channels in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Fields, R. Douglas; Ni, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    The release of neuronal messengers outside synapses has broad biological implications, particularly with regard to communication between axons and glia. We identify a mechanism for nonsynaptic, nonvesicular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from axons through volume-activated anion channels (VAACs) activated by microscopic axon swelling during action potential firing. We used a combination of single-photon imaging of ATP release, together with imaging for intrinsic optical signals, intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+), time-lapse video, and confocal microscopy, to investigate action potential–induced nonsynaptic release of this neurotransmitter. ATP release from cultured embryonic dorsal root ganglion axons persisted when bafilomycin or botulinum toxin was used to block vesicular release, whereas pharmacological inhibition of VAACs or prevention of action potential–induced axon swelling inhibited ATP release and disrupted activity-dependent signaling between axons and astrocytes. This nonvesicular, nonsynaptic communication could mediate various activity-dependent interactions between axons and nervous system cells in normal conditions, development, and disease. PMID:20923934

  4. Energy and volume changes induced by photoinitiated proton releasing reaction with apomyoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jungkwon; Terazima, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The photodissociation reaction of o-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) aqueous solution and of the NBA solution with a protein, apomyoglobin (ApoMb), were studied by the time-resolved transient grating (TG) technique. The amount of released thermal energy and the volume change accompanied with this reaction were determined by the TG and photoacoustic method. Without the protein, the photoproduct of NBA releases a proton in the solution (pH jump reaction). The time profile of the grating signal of NBA and ApoMb shows two diffusing species with diffusion coefficients of 1.39±0.15 and 0.14±0.02×10-9 m2 s-1, respectively. From the diffusion coefficients, we suggest that the photoproduct of NBA induces a molecular recombination reaction between ApoMb and another small molecule or ion in the solution.

  5. Planning Documents Known Releases SWMUs Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah. Volume 1: Corrective Measures Study Work Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    SECOND REVISED FINAL DET:-, PLANNING DOCUMENTS KNOWN RELEASES SWMUs TOOELE ARMY DEPOT TOOELE, UTAH Volume I: CORRECTIVE MEASURES STUDY WORK PLAN...FINAL PLANNING DOCUMENTS KNOWN RELEASES SWMUs TOOELE ARMY DEPOT TOOELE, UTAH Volume I: CORRECTIVE MEASURES STUDY WORK PLAN Contract DACA31-94-D-0060...2-1 3.0 X-RAY LAGOON (SWMU 3) ..................................................................... 3-1 3.1 SWMU BACKGROUND

  6. [Effects of chronic volume loading on atrial natriuretic peptide release in human].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, J; Ohsaki, Y; Onodera, S; Inoue, H; Hirayama, T; Akiba, Y; Osanai, S; Sakai, H; Ishida, S; Nakano, H

    1990-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether release of hANP increases during mild and long-term volume loading. Eight lung cancer patients in good performance state (five men and three women, 35 to 68 years), who needed to have pre-hydration for cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin, were infused with about seven liters of isotonic saline over 48 hours through Swan-Ganz catheter placed in the pulmonary artery. The mean infusion rate was 0.042 ml/min.kg body weight. During the infusion, change in plasma volume (delta PV) increased by 5.8 + 3.3 (mean +/- SE) %. Right atrial pressure (RAP) did not change significantly, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) increased from 4.3 +/- 1.0 to 5.8 +/- 0.7 mmHg. Plasma hANP was significantly elevated from 50.6 +/- 0.7 to 105.1 +/- 19.3 pg/ml by the second day of the infusion with a suppression of plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone, though plasma ADH did not change. The infusion rate at 20:00 on the first day was the same as that on the second day. Further increase in plasma hANP was shown at 20:00 on the second day compared with the level at the same time on the first day, though RAP, PAWP and delta PV did not change. These results indicate that mild and chronic volume loading increases plasma hANP, and suggest that the prolongation of volume expansion plays an important role in the releasing of hANP in humans.

  7. Effects of changes in cell volume on the rates of glutamine and alanine release from rat skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Parry-Billings, M; Bevan, S J; Opara, E; Newsholme, E A

    1991-06-01

    The effect of changes in cell volume on the rates of release of glutamine and alanine from muscle and on the concentrations of these amino acids in muscle were investigated by using an isolated preparation of rat skeletal muscle incubated in the presence of hypo- and hyper-osmotic media. Changes in cell volume were associated with changes in the rates of release of glutamine and alanine from muscle: incubation in hypo-osmotic medium decreased the rates of release of glutamine and alanine, and incubation in hyperosmotic medium increased these rates. These changes were rapidly reversed by a change in osmoticity of the medium. Despite marked changes in cell volume, the concentrations of these amino acids in muscle were maintained. It is suggested that cell volume may play a role in the regulation of amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  8. Retro-nasal aroma release is correlated with variations in the in-mouth air cavity volume after empty deglutition.

    PubMed

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition.

  9. Retro-Nasal Aroma Release Is Correlated with Variations in the In-Mouth Air Cavity Volume after Empty Deglutition

    PubMed Central

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition. PMID:22815986

  10. Repeated Concussion Among U.S. Military Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Dougherty Rosemary H. Morrison Kimberly H. Quinn Michael R. Galarneau Report No. 10 -33 The views expressed in this article are those of the...JRRD Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011Pages 1269–1278 Journal of Rehabil itation Research & DevelopmentRepeated concussion among U.S. military personnel...amber.dougherty@med.navy.mil DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2011.01.00131269 1270 JRRD, Volume 48, Number 10 , 2011concussions [9–13]. Evidence exists that some aspects of

  11. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank (UST) release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of each hydrocarbon release has not been documented, therefore, this report addresses the remedial activities completed for each release site. The hydrocarbon release associated with each tank site within CAU 450 was remediated by excavating the impacted soil. Clean closure of the release was verified through soil sample analysis by an off-site laboratory. All release closure activities were completed following standard environmental and regulatory guidelines. Based upon site observations during the remedial activities and the soil sample analytical results, which indicated that soil concentrations were below the Nevada Administrative code (NAC) Action Level of 100 mg/kg, it is anticipated that each of the release CASs be closed without further action.

  12. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  13. Toxic chemical release inventory risk screening guide (Version 1. 0). Volume 1. The process. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauder, D.; Saunders, L.

    1989-07-01

    The guide describes some of the challenges raised by the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data and to suggest ways of approaching them. The guide suggests steps that can be taken to answer two key issues of concern: setting risk-based priorities for followup investigation of the TRI facilities and chemicals within geographic area of interest, and identifying data needs and approaches for collecting information necessary to respond to health and ecological questions from the public. The guide is directed at those individuals who are involved in interpreting and explaining environmental pollution, exposures, and health risks to the general public, especially at the local or sub-State level. Many users of the guide will already be well versed in evaluating risk and/or in helping members of the public understand and deal with toxic chemicals, but Title 111 - particularly, the Section 313 release data - presents new challenges for everyone.

  14. Relationship between uterine volume and discontinuation of treatment with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices in patients with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jang Kew; Lee, Min A; Ko, Young Bok; Yang, Jung Bo; Kang, Byung Hun; Yoo, Heon Jong

    2016-09-01

    This study is to evaluate the relationship between the uterine volume and the failure of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) in patients with adenomyosis. A total of 171 women with adenomysis were treated with LNG-IUD from November 2009 to December 2011. The amount of menorrhagia, degree of dysmenorrhea, and the uterine volume were compared before and after insertion of LNG-IUD, and the treatment failure of LNG-IUD was observed. The mean age of the participants was 42.5 years (range 29-53 years). The mean uterine volume was 158 mL (range 46-769 mL). Among the total participants, 37 (21.6 %) discontinued the treatment prematurely. There were no different characteristics between the ongoing treatment group and treatment failure group with LNG-IUD. However, there was significant difference of uterine volume between two groups (178 ± 14 and 141 ± 7 mL, P = 0.010). Based on the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the optimum cutoff value of uterine volume more than 150 mL was significantly associated with failure of LNG-IUD (area under curve: 0.763, 95 % CI 0.669-0.856). In univariate analysis, the uterine volume more than 150 mL was the only independent factor for the failure of LNG-IUD (odds ratio 6.76, 95 % CI 1.20-38.02, P = 0.030). The rate of treatment failure after LNG-IUD insertion for the patients with adenomyosis was related to the uterine volume. Specifically, the treatment failure rate of large volume uterus (>150 mL) with LNG-IUD was significantly higher than that of small volume uterus.

  15. Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.; Head, J. W.; Leask, H. J.; Ghatan, G.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss estimates of water fluxes on Mars and suggest that many are overestimates. Even so, we can only explain very high martian outflow rates by either unusually permeable aquifer systems or sudden release of shallow concentrations of water.

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  2. Changing paradigms: Manufacturing vs. fabricating a high volume Hold Down and Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl; Monick, Doug

    1995-01-01

    A detailed description of the Hold Down and Release Mechanisms designed for a 70+ constellation of spacecraft is presented. The design is reviewed to understand the practical implications of severely constraining cost. Strategies for adapting the traditional aerospace design paradigm to a more commercial, cost driven paradigm are discussed and practical examples are cited.

  3. Technical basis for radiological release of Grand Junction Office Building 2. Volume 2, dose assessment supporting data

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The second volume of the Grand Junction Office Action Program Technical Basis for Radiological Release of Grand Junction Office Building 2 report includes the data quality objectives (DQO), sampling plan, collected data, and analysis used to model future radiation doses to members of the public occupying Building 2 on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) site. This volume was assembled by extracting relevant components of the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project Building 2 Public Dose Evaluation (DOE 1996) and inserting recent additional data that was gathered and dose pathway modeling that was performed. The intent of this document is to provide all derived guidance decisions, assumptions, measured data, testing results, and pathway modeling software input and output data that supports the discussion and determinations presented in Volume 1 of this report. For constructive employment of this document, the reader is encouraged to closely follow Volume 1 for proper association with the segment of information being examined.

  4. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site. This report contains remedial verification of the soil sample analytical results for the following: Area 11 Tweezer facility; Area 12 boiler house; Area 12 service station; Area 23 bypass yard; Area 23 service station; Area 25 power house; Area 25 tech. services building; Area 25 tech. operations building; Area 26 power house; and Area 27 boiler house.

  5. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  6. Long-term ground penetrating radar monitoring of a small volume DNAPL release in a natural groundwater flow field.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Keun; Endres, Anthony L; Piggott, Scott D; Parker, Beth L

    2008-04-04

    An earlier field experiment at Canadian Forces Base Borden by Brewster and Annan [Geophysics 59 (1994) 1211] clearly demonstrated the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) reflection profiling to detect and monitor the formation of DNAPL layers in the subsurface. Their experiment involved a large volume release (770 L) of tetrachloroethylene into a portion of the sand aquifer that was hydraulically isolated from groundwater flow by sheet pile walls. In this study, we evaluated the ability of GPR profiling to detect and monitor much smaller volume releases (50 L). No subsurface confining structure was used in this experiment; hence, the DNAPL impacted zone was subjected to the natural groundwater flow regime. This condition allowed us to geophysically monitor the DNAPL mass loss over a 66 month period. Reflectivity variations on the GPR profiles were used to infer the presence and evolution of the solvent layers. GPR imaging found significant reflectivity increases due to solvent layer formation during the two week period immediately after the release. These results demonstrated the capacity of GPR profiling for the detection and monitoring of lesser volume DNAPL releases that are more representative of small-scale industrial spills. The GPR imaged solvent layers subsequently reduced in both areal extent and reflectivity after 29 months and almost completely disappeared by the end of the 66 month monitoring period. Total DNAPL mass estimates based on GPR profiling data indicated that the solvent mass was reduced to 34%-36% of its maximum value after 29 months; only 4%-9% of the solvent mass remained in the study area after 66 months. These results are consistent with independent hydrogeological estimates of remaining DNAPL mass based on the downgradient monitoring of the dissolved solvent phase. Hence, we have concluded that the long-term GPR reflectivity changes of the DNAPL layers are likely the result from the dissolution of chlorinated solvents residing

  7. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  8. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios. Volume 3. PWR, subatmospheric containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.S.; Gieseke, J.A.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Jordan, H.; Curtis, L.A.; Kelly, R.F.; Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1986-07-01

    This report presents results of analyses of the enviromental releases of fission products (source terms) for severe accident scenarios in a pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment design. The analyses were performed to support the Severe Accident Risk Reduction/Risk Rebaselining Program (SARRP) which is being undertaken for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Sandia National Laboratories. In the SARRP program, risk estimates are being generated for a number of reference plant designs. the Surry plant has been used in this study as the reference plant for a subatmospheric design.

  9. Flight Set 360T004 (STS-30) Insulation Component, Interim Release, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The insulation component of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) is discussed. The results of all visual evaluations and a thermal safety factor analysis are given. The data contained here supersedes the interim release and the insulation data presented in the Clearfield 10 day report. The objective is to document the postflight condition of the internal and external insulation of nozzle to case joints, the case field joints, the igniter to case joints, and the acreage insulation which made up RSRM-4A and RSRM-4B.

  10. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 3: Unplanned-release sites (HISS data base)

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes:PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation or remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 figs.

  11. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  12. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  13. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  14. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1981. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1981. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways from 48 sites ranged from a high of 20 person-rem to a low of 0.008 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 160 person-rem for the 98 million people considered at risk.

  15. Patterns of renal dopamine release to regulate diuresis and natriuresis during volume expansion. Role of renal monoamine-oxidase.

    PubMed

    de Luca Sarobe, Verónica; Di Ciano, Luis; Carranza, Andrea M; Levin, Gloria; Arrizurieta, Elvira E; Ibarra, Fernando R

    2010-01-01

    Diuretic and natriuretic effects of renal dopamine (DA) are well established. However, in volume expansion the pattern of renal DA release into urine (UDAV) and the role of enzymes involved in DA synthesis/degradation have not yet been defined. The objective was to determine the pattern of UDAV during volume expansion and to characterize the involvement of monoamine-oxidase (MAO) and aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) in this response. In this study male Wistar rats were expanded with NaCl 0.9% at a rate of 5% BWt per hour. At the beginning of expansion three groups received a single drug injection as follows: C (vehicle, Control), IMAO (MAO inhibitor Pargyline, 20 mg/kg BWt, i.v.) and BNZ (AADC inhibitor Benserazide, 25 mg/kg BWt, i.v.). Results revealed that in C rats UDAV (ng/30 min/100g BWt) increased in the first 30 min expansion from 11.5 +/- 1.20 to 21.8 +/- 3.10 (p < 0.05) and decreased thereafter. IMAO showed a similar pattern but significantly higher than C at 30 min expansion (32.5 +/- 2.20, p < 0.05). IMAO greatly reduced MAO activity from 8.29 +/- 0.35 to 1.1 +/- 0.03 nmol/mg tissue/hour and significantly increased diuresis and natriuresis over controls. BNZ abolished the early UDAV peak to 3.2+/-0.72 (p < 0.01) and though, UDAV increased over C after 60 min expansion, natriuresis and diuresis were diminished by BNZ treatment. Results indicate that an increment in renal DA release into urine occurs early in expansion and in a peak-shaped way. In this response MAO plays a predominant role.

  16. In vitro comparative fluoride release, and weight and volume change in light-curing and self-curing glass ionomer materials.

    PubMed

    Wandera, A; Spencer, P; Bohaty, B

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro fluoride release from and weight and volume changes of Photac-Fil, a light-curing polymaleinate restorative glass ionomer, with Ketac-Fil, a self-curing glass ionomer, and Ketac-Silver, a metal reinforced glass ionomer. Five discs of each material, measuring 2 mm height and 5 mm diameter, were suspended in separate vials of distilled water and laboratory artificial saliva. Fluoride release into the solutions was measured using a calibrated fluoride-sensitive ion meter initially at 24 hr and then weekly from 1 to 9 weeks. These results were evaluated statistically using repeated measures analysis of variance. Volumes and weights were recorded at the start and end of the experiment and analyzed using the paired t-test. Photac-Fil released similar amounts of fluoride to Ketac-Silver, but significantly less than Ketac-Fil in distilled water (P < or = 0.05). In artificial saliva, Photac-Fil released similar amounts to Ketac-Fil, but significantly more than Ketac-Silver (P < or = 0.05). Photac-Fil volume increased in distilled water and artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05) as did Ketac-Fil and Ketac-Silver in artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05). The only material that demonstrated significant net weight increase was Ketac-Silver in artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05). In summary, differences in fluoride release between these three glass ionomer materials varied as a function of the media in which they were stored. Whereas Ketac-Fil exhibited significantly greater fluoride release than the other materials in distilled water, in artificial saliva Ketac-Fil and Photac-Fil exhibited comparable fluoride release. Dimensional change, as evaluated by volume and weight differences, was also affected by storage media.

  17. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride. Volume 9. Wind tunnel modeling of fire monitors for HF vapor cloud mitigation, volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Heskestad, G.; Parce, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    The hazards of hydrogen fluoride (HF) have long been recognized. Standard operating practices have been aimed at on minimizing the possibility of a release and mitigating the effects if a release should occur. These practices are continually monitored and improved to maximize safety protection based on the available technical data. The recent program targeted further improvements based on new technical data. The volume presents the results of wind tunnel simulations of water monitors and a surrogate gas for HF to quantify the effect of water spray/HF release configuration variables on the performance of multiple water monitors.

  18. Using Optical Plume Velocimetry to Estimate the Volume of Oil Released From the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Leak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    To fully understand the environmental and ecological impacts of this disaster, an accurate estimate of the total oil released is required. We use optical plume velocimetry (OPV) to estimate the velocity of fluids issuing from the damaged well before and after the collapsed riser pipe was removed, and then estimate the volumetric flow rate under a range of assumptions. OPV was developed for measuring flow rates of fluids exiting black smoker hydrothermal vents on the deep sea floor (Crone et al., 2008). Black smoker vents produce a type of flow known as a turbulent buoyant jet and the Gulf of Mexico leak was a flow of the same class. Traditional optical fluid flow measurements use spatial cross-correlation methods that have been shown to underestimate flow rates when applied to turbulent buoyant jets. OPV uses interpolated temporal cross-correlation functions of image intensity across the entire region of interest to estimate image velocity. There are several potential sources of uncertainty in these calculations which may include errors associated with the estimation of the spatial resolution of the imagery, the image velocity field, the shear layer correction factor, and the area over which fluid is flowing, as well as uncertainty regarding the liquid oil fraction and temporal variability. We will describe in detail the effects of these uncertainties on the volume calculation. Using a liquid oil fraction of 0.4, we estimate the average flow rate from April 22nd to June 3rd , before the riser was removed, to be 55.9 x 103 barrels of oil per day (+/- 21%), excluding secondary leaks. After the riser was removed the total flow was 67.5 x 103 barrels/day (+/- 19%). Taking into account the oil collected by BP at the well head, our preliminary estimate of the total oil released is 4.37 x 106 barrels. (+/- 20%).

  19. Volume-Dependent Atp-Conductive Large-Conductance Anion Channel as a Pathway for Swelling-Induced Atp Release

    PubMed Central

    Sabirov, Ravshan Z.; Dutta, Amal K.; Okada, Yasunobu

    2001-01-01

    In mouse mammary C127i cells, during whole-cell clamp, osmotic cell swelling activated an anion channel current, when the phloretin-sensitive, volume-activated outwardly rectifying Cl− channel was eliminated. This current exhibited time-dependent inactivation at positive and negative voltages greater than around ±25 mV. The whole-cell current was selective for anions and sensitive to Gd3+. In on-cell patches, single-channel events appeared with a lag period of ∼15 min after a hypotonic challenge. Under isotonic conditions, cell-attached patches were silent, but patch excision led to activation of currents that consisted of multiple large-conductance unitary steps. The current displayed voltage- and time-dependent inactivation similar to that of whole-cell current. Voltage-dependent activation profile was bell-shaped with the maximum open probability at −20 to 0 mV. The channel in inside-out patches had the unitary conductance of ∼400 pS, a linear current-voltage relationship, and anion selectivity. The outward (but not inward) single-channel conductance was suppressed by extracellular ATP with an IC50 of 12.3 mM and an electric distance (δ) of 0.47, whereas the inward (but not outward) conductance was inhibited by intracellular ATP with an IC50 of 12.9 mM and δ of 0.40. Despite the open channel block by ATP, the channel was ATP-conductive with PATP/PCl of 0.09. The single-channel activity was sensitive to Gd3+, SITS, and NPPB, but insensitive to phloretin, niflumic acid, and glibenclamide. The same pharmacological pattern was found in swelling-induced ATP release. Thus, it is concluded that the volume- and voltage-dependent ATP-conductive large-conductance anion channel serves as a conductive pathway for the swelling-induced ATP release in C127i cells. PMID:11524456

  20. Power law correlations in galaxy distribution and finite volume effects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylos Labini, F.; Vasilyev, N. L.; Baryshev, Y. V.

    2007-04-01

    We discuss the estimation of galaxy correlation properties in several volume limited samples, in different sky regions, obtained from the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The small scale properties are characterized through the determination of the nearest neighbor probability distribution. By using a very conservative statistical analysis, in the range of scales [ 0.5, ~30] Mpc/h we detect power-law correlations in the conditional density in redshift space, with an exponent γ=1.0~± 0.1. This behavior is stable in all the different samples we considered; thus it does not depend on galaxy luminosity. In the range of scales [ ~30, ~100] Mpc/h we find evidence for systematic unaveraged fluctuations and we discuss in detail the problems induced by finite volume effects on the determination of the conditional density. We conclude that in such a range of scales there is evidence for a smaller power-law index of the conditional density. However we cannot distinguish between two possibilities: (i) that a crossover to homogeneity (corresponding to γ=0 in the conditional density) occurs before 100 Mpc/h; (ii) that correlations extend to scales of order 100 Mpc/h (with a smaller exponent 0< γ <1). We emphasize that galaxy distributions in these samples present large fluctuations at the largest scales probed, corresponding to the presence of large scale structures extending up to the boundaries of the present survey. We discuss several differences between the behavior of the conditional density in mock galaxy catalogs built from cosmological N-body simulations and real data. We discuss some theoretical implications of such differences considering also the super-homogeneous features of primordial density fields.

  1. Release of free-volume bubbles by cooperative-rearrangement regions during the deposition growth of a colloidal glass.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin; Zhang, Huijun; Han, Yilong

    2017-08-25

    Vapor deposition can directly produce ultrastable glasses which are similar to conventional glasses aged over thousands of years. The highly mobile surface layer is believed to accelerate the ageing process of vapor-deposited glasses, but its microscopic kinetics have not been experimentally observed. Here we study the deposition growth kinetics of a two-dimensional colloidal glass at the single-particle level using video microscopy. We observe that newly deposited particles in the surface layer (depth, d < 14 particles) relax via out-of-cage diffusions of individual particles, while particles in the deeper middle layer (14 < d ≲ 100 particles) relax via activation of cooperative-rearrangement regions. These cooperative-rearrangement regions are much larger, more anisotropic and occur more frequently than cooperative-rearrangement regions in the bulk (d ≳ 100 particles) or after deposition. Cooperative-rearrangement regions move towards the surface and released free-volume bubbles at the surface, while the particles within cooperative-rearrangement regions move towards the bulk, resulting in a more compact bulk glass.Vapor deposition can produce ultrastable glasses similar to conventional glasses aged over thousands of years. Here authors study deposition growth kinetics of a two-dimensional colloidal glass and report relatively frequent occurrence of large and anisotropic regions of cooperative rearrangements at intermediate depths from the surface.

  2. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 1, Text: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo ``realizations`` of the hourly release histories.

  3. Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenhua; Li, Xiangde; Qian, Jun; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm3/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction. PMID:25784801

  4. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  5. Assessing the impact of the extended-release/long-acting opioid an-algesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategies on opioid prescrip-tion volume.

    PubMed

    Divino, Victoria; Cepeda, M Soledad; Coplan, Paul; Maziere, Jean-Yves; Yuan, Yingli; Wade, Rolin L

    The Food and Drug Administration approved the extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioid analgesics risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) in July 2012 to educate healthcare providers and patients about safe and appropriate opioid analgesic use. The authors evaluated the impact of the REMS on ER/LA opioid analgesic utilization, overall and stratified by patient characteristics and prescriber type associated with greater expected need for analgesia. Retrospective repeated cross-sectional study. QuintilesIMS's National Prescription Audit™ and LifeLink™ patient-level longitudinal prescription databases measured prescription volumes, projected to national estimates. Changes were assessed in ER/LA opioid analgesic prescriptions dispensed from the 2-year pre-REMS implementation (July 2010 to June 2012) to the 18-month post-REMS implementation (July 2013 to December 2014) periods (with 12-month transitional implementation period in between). Average quarterly ER/LA opioid prescription volume significantly decreased by 4.3 percent from Preimple-mentation to the Active Period (5.58 vs 5.34 million, p < 0.001). Differences in prescription volume change were observed between age, gender, and payer types. Prescription volume either significantly decreased or remained stable from Preimplementation to the Active Period among most provider specialties evaluated. The largest volume decreases were observed for dentists (-48.5 percent) and emergency medicine specialists (-25.5 percent) (both p < 0.001). The largest increases were observed for nurse practitioners (+33.7 percent) and physician assistants (+31.2 percent; both p < 0.001), whose overall prescribing of nonopioid medications also increased. A significant decrease in dispensed ER/LA opioid prescriptions was observed following REMS implementation compared to Preimplementation. The impact on volume varied by patient characteristics and prescriber specialty. The REMS program, in conjunction with other healthcare

  6. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  7. Seasonal changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I immunoreactivity in relation with testicular volume in adult male free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pintér, O; Péczely, P

    2010-09-01

    Birds from the temperate and cold zones show annual sexual activity accompanied by gonadal changes and fluctuation in their brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels. However, most of the studies were done on captive birds where the constant environment can profoundly modify periodical changes. Therefore our aim was to reveal annual variations of hypothalamic and gonadal changes in male, free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) captured directly from their natural environment. We analyzed hypothalamic GnRH-I immunoreactivity and testes volume. Four key time points of the active reproductive cycle and the photorefractory phase were studied. GnRH-I immunoreactivity was analyzed in the preoptic area (POA) and the median eminence (ME). Photorefractory birds (August) with regressed gonads had the lowest level of GnRH-I immunoreactivity compared to other birds from the active reproductive phases. These results suggest that parallel with the gonadal volume GnRH-I undergoes seasonal changes in adult male free-living European starlings.

  8. Quantitation of fluoride ion released sarin in red blood cell samples by gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isotope dilution and large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, E M; McGuire, J M; Evans, R A; Edwards, J L; Hulet, S W; Benton, B J; Forster, J S; Burnett, D C; Muse, W T; Matson, K; Crouse, C L; Mioduszewski, R J; Thomson, S A

    2004-01-01

    A new method for measuring fluoride ion released isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in the red blood cell fraction was developed that utilizes an autoinjector, a large-volume injector port (LVI), positive ion ammonia chemical ionization detection in the SIM mode, and a deuterated stable isotope internal standard. This method was applied to red blood cell (RBC) and plasma ethyl acetate extracts from spiked human and animal whole blood samples and from whole blood of minipigs, guinea pigs, and rats exposed by whole-body sarin inhalation. Evidence of nerve agent exposure was detected in plasma and red blood cells at low levels of exposure. The linear method range of quantitation was 10-1000 pg on-column with a detection limit of approximately 2-pg on-column. In the course of method development, several conditions were optimized for the LVI, including type of injector insert, injection volume, initial temperature, pressure, and flow rate. RBC fractions had advantages over the plasma with respect to assessing nerve agent exposure using the fluoride ion method especially in samples with low serum butyrylcholinesterase activity.

  9. Spatial patterns of rockfall in recently deglaciated high-alpine rock faces: Analysing rockfall release zones and volumes based on a multiannual LiDAR time series, Kitzsteinhorn, Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Delleske, Robert; Wichmann, Volker; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Rock instabilities in high-alpine areas represent a considerable risk factor for man and infrastructure. In the Alps numerous, mainly visual, observations suggest an increasing occurrence of rockfall events potentially associated to climate warming. However, unbiased high-precision information on the location of rockfall release zones and the size of event volumes is scarce. Thus, frequency/magnitude patterns of high-alpine rockfall often remain elusive. The presented study addresses the need for systematically acquired, objective field data by presenting an extensive, multiannual LiDAR time series from a high-alpine (peri)glacial environment. The study area is located in the summit region of the Kitzsteinhorn (3.203 m), Hohe Tauern Range, Austria. The beginning of the terrestrial laserscanning (TLS) monitoring campaign dates back to July 2011. Since then six rock faces have been scanned repeatedly at an interval of 1-2 months during the snow-free summer season (June to October). The investigated rock faces predominantly consist of calcareous mica-schist and differ in terms of height, slope, aspect, and discontinuity orientation. The rock faces are partially underlain by permafrost, their combined surface area is approx. 1.3 km². They are located directly adjacent to the Schmiedingerkees cirque glacier, which has retreated and thinned significantly in recent decades (downwasting rate ~1.5 m/a). TLS data acquisition was performed using a Riegl LMS-Z620i. During data acquisition no permanently fixed installations and no artificial reflective markers were used. This is in line with the requirement to develop a quick, flexible methodology that can be applied not only at the Kitzsteinhorn, but also in other, similar environments. For data post-processing a new analysis procedure has been developed which allows (i) point cloud alignment by surface geometry matching, (ii) objective, automated discrimination between measurement errors und real surface changes, and (iii

  10. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

    1987-07-01

    This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals and provides guidance to industry and communities. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature, rapidly absorbs moisture to form highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 20 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of hydrogen fluoride involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use hydrogen fluoride in the SCAQMD. The manual identifies examples of potential causes as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk.

  11. A randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (triptorelin) on uterine leiomyoma volume and hormonal status.

    PubMed

    Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Azmoon, Mina; Alborzi, Saeed; Rajaeefard, Abdoreza; Zarei, Afsun; Kazerooni, Talieh; Frank, Vivian; Schmidt, Ernst Hienrich

    2010-01-01

    To examine and compare the efficacy and safety of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) vs. aromatase inhibitor in premenopausal women with leiomyomas. Multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. University hospitals. A total of 70 subjects with a single uterine myoma measuring >or=5 cm. Subjects were randomized into two groups with use of a random table. They were treated with aromatase inhibitor (group A) or GnRHa (group B). Group A received letrozole (2.5 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Group B received triptorelin (3.75 mg/mo) for 12 weeks. Measurement of myoma volume and E(2), FSH, LH, and T levels. Total myoma volume decreased by 45.6% in group A and 33.2% in group B. Reductions in myoma volume in the two groups were statistically significant. There was no significant change in hormonal milieu in group A. The serum level of hormones significantly decreased in group B by the 12th week of treatment. Uterine myoma volume was successfully reduced by use of an aromatase inhibitor. Rapid onset of action and avoidance of initial gonadotropin flare with an aromatase inhibitor may be advantageous for short-term management of women with myomas of any size who are to be managed transiently and who wish to avoid surgical intervention, specifically women with unexplained infertility having uterine myoma. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Release of LNG vapor from large-volume, low-pressure LNG storage. Letter report, September 30, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project involves development of practical release prevention measures by developing design and operating procedures beyond current practice. The objective of the program is to obtain the quantitative field data necessary to model the physics of the tank vapor space pressure response to boil-off compressor operation and atmospheric pressure changes. This work will lead to the development of guides to LNG storage tank operation and equipment specification that will limit the possibility of vapor venting or rollover of the stored LNG.

  13. [Noninvasive, continuous monitoring of artificial respiration in premature and newborn infants by the constant measurement of respiratory minute volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release].

    PubMed

    Leidig, E; Noller, F; Mentzel, H

    1986-01-01

    A system of instrumentation for the continuous measurement of the respiratory gases during assisted ventilation of neonates and premature infants based upon "breath-by-breath-method" is described. The four respiratory parameters flow (V), ventilation pressure (p), oxygen-concentration and carbon dioxide-concentration are measured. These datas are processed by a computer to generate a continuous display of the respiratory minute volume, the tidal volume, the breath rate, the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production. All parameters are stored and can be displayed or plotted as trends. The flow-measurement is performed using hot-wire-anemometry. The very small flow sensor is adapted directly to the tube. Next to this sensor, the respiratory gas for the analysis of the O2- and CO2- concentration is suctioned off continuously. First clinical experience in mechanically ventilated newborns is characterized.

  14. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  15. Response of Overtopped White Oak to Release

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1981-01-01

    Pole sized white oaks increase in volume growth following release from overtopping trees, but the response varies by size, age and appearance of the oaks. Significant increases in epicormic sprouting, height loss by some released trees, and highly variable stem volume growth make overtopped white oak a very questionable source of future crop trees. If overtopped trees...

  16. Energy Information Administration new releases. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This publication of the National Energy Information Center contains news items and information sources related primarily to electricity generation. News items reported on in this issue include utility compliance costs for the Clean Air Act, 1995 profits for major energy companies, and competition issues in the electric power and natural gas industries. A summary report on crude oil prices is also presented. Other information provided includes a listing of 1996 publications from the center, electronic information services, and energy data information contacts.

  17. Syndactyly Release.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tara L; Trost, Jeffrey G; Pederson, William C

    2016-11-01

    Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital hand anomalies treated by pediatric plastic surgeons. Established principles of syndactyly separation dictate the timing and order of syndactyly release, with the goals of surgery being the creation of an anatomically normal webspace, tension-free closure of soft tissue, and return of function to the fingers. Numerous surgical methods have been described, many of which involve the use of local flaps to reconstruct the commissure and full-thickness skin grafts for coverage of raw areas. Recently, reconstructive techniques without the use of skin grafts have been devised, which work well for certain indications. Special considerations are described for complete, complex, and syndromic syndactylies. Outcomes for simple syndactyly release are typically good when surgical principles are followed, whereas complex syndactyly release tends to have less-favorable outcomes and more complications.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of rock fall in a (peri)glacial environment: a LiDAR-based, multi-year investigation of rock fall release zones and volumes, Kitzsteinhorn, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delleske, Robert; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    October). All scans (n = 41) were conducted using a RIEGL LMS-Z620. The resulting spatial resolution varies between 0.1 and 0.5 m and object distance (i.e. distance between scanner and rock face) ranges from 250 to 500 m. Post-processing of TLS data enabled to precisely identify rock fall release zones, rock fall volumes and surface changes of the Schmiedingerkees glacier (lowering rate of approximately 1.5 m per year). Since 2011 a total number of nine rock fall events with a volume exceeding 100 m³ have been recorded - with the largest reaching a volume of approx. 500 m³. All were triggered from areas that have been exposed by the retreating Schmiedingerkees glacier over the last 1-2 decades. Thus, glacial debuttressing and subsequent exposure to atmospheric influences might be considered as the dominant destabilizing factors. Temporal clustering of rock fall events over the first three seasons (2011 to 2013) tentatively indicates a bimodal occurrence pattern with a first maximum during snowmelt (May/June) and a second distinct peak during the warmest period of the year (August).

  19. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  20. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  1. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  2. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  3. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  4. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

  5. The illustris simulation: Public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.; Pillepich, A.; Genel, S.; Vogelsberger, M.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, V.; Sijacki, D.; Snyder, G. F.; Griffen, B.; Marinacci, F.; Blecha, L.; Sales, L.; Xu, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present the full public release of all data from the Illustris simulation project. Illustris is a suite of large volume, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code AREPO and including a comprehensive set of physical models critical for following the formation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Each simulates a volume of (106.5 Mpc)3 and self-consistently evolves five different types of resolution elements from a starting redshift of z = 127 to the present day, z = 0. These components are: dark matter particles, gas cells, passive gas tracers, stars and stellar wind particles, and supermassive black holes. This data release includes the snapshots at all 136 available redshifts, halo and subhalo catalogs at each snapshot, and two distinct merger trees. Six primary realizations of the Illustris volume are released, including the flagship Illustris-1 run. These include three resolution levels with the fiducial "full" baryonic physics model, and a dark matter only analog for each. In addition, we provide four distinct, high time resolution, smaller volume "subboxes". The total data volume is ∼265 TB, including ∼800 full volume snapshots and ∼30,000 subbox snapshots. We describe the released data products as well as tools we have developed for their analysis. All data may be directly downloaded in its native HDF5 format. Additionally, we release a comprehensive, web-based API which allows programmatic access to search and data processing tasks. In both cases we provide example scripts and a getting-started guide in several languages: currently, IDL, Python, and Matlab. This paper addresses scientific issues relevant for the interpretation of the simulations, serves as a pointer to published and on-line documentation of the project, describes planned future additional data releases, and discusses technical aspects of the release.

  6. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  7. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 40; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Assessment Report for the Beta-Release L4_SM Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public beta release scheduled for 30 October 2015. The primary objective of the beta release is to allow users to familiarize themselves with the data product before the validated product becomes available. The beta release also allows users to conduct their own assessment of the data and to provide feedback to the L4_SM science data product team. The assessment of the L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to upscaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 1 validation and supports the beta release of the data. The validation against

  8. Dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to genistein on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone and volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in postpubertal castrated female rats.

    PubMed

    Faber, K A; Hughes, C L

    1993-01-01

    Estrogen exposure during critical periods of development promotes androgenization of the brain, which is reflected in altered morphology, behavior, and cyclic hormone secretion in females. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that neonatal female rats injected with pharmaceutical or naturally occurring estrogens had decreased GnRH-induced LH secretion and increased volume of the SDN-POA as 42 day castrates. The current experiment defines the dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen genistein (G) on pituitary sensitivity to GnRH and SDN-POA volume. Litters of rat pups received subcutaneous injections of either corn oil, 1, 10, 100, 200, 400, 500, or 1000 micrograms of G on days 1 to 10 of life. The litters were ovariectomized and weaned on day 21. On day 42 blood was drawn from right atrial catheters immediately prior to, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min following a single injection of 50 ng/kg of GnRH. Only the 10 micrograms dose of G was associated with increased pituitary response to GnRH, while progressive increases in exposure levels of G were associated with decreasing LH secretion. The SDN-POA volume was increased in only the 500 micrograms and 1000 micrograms exposure groups compared to controls. The results confirm that low doses of G have nonandrogenizing, pituitary-sensitizing effects, while higher doses of G mimic the more typical effects of estrogens. The use of both morphologic and physiologic end points more completely defines the reproductive consequences of environmental estrogen exposure during critical periods of CNS development.

  9. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  10. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 5: A summary of information concerning historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction.

  11. Lower-Limb Amputation and Effect of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs Outpatient Cost Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    C, Kerns RD, Clark ME, Cifu DX. Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder , and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veter...Kilmer MT, Baker DG. Post-traumatic stress disorder , depression , and health-related quality of life in OEF/OIF veterans. Qual Life Res. 2012;21(1):99...JRRD Volume 52, Number 7, 2015Pages 827–838Lower-limb amputation and effect of posttraumatic stress disorder on Department of Veterans Affairs

  12. Prosthetic Cost Projections for Servicemembers with Major Limb Loss from Vietnam and OIF/OEF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    decreasing or increas- ing the transradial or transhumeral values as deemed appropriate by the expert panel. For example, myoelec- tric prosthetic devices...387 JRRD Volume 47, Number 4, 2010Pages 387–402 Journal of Rehabil itation Research & Development Prosthetic cost projections for servicemembers with...study projects prosthetic - and assistive-device costs for veterans with limb loss from Vietnam and injured ser- vicemembers returning from Operation

  13. Reusable Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Slider release mechanism reusable. Bears heavy loads while latched, yet gives smooth release motion. Release effected by explosively driving perpendicular slider out of engagement with load-bearing shank. Device has potential industrial applications such as emergency release of lifting cables from helicopters, cranes and hoists.

  14. Somatodendritic dopamine release: recent mechanistic insights

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites. Somatodendritic DA release leads to activation of D2 DA autoreceptors on DA neurons that inhibit their firing via G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels. This helps determine patterns of DA signalling at distant axonal release sites. Somatodendritically released DA also acts via volume transmission to extrasynaptic receptors that modulate local transmitter release and neuronal activity in the midbrain. Thus, somatodendritic release is a pivotal intrinsic feature of DA neurons that must be well defined in order to fully understand the physiology and pathophysiology of DA pathways. Here, we review recent mechanistic aspects of somatodendritic DA release, with particular emphasis on the Ca2+ dependence of release and the potential role of exocytotic proteins. PMID:26009764

  15. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2, Part B, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 3 and 4, Identification of important environmental pathways for materials released from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brorby, G.P.; Bruce, G.M.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    While each of the three different screening comparisons made in this report (i.e., within-medium evaluation, between-media evaluation and relative importance grouping) individually provides information potentially of value in focusing future studies, each one is subject to a variety of limitations, the most important being associated with the absence or variable quality of environmental data for a number of the contaminants and media. These screening exercises are intended to provide an initial framework for approaching the study of an extremely complex site. Other approaches could very well yield somewhat different priorities, and the identification or reinterpretation of data in subsequent detailed studies are likely to invalidate some of the results of these screening exercises. However, these evaluations provide a logical approach to defining initial off- site health impact study priorities for the ORR. Therefore, while care must be taken in attempting to make any broad generalizations or greatly simplifying assumptions with regard to the potential health hazards posed by the complex releases from the Reservation, Table 6-1 represents an attempt to summarize a set of recommendations that are derived from the screening exercises presented in this report. Table 6-1 identifies the facilities, processes and contaminants believed to have the highest potential for resulting in off-site health impacts. Table 6-2 identifies contaminants for which no ranking could be performed as part of this feasibility study, because of the absence of any appropriate data for any environmental medium.

  16. Delayed simultaneous release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, X. W.; Webb, J. B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The disclosed appendage release mechanism is particularly adapted for use with spacecraft operating with despin mechanisms and releasable appendages. It includes a flexible loop and a number of appendage releasing devices which are attached to the flexible loop. The appendage releasing devices are made up of piston-cams and ball latches which hold the appendages as long as the flexible loop is maintained in a taut condition, but which release the appendages upon relaxation of the flexible loop. The flexible loop remains taut as long as the despin weights remain attached, but relaxes when the despin weights are released.

  17. Renormalized Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  18. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  19. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  2. Extended-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Comer, A M; Goa, K L

    2000-02-01

    Extended-release oxybutynin (Ditropan XL) uses an osmotic system (OROS) to deliver a controlled amount of oxybutynin chloride into the gastrointestinal tract over a 24-hour period when taken once daily. Oxybutynin binds to M3 muscarinic receptors on the detrusor muscle of the bladder, preventing acetylcholinergic activation and relaxing the muscle. Mean peak plasma concentrations are lower with extended-release oxybutynin 15mg once daily than with conventional immediate-release oxybutynin 5mg taken 3 times daily. Relative bioavailabilities of parent drug and metabolite N-desethoxybutynin are 153 and 69%, respectively, for extended-release oxybutynin when compared with immediate-release oxybutynin. In short (< or =6 weeks) randomised, double-blind clinical trials of patients with detrusor instability, extended-release oxybutynin 5 to 30mg once daily significantly reduced the mean weekly number of urge incontinence episodes by 84 to 90%. Extended-release oxybutynin had similar efficacy to immediate-release oxybutynin. Adverse events reported by patients taking extended-release oxybutynin were dose-related anticholinergic effects, most frequently dry mouth, somnolence, constipation, blurred vision and dizziness. A large noncomparative study demonstrated that approximately two thirds of the patients prescribed extended-release oxybutynin for detrusor instability were still taking the medication 6 months later.

  3. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  4. Shock phase transformation and release properties of aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum nitride is characterized by a non-recoverable volume phase transformation from the wurtzite (hexagonal) to the rocksalt (cubic) structure that commences about 22 GPa, accompanied by a volume strain of about 20%. A study of the manifestation of this large volume change under shock loading was made with four uniaxial strain impact experiments. Particle velocity histories of the shock and release states were obtained corresponding to impact pressures of 40 GPa, including the evolution of the shock and release waves with propagation distance. Stress-strain features characterizing aluminum nitride, including the phase transformation, were determined with numerical analysis techniques.

  5. Dendritic Release of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Mike; Apps, David; Menzies, John; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E

    2016-12-06

    Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:235-252, 2017.

  6. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes.

  7. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  8. Prostate biopsy volume predicts final tumor volume.

    PubMed

    Zavaski, Michael E; Korus, Adam; Staff, Ilene; Champagne, Alison; Fish-Furhman, Jamie; Tortora, Joseph; Meraney, Anoop; Kesler, Stuart; Wagner, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    To assess the ability of prostate biopsy volume to effectively predict actual tumor volume, and whether increasing the number of prostate biopsy cores improves the ability to forecast actual tumor volume. 765 patients who underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (2009-2010) were identified. Of these, 663 had complete demographics, biopsy, and final pathology data available. The number ofbiopsy samples, biopsy tumor volume, and actual tumor volume were calculated from pathology reports. Data from 663 radical prostatectomy specimens indicated a positive linearrelationship between biopsy tumor volume and actual tumor volume (R=0.524, P< 0.0001). The number ofbiopsy samples collected (i.e., < or =6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, or > or =15) did not affect the ability of biopsy tumor volume to predict final tumor volume. The routine collection of biopsy tumor volume may prove useful in predicting actual tumor volume and the construction of more effective preoperative nomograms.

  9. The dependence of solar flare energetics on flare volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    The sizes of 45 X-ray flares observed on Skylab have been measured and compared to flare rise times, energies, and energy release rates as determined from Solard and XREA X-ray data. The X-ray rise time is correlated with the length and volume of the flare. The energy of the flare and the rate of increase of that energy are correlated with flare length and volume. Both the energy per unit volume and the rate of energy increase per unit volume are inversely correlated with flare length and volume. There is no correlation between the emission measure and the volume.

  10. Biomechanical coupling in renin-releasing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, R M; McGrath, H E; Pentz, E S; Gomez, R A; Barrett, P Q

    1997-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is a major regulatory system controlling extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. The rate-limiting enzyme in this hormonal cascade is renin, which is synthesized and secreted into the circulation by renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. The renal baroreceptor is a key physiologic regulator of renin secretion, whereby a change in renal perfusion pressure is sensed by these cells and results in a change in renin release. However, the mechanism, direct or indirect, underlying pressure transduction is unknown. We studied the direct application of mechanical stretch to rat JG cells and human renin-expressing (CaLu-6) cells on the release of renin. JG cells released a low level of baseline renin, comprising < 5% of their total renin content. By contrast, renin secretion from CaLu-6 cells comprised approximately 30% of cellular stores, yet was also stimulated twofold by 10 microM forskolin (P release by 42% (P < 0.01) and forskolin-stimulated renin release by 25% (P < 0.05). In CaLu-6 cells, stretch inhibited basal- and forskolin-stimulated renin release by 30 and 26%, respectively (both P < 0.01). Northern blot analysis demonstrated a stretch-induced reduction in baseline renin mRNA accumulation of 26% (P < 0.05) in JG and 46% (P < 0.05) in CaLu-6 cells. The data demonstrate that mechanical stretch in renin-releasing cells inhibits basal and stimulated renin release accompanied by a decrease in renin mRNA accumulation. Further studies will be necessary to characterize the intracellular events mediating biomechanical coupling in renin-expressing cells and the relationship of this signaling pathway to the in vivo baroreceptor control of renin secretion. PMID:9294125

  11. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  12. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-23

    ... DSCOVR Public Release Statement Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a ... is limited to the near infrared solar reflected signal. The fourth detector is a high signal-to-noise photodiode spanning UV, Visible, and ...

  13. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  14. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance.

  15. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  16. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  17. Advanced release technologies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Bill

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the ARTS program was to develop lighter and less expensive spacecraft ordnance and release systems that answer to the requirements of a wide variety of spacecraft applications. These improvements were to be evaluated at the spacecraft system level, as it was determined that there were substantial system-level costs associated with the present ordnance and release subsystems. New, better devices were to be developed, then flight qualified, then integrated into a flight experiment in order to prove the reliability required for their subsequent use on high-reliability spacecraft. The secondary goal of the program was to quantify the system-level benefits of these new subsystems based upon the development program results. Three non-explosive release mechanisms and one laser-diode-based ordnance system were qualified under the program. The release devices being developed were required to release high preloads because it is easier to scale down a release mechanism than to scale it up. The laser initiator developed was required to be a direct replacement for NASA Standard Initiators, since these are the most common initiator in use presently. The program began in October, 1991, with completion of the flight experiment scheduled for February, 1994. This paper provides an overview of the ARTS program, discusses the benefits of using the ARTS components, introduces the new components, compares them with conventional systems and each other, and provides recommendations on how best to implement them.

  18. Release of ATP induced by hypertonic solutions in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aleu, Jordi; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Navarro, Piedad; de Lara, Ivanna Pérez; Bahima, Laia; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-01-01

    ATP mediates intercellular communication. Mechanical stress and changes in cell volume induce ATP release from various cell types, both secretory and non-secretory. In the present study, we stressed Xenopus oocytes with a hypertonic solution enriched in mannitol (300 mm). We measured simultaneously ATP release and ionic currents from a single oocyte. A decrease in cell volume, the activation of an inward current and ATP release were coincident. We found two components of ATP release: the first was associated with granule or vesicle exocytosis, because it was inhibited by tetanus neurotoxin, and the second was related to the inward current. A single exponential described the correlation between ATP release and the hypertonic-activated current. Gadolinium ions, which block mechanically activated ionic channels, inhibited the ATP release and the inward current but did not affect the decrease in volume. Oocytes expressing CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) released ATP under hypertonic shock, but ATP release was significantly inhibited in the first component: that related to granule exocytosis. Since the ATP measured is the balance between ATP release and ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes, we measured the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity of the oocyte surface during osmotic stress, as the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, which was inhibited by more than 50 % in hypertonic conditions. The best-characterized membrane protein showing NTPDase activity is CD39. Oocytes injected with an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to CD39 mRNA released less ATP and showed a lower amplitude in the inward current than those oocytes injected with water. PMID:12562935

  19. Environmental Releases for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    DYEKMAN, D L

    2002-08-01

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. The report contains tabular data summaries on air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar year (CY) 2001. These releases, bearing radioactive and hazardous substances, were from Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), and Fluor Hanford (FH) managed facilities and activities. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimates based upon approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER PNNL-13910), published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. HSER includes a yearly accounting of the impacts on the surrounding populace and environment from major activities at the Hanford Site. HSER also summarizes the regulatory compliance status of the Hanford Site. Tables ES-1 through ES-5 display comprehensive data summaries of CY2001 air emission and liquid effluent releases. The data displayed in these tables compiles the following: Radionuclide air emissions; Nonradioactive air emissions; Radionuclides in liquid effluents discharged to ground; Total volumes and flow rates of radioactive liquid effluents discharged to ground; and Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River.

  20. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  1. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  2. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  3. RAVEN Beta Release

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  4. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  5. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  6. Benzene release. status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.; Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-11-04

    Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

  7. Barium release system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A chemical system is described for releasing a good yield of free barium neutral atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. The barium is released in the vapor phase so that it can be ionized by solar radiation and also be excited to emit resonance radiation in the visible range. The ionized luminous cloud of barium becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electrical characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas at a given time.

  8. Volume Phase Masks in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-06

    2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Volume phase masks in photo-thermo-refractive glass The views, opinions and/or findings...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 photothermorefractive glass , volume hologram, volume phase mask REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...in photo-thermo-refractive glass Report Title In many applications such as beam shaping, mode conversion, and phase encoding it is necessary to alter

  9. A controlled biochemical release device with embedded nanofluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Hong, Wei; Dong, Liang

    2012-04-01

    A controlled release device is developed by embedding nanofluidic biomolecule reservoirs into a polymer network of a stimuli-responsive hydrogel. The reservoirs are made of liquid core-polymer shell nanofibers using co-electrospinning. The mechanism of controlled release is based on buckling instability of the polymer shell under combined axial and radial compression, caused by volume changes of hydrogel responding to a specific stimulus. The device decouples releasable biomolecules from a hydrogel polymer matrix, avoiding chemical interactions between biomolecules and hydrogel polymer chains, and thus, alleviating nontrivial chemical and biological engineering design of hydrogel formulations. Temperature-sensitive hydrogel is used as a model hydrogel.

  10. Carpal Tunnel Release: Do We Understand the Biomechanical Consequences?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Nathan T.; Harris, Andrew; Skjong, Christian; Akelman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel release is a very common procedure performed in the United States. While the procedure is often curative, some patients experience postoperative scar sensitivity, pillar pain, grip weakness, or recurrent median nerve symptoms. Release of the carpal tunnel has an effect on carpal anatomy and biomechanics, including increases in carpal arch width and carpal tunnel volume and changes in muscle and tendon mechanics. Our understanding of how these biomechanical changes contribute to postoperative symptoms is still evolving. We review the relevant morphometric and biomechanical changes that occur following release of the transverse carpal ligament. PMID:25364635

  11. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  12. Data Release Summary Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-14

    ... 3 CALIOP Level 1 data are released with a product maturity classification of Validated Stage1 , indicating that initial validation of ... users for evaluation and to provide feedback to the CALIOP algorithm development team. Users should carefully read the section of the Data ...

  13. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  14. Release of OLe peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  15. NASTRAN: April 1982 Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugh, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Latest public release of NASTRAN, April 1982 most efficient and versatile to date. Intended range of applications of NASTRAN includes almost every kind of structure and construction. Users may develop their own analysis capabilities by using Direct Matrix Abstraction Programming (DMAP) language to direct NASTRAN in solution of general matrix problems.

  16. Release the Prisoners Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  17. Hydraulic release oil tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-03-11

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member.

  18. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  19. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed) elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  20. Controlled release with coating layer of permeable particles.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryusei; Golman, Boris; Shinohara, Kunio

    2003-10-30

    An enhanced method was proposed for controlled release of core material using a coating layer of fine permeable particles dispersed in an impermeable wax prepared by dry-based process. A mathematical model was constructed to describe in detail the core material release by diffusion through the connected permeable particles inside the coating layer. The effective diffusivity was simulated by a random walk method taking into account the structure of the coating layer. The released characteristics were measured for the urea core particle coated with the layer of the starch permeable particles dispersed in the paraffin wax. The calculated results were in a good quantitative agreement with experimental data in all range of coating conditions. As a result, the low release rate was proven to be obtained with thicker coating layer of lower volume fraction of permeable particles. Moreover, the application of permeable particles instead of soluble ones [J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 35 (2002) 40] resulted in significant decrease in release rate.

  1. Environmental releases for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.P.; Curn, B.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1993 from facilities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. As part of this executive summary, comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1993 are displayed in tables. These tables represent the following: radionuclide air emissions data; data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil; radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River; nonradioactive air emissions data; total volumes and flow rates of 200/600 area liquid effluents. Both summary and detailed presentations of these data are given. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  2. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  3. Releasable Locking Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  4. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  5. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  6. Sudden releases of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupecká, Hana; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Jurčáková, Klára; Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán

    2014-03-01

    Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  7. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  8. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, D. C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  9. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  10. EIA new releases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  11. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  12. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  13. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  14. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  15. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  16. Detection of the urban release of a bacillus anthracis simulant by air sampling.

    PubMed

    Garza, Alexander G; Van Cuyk, Sheila M; Brown, Michael J; Omberg, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques.

  17. Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Alexander G.; Van Cuyk, Sheila M.; Brown, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques. PMID:24697146

  18. Shock- and release-wave properties of MJ-2 grout

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Furnish, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    High pressure Hugoniot and release equation of state data are provided for a high-silica high-water content rock-simulating grout (Mini Jade Two grout) over a pressure range of approximately 1 to 70 GPa. High velocity gun impact shock wave techniques and velocity interferometry diagnostics were used to obtain the experimental data. New experimental methods and analysis techniques were developed to perform the tests and extract the Hugoniot and pressure-volume release properties of the grout. The data are appropriate for high pressure equation of state development through both computational simulation and direct comparison with Hugoniot and release isentrope behavior. Nonlinear deformation phenomena associated with material strength, pressure-induced phase transformation and pressure-volume hysteresis are identified within the experimental results and the underlying responsible physical issues are addressed. 29 refs., 68 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Recommended for release on recognizance: factors affecting pretrial release recommendations.

    PubMed

    Petee, T A

    1994-06-01

    Researchers have acknowledged the influence of pretrial release agencies in judicial decision making regarding bail; however, few researchers have focused on the process used by the pretrial release agencies to make bail-bond recommendations. In this study I sought to establish which factors were most salient in making the decision to recommend a defendant for release on recognizance. I found that both officially sanctioned release criteria and "extralegal" variables were predictive of this decision.

  20. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  1. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations.

  2. Applying a crop-tree release in small-sawtimber white oak stands

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey W Stringer; Gary W. Miller; Robert F. Wittwer; Robert F. Wittwer

    1988-01-01

    Small-sawtimber white oak crop trees in Kentucky were released by a crown-touching technique. In two cutting treatments, 20 and 34 crop trees were released per acre at a total cost of $35 and $42, respectively. Both treatments yielded commercial volumes of cut material. Total mean merchantable volume (> 5.0 inches d.b.h.) in cut trees was 693 cubic feet/acre, with...

  3. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. Two tables are provided at the end of the Glossary to help readers: the first defines the prefixes

  4. A model of gas buildup and release in crater lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, H. F.; Kwok, Peter K.; Mak, Louis

    1996-12-01

    The sudden release of carbon dioxide gas, which may accumulate gradually within the stratified water bodies of a crater lake, caused two fatal disasters in Cameroon during the past decade. We model the various processes that may have led to the release by considering (1) gas injection, (2) an internal triggering mechanism, (3) propagation of a disturbance after triggering, and (4) the forces that end the outburst. We suggest that the 1986 Lake Nyos outburst was triggered at the lake bottom. The final explosive stage of the release ended quickly when a sufficiently large volume of gas bubbles prevented circulation of water eddies within the lake. A cellular automaton model is used to estimate the amount of carbon dioxide gas released and the characteristic time interval between successive outbursts. If both the gas accumulation rate and the diffusion rate of carbon dioxide through water are constant, then rapid gas release will occur at fairly regular intervals. In which case, the amount of gas released from Lake Nyos is 0.17 ± 0.05 km3 at standard temperature and pressure each 37 ± 10 years. It is possible, however, that an external event could trigger a sudden release or that the diffusion rate of carbon dioxide may change as more gas accumulates, which could shorten the release time.

  5. A superfusion apparatus for the examination of neurotransmitter release from synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Minnema, D; Michaelson, I A

    1985-08-01

    A superfusion apparatus for examining the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes is described. The apparatus provides for accurate temperature control, rapid switching and continuous gassing of superfusing buffers, short (i.e. 1-s) pulses of high-potassium-containing buffer for examining depolarized release, rapid collection of superfusing eluate, and low tissue chamber dead volume. Depolarization (high-potassium) evoked release and to some degree spontaneous release of [3H]dopamine from rat striatal synaptosomes are dependent on buffer calcium concentration. The putative calcium channel blocker nickel reduces both spontaneous and high-potassium-evoked [3H]dopamine release.

  6. Riola release report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  8. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  9. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (Web, free access)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  10. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  11. Alterations in left ventricular volumes induced by Valsalva manoeuvre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. Z.; Alderman, E. L.; Harrison, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Five patients were studied with left ventriculography during different phases of the Valsalva manoeuvre. Small doses of contrast medium allowed adequate repetitive visualization of the left ventricle for volume calculation. During strain phase, the volume of the left ventricle decreased by nearly 50 per cent in each case, and stroke volume and cardiac output also dropped strikingly. Release of straining was attended by a sharp rebound of left ventricular volume to control levels, with a transient surge of increased cardiac output 42 per cent above that of the resting state.

  12. Impact of variable reservoir releases on management of downstream water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, John C.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2001-06-01

    A coupled unsteady flow and heat transport model is used to determine the impacts of fluctuating reservoir releases on downstream water temperatures. Maintenance of stream temperatures is one of the most common reasons cited for imposition of minimum flow requirements in regulated (reservoir controlled) rivers. Minimum flow constraints for temperature control are typically developed using worst-case scenarios (i.e., maximum air temperature, clear sky, etc.) of atmospheric conditions. We show that short- term modifications to reservoir releases based on local meteorological conditions can reduce the volume of water released, while still meeting temperature objectives. A case study of the Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam shows that for certain sets of temperature objectives and atmospheric conditions, a diurnally varying release may be the only way to meet multiple temperature objectives at different downstream locations. In the examples discussed, savings of nearly 20% in total release volume could be realized by using variable releases.

  13. 49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Figure 3D(1) and Figure 3D(2) for an interior release mechanism for a rear emergency exit door, and within the high force access region shown in Figure 3D(1) for an exterior release mechanism for a rear... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and...

  14. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy.

  15. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  16. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly <15 nm and are released as composite colloids attached to the organic binders of the paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Compound erythromycin sustained release preparation and its in vitro release].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-xia; Chen, Zhi-peng; Wang, Qi-rong; Liu, Ze-kun; Ma, Quan-long

    2011-11-01

    Using the weight-average molecular weight 50 000 polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier, and a certain proportion of erythromycin (EM) and prednisone acetate (PNA) to mixed prepare the compound erythromycin sustained release preparation (sustained-release tablets). Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect separately the release amount of EM and PNA in vitro medium. The sustained-release tablets release for about 21 days, the average content of EM is 99.7 mg/table, RSD = 0.82%; and the average content of PNA is 10.03 mg/table, RSD = 0.93%. Within 21 days, the cumulative releases of EM and PNA are 86.1% and 78.3%, respectively. The drug release is steady and slow after 5 days, the burst release phenomenon in early stage is more significant. The results showed that the sustained-release tablet preparation method is feasible, the release performance is good and the clinical efficacy is significant.

  18. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent.

    PubMed

    Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P

    2015-03-01

    The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.

  19. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  20. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  1. SITELLE's Data Release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. B.; Drissen, L.

    2016-12-01

    Installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) since August 2015, SITELLE is an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) with an 11×11 field of view. After its prototype SpIOMM, installed at Mont Mégantic (Québec, Canada), it is the second IFTS in the world operating in the visible band (350-1000 nm). It delivers hyperspectral data cubes of 4 million spectra at R˜1500-5000 with a spatial sampling of 0.32" and a filling factor of 100 %. A suite of softwares has been designed to reduce (ORBS) and analyze (ORCS) the data. Based on commissioning data obtained in August 2015, a first stable version has been released in March 2016 which is capable of reducing all the data. In this paper the quality of the calibration is discussed.

  2. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  3. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  4. Evaluation of the LWVD Luminosity for Use in the Spectral-Based Volume Sensor Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL 30 Jeffrey C. Owrutsky (202) 404-6352 VibroMeter, Inc. ( VMI ...7-2 – VSDS mock-up constructed by VMI in 2005. ......................................................................... 9 Figure 7-3 – Normalized... VMI Vibro-Meter, Inc. VS Volume Sensor VSCS Volume Sensor Communications Specification VSDS Volume Sensor Detection Suite VSNP Volume Sensor Nodal Panel

  5. Hazardous animal waste carcasses transformation into slow release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, Patrick; Fiallo, Marina; Nzihou, Ange; Chkir, Mouna

    2009-08-15

    Because of the need to address disposal of materials infected with pathogens new regulations have come into effect for the transport and disposal of dead farm animals or carcasses. For precautionary reasons, disposal to landfill, composting, biogas generation or fertilizer use are banned recycling paths because of incomplete knowledge about contamination transmission paths. Thermal treatment is recognized as a safe elimination process. Animal wastes have a high calorific value (above 16 MJ/kg). However, combustion of the organics leaves mineral residues (near 30%). The ashes contain mostly calcium and phosphate with some sodium, potassium and magnesium. We have examined the transformation of the ashes into a slow release fertilizer. We used a mixture of acids to partly dissolve the combustion residues and form slurry. In a second step, base was added to neutralize and solidify the reaction mixture. The final product was a whitish polycrystalline solid. Leaching tests were made to evaluate the nutrient release rate in laboratory columns. Water leachates were analyzed for up to ten pore-bed volumes and showed, as expected, large differences in release rates. Nitrate release was slowed and phosphate did not level even after ten pore-bed volumes. This demonstrates that insoluble precipitates (gypsum) contribute to control soluble ion release.

  6. Development of metoprolol tartrate-loaded sustained-release pellets: effect of talc on the mechanism of drug release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuli; Yang, Meiyan; Shen, Ruifang; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Lu; Gong, Wei; Shan, Li; Gao, Chunsheng

    2016-07-28

    Talc is one of the most commonly used antiadherents in the coating film. However, the mechanism of influence of talc on drug release has yet to be fully understood. In this study, metoprolol tartrate (MT)-loaded Eudragit NE 30 D-coated sustained-release (SR) pellets were prepared using talc as an antiadherent in the layering and coating processes. Talc significantly reduced the stickiness of the layered or coated substrates, thus enhancing the process smoothness. Moreover, the incorporation of talc into the coating film significantly affected drug release. The water vapor permeability and drug permeability of free films increased as the concentration of talc increased. Importantly, talc had a dynamic effect on the drug release. The drug release rate of the pellets in the initial stage (within 2 h) increased with increasing talc concentrations, which exceeded the critical pigment volume concentration resulted in leaks formation in the coated film. However, subsequent swelling of the membrane and expansion of the copolymer network eliminated the influence of talc and the drug release was then controlled by the polymeric membrane. These results suggest that talc contributed to the reduction of the sticking of layered or coated substrates, and facilitated the manufacturing process and drug release properties.

  7. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  8. Comparative drug release measurements in limited amounts of liquid: a suppository formulation study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ken; Ek, Ragnar; Strømme, Maria

    2006-07-01

    A novel method for the investigation of drug formulations in limited liquid volumes is presented. The experimental setup consists of a measurement cell containing an absorbent sponge cloth placed between two parallel electrodes. Conductivity measurements are used to monitor the drug release from the dosage form. By varying the amount of water contained in the absorbent cloth surrounding the dosage form, it is possible to measure the drug release performance of the dosage form in very limited amounts of water. The method was employed to test four different tablet formulations consisting of the model drug NaCl incorporated in excipient matrices of hard fat, polyethylene glycol, microcrystalline cellulose and a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). The drug release rates of the different formulations in limited water volumes differed markedly from the release rates in an excess of water. Whereas the release rates from all tablet types in an excess of water showed only minor differences among the tablet types, the release rates from the tablets formulated with disintegrating excipients were clearly superior in limited water volumes. The developed method for drug release in limited volumes of liquid should be suitable for evaluation of rectal dosage forms.

  9. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to release and tract repetitive shipments. It is a method of entry or immediate delivery extended to...

  10. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  11. New Enhancements in April 85 NASTRAN Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Several features were added to COSMIC NASTRAN, along with some enhancements to improve or update existing capabilities. Most of these additions and enhancements were provided by industry users to be incorporated into NASTRAN for wider use. DIAG 48 provides a synopsis of significant developments in past NASTRAN releases (1983-1985) and indexes all diagnostic output messages and operation requests (DOMOR). Other features include: volume and surface computation of the 2-D and 3-D elements, NOLIN5 input and; NASTRAN PLOTOPT-N (where N = 2, 3, 4, or 5); shrink element plots; and output scan. A nonprint option on stress and force output request cards was added. Automated find and nofind options on the plot card, fully stressed design, high level plate elements, eigenvalue messages, and upgrading of all FORTRAN source code to the ANSI standard are enhancements made.

  12. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  13. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  14. Slow-release fertilizers 101

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose

    2002-01-01

    Slow release fertilizers have been in common use within the horticultural industry for decades. Probably the mostly commonly heard of product is Scott's Osmocote which has been around for a quite a long time. However, some time ago slow release fertilizers moved out of the potted greenhouse environment and onto golf courses, suburban lawns and bushes, and orchards...

  15. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  16. Curiosity Speaks Volumes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-27

    This chart shows increases in the volume of data coming back from NASA Mars Curiosity over recent sols. New capabilities of the Electra relay-radios on MRO and Curiosity have greatly increased the volume of data the rover is sending back from Mars.

  17. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  18. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  19. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 1 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS THE FIRST 6 LESSONS OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF TERMS OF ADDRESS, POLITE FORMULAS AND RESPONSES, AUXILIARIES, COMMANDS, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)…

  20. Solventless visible light-curable coating: II. Drug release, mechanical strength and photostability.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sagarika; Bogner, Robin H

    2010-06-30

    Solventless photocurable film coating was used to obtain modified release coatings. Different pore-forming agents were used to achieve immediate and sustained release of a blue dye contained in the coated pellets (non-pareil beads). A super-disintegrant, sodium starch glycolate, was used to obtain immediate release. When incorporated in the coating, this pore-former swelled and yielded large pores that demonstrated quick release of the marker dye while leaving behind the scaffold provided by the photocured polymer. Simple pore-formers (lactose and sodium chloride) dissolved away without swelling and provided a more sustained release profile. Release can be modified with the choice of material, number of layers and thickness of the coating. When release of sodium chloride and release of marker dye were simultaneously monitored, it was observed that at least 40-50% of the sodium chloride that was incorporated in the coating released before the dye was released through the coating showing that pore-formation preceded the release of the marker dye. The coupling factor between dye release and pore-formation was found to be dependent on the ratio of amount of solid pore-forming agent and volume of liquid monomer (S/L) of the coating. Also, studies demonstrate that the coating is photostable and can withstand handling stress.

  1. Kepler Data Release 4 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey (Editor); Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Doug; Allen, Christopher L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Gilliland, Ron; Girouard, Forrest; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Middour, Christopher K.; Pletcher, David L.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Twicken, Joe; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFIs and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 4 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html. Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  2. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; ...

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in the media withmore » pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.« less

  3. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Alexander, G. W.; Waiting, D. J.; Barr, C. S.

    2013-07-01

    A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe- species.

  4. Hybrid mesoporous silica nanocarriers with thermovalve-regulated controlled release.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Coutinho, E; Rodrigues, A S; Baleizão, C; Farinha, J P S

    2017-09-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are excellent nanocarriers, featuring very high cargo capacity due to their large surface area and pore volume. The particle and pore dimensions can be accurately tuned, and both the internal and external surfaces allow versatile functionalization. We developed hybrid MSNs with diameters around 140 nm, with the external surface selectively modified with a temperature-responsive biocompatible copolymer to control cargo release. The nanoparticles feature either a polymer brush or a gel-like responsive shell, produced by grafting from RAFT polymerization of PEG-acrylate macromonomers. The hybrid nanoparticles have fluorescent molecules incorporated into the inorganic network providing excellent optical properties for traceability and imaging. The cargo release profiles are explained by a temperature-controlled "pumping" mechanism: at low temperature (ca. 20 °C) the polymer shell is hydrophilic and expanded, opposing cargo diffusion out of the shell and retaining the molecules released from the mesopores; above room temperature (ca. 40-50 °C) the polymer network becomes more hydrophobic and collapses onto the silica surface, releasing the cargo by a sponge-like squeezing effect. The release kinetics depends on the polymer shell type, with better results obtained for the gel-coated nanoparticles. Our proof-of-concept system shows that by modulating the temperature, it is possible to achieve a pumping regime that increases the release rate in a controlled way.

  5. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in the media with pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.

  6. ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

    2008-07-31

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping

  7. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  8. Osmotically sensitive renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1993-07-01

    Renin secretion from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is sensitive to external osmolality in a way that has been suggested to depend either on cellular volume or on effects on secretory granules. To distinguish between these possibilities, a technique for permeabilization of JG cell membranes was developed. Rat glomeruli with attached JG cells were isolated and permeabilized by 20 microM digitonin for 12 min and followed by continuous exposure to 2 microM digitonin. Experiments on proximal tubules showed that cellular volume was unaffected by changes in external sucrose concentration after a similar permeabilization procedure. With permeabilized JG cells the following changes in osmolality were tested (in mM sucrose): +90 (n = 6), +60 (n = 5), +30 (n = 6), +15 (n = 6), -15 (n = 5), -30 (n = 6), -60 (n = 6), and -90 (n = 6). With nonpermeabilized cells similar experiments were done with changes of +90 (n = 7), +30 (n = 4), -30 (n = 4), and -90 (n = 6) mM sucrose. Increases in osmolality caused inhibition of renin release, whereas decreases stimulated secretion. Within +/- 10% variations in osmolality there were no differences between the responses in permeabilized and intact cells, whereas the responses with larger changes were less in the permeabilized cells. Increase or decrease in urea concentration by 30 mM did not affect renin release. Thus water fluxes can influence renin release by a mechanism that is independent of cell volume.

  9. The Reshock and Release Waves in PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanov, S. M.; Bordzilovsky, S. A.

    1999-06-01

    To study the deformation and destruction of PTFE polymer the specimens were loaded by the complex wave structure: shock, reshock and release wave. The transmitted stress-time profiles were recorded with the manganin gages. The Lagrange analysis of stress histories gave the stress-volume paths during reshock loading and unloading of PTFE in the stress range of 10 to 35 GPa. The data revealed the viscoelastic behavior typical for polymers. For a single shock loading the relaxation zone with the duration of about 0.3 μs was noticeable behind the first stress jump. The reshock-release stress pulse that started from the state behind the first shock attenuated with the rate greater than in hydrodynamic approximation. The correlation was noticed between the stress-time and electrical resistivity-time profiles in the relaxation zone. The reloading-unloading stress hysteresis gave the possibility to measure the critical shear stress (τ) in a shocked state. The data showed the decrease in τ at higher stresses. The authors suggested that the most probable mechanism of destruction of PTFE in the studied region of pressures and temperatures is thermodestruction of a polymer chain by the thermal fluctuations under load.

  10. Some Are More Equal - A Comparative Study on Swab Uptake and Release of Bacterial Suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Warnke, Philipp; Warning, Liesa; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Swabs are widely used to collect samples for microbiological analyses from various clinical settings. They vary by material, size, and structure of the tip. This study investigates the uptake and release capacities for liquid and bacteria. Methods Five swabs were analyzed for their uptake and release capacities of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis suspensions. Two approaches were investigated providing volume-restricted and unrestricted amounts of bacterial suspensions to mimic various clinical situations. Volume and bacterial uptake and release were measured in milligrams and by counting colony forming units (CFU), respectively. Results Volume uptake and release in the unrestricted setting varied highly significant between 239.6 mg and 88.7 mg (p<0.001) and between 65.2 mg and 2.2 mg (p<0.001), respectively. In the volume-restricted setting the complete volume was absorbed by all swabs, volume release could only be detected for flocked swabs (2.7 mg; p<0.001). Highest amount of CFU release was detected for the MWE Dryswab in the unrestricted setting for both S. aureus and S. epidermidis with 1544 CFU and 553 CFU, respectively, lowest release for the Sarstedt neutral swab with 32 CFU and 17 CFU, respectively (p<0.001). In the volume-restricted setting MWE Σ-Swab released the highest bacterial amount with 135 CFU S. aureus and 55 CFU S. epidermidis, respectively, the lowest amount was released by Mast Mastaswab with 2 CFU S. aureus and 1 CFU S. epidermidis, respectively (p<0.001). Within the range of the utilized bacterial concentrations, uptake/release ratios were identical for the particular swab types and independent of the bacterial species. Conclusions The influence of the swab type on subsequent diagnostic results is often underestimated. Uptake and release of the investigated bacteria vary significantly between different swab types and sampling conditions. For best diagnostic outcome swabs should be chosen according to the

  11. [Studies on preparation of sustained-release Shuxiong formulation, a traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe, using time-controlled release techniques].

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Peng; Guo, Tao; Chen, Da-Wei; He, Zhong-Gui

    2006-09-01

    To prepare a sustained-release formulation of traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe by adopting time-controlled release techniques. Shuxiong tablets were chosen as model drug. The prescription and technique of core tablets were formulated with selecting disintegrating time and swelling volume of core tablets in water as index. The time-controlled release tablets were prepared by adopting press-coated techniques, using PEG6000, HCO and EVA as coating materials. The influences of compositions, preparation process and dissolution conditions in vitro on the lag time (T(lag)) of drug release were investigated. The composition of core tablets was as follow: 30% of drug, 50% MCC and 20% CMS-Na. The T(lag) of time-controlled release tablets was altered remarkably by PEG6000 content of the outer layer, the amount of outer layer and hardness of tablet. The viscosity of dissolution media and basket rotation had less influence on the T(lag) but more on rate of drug release. The core tablets pressed with the optimized composition had preferable swelling and disintegrating properties. The shuxiong sustained-release formulations which contained core tablet and two kinds of time-controlled release tablets with 3 h and 6 h of T(lag) could release drug successively at 0 h, 3 h and 6 h in vitro. The technique made it possible that various components with extremely different physicochemical properties in these preparations could release synchronously.

  12. Equipment for drug release testing of medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Kvist, L C; Andersson, S B; Berglund, J; Wennergren, B; Fors, S M

    2000-04-01

    An apparatus was specially designed and constructed for release testing of medicated chewing gums. The adjustable instrumental settings such as temperature, chewing frequency, chewing time, volume of test medium, distance between the jaws and twisting angle increased the versatility of the apparatus. Selection of the test medium was also an important parameter. Each sample was kneaded mechanically in separate test chambers and the drug release was followed by sampling and HPLC analysis. Different gum formulations were tested and the obtained results demonstrated satisfactory release curves for a variety of formulations and active ingredients. The tested gum formulations comprised nicotine, meclizine, dimenhydrinate and xylitol. The apparatus proved to be suitable in product control of commercial batches but also a useful tool in the research and development of medicated gum formulations.

  13. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  14. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  15. Toxics Release Inventory indicates big increases in releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 4 billion pounds of tracked toxic chemicals were released into the environment throughout the United States during 2010, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the agency announced on 5 January. This is a 16% increase above 2009. The agency said the increase is mainly due to changes in the metal-mining sector, where differences in the chemical composition of ore being mined can result in significant changes in the amount of toxic chemicals. The chemical and primary metals industries were other sectors with increases in toxic releases in 2010, the latest year for which data collection is complete. EPA also noted that although releases in 2010 were higher than during the previous 2 years, they were lower than in 2007 and in prior years.

  16. Mast cell release of superoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dileepan, K.N.; Simpson, K.M.; Stechschulte, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of rat serosal mast cells (MC) to release superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/) upon activation by immunologic and nonimmunologic stimuli was investigated. Purified MC (90-95%) were either sensitized with monoclonal IgE reactive against dinitrophenyl bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA) and challenged with DNP-BSA, or naive MC were treated with compound 48/80 or ionophore A23187. O/sub 2//sup -/ release was measured by O/sub 2//sup -/ dismutase (SOD)-sensitive reduction of cytochrome C and MC activation was assessed by the release of histamine or (/sup 14/C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT). The results reveal that activation of MC by 48/80 or immunologic challenge does not release O/sub 2//sup -/, although these stimuli induce substantial release of histamine and 5HT (40-70%). In contrast, A23187 released O/sub 2//sup -/ (3-6 nMols/10/sup 6/ MC) and histamine (40-80%). In mixed cell preparations containing MC and macrophages (M0), activation of MC with 48/80 resulted in inhibition of M0 O/sub 2//sup -/ release. The MC-mediated inhibition of O/sub 2//sup -/ production was not due to histamine or 5HT, but was due to MC-granule SOD. MC contain abundant quantities of SOD and, therefore, release O/sub 2//sup -/ only when its production exceeds the intracellular SOD threshold following activation with selective stimuli. In addition, the apparent differences in the mode and site of action of various stimuli on MC may contribute to the discriminative release of O/sub 2//sup -/.

  17. A Review of Industrial Relations Research, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    This report, with Volume I previously released, appraises selected research in industrial relations since 1956-57. Experts analyze the character and contributions of the research output in their areas of expertise. Contents include: (1) "Public Policy and Labor-Management Relations" by Benjamin Aaron and Paul Seth Meyer, (2) "Manpower Research and…

  18. Unsteady flow volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  19. Immunophilin regulation of neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, J. P.; Dawson, T. M.; Fotuhi, M.; Snyder, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immunophilins are proteins that mediate actions of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506 and cyclosporin A by binding to calcineurin, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, and increasing the phosphorylation level of transcription factors required for interleukin 2 formation. Though concentrations in the brain greatly exceed levels in immune tissues, no function has been previously established for nervous system immunophilins. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in neurotransmitter release. FK506 appears to inhibit NO production by maintaining NO synthase in a highly phosphorylated and thereby inactivated state. Accordingly, we examined effects of FK506 and cyclosporin A on neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor (NGF) and in rat brain striatal synaptosomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We monitored effects of immunophilin ligands on [3H]-neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells differentiated with NGF. Rat brain striatal synaptosomes were loaded with radiolabeled transmitters and treated with FK506 or cyclosporin A prior to initiating neurotransmitter release with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or potassium depolarization. Striatal synaptosomes were also loaded with 32P-orthophosphate and treated with FK506. 32P-labeled synaptic vesicle proteins were isolated from these synaptosomes in an attempt to relate specific FK506-dependent phosphorylation of vesicle proteins with the effects of FK506 on neurotransmitter release. Identification of proteins targetted by FK506 was made by immunoblot analysis and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Low nanomolar concentrations of the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibit transmitter release from PC-12 cells and from NMDA-stimulated brain synaptosomes. By contrast, the immunosuppressants augment depolarization-induced transmitter release from synaptosomes. Synapsin I, a synaptic vesicle phosphoprotein, displays enhanced phosphorylation in the presence of FK506

  20. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD)

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yasunobu; Maeno, Emi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Dezaki, Katsuya; Wang, Jun; Morishima, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl− channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl− channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl− conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNFα receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be

  3. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  4. Volume-dependent osmolyte efflux from neural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Stephen K.; Cheema, Tooba A.; Foster, Daniel J.; Heacock, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The CNS is particularly vulnerable to reductions in plasma osmolarity, such as occurr during hyponatremia, the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. In response to a lowered plasma osmolarity, neural cells initially swell but then are able to restore their original volume through the release of osmolytes, both inorganic and organic, and the exit of osmotically obligated water. Given the importance of the maintenance of cell volume within the CNS, mechanisms underlying the release of osmolytes assume major significance. In this context, we review recent evidence obtained from our laboratory and others that indicates that the activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors can markedly enhance the volume-dependent release of osmolytes from neural cells. Of particular significance is the observation that receptor activation significantly lowers the osmotic threshold at which osmolyte release occurs, thereby facilitating the ability of the cells to respond to small, more physiologically relevant, reductions in osmolarity. The mechanisms underlying G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated osmolyte release and the possibility that this efflux can result in both physiologically beneficial and potentially harmful pathophysiological consequences are discussed. PMID:18518929

  5. Predictors of prostate volume reduction following neoadjuvant cytoreductive androgen suppression

    PubMed Central

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Furutani, Keith M.; Mynderse, Lance A.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Choo, Richard; King, Bernard F.; Bergstralh, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Limited duration cytoreductive neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) is used prior to definitive radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer to decrease prostate volume. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of NHT on prostate volume before permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB), and determine associated predictive factors. Material and methods Between June 1998 and April 2012, a total of 1,110 patients underwent PPB and 207 patients underwent NHT. Of these, 189 (91.3%) underwent detailed planimetric transrectal ultrasound before and after NHT prior to PPB. Regression analysis was used to assess predictors of absolute and percentage change in prostate volume after NHT. Results The median duration of NHT was 4.9 months with inter quartile range (IQR), 4.2-6.6 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduced by a median of 97% following NHT. The mean prostate volume before NHT was 62.5 ± 22.1 cm3 (IQR: 46-76 cm3), and after NHT, it was 37.0 ± 14.5 cm3 (IQR: 29-47 cm3). The mean prostate volume reduction was 23.4 cm3 (35.9%). Absolute prostate volume reduction was positively correlated with initial volume and inversely correlated with T-stage, Gleason score, and NCCN risk group. In multivariate regression analyses, initial prostate volume (p < 0.001) remained as a significant predictor of absolute and percent prostate volume reduction. Total androgen suppression was associated with greater percent prostate volume reduction than luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) alone (p = 0.001). Conclusions Prostate volume decreased by approximately one third after 4.9 months of NHT, with total androgen suppression found to be more efficacious in maximizing cytoreduction than LHRHa alone. Initial prostate volume is the greatest predictor for prostate volume reduction. PMID:27895677

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  8. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake Some forms of kidney disease Use of diuretic medicines Alternative Names Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection; Urine protein - 24 hour Images Urine sample Female urinary tract ...

  9. EPA Releases EJ 2020 Agenda

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the EJ 2020 Action Agenda, the Agency’s environmental justice strategic plan for 2016 to 2020. EJ 2020 will further integrate environmental justice considerations in all of the Agency’s programs.

  10. SELF-RELEASING GRAPPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, D.A. Sr.

    1963-11-01

    >A self-releasing grappling device that lifts by virtue of engagement between clamping jaws and the undercut lower side of a conical head of a lifting lug attached to the object to be lifted and employs a releasing sleeve on the lug to free the jaws from the lug is presented. When the jaws are to be released, they are dropped over the releasing sleeve, which is located well below lug head. When the jaws are lifted, they engage a conical surface on the sleeve and lift it up to the head of the lifting lug. In this position of the sleeve, the lower side of the lug head is covered by the sleeve and so cannot be engaged by the jaws, which move past before clearing the sleeve. (AEC)

  11. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

  12. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  13. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  14. Salt release from potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Fisk, Ian D

    2012-04-01

    The rate of salt release in-mouth from salted potato crisps was evaluated. It was hypothesised that a slow steady release of sodium would occur on chewing and hydration; to test this a crisp was chewed and held in the oral cavity without swallowing for 60 s. Sodium release was measured over the entire holding period, after 20-30 s a peak in salivary sodium levels was recorded. A similar trend was observed with sensory perceived saltiness by trained panellists. The results suggest that a significant proportion of the crisp's salt flavouring is released in a pulse-type mechanism which would not be encountered when the crisp is exposed to normal eating patterns and would result in the consumption of a large proportion of unperceived sodium.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of nifedipine slow-release during sustained tocolysis.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Maureen A; Roos, Carolien; Touw, Daan J; van Hattum, Paul R M; Kwee, Anneke; Lotgering, Frederik K; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Pampus, Mariëlle G; Porath, Martina M; Spaanderman, Marc E A; van der Post, Joris A M; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; van 't Veer, Nils E

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent has not been studied in great detail in pregnant women and has instead focused on immediate release tablets and gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) tablets. The aim of this study was to determine nifedipine slow-release half-life and distribution volume in pregnant women and to compare these with pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine in non-pregnant subjects described in the literature. This is a study parallel to a trial studying women with threatened preterm labor between 26 + 0 and 32 + 2 weeks after initial tocolysis and a completed course of corticosteroids, who were randomly allocated to maintenance nifedipine (slow-release tablets 20 mg 4 times daily) or placebo. Exclusion criteria for the pharmacokinetic study were contra-indications for nifedipine, impaired liver function, and concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme. Blood samples for measuring nifedipine plasma concentrations were drawn at t = 0, t = 12 hours, t = 24 hours, t = 48 hours, t = 72 hours, t = 7 days, and t = 9 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using iterative two-stage Bayesian population pharmacokinetic analysis by MWPharm© software. The study was designed to establish a correlation between body weight and nifedipine plasma level. The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine slow-release tablets were determined from the data of 8 pregnant women. Nifedipine slow-release had a half-life of 2 - 5 hours, a mean distribution volume of 6.2 ± 1.9 L/kg (calculated while using a fixed biological availability of 0.45 taken from the literature due to lack of intravenous data in this population) compared to a half-life of 6 - 11 hours, and a distribution volume of 1.2 - 1.3 L/kg described in non-pregnant subjects in the literature. None of the women delivered during study medication. Study medication was continued for the duration of the pharmacokinetic study (9 days) in all women

  16. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells.

  17. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  18. Ion release from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Staffolani, N; Damiani, F; Lilli, C; Guerra, M; Staffolani, N J; Belcastro, S; Locci, P

    1999-08-01

    The microbiological and enzymatic characteristics of the oral cavity would seem to provide a suitable environment for the corrosion of metals. We assayed the release of metal ions from one orthodontic appliance which included two 304 and 316 steel molar bands, ten 316 steel brackets, one nickel-titanium archwire and a brazing alloy to connect the elements of molar bands and brackets. The orthodontic appliance was dipped in both inorganic (pH 3.5-6.5) and organic acid solutions (w/v 1% each of tartaric, citric and ascorbic acid at pH 2.2 or 1.5% each of lactic and acetic acid at pH 2.5). The release of nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Varian AA 10. The release of Ni, Cr and Cu was markedly less at pH 6.5 than at pH 3.5 at all time points in acid solution. Daily release/single appliance after the first day decreased. Contrary to expectations, appliances immersed in organic acid solutions at pH 2.2 or 2.5 after 28 days generally released an amount of ions similar to that observed in inorganic acid solution at pH 3.5, with the exception of Cu. Release of silver and palladium, two metals present in the brazing alloy, proved to be very low (approximately 0.2 microgram after 28 days). The daily release of Ni, Cu and Cr by an orthodontic appliance in acid pH, particularly favourable to corrosion, was well below that ingested with a normal daily diet. It is therefore concluded that the quantities of metal ions released in our experimental conditions should not be cause for concern in utilising the appliance.

  19. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  20. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release.

  1. Influence of pore water velocity on the release of carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial granulates embedded in a porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradelo, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, J. Eugenio

    2012-11-01

    Pore water flow velocity can influence the processes involved in the contaminant transport between relative stagnant zones of porous media and their adjacent mobile zones. A particular case of special interest is the occurrence of high flow rates around the controlled release granules containing pesticides buried in soil. The release of the pesticides carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial controlled release formulations (CRFs) was studied, comparing release tests in a finite volume of water with water flow release tests in saturated packed sand at different seepage velocities. For water release kinetics, the time taken for 50% of the pesticide to be released (T50) was 0.64 hours for carbofuran and 1.97 hours for fenamiphos. In general, the release rate was lower in the porous matrix than in the free water tests. The faster release rate for carbofuran was attributed to its higher water diffusivity. The seepage velocity has a strong influence on the pesticide release rate. The dominant release mechanism varies with the progress of release. The evolution of the mechanism is discussed on the basis of the successive steps that involve the moving boundary of the dissolution front of the pesticide inside the granule, the concentration gradient inside the granule and the flow boundary layer resistance to solute diffusion around the granule. The pore water velocity influences the overall release dynamics. Therefore, seepage velocity should be considered in pesticide release to evaluate the risk of pesticide leaching, especially in scenarios with fast infiltration.

  2. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  3. Completing HST's Local Volume Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne

    2007-07-01

    Nearby galaxies offer one of the few laboratories within which stellar populations can be tied to multi-wavelength observations. They are thus essential for calibrating and interpreting key astrophysical observables, such as broad-band luminosities, durations and energy input from starbursts, and timescales of UV, H-alpha, and FIR emission. The study of stellar populations in nearby galaxies requires high-resolution observations with HST, but HST's legacy for this limited set of galaxies remains incomplete.As a first attempt to establish this legacy, The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury {ANGST} began observations in late 2006. ANGST was designed to carry out a uniform multi-color survey of a volume-limited sample of 70 nearby galaxies that could be used for systematic studies of resolved stellar populations. The resulting data provide nuanced constraints on the processes which govern star formation and galaxy evolution, for a well-defined population of galaxies. All photometry for the survey has been publicly released.However, the failure of ACS 4.5 months after ANGST began taking data led to a drastic reduction in the planned survey. The loss is two-fold. First, the goals of completeness and uniformity were greatly compromised, impacting global comparison studies. Second, the variety of observed star formation histories was reduced. Given that we have never found two galaxies with identical star formation histories, and fully sampling the population allows us to catch those few systems whose star formation rates and metallicities place the strongest constraints on key astrophysical processes.Here we propose WFPC2 observations of all remaining galaxies within the Local Volume {D<3.5Mpc} for which current HST observations are insufficient for meaningful stellar population studies. We will use these observations for research on the star formation histories of individual galaxies and the Local Volume, detailed calibrations of star formation rate indicators, and the

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    González, Maykel; Merino, Ulises; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Francisco; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer-ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl2-Pt-(NH3)2]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Downstream effects of reservoir releases to the Potomac River from Luke, Maryland, to Washington, DC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trombley, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A digital computer flow-routing model was developed for the Potomac River in order to determine the downstream effects of flow releases from the Bloomington and Savage River Reservoirs. Both reservoirs are located above Luke, Maryland approximately 230 miles upstream from Washington, D. C. The downstream effects of reservoir releases were determined by using the unit-response method of flow routing implemented by a diffusion analogy. Results are in the form of unit response coefficients which are used to route flows downstream from Luke. A 24-hour sustained reservoir release input at Luke will result in 35 percent of the flow arriving at Washington, D.C., during the 4th day after the beginning of the release, followed by 61 percent and 4 percent arriving on the 5th and 6th days, respectively. For a 7-day sustained reservoir release, 47 percent of the flow will arrive during the 1st week, and 53 percent will arrive the 2d week. Two methods were used to estimate the amount of water that goes into channel storage between Luke and Washington, D.C., during sustained reservoir releases. Analysis of the flow-routing results indicates channel storage is equivalent to the volume of water releases over a 3.7-day period. Using channel geometry relationships, that volume is equal to 3.2 days ' release. (USGS)

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  7. Physiological factors of atrial natriuretic polypeptide release and its neural regulation in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Y; Miyata, A; Morita, H; Hosomi, H

    1988-12-01

    We have examined physiological factors in atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) release and whether or not the cardiac nerves control release of ANP. Two possible factors were tested, an increase in plasma sodium level (PNa) and an increase in atrial pressure. Injection of 1.0 or 2.0 mEq/kg of sodium ions elevated PNa by 5.3 +/- 0.3 or 7.3 +/- 0.4 mEq/L, respectively, but plasma ANP level (PANP) did not change. Infusion of 18 ml/kg of 3% Dextran-40 over 5 min increased mean left atrial pressure (MLAP) by 7.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg. PANP increased from 206 +/- 17 pg/ml to 260 +/- 25 pg/ml, which was not significant. PANP, corrected for hemodilution, significantly increased to 348 +/- 34 pg/ml. These results suggest that PNa increase does not promote ANP release, but that an atrial pressure increase does. This transient volume load did not induce full response of the ANP releasing system. A prolonged volume load for 45 min increased corrected PANP to 435 +/- 73 pg/ml. A close linear correlation was found between the increases in MLAP and PANP. These facts indicate that prolonged volume expansion is necessary to induce full response of the ANP releasing system. Complete cardiac denervation did not affect the tonic level of plasma ANP, volume expansion-induced increase in PANP, or the sensitivity of the ANP releasing system. Thus we conclude that the cardiac nerves do not control ANP release caused by volume expansion.

  8. Cholecystokinin facilitates glutamate release by increasing the number of readily releasable vesicles and releasing probability.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Jha, Archana; Ramonet, David; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Leitges, Michael; Shin, Hee-Sup; Porter, James E; Geiger, Jonathan D; Lei, Saobo

    2010-04-14

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide originally discovered in the gastrointestinal tract, is abundantly distributed in the mammalian brains including the hippocampus. Whereas CCK has been shown to increase glutamate concentration in the perfusate of hippocampal slices and in purified rat hippocampal synaptosomes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby CCK modulates glutamatergic function remain unexplored. Here, we examined the effects of CCK on glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus using whole-cell recordings from hippocampal slices. Application of CCK increased AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs at perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cell, CA3-CA3 and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses without effects at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. CCK-induced increases in AMPA EPSCs were mediated by CCK-2 receptors and were not modulated developmentally and transcriptionally. CCK reduced the coefficient of variation and paired-pulse ratio of AMPA EPSCs suggesting that CCK facilitates presynaptic glutamate release. CCK increased the release probability and the number of readily releasable vesicles with no effects on the rate of recovery from vesicle depletion. CCK-mediated increases in glutamate release required the functions of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca(2+) release and protein kinase Cgamma. CCK released endogenously from hippocampal interneurons facilitated glutamatergic transmission. Our results provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to explain the roles of CCK in the brain.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Plasma Transport in Tandem Volume Magnetic Multicusp Ion Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    oDTIC ELECTE 0 ~OF NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PLASMA TRANSPORT IN TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Todd Roland Vitko Captain, USAF AFIT...TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Todd Roland Vitko Captain, USAF AFIT/GEP/ENP/92M-01 Approved for public release; distribution...unlimited. AFIT/GEP/ENP/92M-01 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PLASMA TRANSPORT IN TANDEM VOLUME MAGNETIC MULTICUSP ION SOURCES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the

  10. A spatial model with pulsed releases to compare strategies for the sterile insect technique applied to the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Oléron Evans, Thomas P; Bishop, Steven R

    2014-08-01

    We present a simple mathematical model to replicate the key features of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling pest species, with particular reference to the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The model differs from the majority of those studied previously in that it is simultaneously spatially explicit and involves pulsed, rather than continuous, sterile insect releases. The spatially uniform equilibria of the model are identified and analysed. Simulations are performed to analyse the impact of varying the number of release sites, the interval between pulsed releases and the overall volume of sterile insect releases on the effectiveness of SIT programmes. Results show that, given a fixed volume of available sterile insects, increasing the number of release sites and the frequency of releases increases the effectiveness of SIT programmes. It is also observed that programmes may become completely ineffective if the interval between pulsed releases is greater that a certain threshold value and that, beyond a certain point, increasing the overall volume of sterile insects released does not improve the effectiveness of SIT. It is also noted that insect dispersal drives a rapid recolonisation of areas in which the species has been eradicated and we argue that understanding the density dependent mortality of released insects is necessary to develop efficient, cost-effective SIT programmes.

  11. Dopaminergic regulation of enkephalin release.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Cortes, C; Zini, S; Gros, C; Schwartz, J C

    1991-04-01

    The effects of dopamine receptor stimulation on enkephalin release were evaluated in vitro and in vivo by measuring the changes in the levels of [Met5]enkephalin (YGGFM) and Tyr-Gly-Gly (YGG), a characteristic extracellular enkephalin metabolite produced under the action of enkephalinase. In rat striatal slices, D1-receptor agonists or antagonists did not modify enkephalin release. By contrast, D2-receptor agonists enhanced the potassium-induced release of YGGFM and YGG without affecting spontaneous release from nondepolarized slices. This response was prevented by the D2-receptor antagonists haloperidol and RIV 2093, the latter compound being more potent, which suggested the involvement of a putative D2-receptor subtype. Acute administration of apomorphine or selective D2-receptor agonists, but not that of a D1-receptor agonist, enhanced the steady-state level of YGG without affecting the YGGFM level in rat striatum. The effect was blocked selectively by D2-receptor antagonists which, administered alone, had no effect. These observations indicate that D2-receptor stimulation in vitro or in vivo facilitates enkephalin release from striatal neurons, but that endogenous dopamine does not exert any tonic influence upon the opioid peptide neuron activity under basal conditions. However, chronic administration of haloperidol resulted in increases in striatal YGGFM and YGG, an effect presumably reflecting a long-term adaptive process.

  12. Fabrication of drug eluting implants: study of drug release mechanism from titanium dioxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlekhan, Azhang; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Yarin, Alexander L.; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2015-06-01

    Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) on a titanium surface holds great potential for promoting desirable cellular response. However, prolongation of drug release from these nano-reservoirs remains to be a challenge. In our previous work TNTs were successfully loaded with a drug. In this study the effect of TNTs dimensions on prolongation of drug release is quantified aiming at the introduction of a simple novel technique which overcomes complications of previously introduced methods. Different groups of TNTs with different lengths and diameters are fabricated. Samples are loaded with a model drug and rate of drug release over time is monitored. The relation of the drug release rate to the TNT dimensions (diameter, length, aspect ratio and volume) is established. The results show that an increase in any of these parameters increases the duration of the release process. However, the strongest parameter affecting the drug release is the aspect ratio. In fact, TNTs with higher aspect ratios release drug slower. It is revealed that drug release from TNT is a diffusion-limited process. Assuming that diffusion of drug in (Phosphate-Buffered Saline) PBS follows one-dimensional Fick’s law, the theoretical predictions for drug release profile is compatible with our experimental data for release from a single TNT.

  13. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  14. Release behavior and kinetic evaluation of berberine hydrochloride from ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Cao, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Novel ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres (ECCMs) were prepared by the method of w/o/w emulsion and solvent evaporation. The microspheres were spherical, adhesive, and aggregated loosely with a size not bigger than 5 μm. The drug loading efficiency of berberine hydrochloride (BH) loaded in microspheres were affected by chitosan (CS) concentration, EC concentration and the volume ratio of V(CS)/ V(EC). ECCMs prepared had sustained release efficiency on BH which was changed with different preparation parameters. In addition, the pH value of release media had obvious effect on the release character of ECCMs. The release rate of BH from sample B was only a little more than 30% in diluted hydrochloric acid (dHCl) and that was almost 90% in PBS during 24 h. Furthermore, the drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models to analyze the release kinetics and the mechanism from the microspheres. The released results of BH indicated that ECCMs exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in dHCl and diffusion-controlled drug release based on Fickian diffusion in PBS. So the ECCMs might be an ideal sustained release system especially in dHCl and the drug release was governed by both diffusion of the drug and dissolution of the polymeric network.

  15. Studies on renin release from isolated superfused glomeruli: effects of temperature, urea, ouabain and ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, L; Leyssac, P P; Skinner, S L

    1976-01-01

    1. The effects of different energy substrates, of low temperature, of urea, and of ouabain and ethacrynic acid were studied on the rate of renin release from viable juxtaglomerular cells during superfusion of isolated rat glomeruli. 2. Neither lactate nor glutamate altered renin release rate from that observed using glucose as the sole energy substrate. Succinate 10 mM elevated release transiently but did not influence the release caused by reductions in osmolality through lowering sucrose concentration. 3. Peak renin release was more prolonged and returned more slowly to control following reductions in osmolality in phosphate-Ringer than in bicarbonate-Ringer. 4. At 37 degrees C, the peak of renin released induced by hypo-osmolality was smaller and delayed, and returned earlier to control than at 30 degrees C. Reduction in temperature from 30 to 4 degrees C resulted in a 32-fold increase in basal release rate. At 4 degrees C a 20 m-osmole/kg reduction in tonicity caused an additional 2-5-fold increase in release rate. 6. Increasing superfusate osmolality with urea did not affect basal renin release but 100 mM urea suppressed the releasing effect of a 15 mM reduction in NaCl concentration. 7. Ouabain (10(-4) M) caused a small (33 +/- 9%, P less than 0-025) transient increase in renin release. Ethacrynic acid (10(-3) M) provoked a progressive increase in release reaching 100 +/- 15% above control within 50 min. In the presence of both inhibitors the release provoked by hyposmolality was prolonged. 8. It is concluded that renin release in vitro is a function of actively regulated cell volume and it is proposed that a similar mechanism could underline both barorecptor and macula densa controls of renin secretion in vivo. PMID:940062

  16. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  17. ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M

    2006-02-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar

  18. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  19. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  20. Effect of brushing on fluoride release from 3 bracket adhesives.

    PubMed

    Staley, Robert N; Mack, Steven J; Wefel, James S; Vargas, Marcos A; Jakobsen, Jane R

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare fluoride ion release from 3 orthodontic bracket adhesives with and without brushing the bracketed teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice. The bracket adhesives included a light-cured composite resin (Transbond; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), a fluoride-releasing composite resin (Advance; L D Caulk Division, Dentsply International, Milford, Del), and a resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America, Alsip, Ill). The teeth in the control group were not bonded with brackets. Sixty extracted human teeth were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 10 each: (1) Transbond, brushed; (2) Advance, brushed; (3) Advance, not brushed; (4) Fuji, brushed; (5) Fuji, not brushed; and (6) control, brushed. After bonding, each tooth was placed in a sealed plastic test tube containing 4 ml of deionized water. The toothpaste used in brushing contained 0.15% weight per volume sodium fluoride, 1500 parts per million parts fluoride (Winter-fresh gel; Colgate-Palmolive Co., New York, NY). Brushing began 24 hours after the teeth were bonded and placed in deionized water. After brushing, the teeth were thoroughly rinsed with deionized water and returned to a sealed test tube. Fluoride measurements were taken before brushing began, at intervals of 72 hours for 22 days, and 90 and 93 days after bonding. Findings included: (1) brushing significantly increased the release of fluoride ions from the teeth in the composite resin and control groups, (2) the enamel crowns of the unbonded control teeth absorbed and re-released a substantial amount of fluoride ions obtained from the toothpaste, (3) the brushed group of teeth bonded with the fluoride-releasing composite resin released significantly more fluoride on the last 4 days that measurements were taken after brushing than the nonbrushed group bonded with the same adhesive, (4) the brushed group of teeth bonded with the resin-modified glass ionomer released significantly more fluoride on the last 4

  1. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  2. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  3. Counterion release and electrostatic adsorption

    PubMed

    Sens; Joanny

    2000-05-22

    The effective charge of a rigid polyelectrolyte (PE) approaching an oppositely charged surface is studied. The cases of a weak (annealed) and strongly charged PE with condensed counterions (such as DNA) are discussed. In the most interesting case of the adsorption onto a substrate of low dielectric constant (such as a lipid membrane or a mica sheet) the condensed counterions are not always released as the PE approaches the substrate, because of the major importance of the image-charge effect. For the adsorption onto a surface with freely moving charges, the image-charge effect becomes less important and full release is often expected.

  4. Hydrocarbon release investigations in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Fels, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    Hydrocarbon releases are among the most common environmental problems in Missouri, as well as across the country. Old, unprotected underground storage tanks and buried piping from the tanks to pumps are notorious sources of petroleum contamination at LUST (leaking underground storage tank) sites. Missouri has an estimated 5000 LUST sites across the state with the majority being simple spills into clay-rich soils or into a shallow perched water system. However, in the southern half of the state, where residual soils and karst bedrock are not conducive to trapping such releases, significant groundwater supplies are at risk. This article discusses the process used to identify the source of contamination.

  5. Partial-depth lock-release flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodkar, M. A.; Nasr-Azadani, M. M.; Meiburg, E.

    2017-06-01

    We extend the vorticity-based modeling concept for stratified flows introduced by Borden and Meiburg [Z. Borden and E. Meiburg, J. Fluid Mech. 726, R1 (2013), 10.1017/jfm.2013.239] to unsteady flow fields that cannot be rendered quasisteady by a change of reference frames. Towards this end, we formulate a differential control volume balance for the conservation of mass and vorticity in the fully unsteady parts of the flow, which we refer to as the differential vorticity model. We furthermore show that with the additional assumptions of locally uniform parallel flow within each layer, the unsteady vorticity modeling approach reproduces the familiar two-layer shallow-water equations. To evaluate its accuracy, we then apply the vorticity model approach to partial-depth lock-release flows. Consistent with the shallow water analysis of Rottman and Simpson [J. W. Rottman and J. E. Simpson, J. Fluid Mech. 135, 95 (1983), 10.1017/S0022112083002979], the vorticity model demonstrates the formation of a quasisteady gravity current front, a fully unsteady expansion wave, and a propagating bore that is present only if the lock depth exceeds half the channel height. When this bore forms, it travels with a velocity that does not depend on the lock height and the interface behind it is always at half the channel depth. We demonstrate that such a bore is energy conserving. The differential vorticity model gives predictions for the height and velocity of the gravity current and the bore, as well as for the propagation velocities of the edges of the expansion fan, as a function of the lock height. All of these predictions are seen to be in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation data and, where available, with experimental results. An energy analysis shows lock-release flows to be energy conserving only for the case of a full lock, whereas they are always dissipative for partial-depth locks.

  6. FLES News, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLES News, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Volume 8 of the newslettter for teachers of foreign language in elementary schools (FLES) features these articles: "The Teacher's Voice: Action Research in Your Classroom" (Anna Uhl Chamot); "Teacher Preparation: Using Videotapes in a Teaching Practicum" (Gisela Ernst, Kerri J. Richard); and "Hawaiian Language Immersion:…

  7. Navajo Biographies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Virginia

    The life stories of eight Navajo ("Dine", their term for themselves) leaders are presented in volume one of this collection of biographies. Interspersed with portraits, drawings, and maps, the narrative chronologically covers the time period from 1766 when the Navajos lived on land under the rule of Spain into the twentieth century and…

  8. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  9. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  11. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  12. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  13. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  14. Another year, another volume

    Treesearch

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  15. Exhibit Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Princeton, NJ.

    As part of the second phase of a two-phase study of the condition and needs of the live professional theatre in America since the mid-1960's, this volume contains statements of the problems and solutions identified by the following theatre organizations: (1) Actors' Equity Association, (2) Off-Off Broadway Alliance, (3) Alliance for American…

  16. Negotiating Salaries, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This volume deals with concepts important to the effective negotiation of salaries in public schools. The discussion covers the compensation patterns in education, the goals and pressures affecting reacher negotiators, salaries in relation to other benefits and proposals, extra pay for extra duties and merit pay, and the stance of the negotiators…

  17. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  18. Oxycodone controlled release in cancer pain management.

    PubMed

    Biancofiore, Giuseppe

    2006-09-01

    Oral opioids are the treatment of choice for chronic cancer pain. Morphine is the strong opioid of choice for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain according to guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO). This recommendation by the WHO was derived from availability, familiarity to clinicians, established effectiveness, simplicity of administration, and relative inexpensive cost. It was not based on proven therapeutic superiority over other options. Patients who experience inadequate pain relief or intolerable side effects with one opioid may often be successfully treated with another agent or with the same agent administered by a different route. Opioid rotation, or switching to an alternative opioid, helps some patients achieve better pain control with fewer associated adverse effects. Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor specific ligand, with clear agonist properties. It is an active potent opioid, which is in part a kappa-receptor agonist. Like morphine and other pure agonists, there is no known ceiling to the analgesic effects of oxycodone. The active metabolites of oxycodone (eg, oxymorphone) could be important in oxycodone-mediated analgesia. The main pharmacokinetic difference between oxycodone and morphine is in oral bioavailability. The bioavailability of oxycodone is >60% and the bioavailability of morphine is 20%. Controlled-release oxycodone is absorbed in a bi-exponential fashion. There is a rapid phase with a mean half-life of 37 min, accounting for 38% of the dose, and a slow phase with a half-life of 6.2 h, which accounts for the residual 62%. Oxycodone elimination is impaired by renal failure because there are both an increased volume of distribution and reduced clearance. A lot of studies prove that the efficacy of controlled-release oxycodone in cancer-pain control is at least the same as morphine, immediate-release oxycodone and hydromorphone. Its toxicity profile seems better than that of morphine. There are actually several

  19. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  20. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts...

  1. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  2. Very low shock release pyromechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulier, Grégory; Gaechter, J. Pierre

    2003-09-01

    Pyromechanisms have long been used in space for launchers and satellites applications, particularly for release or separation purposes, such as bolt cutters, release nuts, pyrovalves, etc. They offer a great variety of uses, a high potential between the power supplied and the weight on board with, at the same time, a high reliability. However, they also feature a drawback due to the high dynamics generated by their functioning. Pyroshocks levels may damage adjacent sensible equipments (eg electronic boxes, reaction wheels,...) and require to design damping systems or to remove those equipments from the shock source. In a mechanism using standard pyrodevices, shock generation comes from three sources: 1. Pyrotechnic reaction. 2. Energy from internal parts in motion. 3. The release of structural constraints. Devices developed by E. LACROIX have the objectives to avoid the two last ones by: Using heat and gas generated by pyrotechnic effects. Reducing speed of parts in motion. Reducing release speed of mechanical constraints. In this paper, LACROIX presents two products named "PYROSOFT" and "VIROSOFT " designed by LACROIX and supported by CNES Toulouse (French Space Agency). R&T contracts.

  3. Spatial release from informational masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakerd, Brad; Aaronson, Neil L.

    2001-05-01

    A new method for investigating spatial release from informational masking was developed and employed in two experiments. The new method is computer controlled and efficient. It employs the versatile coordinate response measure speech stimulus set [Bolia et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1065 (2000)]. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic room, with a primary loudspeaker in front of the listener and a secondary loudspeaker at 60 deg to the right. Target messages were presented from the primary speaker only. For a standard, distractor messages, simultaneous with the target, were also presented from the primary speaker only. Spatial release was measured by presenting the distractors from both primary and secondary speakers with a temporal offset. Experiment 1 fixed the offset (secondary leading, +4 ms) and varied the number of distractors (1 to 3) and the target-to-distractor ratio (-12 to +4 dB). Masking release, sometimes as large as 10 dB, was found for all combinations of these variables. Experiment 2 varied the offset over a wide range of values. Substantial release from masking was found for both positive and negative offsets, but only in the range in which speech echoes are suppressed (<50 ms). [Work supported by NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  4. 2014 Pee Dee germplasm releases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PD 05035, PD 05041, PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, PD 05071, PD 06001, and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. These ...

  5. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2016-11-01

    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  6. Kepler Data Release 3 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    This describes the collection of data and the processing done on it so when researchers around the world get the Kepler data sets (which are a set of pixels from the telescope of a particular target (star, galaxy or whatever) over a 3 month period) they can adjust their algorithms fro things that were done (like subtracting all of one particular wavelength for example). This is used to calibrate their own algorithms so that they know what it is they are starting with. It is posted so that whoever is accessing the publicly available data (not all of it is made public) can understand it .. (most of the Kepler data is under restriction for 1 - 4 years and is not available, but the handbook is for everyone (public and restricted) The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFls and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 3 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http:// archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html .Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  7. Cell swelling-induced ATP release is tightly dependent on intracellular calcium elevations

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Francis; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical stresses release ATP from a variety of cells by a poorly defined mechanism(s). Using custom-designed flow-through chambers, we investigated the kinetics of cell swelling-induced ATP secretion, cell volume and intracellular calcium changes in epithelial A549 and 16HBE14o− cells, and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Fifty per cent hypotonic shock triggered transient ATP release from cell confluent monolayers, which consistently peaked at around 1 min 45 s for A549 and NIH/3T3, and at 3 min for 16HBE14o− cells, then declined to baseline within the next 15 min. Whereas the release time course had a similar pattern for the three cell types, the peak rates differed significantly (294 ± 67, 70 ± 22 and 17 ± 2.8 pmol min−1 (106 cells)−1, for A549, 16HBE14o− and NIH/3T3, respectively). The concomitant volume changes of substrate-attached cells were analysed by a 3-dimensional cell shape reconstruction method based on images acquired from two perpendicular directions. The three cell types swelled at a similar rate, reaching maximal expansion in 1 min 45 s, but differed in the duration of the volume plateau and regulatory volume decrease (RVD). These experiments revealed that ATP release does not correlate with either cell volume expansion and the expected activation of stretch-sensitive channels, or with the activation of volume-sensitive, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid-inhibitable anion channels during RVD. By contrast, ATP release was tightly synchronized, in all three cell types, with cytosolic calcium elevations. Furthermore, loading A549 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA significantly diminished ATP release (71% inhibition of the peak rate), while the calcium ionophore ionomycin triggered ATP release in the absence of cell swelling. Lowering the temperature to 10°C almost completely abolished A549 cell swelling-induced ATP release (95% inhibition of the peak rate). These results strongly suggest that calcium-dependent exocytosis plays a

  8. Enhanced controlled release of loratadine from the ethylene-vinyl acetate matrix containing plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Cheong-Weon; Kim, Seong-Jin; Yang, Kyu-Ho; Song, Jae-Haeng; Jeong, Hyun-Jon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2008-09-01

    An ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix containing plasticizer was prepared as a potential controlled release system for loratadine. The EVA matrix containing loratadine was prepared as the transdermal device using casting methods. The solubility of loratadine according to the volume fraction of PEG 400 was determined. The effects of the drug concentration, temperature, and plasticizers on the release of the drug were determined at 37 degrees C using 40% PEG 400 solution as the receptor medium using the modified Keshary-Chien cell. Some types of plasticizers. such as citrates and phthalates, were used to prepare the pores and increase the flexibility of the EVA matrix. The solubility test according to the PEG 400 volume fraction revealed the highest solubility in the 40% PEG 400 solution. The rate of drug released from the EVA matrix increased with increasing temperature and drug loading. There was a linear relationship between the release rate and the square root of the loading dose. The activation energy for drug release from the EVA matrix with a loading dose of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% was estimated to be 6.83, 6.80, 6.77, 6.71, and 6.65 kcal/mol, respectively Among the plasticizers used, diethyl phthalate showed the highest level of loratadine release. In conclusion, an EVA matrix containing plasticizer could be used to enhance the controlled release of loratadine.

  9. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  10. A mathematical model to predict the release of water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    PubMed

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Fu, C Y; Liang, W Q

    2004-09-01

    A mathematical model to predict the fraction of water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (CH, w/w), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived with ranitidine hydrochloride, diltiazem hydrochloride, and ribavirin as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.5 log t-0.3322CH-0.2222V-0.2988 (n = 140, r = 0.9848), where M(t) is the amount of drug released at time t, M(infinity) is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using isoniazid and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of various soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  11. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Tailored Sequential Drug Release from Bilayered Calcium Sulfate Composites

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt%) of metronidazole-loaded poly poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography (MicroCT) images showed the overall layered geometry as well as homogenous distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4% per day). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. PMID:25175211

  13. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Bryan R; Puleo, David A

    2014-10-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic, Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Releases in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshgar Asl, S.; Amos, J.; Woods, P.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    We used satellite remote sensing to quantify hydrocarbon releases cataloged in the Gulf of Mexico. Satellite SAR has frequently been used for detecting small volume releases of oil in the Gulf. Hydrocarbon compounds reduce water surface roughness and therefore can be detected on SAR images as dark areas. We compiled National Response Center (NRC) oil and hazardous materials spill reports in the Gulf of Mexico submitted by the polluters and by passers-by, collected and filtered by SkyTruth from 2001 to 2012 and determined whether the reports coincided with archived SAR images. So, 316 out of a total 4,574 reports could be investigated from 64 SAR images over the report locations. Some of the images covered multiple reports and oil releases described one report could be observed in more than one image. Current information on platforms, pipeline locations, and ages provided by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEM) can also help us in identifying sources of anthropogenic pollution. The visibility analysis indicated 66 reports of releases were from pipeline, platforms or other anthropogenic sources. Of these, 21 could be seen in SAR images. There were also 133 reports of releases from unknown sources. Of these, 28 were visible in the images. Moreover, 103 anthropogenic reports were attributed to the Taylor offshore platform (platform 23051 in Mississippi Canyon Block 20) which was destroyed during Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and subsequently removed. Of those, 55 were visible in the SAR images and were significantly larger when compared with other reported anthropogenic slicks. The rest of the reports were coded invisible for reasons such as attendance of multiple slicks which makes the decision difficult, report falling outside of the image, image contrast, noisy image, no slick at all, wrong coding, and no slick at the site but another slick in proximity. We then focused on the size of the visible reports which were extracted. The

  15. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts.

  16. Evidence for a Humoral Mechanism in Volume Expansion Natriuresis

    PubMed Central

    Kaloyanides, George J.; Azer, Maher

    1971-01-01

    The role of a humoral mechanism in the natriuresis induced by volume expansion was evaluated using an isolated dog kidney perfused by a second dog which had been pretreated with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). Expansion of the perfusion dog with an equilibrated volume of blood from a reservoir, resulted in an increase in UnaV (sodium excretion) from 153.6±27.9 (sem) to 345.5±57.8 μEq/min, P<0.001. FEna (fractional sodium excretion) increased from 3.4±0.6 to 8.1±1.2%, P<0.01. The natriuresis occurred in the face of a significant decrease in Cin, RBF, and renal arterial pressure, and in the absence of any change in plasma protein concentration or packed cell volume. In a control group of experiments, sodium excretion did not change when the perfusion dog was not volume expanded, although Cin (inulin clearance) and RBF (renal blood flow) decreased to the same degree as in the expanded group. These data support the conclusion that volume expansion of the perfusion dog either stimulated the release of a natriuretic factor or suppressed the release of an antinatriuretic factor which was manifested by an increase in sodium excretion in the isolated kidney. PMID:5097568

  17. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  18. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    PubMed

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  19. Membrane perturbations of erythrocyte ghosts by spectrin release.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Ozaki, Shinnosuke; Shimomura, Taiji; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-01

    The cytoskeleton plays an important role in the stability and function of the membrane. Spectrin release from erythrocyte ghosts makes the membrane more fragile. However, the detail of membrane fragility has remained unclear. In the present study, the effects of incubation temperatures and polyamines on the membrane structure of ghosts under hypotonic conditions have been examined. Upon exposure of ghosts to a hypotonic buffer at 0-37 degrees C, reduction of ghost volume, spectrin release and decrease of band 3-cytoskeleton interactions were clearly observed above 30 degrees C. However, such changes were completely inhibited by spermine and spermidine. Interestingly, conformational changes of spectrin induced at 37 degrees C or 49 degrees C were not suppressed by both polyamines. Flow cytometry of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled ghosts exposed to 37 degrees C demonstrated the two peaks corresponding to ghosts with normal spectrin content and decreased one. Taken together, these results indicate that the degree of spectrin release from the membrane under hypotonic conditions is not same in all ghosts, and that polyamines inhibit the spectrin release followed by changes in the membrane structure, but not conformational changes of spectrin.

  20. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  1. Absorption of sustained-release theophylline tablets.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, P O; Heintz, L

    1983-07-01

    Three different sustained-release tablets of theophylline (Theo-Dur, Phyllocontin continus, Euphyllin Retard) and an oral elixir of aminophylline were administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a crossover scheme. Plasma concentration of theophylline was monitored for 33 h after each administration using an HPLC reversed-phase method. The mean values and SD for total body clearance (0.054 +/- 0.010 l/[h X kg]), elimination half-life (6.0 +/- 1.2 h), and volume of distribution (0.455 +/- 0.046 l/kg) were calculated from the plasma concentration curves after the administration of elixir. The mean bioavailability of Theo-Dur was 94%, Phyllocontin continus 88%, and Euphyllin Retard 84%. The absorption was faster from Phyllocontin continus than from Theo-Dur or Euphyllin Retard. The time of peak concentration varied considerably after Euphyllin Retard but was less fluctuating among the subjects after Phyllocontin continus or Theo-Dur. In some subjects an extremely delayed peak (up to 24 h after administration) was observed after Euphyllin Retard.

  2. Cellular taurine release triggered by stimulation of the Fas(CD95) receptor in Jurkat lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lang, F; Madlung, J; Uhlemann, A C; Risler, T; Gulbins, E

    1998-08-01

    One of the hallmarks of apoptosis is cell shrinkage which appears to be important for cell death. The mechanisms mediating cell volume decrease have, however, not been addressed. Mechanisms employed by swollen cells to decrease their cell volume include activation of ion transport pathways, such as ion channels and KCl cotransport, and release of cellular osmolytes, such as taurine, sorbitol, betaine and inositol. The present study has been performed to test for release of taurine. To this end Jurkat human T-lymphocytes were loaded with [3H]taurine and apoptotic cell death induced by triggering the Fas(CD95) receptor with monoclonal crosslinking antibody. Triggering the Fas(CD95) receptor led to a release of 60+/-5% of cellular taurine within 90 min. The release did not occur prior to 45 min. The release coincided with cell shrinkage as evidenced from forward scatter in FACS analysis and preceeded DNA fragmentation according to propidium iodide staining. The delay of taurine release was not influenced by exchange of medium and thus was not due to extracellular accumulation of a stimulator. The Fas(CD95)-induced taurine release, cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation were blunted by lowering of ambient temperature to 23 degreesC. Following pretreatment of cells with Fas(CD95) antibody at 23 degreesC rewarming led to rapid taurine release, cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation, indicating that the temperature-sensitive step is distal to the mechanisms accounting for the delay. Osmotic cell swelling led to an immediate release of taurine. In conclusion, Fas(CD95) triggering leads to delayed taurine release through a temperature-sensitive mechanism.

  3. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  4. [Preparation and in vitro release characteristics of pulsed-release tablets of Apocynum venetum].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huasheng; Xie, Fugui; Yang, Yuewen; Luo, Yongming

    2011-06-01

    Using Apocynum venetum as a model drug to prepare pulsed-release tablets based on diffusion, swelling, osmotic pressure mechanism and to evaluate the release characteristics. The pulsatile release tablets were prepared by film coating methods using HPMC E5 and Eudragit The effect of formulation on pulsatile release of A. venetum was investigated. The pulsed-release tablet was prepared by a swelling layer coating which contains HPMC E5 and a controlled-release membrane containning Eudragit. The delayed release time of the tablets was (5.0 +/- 0.5) h. The pulsatile release characteristics of A. venetum pulsatile release tablets were confirmed in vitro.

  5. Wound Volume Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    III and IV decubitus ulcers ). Wounds can also be classified by etiology as (a) surgical, (b) traumatic (such as mechanical or thermal injuries), and...had either decubitus ulcers or venous stasis ulcers . Each patient’s wound was measured with each of the three methods. First, the wound was...standardized and clinically available method to estimate wound volume is needed to determine rate of pressure ulcer healing. This quasi-experimental

  6. Research Summary No. 36-6, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  7. Research Summary No. 36-5, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  8. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices: 1985 supplement, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, K. E.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.; Dantas, A. R. V.; Price, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data are provided, in graphic format, for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. The document is in two volumes: Volume 1 provides data on diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous semiconductor types, and Volume 2 provides total-dose radiation test data on integrated circuits. Volume 1 of this 1985 Supplement contains new total-dose radiation test data generated since the August 1, 1981 release date of the original Volume 1. Publication of Volume 2 of the 1985 Supplement will follow that of Volume 1 by approximately three months.

  9. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A certificate...

  10. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  11. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    PubMed

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  12. CIRMIS Data system. Volume 2. Program listings

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required.The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System is a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display. This is the second of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  13. Neutron-absorber release device

    DOEpatents

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  14. Zegerid--immediate-release omeprazole.

    PubMed

    2005-04-11

    The FDA has approved marketing of Zegerid powder for oral suspension (Santarus), an immediate-release formulation of the proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others). All other oral PPIs are delayed-release, enteric-coated formulations designed to prevent degradation of the drug by gastric acid. Each 20- or 40-mg packet of Zegerid contains 1680 mg sodium bicarbonate, which protects the drug from gastric acid degradation. A dose of Zegerid contains 460 mg of sodium, which may be excessive for some patients. Zegerid is the first oral PPI to be approved by the FDA for reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients. The drug may be useful for patients who are unable to swallow and have nasogastric (NG) tubes in place. Zegerid cost $70.00 for 14 days' treatment, compared to less than $10 for 14 tablets of Prilosec OTC.

  15. Limited incision carpal tunnel release

    PubMed Central

    Gaba, Sunil; Bhogesha, Sandeep; Singh, Onkar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28–56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study. Results: All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2–14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30–90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7–21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7–28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21–90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm2 preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm2 preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm2

  16. Limited incision carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sunil; Bhogesha, Sandeep; Singh, Onkar

    2017-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique. Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28-56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study. All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2-14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30-90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7-21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7-28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21-90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm(2) preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm(2) at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm(2) at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm(2) preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm(2) at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm(2) at 1-year postoperatively. The tip pinch

  17. Pine Response and Hardwood Development After Brushsawing and Manual Herbicide Release of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Muir; Dwight K. Laur; Glenn R. Glover; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Manually applied release treatments with herbicides have been increasing in use over the past decade in forests of the southeastern U.S.. Both industrial and non-industrial forest land managers are employing directed foliar sprays and basal sprays of herbicides. Innovations of these standard application methods utilize lower volumes, better nozzles, and improved...

  18. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    the air temperature record over the course of the Release Test. The coldest air temperatures were recorded around 0700 on 11 February when the air...2012–2013, as shown in Figure 4. The rate of increase was about 1 ft every 15 days. Recording sensors measured reservoir temperatures hourly from 24...November 2012 through 10 February 2013. They recorded the water temperatures at 15 ft intervals between 5000 and 5070 ft, and the data were

  19. Releasing the Results of Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    allow for lessons to be learned. RELEASING THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS On December 21, 2009, Gilbert Arenas – star basketball player for the...National Basketball Association’s Washington Wizards – brought four guns into the locker room at Verizon Center for what he alleged was a practical...joke.1 Earlier in the month Mr. Arenas and teammate Javaris Crittenton – with only two years of NBA experience – “got into an argument over a card

  20. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (<100 nm) during abrasive procedures to shape, finish or remove restorations but, so far, whether airborne nanoparticles are released has never been investigated. In this study, composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do CAD/CAM dentures really release less monomer than conventional dentures?

    PubMed

    Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Wiedemair, Verena; Huck, Christian; Klaunzer, Florian; Steinmassl, Otto; Grunert, Ingrid; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) dentures are assumed to have more favourable material properties than conventionally fabricated dentures, among them a lower methacrylate monomer release. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures were generated from ten different master casts by using four different CAD/CAM systems. Conventional, heat-polymerised dentures served as control group. Denture weight and volume were measured; the density was calculated, and the denture surface area was assessed digitally. The monomer release after 7 days of water storage was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole You Nexteeth and Wieland Digital Dentures had significantly lower mean volume and weight than conventional dentures. Baltic Denture System and Whole You Nexteeth had a significantly increased density. Baltic Denture System had a significantly smaller surface area. None of the CAD/CAM dentures released significantly less monomer than the control group. All tested dentures released very low amounts of methacrylate monomer, but not significantly less than conventional dentures. A statistically significant difference might nevertheless exist in comparison to other, less recommendable denture base materials, such as the frequently used autopolymerising resins. CAD/CAM denture fabrication has numerous advantages. It enables the fabrication of dentures with lower resin volume and lower denture weight. Both could increase the patient comfort. Dentures with higher density might exhibit more favourable mechanical properties. The hypothesis that CAD/CAM dentures release less monomer than conventional dentures could, however, not be verified.

  2. Neuronal release of d-serine: a physiological pathway controlling extracellular d-serine concentration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dina; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Shleper, Maria; Klinker, Chanda M. C.; Bowser, Michael T.; Wolosker, Herman

    2010-01-01

    d-Serine is thought to be a glia-derived transmitter that activates N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the brain. Here, we investigate the pathways for d-serine release using primary cultures, brain slices, and in vivo microdialysis. In contrast with the notion that d-serine is exclusively released from astrocytes, we found that d-serine is released by neuronal depolarization both in vitro and in vivo. Veratridine (50 μM) or depolarization by 40 mM KCl elicits a significant release of endogenous d-serine from primary neuronal cultures. Controls with astrocyte cultures indicate that glial cells are insensitive to veratridine, but release d-serine mainly by the opening of volume-regulated anion channels. In cortical slices perfused with veratridine, endogenous d-serine release is 10-fold higher than glutamate receptor-evoked release. Release of d-serine from slices does not require internal or external Ca2+, suggesting a nonvesicular release mechanism. To confirm the neuronal origin of d-serine, we selectively loaded neurons in cortical slices with d-[3H]serine or applied d-alanine, which specifically releases d-serine from neurons. Depolarization with veratridine promotes d-serine release in vivo monitored by high temporal resolution microdialysis of the striatum. Our data indicate that the neuronal pool of d-serine plays a major role in d-serine dynamics, with implications for the regulation of NMDAR transmission. Rosenberg, D., Kartvelishvily, E., Shleper, M., Klinker, C. M. C., Bowser, M. T., Wolosker, H. Neuronal release of d-serine: a physiological pathway controlling extracellular d-serine concentration. PMID:20371631

  3. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  4. Fluoride release from restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Basso, Gabriela Romanini; Della Bona, Alvaro; Gobbi, Delton Luiz; Cecchetti, Dileta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro fluoride (F) release from 4 restorative materials (3M ESPE): Ketak Molar Easymix [KME - conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC)]; Rely-X luting 2 [RL2 - resin-modified GIC (RMGIC)]; Vitremer (VIT- RMGIC); and Filtek Z250 [Z250 - negative control]. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and placed into 10 mL of reverse osmosis water at 37°C until the analyses were done using a liquid membrane for selective F ion electrode (Orion 710). F release was evaluated every 6 h in the first day and thereafter daily during 28 days (d). The results were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Mean F release and standard deviation values (in ppm) were: KME: 6 h- 0.34 ± 0.04; 24 h- 1.22 ± 0.30; 7 d- 0.29 ± 0.09; 14 d- 0.20 ± 0.04; 28 d- 0.16 ± 0.01; RL2: 6 h- 2.46 ± 0.48; 24 h-12.33 ± 2.93; 7 d- 1.37 ± 0.38; 14 d- 0.80 ± 0.13; 28 d- 0.80 ± 0.21; VIT: 6 h- 0.98 ± 0.35; 24 h- 4.35 ± 1.22; 7 d- 0.66 ± 0.23; 14 d- 0.40 ± 0.07; 28 d- 0.39 ± 0.08; Z250: 6 h- 0.029 ± 0.001; 24 h- 0.024 ± 0.009; 7 d- 0.023 ± 0.004; 14 d- 0.025 ± 0.001; 28 d- 0.028 ± 0.001. RL2 RMGIC released more F than the other materials in all periods. The greatest release of F occurred in the first 24 h.

  5. Intracellular signalling involved in volume regulatory decrease.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K

    2000-01-01

    The following volume-sensitive channels are characterized in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), (i) a tamoxifen- and AA acid sensitive, outwardly rectifying small anion channel (I(Cl,vol)) with low field anion selectivity (I(-)>Cl(-)) and moderate depolarisation-induced inactivation, (ii) a separate DIDS- and niflumic acid-sensitive organic osmolyte/anion channel (OOC) transporting predominantly taurine, and (iii) a clofilium- and Ba(2+)-sensitive, voltage- and Ca(2+)-insensitive 5 pS K(+) channel (I(K,vol)), resistant to a range of K(+) channel inhibitors including ChTX, clotrimazole, apamin, kaliotoxin, margatoxin, and TEA, and with a pH(o) dependence reminiscent of the two-pore domain background K(+) channels TASK. Cell swelling leads to an immediate and transient 3.3 fold increase in the rate of AA release resulting from activation of cPLA(2)alpha, which is found to be translocated to the nucleus upon cell swelling (probably to the inner nuclear membrane), where it is phosphorylated and activated by a G-protein coupled process. AA is a precursor for LTC(4), which is transported out of the cell, where it is converted to LTD(4), which activates I(K,vol), and OOC, whereas I(Cl,vol) is activated via a different pathway. In the absence of an increase in [Ca(2+)](i), the unitary conductance, kinetics, and pharmacological profile are similar for I(K,vol) and the K(+)-channels activated by LTD(4). Tyrosine phosphorylations are involved in the volume regulatory pathways and in defining the volume set-point. Tyrosin kinases appear to be involved in the signalling sequence leading to opening of the channels, and tyrosin phosphatases seem to be involved in closing of the channels. Finally a significant de-polymerization of F-actin is observed after cell swelling, the potential role of which in the volume regulatory mechanisms is under investigation.

  6. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  7. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  8. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  9. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  10. Synapsins Differentially Control Dopamine and Serotonin Release

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Brian M.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Venton, B. Jill; Wetsel, William C.; Augustine, George J.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knockout (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  11. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released.

  12. Mining volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph Saul (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a shaft with a curved or straight primary segment and smaller off-shooting segments, at least one standing wave is generated in the primary segment. The shaft has either an open end or a closed end and approximates a cylindrical waveguide. A frequency of a standing wave that represents the fundamental mode characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. Alternatively, a frequency differential between two successive harmonic modes that are characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. In either event, the measured frequency or frequency differential is characteristic of the length and thus the volume of the shaft based on length times the bore area.

  13. In situ rheology and gas volume in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Brewster, M.E.; Chen, G.; Reid, H.C.; Shepard, C.L.; Terrones, G.; Mendoza, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a detailed characterization of gas retention and release in 6 Hanford DS waste tanks. The results came from the ball rheometer and void fraction instrument in (flammable gas watch list) tanks SY-101, SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 are presented. Instrument operation and derivation of data reduction methods are presented. Gas retention and release information is summarized for each tank and includes tank fill history and instrumentation, waste configuration, gas release, void fraction distribution, gas volumes, rheology, and photographs of the waste column from extruded core samples. Potential peak burn pressure is computed as a function of gas release fraction to portray the `hazard signature` of each tank. It is shown that two tanks remain well below the maximum allowable pressure, even if the entire gas content were released and ignited, and that none of the others present a hazard with their present gas release behavior.

  14. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  15. Biological treatment options for consolidated tailings release waters

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, C.P.; Nix, P.G.; Sander, B.; Knezevic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group, operates a large oil sands mining and extraction operation in northeastern Alberta. The extraction plant produces large volumes of a tailings slurry which resists dewatering and treatment, and is toxic to aquatic organisms. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology is used to treat tailings by either acid/lime or gypsum and enhances the possibility of treating residual fine tails in a ``dry`` land reclamation scenario and treating the release water in a wastewater treatment reclamation scenario. The objective was to assess the treatability of CT release water (i.e., the reduction of acute and chronic toxicities to trout, Ceriodaphnia, and bacteria) in bench-scale biological treatment systems. Microtox{reg_sign} IC20 test showed complete detoxification for the gypsum CT release water within 3 to 5 weeks compared with little reduction in toxicity for dyke drainage. Acute toxicity (fish) and chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia, bacterial) was removed from both CT release waters. Phosphate and aeration enhanced detoxification rates. Concentrations of naphthenic acids (an organic toxicant) were not reduced, but levels of dissolved organic compounds decreased faster than was the case for dyke drainage water, indicating that some of the organic compounds in both acid/lime and gypsum CT waters were more biodegradable. There was a pattern of increasing toxicity for dyke drainage water which confirmed observations during field-scale testing in the constructed wetlands and which was not observed for CT release waters. Acid/lime and gypsum CT water can be treated biologically in either an aeration pond, constructed wetlands, or a combination of both thereby avoiding the expense of long-term storage and/or conventional waste treatment systems.

  16. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.

  17. Instantaneous stroke volume by PDE during and after constant LBNP (-50 torr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six male subjects were exposed to -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 10 min while stroke volume was recorded beat by beat at regular intervals before, during and after release of LBNP. Stroke volume was calculated from the systolic velocity integral in the ascending aorta by pulsed Doppler echocardiography (PDE) and the cross sectional area of the vessel by M mode echocardiography. Changes in leg volume were recorded continuously and blood pressure was taken every minute. Stroke volume dropped by 51% of the control in the first 33 sec of LBNP and continued to decline slowly to -62% toward the end. Heart rate increased by 15% in the first 10 sec and was 22% above control at the end of exposure. The resulting cardiac output closely followed the course of stroke volume (-47% at 33 sec, -53% at 8 min) showing that the modest increase in heart rate did little to offset the drop in stroke volume. Leg volume increased markedly within the first 10 sec with a more gradual rise reaching +3.5% at the end. Upon sudden release of LBNP, leg volume dropped significantly during the first 3 sec simultaneously with an increase in stroke volume followed by a substantial decline in heart rate below the baseline.

  18. Instantaneous stroke volume by PDE during and after constant LBNP (-50 torr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six male subjects were exposed to -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 10 min while stroke volume was recorded beat by beat at regular intervals before, during and after release of LBNP. Stroke volume was calculated from the systolic velocity integral in the ascending aorta by pulsed Doppler echocardiography (PDE) and the cross sectional area of the vessel by M mode echocardiography. Changes in leg volume were recorded continuously and blood pressure was taken every minute. Stroke volume dropped by 51% of the control in the first 33 sec of LBNP and continued to decline slowly to -62% toward the end. Heart rate increased by 15% in the first 10 sec and was 22% above control at the end of exposure. The resulting cardiac output closely followed the course of stroke volume (-47% at 33 sec, -53% at 8 min) showing that the modest increase in heart rate did little to offset the drop in stroke volume. Leg volume increased markedly within the first 10 sec with a more gradual rise reaching +3.5% at the end. Upon sudden release of LBNP, leg volume dropped significantly during the first 3 sec simultaneously with an increase in stroke volume followed by a substantial decline in heart rate below the baseline.

  19. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford single-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Recknagle, K.P.; Reid, H.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford single-shell waste tanks based on theory, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The single-shell tanks likely to pose a flammable gas hazard are listed and described, and photographs of core extrusions and the waste surface are included. The credible mechanisms for significant flammable gas releases are described, and release volumes and rates are quantified as much as possible. The only mechanism demonstrably capable of producing large ({approximately}100 m{sup 3}) spontaneous gas releases is the buoyant displacement, which occurs only in tanks with a relatively deep layer of supernatant liquid. Only the double-shell tanks currently satisfy this condition. All release mechanisms believed plausible in single-shell tanks have been investigated, and none have the potential for large spontaneous gas releases. Only small spontaneous gas releases of several cubic meters are likely by these mechanisms. The reasons several other postulated gas release mechanisms are implausible or incredible are also given.

  20. Controllable Multicompartmental Capsules with Distinct Cores and Shells for Synergistic Release.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Wang, Wei; He, Xiao-Heng; Yang, Xiu-Lan; Li, Ming; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-04-06

    A facile and flexible approach is developed for controllable fabrication of novel multiple-compartmental calcium alginate capsules from all-aqueous droplet templates with combined coextrusion minifluidic devices for isolated coencapsulation and synergistic release of diverse incompatible components. The multicompartmental capsules exhibit distinct compartments, each of which is covered by a distinct part of a heterogeneous shell. The volume and number of multiple compartments can be well-controlled by adjusting flow rates and device numbers for isolated and optimized encapsulation of different components, while the composition of different part of the heterogeneous shell can be individually tailored by changing the composition of droplet template for flexibly tuning the release behavior of each component. Two combined devices are first used to fabricate dual-compartmental capsules and then scaled up to fabricate more complex triple-compartmental capsules for coencapsulation. The synergistic release properties are demonstrated by using dual-compartmental capsules, which contain one-half shell with a constant release rate and the other half shell with a temperature-dependent release rate. Such a heterogeneous shell provides more flexibilities for synergistic release with controllable release sequence and release rates to achieve advanced and optimized synergistic efficacy. The multicompartmental capsules show high potential for applications such as drug codelivery, confined reactions, enzyme immobilizations, and cell cultures.

  1. Mechanism of drug release from an acrylic polymer-wax matrix tablet.

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Mehta, S C; Radebaugh, G W; Fawzi, M B

    1994-06-01

    An acrylic polymer-wax matrix system was evaluated for oral sustained-release tablets of diphenhydramine HCl. A desirable release profile of diphenhydramine was achieved by incorporating Eudragit L in a carnauba wax matrix. In this polymer-wax system, carnauba wax maintained the integrity of the matrix, whereas Eudragit L slowly eroded in the matrix as the drug was released. Thus, the area-to-volume ratio of the tablet remained constant over the duration of the drug release. In vitro drug release studies were conducted at physiological pHs that exist in the gastrointestinal tract. Drug release rates decreased as the polymer:drug ratio increased from 1:2 to 2:1. The drug release rate was faster in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer than in 0.1 N HCl solution. The drug release from these polymer-wax matrices is described by a combination diffusion/erosion mechanism. Based on the typical pH encountered in intestinal fluids, complete dissolution of the drug and polymer at pH 7.5 in 8-10 h would ensure good bioavailability of the drug following oral administration.

  2. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  3. Cosmological measures without volume weighting

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N

    2008-10-15

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  4. Modified pipe extension safely releases chain binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Pipe, cut partly in half lengthwise, and cupped and notched at one end, safely releases tension in chain binders that cinch tiedown chains around truck loads. Device prevents binder-handle from being thrown violently during release.

  5. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  6. Safety Precautions for Total Release Foggers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Total release foggers, also known as bug bombs, are pesticide products containing aerosol propellants that release their contents at once to fumigate an area. They can pose a hazard if used incorrectly. Find safety information and videos on this page.

  7. Mars Express releases Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, the crucial sequence started to separate the Beagle 2 lander from Mars Express. As data from Mars Express confirm, the pyrotechnic device was fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which gently pushed Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. An image from the onboard visual monitoring camera (VMC) showing the lander drifting away is expected to be available later today. Since the Beagle 2 lander has no propulsion system of its own, it had to be put on the correct course for its descent before it was released. For this reason, on 16 December the trajectory of the whole Mars Express spacecraft had to be adjusted to ensure that Beagle 2 would be on course to enter the atmosphere of Mars. This manoeuvre, called "retargeting'' was critical: if the entry angle is too steep, the lander could overheat and burn up in the atmosphere; if the angle is too shallow, the lander might skim like a pebble on the surface of a lake and miss its target. This fine targeting and today's release were crucial manoeuvres for which ESA's Ground Control Team at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre) had trained over the past several months. The next major milestone for Mars Express will be the manoeuvre to enter into orbit around Mars. This will happen at 3:52 CET on Christmas morning, when Beagle 2 is expected to land on the surface of Mars. "Good teamwork by everybody - ESA, industry and the Beagle 2 team - has got one more critical step accomplished. Mars, here comes Europe!" said David Southwood, ESA Director of Science.

  8. Renin release: role of SNAREs.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mariela

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanism mediating renin granule exocytosis and the identity of proteins involved. We previously showed that soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNAREs), a family of proteins required for exocytosis, mediate the stimulated release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells. This minireview focuses on the current knowledge of the proteins that facilitate renin-granule exocytosis. We discuss the identity of potential candidates that mediate the signaling and final steps of exocytosis of the renin granule. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. External bulb variable volume maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  10. Volume Bragg lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divliansky, Ivan; Jain, Apurva; Drachenberg, Derrek; Podvyaznyy, Alexey; Smirnov, Vadim; Venus, George; Glebov, Leonid

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a survey of recent achievements at the College of Optics and Photonics/CREOL at the University of Central Florida in the use of newly developed diffractive optical elements which are volume Bragg gratings recorded in a photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. Three levels of semiconductor laser design are proposed to achieve high-power low-divergence output. The first level is coherent coupling of emitters by means of PTR Bragg gratings which provide excitation of only one common mode in a multichannel resonator. This type of phase locking automatically leads to a narrow spectral width of emission usually not exceeding a few tens of picometers. The second level is a change of the mechanism of transverse mode selection from spatial selection by apertures to angular selection by PTR Bragg gratings. This approach allows increasing of the aperture size without increasing the length and selecting of arbitrary mode but not necessarily a fundamental one. The third level is spectral beam combining by PTR Bragg gratings which re-direct radiation from several high-power fiber lasers to co-propagate in the same direction with diffraction limited divergence. This approach allows simplification of the thermal management because only passive devices with low absorption (a PTR volume Bragg gratings) are placed in the path of high power laser beam.

  11. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS... of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general... reasonable plan for payment shall, where feasible, be included in the parole release plan....

  12. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS... of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general... reasonable plan for payment shall, where feasible, be included in the parole release plan....

  13. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  14. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  15. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  16. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  17. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  18. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  19. 34 CFR 21.61 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release. 21.61 Section 21.61 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE How Are Awards Paid? § 21.61 Release. If an...; and (b) Constitutes a complete release of any further claim against the United States with respect...

  20. 34 CFR 21.61 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release. 21.61 Section 21.61 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE How Are Awards Paid? § 21.61 Release. If an...; and (b) Constitutes a complete release of any further claim against the United States with respect...

  1. 34 CFR 21.61 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release. 21.61 Section 21.61 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE How Are Awards Paid? § 21.61 Release. If an...; and (b) Constitutes a complete release of any further claim against the United States with respect...

  2. 34 CFR 21.61 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release. 21.61 Section 21.61 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE How Are Awards Paid? § 21.61 Release. If an...; and (b) Constitutes a complete release of any further claim against the United States with respect...

  3. 34 CFR 21.61 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release. 21.61 Section 21.61 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE How Are Awards Paid? § 21.61 Release. If an...; and (b) Constitutes a complete release of any further claim against the United States with respect...

  4. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  5. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release procedure. 142.48 Section 142.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.48 Release procedure. (a) General. When the Customs officer...

  6. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  7. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A...

  8. How Newspapers Choose the Releases They Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Linda P.

    1986-01-01

    Examines how four newspaper characteristics and seven types of news releases related to publications. Concludes that weekly and twice-weekly newspapers print more releases than daily papers and that past events, features, and institutional news releases are almost never printed. (SRT)

  9. In vitro release of Tacrolimus from Tacrolimus ointment and its speculated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Tamura, S; Toyoda, T; Kado, K; Ohnishi, N; Ibuki, R

    2004-02-11

    The in vitro release profiles and the bleeding phenomenon of Tacrolimus and propylene carbonate (PC) as a dispersing solvent for Tacrolimus drug substance in Tacrolimus ointment were investigated when changing concentrations of Tacrolimus and PC in the ointment were used, respectively. The bleeding test result indicated that Tacrolimus was in equilibrium between inside and outside of PC droplets in intact ointment base. A cumulative release amount of Tacrolimus from ointment, plotted against the square root of time, showed a straight line initially with a slope of q1 followed to change a slope to be q2 at a certain time, where the relation of these slopes being q1release from ointment, namely, first phase was related with the period during PC release and the second phase was related with the state of ointment after PC release. When the PC release was applied to the Higuchi's release equation, the above slope q1 was found to be correlated to the parameter of A/phi(0), where A was a parameter of release rate of PC and phi(0) was an initial volume fraction of PC droplets. It should be indicated that more rapid release rate of PC rather than that of Tacrolimus resulted in the generation of amorphous phase of Tacrolimus outside of remaining PC droplets. During PC release, the slope q1 could be influenced by the thermodynamic activity of Tacrolimus dissolved in PC droplets. After PC release, it would be reasonable to speculate that the amorphous cluster of Tacrolimus with a constant thermodynamic activity would give constant q2 values regardless of PC contents in Tacrolimus ointment.

  10. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. Methods The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. Results The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. Conclusion PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity

  11. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity, with significantly slower pyridostigmine

  12. Oxytocin releases atrial natriuretic peptide by combining with oxytocin receptors in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowska, Jolanta; Jankowski, Marek; Lambert, Chantal; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; Zingg, Hans H.; McCann, Samuel M.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the central nervous system induces release of the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) by release of oxytocin from the neurohypophysis. The presence of specific transcripts for the oxytocin receptor was demonstrated in all chambers of the heart by amplification of cDNA by the PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers. Oxytocin receptor mRNA content in the heart is 10 times lower than in the uterus of female rats. Oxytocin receptor transcripts were demonstrated by in situ hybridization in atrial and ventricular sections and confirmed by competitive binding assay using frozen heart sections. Perfusion of female rat hearts for 25 min with Krebs–Henseleit buffer resulted in nearly constant release of ANP. Addition of oxytocin (10−6 M) significantly stimulated ANP release, and an oxytocin receptor antagonist (10−7 and 10−6 M) caused dose-related inhibition of oxytocin-induced ANP release and in the last few minutes of perfusion decreased ANP release below that in control hearts, suggesting that intracardiac oxytocin stimulates ANP release. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide release was unaltered by oxytocin. During perfusion, heart rate decreased gradually and it was further decreased significantly by oxytocin (10−6 M). This decrease was totally reversed by the oxytocin antagonist (10−6 M) indicating that oxytocin released ANP that directly slowed the heart, probably by release of cyclic GMP. The results indicate that oxytocin receptors mediate the action of oxytocin to release ANP, which slows the heart and reduces its force of contraction to produce a rapid reduction in circulating blood volume. PMID:9326674

  13. Gas release in comet nuclei.

    PubMed

    Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A

    1990-11-01

    The evolution of a comet nucleus is investigated, taking into account the crystallization process by which the gas trapped in the ice is released to flow through the porous ice matrix. The equations of conservation of the energy and of the masses of ice and gas are solved throughout the nucleus, to obtain the evolution of the temperature, gas pressure and density profiles. A spherical nucleus composed of cold, porous amorphous ice, with 10% of CO trapped in it, serves as initial model. Several values of density (porosity) and pore size are considered. For each combination of parameters the model is evolved for 20-30 revolutions in comet P/Halley's orbit. Two aspects of the release of gas upon crystallization are analyzed and discussed: (a) the resulting continuous outward flux with high peaks at the time of crystallization, which is a cyclic process in the low-density models and sporadic in the high-density ones; (b) the internal pressures obtained down to depths of a few tens to approximately 200 m (depending on parameters), that are found to exceed the compressional strength of cometary ice. As a result, both cracking and explosions of the overlying ice layer and ejection of gas and ice/dust grains are expected to follow crystallization. They should appear as outbursts or sudden brightening of the comet. The model of 0.2 g cm-3 density is found to reproduce quite well many of the light-curve and activity characteristics of comet P/Halley.

  14. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  15. Antiprogestin-releasing intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, NR; Slayden, OD; Mah, K; Chwalisz, K; Brenner, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release progestins are highly effective contraceptives, but they induce breakthrough bleeding that some women find unacceptable. Because progesterone (P) antagonists (AP) are known to suppress the endometrium, induce amenorrhea, and inhibit fertility, AP IUDs may provide an effective contraceptive that also controls endometrial bleeding. Here we assessed the effects of empty (blank) vs AP-releasing (ZK 230 211) IUDs on bleeding patterns and endometrial growth in ovariectomized, artificially cycled macaques. The AP IUDs (but not the blank controls) induced extended, frank menstruation when inserted during the late luteal phase, an indication of local AP action. Over time, endometrial glandular and arterial proliferation were inhibited, steroid receptors were elevated, spiral arteries showed degenerative changes, progesterone withdrawal bleeding was prevented and estradiol-dependent proliferation was suppressed by the AP IUDs. In sum, AP IUDs suppressed the effects of P on endometrial progestational development and blocked the effects of estradiol on endometrial proliferation as previously shown for systemic treatment with APs. Therefore, AP IUDs may provide novel contraceptive devices with minimal breakthrough bleeding. PMID:17531599

  16. Calcium Control of Neurotransmitter Release

    PubMed Central

    Südhof, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Upon entering a presynaptic terminal, an action potential opens Ca2+ channels, and transiently increases the local Ca2+ concentration at the presynaptic active zone. Ca2+ then triggers neurotransmitter release within a few hundred microseconds by activating synaptotagmins Ca2+. Synaptotagmins bind Ca2+ via two C2-domains, and transduce the Ca2+ signal into a nanomechanical activation of the membrane fusion machinery; this activation is mediated by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin C2-domains with phospholipids and SNARE proteins. In triggering exocytosis, synaptotagmins do not act alone, but require an obligatory cofactor called complexin, a small protein that binds to SNARE complexes and simultaneously activates and clamps the SNARE complexes, thereby positioning the SNARE complexes for subsequent synaptotagmin action. The conserved function of synaptotagmins and complexins operates generally in most, if not all, Ca2+-regulated forms of exocytosis throughout the body in addition to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, including in the degranulation of mast cells, acrosome exocytosis in sperm cells, hormone secretion from endocrine cells, and neuropeptide release. PMID:22068972

  17. ATP release through pannexon channels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed ‘pannexon’. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  18. Fully redundant mechanical release actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, Melvin H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for performing a mechanical release function exhibiting low shock. This system includes two pyrotechnic detents fixed mounted in opposing axial alignment within a cylindrical housing having two mechanical bellows. Two mechanical bellow assemblies, each having one end hermetically bonded to the housing and the other to the respective actuator pin extending from either end of the housing, ensure that all outgassing and contamination from the operation of the pyrotechnic devices will be contained within the housing and bellows. The pin on one end of the assembly is fixed mounted and supported, via a bolt or ball-and-socket joint so that when the charge corresponding to that pin ignites, the entire assembly will exhibit rectilinear movement, including the opposing pin providing the unlatching motion. The release detent pin is supported by a linear bearing and when its corresponding pyrotechnic charge ignites the pin is retracted within the housing producing the same unlatching motion without movement of the entire assembly, thus providing complete mechanical, electrical and pyrotechnic redundancy for the unlatching pin.

  19. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  20. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Bach; Ly, Thi Bich Thuy; Wesseling, Mauro Carlos; Hittinger, Marius; Torge, Afra; Devitt, Andrew; Perrie, Yvonne; Bernhardt, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs) and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs) under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA) in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 mV depended on the solutions and buffers used. An

  1. Flouride release from various restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Bala, O; Uçtaşli, M; Can, H; Türköz, E; Can, M

    1997-09-01

    Fluoride release from six light-activated restorative materials, including two resinmodified glass-ionomers, two composites, and two compomers, was evaluated and compared with one conventional acid-based glass-ionomer cement. The amount and rate of release varied among the tested materials. Both resin-modified glass-ionomers and the conventional acid-base glass-ionomer cements released more fluoride then the composites and compomers (p < 0.05). Additionally, composite materials released less fluoride than compomer materials (p < 0.05). Release of fluoride by the tested materials showed a significant decrease after all the tested time intervals.

  2. Radiological release criteria at the Fernald Environmental Management Project theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrter, R.W.

    1995-01-17

    As environmental restoration activities progress at the DOE`s Fernald site, and across the country, large volumes of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) are being generated. Despite the existence of ``free-release`` guidelines from DOE. The strategy of onsite decontamination and release of RSM for unrestricted use has been generally overlooked in recent years. A pilot project was completed at Fernald in which 120 tons of RSM were decontaminated onsite and released for unrestricted use. This paper compares that strategy to more traditional DOE RSM management practices. Many options exist for managing RSM. DOE orders dictate that contractors demonstrate flexibility in utilizing a combination of techniques to optimize the benefits of waste management activates. The FERMCO Recycling Department led an effort to provide their customer with an economical alternative to the traditional approach of burying contaminated metal as LLW, based on established DOE free-release guidelines.

  3. Control of neurotransmitter release by an internal gel matrix in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Reigada, David; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Gorostiza, Pau; Verdaguer, Albert; Gómez de Aranda, Inmaculada; Pineda, Oriol; Vilarrasa, Jaume; Marsal, Jordi; Blasi, Joan; Aleu, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-03-18

    Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles, where they have been assumed to be in free solution. Here we report that in Torpedo synaptic vesicles, only 5% of the total acetylcholine (ACh) or ATP content is free, and that the rest is adsorbed to an intravesicular proteoglycan matrix. This matrix, which controls ACh and ATP release by an ion-exchange mechanism, behaves like a smart gel. That is, it releases neurotransmitter and changes its volume when challenged with small ionic concentration change. Immunodetection analysis revealed that the synaptic vesicle proteoglycan SV2 is the core of the intravesicular matrix and is responsible for immobilization and release of ACh and ATP. We suggest that in the early steps of vesicle fusion, this internal matrix regulates the availability of free diffusible ACh and ATP, and thus serves to modulate the quantity of transmitter released.

  4. Estimation of exposure to toxic releases using spatial interaction modeling.

    PubMed

    Conley, Jamison F

    2011-03-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data are frequently used to estimate a community's exposure to pollution. However, this estimation process often uses underdeveloped geographic theory. Spatial interaction modeling provides a more realistic approach to this estimation process. This paper uses four sets of data: lung cancer age-adjusted mortality rates from the years 1990 through 2006 inclusive from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, TRI releases of carcinogens from 1987 to 1996, covariates associated with lung cancer, and the EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. The impact of the volume of carcinogenic TRI releases on each county's lung cancer mortality rates was calculated using six spatial interaction functions (containment, buffer, power decay, exponential decay, quadratic decay, and RSEI estimates) and evaluated with four multivariate regression methods (linear, generalized linear, spatial lag, and spatial error). Akaike Information Criterion values and P values of spatial interaction terms were computed. The impacts calculated from the interaction models were also mapped. Buffer and quadratic interaction functions had the lowest AIC values (22298 and 22525 respectively), although the gains from including the spatial interaction terms were diminished with spatial error and spatial lag regression. The use of different methods for estimating the spatial risk posed by pollution from TRI sites can give different results about the impact of those sites on health outcomes. The most reliable estimates did not always come from the most complex methods.

  5. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  6. Isotopic fractionation of argon during stepwise release from shungite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.

    1980-05-01

    It is noted that in previous attempts to determine the Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio in the ancient atmosphere, the only direct measurement yielding a value below the atmospheric value of today is for argon released at low temperatures from a pre-Cambrian shungite. In the present work, a low value for Ar-40/Ar-36 in gas released from a type I shungite at low temperatures is confirmed. Attention is given to a study of the accompanying Ar-38/Ar-36 ratios and the enhanced ratio of Ar-40/Ar-36 for the fractions released at high temperatures which shows that the effect observed is a result of the stepwise heating and the argon diffusion mobilized thereby. It is suggested that the low Ar-40/Ar-36 obtained in the past is from the same source rather than reflecting the isotropic composition of the pre-Cambrian atmosphere, and that the type I shungite may exhibit simple volume diffusion over macroscopic dimensions as glasses do. It is concluded that if this is so, the diffusion parameters obtained from the data would imply rapid exchange with the atmosphere for any argon initially trapped in the veins of the material.

  7. Development of diclofenac sodium releasing bio-erodible polymeric nanomats.

    PubMed

    Piras, A M; Nikkola, L; Chiellini, F; Ashammakhi, N; Chiellini, E

    2006-01-01

    Application of nanofiber-based nanomats in medicine is attractive and thanks to the 3D nanostructure and the high surface to volume ratio they are excellent for local controlled drug delivery. The use of bioactive bioerodible polymers for developing drug delivery nanomats may allow for drug release and targeting control. Objective of the current study was to evaluate the suitability of bioerodible polymeric material based on n-butyl hemiester of [poly(maleic anhydride-alt-2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether)] (PAM14) for the preparation of nanomats for controlled administration of anti-inflammatory, diclofenac sodium (DS) drug. Samples were prepared using different polymer concentrations (5-10%) in either ethanol or acetic acid as solvent. Morphology was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to detect effect on polymer arrangement. DS localization in electrospun nanomats was evaluated by using electron back scattering microanalysis, based on the detection of chlorine, and drug release kinetics was assessed using UV-Vis. Average fiber diameter resulted in the range of 100 nm to 1.0 microm and a homogeneous distribution of the loaded drug into the fibers was observed. The DS release was immediate and despite the preliminary nature of the performed electrospinning experiments, the achieved results appear promising for the future development of a novel system for the controlled and targeted administration of drug and active agent.

  8. Release of hydrogen from nanoconfined hydrides by application of microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Moral, Luis Miguel; Navarrete, Alexander; Sturm, Guido; Link, Guido; Rueda, Miriam; Stefanidis, Georgios; Martín, Ángel

    2017-06-01

    The release of hydrogen from solid hydrides by thermolysis can be improved by nanoconfinement of the hydride in a suitable micro/mesoporous support, but the slow heat transfer by conduction through the support can be a limitation. In this work, a C/SiO2 mesoporous material has been synthesized and employed as matrix for nanoconfinement of hydrides. The matrix showed high surface area and pore volume (386 m2/g and 1.41 cm3/g), which enabled the confinement of high concentrations of hydride. Furthermore, by modification of the proportion between C and SiO2, the dielectric properties of the complex could be modified, making it susceptible to microwave heating. As with this heating method the entire sample is heated simultaneously, the heat transfer resistances associated to conduction were eliminated. To demonstrate this possibility, ethane 1,2-diaminoborane (EDAB) was embedded on the C/SiO2 matrix at concentrations ranging from 11 to 31%wt using a wet impregnation method, and a device appropriate for hydrogen release from this material by application of microwaves was designed with the aid of a numerical simulation. Hydrogen liberation tests by conventional heating and microwaves were compared, showing that by microwave heating hydrogen release can be initiated and stopped in shorter times.

  9. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  10. Modelling of vegetation volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J. J.; Papas, C. H.; Engheta, N.; Elachi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to describe work that is being done to find theoretical models to describe radar backscatter from vegetation layers. The geometry of the problem is shown. The information that one would like to find through the application of the results of these models would include: the thickness of the layer; the absorption in the layer (i.e., density, moisture content, and biomass); the geometry of the scatterers (i.e., shape and orientation); how much of the received power is due to volume scattering only; and a way to enhance the ratio of scattering that has some interaction with the ground surface. The proposed ways to find this information are discussed.

  11. Civil-Military Roles of Indigenous Armed Forces (CRIAF). Volume 1. Executive Summary. Volume 2. Main Report. Volume 3. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    AD-A009 190 CIVIL-MILITARY ROLES OF INDIGENOUS ARMED FORCES (CRIAF). VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . VOLUME II MAIN REPORT . VOLUME III...H FINAL REPORT VOLUME I - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VOLUME II - MAIN REPORT VOLUME III - APPENDIXES o o DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...Sussex: Conference of Political Development, 1968. 23. Einaudi, Luigi R. The Peruvian Military: A Summary Political Analysis . Santa

  12. A Strategic Planning Framework for Predicting and Evaluating Soviet Interests in Arms Control. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    EVALUATING SOVIET INTERESTS IN ARMS CONTROL VOLUME I by KERRY M. KARTCHNER AUGUST 1988 Approved for public release; distribution Unlimited. Prepared...AuTH.ORiTY I DISTRIBUTION’ AVAILASIOTY OF REPORT Io DC-S,,CTON DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public release... publications , as well as Congressional hearings and reports; 3. translated Soviet sources; and, 4. other U.S. publications , books, journal articles

  13. Nucleotide release provides a mechanism for airway surface liquid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Tarran, Robert; Grubb, Barbara R; van Heusden, Catharina A; Okada, Seiko; Boucher, Richard C

    2004-08-27

    Nucleotides within the airway surface liquid (ASL) regulate airway epithelial ion transport rates by Ca(2+) -and protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms via activation of specific P2Y receptors. Extracellular adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for adenosine, which promotes cyclic AMP-mediated activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channel via A(2b) adenosine receptors. A biological role for extracellular ATP in ASL volume homeostasis has been suggested by the demonstration of regulated ATP release from airway epithelia. However, nucleotide hydrolysis at the airway surface makes it difficult to assess the magnitude of ATP release and the relative abundance of adenyl purines and, hence, to define their biological functions. We have combined ASL microsampling and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of fluorescent 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine derivatives to measure adenyl purines in ASL. We found that adenosine, AMP, and ADP accumulated in high concentrations relative to ATP within the ASL covering polarized primary human normal or cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. By using immortalized epithelial cell monolndogenayers that eously express a luminal A(2b) adenosine receptor, we found that basal as well asforskolin-promoted cyclic AMP production was reduced by exogenous adenosine deaminase, suggesting that A(2b) receptors sense endogenous adenosine within the ASL. The physiological role of adenosine was further established by illustrating that adenosine removal or inhibition of adenosine receptors in primary cultures impaired ASL volume regulation. Our data reveal a complex pattern of nucleotides/nucleosides in ASL under resting conditions and suggest that adenosine may play a key role in regulating ASL volume homeostasis.

  14. Nucleotide Release Provides a Mechanism for Airway Surface Liquid Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Tarran, Robert; Grubb, Barbara R.; van Heusden, Catharina A.; Okada, Seiko; Boucher, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides within the airway surface liquid (ASL) regulate airway epithelial ion transport rates by Ca2+- and protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms via activation of specific P2Y receptors. Extracellular adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for adenosine, which promotes cyclic AMP-mediated activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channel via A2b adenosine receptors. A biological role for extracellular ATP in ASL volume homeostasis has been suggested by the demonstration of regulated ATP release from airway epithelia. However, nucleotide hydrolysis at the airway surface makes it difficult to assess the magnitude of ATP release and the relative abundance of adenyl purines and, hence, to define their biological functions. We have combined ASL microsampling and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of fluorescent 1,N6-ethenoadenine derivatives to measure adenyl purines in ASL. We found that adenosine, AMP, and ADP accumulated in high concentrations relative to ATP within the ASL covering polarized primary human normal or cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. By using immortalized epithelial cell monolayers that endogenously express a luminal A2b adenosine receptor, we found that basal as well as forskolin-promoted cyclic AMP production was reduced by exogenous adenosine deaminase, suggesting that A2b receptors sense endogenous adenosine within the ASL. The physiological role of adenosine was further established by illustrating that adenosine removal or inhibition of adenosine receptors in primary cultures impaired ASL volume regulation. Our data reveal a complex pattern of nucleotides/nucleosides in ASL under resting conditions and suggest that adenosine may play a key role in regulating ASL volume homeostasis. PMID:15210701

  15. Microfluidic Device for the Selective Chemical Stimulation of Neurons and Characterization of Peptide Release with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptides are synthesized in and released from neurons and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including temperature homeostasis, learning, memory, and disease. When working with sparse neuronal networks, the ability to collect and characterize small sample volumes is important as neurons often release only a small proportion of their mass-limited content. Microfluidic systems are well suited for the study of neuropeptides. They offer the ability to control and manipulate the extracellular environment and small sample volumes, thereby reducing the dilution of peptides following release. We present an approach for the culture and stimulation of a neuronal network within a microfluidic device, subsequent collection of the released peptides, and their detection via mass spectrometry. The system employs microvalve-controlled stimulation channels to selectively stimulate a low-density neuronal culture, allowing us to determine the temporal onset of peptide release. Released peptides from the well-characterized, peptidergic bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica were collected and their temporal pattern of release was characterized with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We show a robust difference in the timing of release for chemical solutions containing elevated K+ (7 ± 3 min), when compared to insulin (19 ± 7 min) (p < 0.000 01). PMID:23004687

  16. A rapid technique for prediction of nutrient release from controlled release fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating to extend the total duration nutrient release up to 3 to 9 months and rate of release to match the nutrient requirement of the plant during the growing period. Hence these products are termed as “Controlled Release...

  17. Instantaneous stroke volume in man during lower body negative pressure /LBNP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Richards, K. L.; Greene, E. R.; Eldridge, M. W.; Hoekenga, D. E.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an examination of the instantaneous time course of the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) in response to the onset and release of -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are reported. Six male subjects were sealed into a LBNP box up to the iliac crest while being monitored by echocardiograph for centerlamina blood velocity, fluid displacement, stroke volume, heart rate, and leg volume. Particular use was made of pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocity meters for measuring the blood velocities and flow dynamics. Measurements were made of the subjects continuously beginning from 20 sec prior to and one min after LBNP onset and release. A linear fall in the SV was observed with LBNP at 49% of the baseline value after 33 sec. A 62% drop, the lowest, was detected after 8 min of LBNP. The leg volume was inversely related to Q for the duration of the experiment.

  18. Instantaneous stroke volume in man during lower body negative pressure /LBNP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Richards, K. L.; Greene, E. R.; Eldridge, M. W.; Hoekenga, D. E.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an examination of the instantaneous time course of the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) in response to the onset and release of -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are reported. Six male subjects were sealed into a LBNP box up to the iliac crest while being monitored by echocardiograph for centerlamina blood velocity, fluid displacement, stroke volume, heart rate, and leg volume. Particular use was made of pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocity meters for measuring the blood velocities and flow dynamics. Measurements were made of the subjects continuously beginning from 20 sec prior to and one min after LBNP onset and release. A linear fall in the SV was observed with LBNP at 49% of the baseline value after 33 sec. A 62% drop, the lowest, was detected after 8 min of LBNP. The leg volume was inversely related to Q for the duration of the experiment.

  19. Supplemental water releases for fisheries restoration in a Brazilian floodplain River: A conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.; Martinez, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly productive floodplain rivers in Brazil and elsewhere provide livelihood and recreational fishing for millions of people around the world, but damming and controlled water discharge are a threat to these valuable ecosystems. Supplemental water releases (SWRs) at a dam are increasingly used for restoring fisheries productivity in many floodplain rivers. We proposed a conceptual model for a hypothetical water release to enhance fisheries using Tre??s Marias Reservoir (TMR) on the Sa??o Francisco River (SFR), Brazil. The information needed by the model follows: (i) Biologically, what is the best release date? (ii) How much water will be released? (iii) What is the pattern of impoundment and how much impounded water will be released? (iv) What is the lost revenue to the power plant associated with SWR? (v) What is the relationship between river discharge and the area of floodplain that is flooded? (vi) What is the relationship between SWR and fisheries value? Ichthyoplankton studies in the SFR showed a clear positive relationship between fish density and water level (WL). While the relationship between WL and floodplain area flooded and recruitment is not known, we concluded the best date for release is when there is a natural flood, which naturally triggers fish spawning and the SWR will add to the natural flood and cover a greater floodplain area. The released volume will range from 0.302km3 to 2.192 km3, depending on SWR duration. In most years from 1976 to 2003, TMR impounded enough water for SWR only in the second half of the fish-spawning season (January-March). Lost revenue at TMR depended on release volume and ranged from US$ 0.493 million to US$ 3.452 million for the actual power rate. However, SWR could increase commercial fisheries income an estimated US$ 4.468 million. We forecast that SWR can bring fisheries benefits that surpass the lost revenue.

  20. Aspartate release from rat hippocampal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Bradford, S E; Nadler, J V

    2004-01-01

    Certain excitatory pathways in the rat hippocampus can release aspartate along with glutamate. This study utilized rat hippocampal synaptosomes to characterize the mechanism of aspartate release and to compare it with glutamate release. Releases of aspartate and glutamate from the same tissue samples were quantitated simultaneously. Both amino acids were released by 25 mM K(+), 300 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 0.5 and 1 microM ionomycin in a predominantly Ca(2+)-dependent manner. For a roughly equivalent quantity of glutamate released, aspartate release was significantly greater during exposure to elevated [K(+)] than to 4-AP and during exposure to 0.5 than to 1 microM ionomycin. Aspartate release was inefficiently coupled to P/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and was reduced by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. In contrast, glutamate release depended primarily on Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type channels and was not significantly affected by KB-R7943. Pretreatment of the synaptosomes with tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxins C and F reduced glutamate release, but not aspartate release. Aspartate release was also resistant to bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, whereas glutamate release was markedly reduced. (+/-) -Threo-3-methylglutamate, a non-transportable competitive inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transport, did not reduce aspartate release. Niflumic acid, a blocker of Ca(2+)-dependent anion channels, did not alter the release of either amino acid. Exogenous aspartate and aspartate recently synthesized from glutamate accessed the releasable pool of aspartate as readily as exogenous glutamate and glutamate recently synthesized from aspartate accessed the releasable glutamate pool. These results are compatible with release of aspartate from either a vesicular pool by a "non-classical" form of exocytosis or directly from the cytoplasm by an as-yet-undescribed Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. In either case

  1. Study on novel galantaminehydrobromide sustained-release capsules and itsin vitro releasing property.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yang, Shuoye

    2014-09-01

    In present study, we prepared a novel galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules with the new manufacturing technology, extrusion-spheronization method, and the optimized preparative formulation. A simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the quantification and release evaluation of galantamine hydro bromide. Experimental results showed that the method was specific, sensitive and reliable, could be effectively applied to the in vitro release study of galantamine hydro bromide sustained-release capsules. Our resulting samples had superior properties, worked better as sustained-release carriers and lasted longer hours to release drugs compared with the marketed control, Razadyne ER. The in vitro releasing characteristics of different batches of preparations are quite similar with each other, the total release proportions of galantamine hydro bromide from sustained-release capsules reached higher than 90 % within 12 h. The testing sustained-release preparation may be a promising new product for curing the related diseases.

  2. Control-release microcapsule of famotidine loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Controlled release effect and enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Baixue; Xu, Lu; Zheng, Nan; Chen, Hongtao; Li, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, control-release microcapsule of famotidine (FMT) loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (B-MSNs) was developed, and controlled release effect and stomach adhesion of this formulation in vitro were mainly investigated. B-MSN was previously synthesized and it was amorphous mesoporous nanoparticles with helical channels. Cytotoxicity of B-MSN was studied using human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and the result indicated that cytotoxicity of B-MSN can be neglected. After loading FMT into B-MSN, specific surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of B-MSN were obviously reduced. In vitro dissolution test showed that B-MSN had the ability to slow down FMT release for 15 min. In order to prolong controlled release effect and remained the advantage of B-MSN (improve drug stability due to its rigid silica framework), the combined application of control-release microcapsule (using cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K15M as excipients) with B-MSN was designed. It was obvious that newly designed formulation significantly controlled FMT release with Fickian diffusion mechanism and showed enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro, which has significant value in widening the application of B-MSN in formulation design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 8-year field comparison of naturally seeded to planted container `pinus taeda`, with and without release

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.; Barnett, J.P.

    1996-01-09

    A field study compared genetically improved, container loblolly pines (Pinus taedo L.) with naturally seeded loblolly pines through eight growing seasons on a cutover site in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Measurement pines on 6 of 12 plots were released from woody and herbaceous competition within a 61-cm radius of each tree stem. On natural pine plots, only 1st-year pine seedlings were selected for measurement based on quality standards and their spacing. Woody competition was controlled by hand cutting for 5 consecutive years, and herbaceous competition was controlled with herbicides for 4 consecutive years. Release treatments increased 8-year survival by 50% for natural pines and by 35% for planted pines. Greater gains (343-391%) in individual tree volumes were achieved within regeneration techniques, as a result of release, than were achieved with the two regeneration techniques. In addition, stand volume gains of 647% and 910% were achieved by planted and natural pines, respectively, as a result of release. Eight years after field establishment, stand volume index averaged 46% higher on planted plots than on natural plots. Degree of overtopping was a better predictor of pine performance than live-crown ratio.

  4. Controlled release of subretinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, B

    1975-01-01

    Drainage os subretinal fluid is generally regarded as being unnecessary when local buckling procedures are carried out, particularly when the buckle is placed radially, unless the patient has chronic glaucoma or the choroidal vessels are markedly sclerosed.However, there are many cases of retinal detachment where the eye is otherwise normal and where radial procedure is the detachment operation of choice in which a limited and controlled release of subretinal fluid will help considerably in the localisation, treatment by cryotherapy and final positioning of the tear on the buckle. This paper describes the technique employed and the advantages which may be gained by using this method in cases of deep bullous detachment of the retina. The results which have been obtained in cases in which this method has been used during the last 3 years are described.

  5. Release of RANKERN 16A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Adam; Murphy, Christophe; Dobson, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler's ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  6. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  7. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  8. Gas release in comet nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-01-01

    Processes taking place during the evolution of a comet nucleus are examined, taking into account the release of gas on crystallization and the gas flow through the porous nucleus. In particular, the stresses caused by the gas pressure, the contribution of gas flow to the heat transfer, and the rate of gas emission by the comet along its orbit were determined using a model of spherically symmetric comet nucleus made of porous amorphous ice, with 10 percent CO gas trapped in it. Several values of density and pore size are considered, and for each combination of parameters, the model is evolved for 20-30 revolutions in Comet P/Halley's orbit. It is shown that a model of 0.2 g/cu cm density reproduces well many of the light-curve and activity characteristics of Comet P/Halley.

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  10. Chemical releases in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the interaction between the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere is identified as a major task worthy of pursuit. The present review demonstrates the major contributions to this complex problem already made by active experiments involving the injection of chemicals and energetic electron beams into the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Through the use of chemical releases, it has been possible to investigate a number of quantities including high-altitude winds and electric fields, the detailed configurations of the geomagnetic field within the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, as well as the propagation of energetic particle beams and their interaction with natural neutral and ionized constituents of the high atmosphere. So far, virtually all of this effort has been accomplished using rockets. In the future, it is obvious that satellite platforms will play a greater role, both in making injections and in observing their effects.

  11. BODY VOLUME OF ADULT MEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ideal weight given on the USAF standard weight table was found to have a correlation coefficient of only .672 with calculated percent body fat....volume from height and weight revealed the chart to be biased for adult men. Body volume was found to correlate well with body weight ( correlation ... coefficient of .996). Body volume of men in liters, V, may be estimated from body weight in kilograms, W, by using the formula: V = -4.7573 + 1.0153 W

  12. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  13. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of endolymphatic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N

    2001-10-01

    Direct measurements of the dispersal of markers in endolymph have failed to support previously established hypotheses of endolymph homeostasis, specifically longitudinal flow, radial flow, and dynamic flow theories. Rather, they suggest that in the normal state endolymph is maintained without a significant involvement of volume flow at all. Ions appear to be transported into and out of the endolymphatic space in a similar manner to that for a single cell, with each ion transport process contributing to the electrolyte pool. In abnormal volume states, however, longitudinal volume flow of endolymph may contribute to homeostasis. Procedures that enlarge the endolymphatic space result in endolymph flow toward the base of the cochlea, contributing to the removal of electrolytes and volume. Similarly, procedures that decrease cochlear endolymph volume induce apically directed flow in the cochlea, contributing to the addition of electrolytes and volume to the endolymphatic space. The endolymphatic sac responds to endolymph volume disturbance, showing op posite responses to volume increases and decreases. Although evidence is still limited, the endolymphatic sac appears to act as a "bidirectional overflow" system. While volume disturbances originating from out-of-balance transport processes anywhere in the labyrinth may be corrected by the sac, dysfunction of the sac itself is likely to have a substantial effect on endolymph status.

  15. Direct volume estimation without segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.

    2015-03-01

    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  16. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  17. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27698690

  18. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes.

  19. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

    2007-02-20

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG.

  20. The relationship between press release and newspaper coverage of tobacco-related issues in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Sook; Yoon, Jangho

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates an association between press release and news media response on tobacco-related issues in South Korea. We retrieved 231 tobacco-related newspaper articles from all major dailies throughout the year 2005. In total, 37 press releases on tobacco-related issues and policies published by the Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare were obtained from the Ministry website. Content analysis and appropriate statistical tests were performed. Results from our content analysis suggest that producing more press releases on tobacco-related issues may result in a greater volume of newspaper articles, and that a press release on a new topical issue may effect more intense media coverage. Findings also show that when Korean newspaper articles overall held less favorable views of tobacco-related policies and programs in 2005, taxation was the most frequent theme with a non-positive opinion. Findings from our multivariate logistic regression models imply that a newspaper article with a source press release-especially about a new topical issue-is more likely than an article without a source press release to discuss tobacco-related issues more positively. Our findings suggest that a press release may serve as an effective media strategy for reaching out to the public by disseminating tobacco-control efforts and policies.

  1. New data for aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Sutter, S.L.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop radioactive source-term estimation methods. Experiments measuring the mass airborne and particle size distribution of aerosols produced by pressurized releases were run. Carbon dioxide was used to pressurize uranine solutions to 50, 250, and 500 psig before release. The mass airborne from these experiments was higher than for comparable air-pressurized systems, but not as great as expected based on the amount of gas dissolved in the liquid and the volume of liquid ejected from the release equipment. Flashing sprays of uranine at 60, 125, and 240 psig produced a much larger source term than all other pressurized releases performed under this program. Low-pressure releases of depleted uranium dioxide at 9, 17.5, and 24.5 psig provided data in the energy region between 3-m spills and 50-psig pressurized releases.

  2. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  3. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and…

  4. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and…

  5. Errors in infiltration volume calculations in volume balance models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volume balance models of surface irrigation calculate the infiltrated volume at a given time as a product of the stream length, upstream infiltration, and shape factors. The best known expression of this type was derived by combining the Lewis-Milne equation with empirical power-law expressions for ...

  6. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  7. Performing Arts Management and Law. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Joseph

    Performing arts management and law are reviewed in detail in these volumes. Special attention is paid to the issue of copyright, both the current law and proposed changes, in the light of technological changes in the media used by the arts. Volume I describes the scope covered by this work, and discusses the market place, copyright, and contract.…

  8. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  9. Controlled release experiments with nonylphenol in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Gerd; Jüttner, Ingrid; Severin, Gabriele F; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Kettrup, Antonius

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlled release of technical nonylphenol (tNP) was developed to simulate realistic exposure in ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms. The direct addition of tNP from an aqueous stock solution into 50 ml of water led to a concentration decrease of 80 to 90% weight/volume (w/v) from nominal values within 48 h. The inclusion of tNP in semipermeable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) lay-flat tubing (controlled-release devices [CRDs]) of different length allowed a continuous release into pure water at a rate of about 30 microg/cm2/d. Using CRDs in aquaria containing 15 L of 63-microm-filtered lake water, eight different concentrations with maxima between 38.1 and 326.7 microg/L were maintained for 11 d. During a second experiment in 15-L aquaria, five replicates of three concentrations were maintained using CRDs of the same length. Concentrations after 38 d varied between 0.1 and 6.7, 26.1 and 41.9, and 49.9 and 76.0 microg/L. In aquatic microcosms containing 230 L of lake water, a natural plankton community, 50 L of sediment, and macrophytes, seven different tNP concentrations (maxima 11-120.1 microg/L) were maintained over 45 d using CRDs of different length. They were replaced after 14 and 25 d because release of tNP was slower than predicted from laboratory experiments. Concentrations in the top 1-cm sediment layer were on average 19 times higher during the dosing period than concentrations in the water at the same time. In the sediments, different levels of applications led to concentrations that differed less distinctly than in the water. This method is suitable for exposing aquatic organisms continuously to constant, ecologically relevant concentrations of NP and represents an improvement over previous dosing methods in which exposure varied.

  10. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  11. Zero-order therapeutic release from imprinted hydrogel contact lenses within in vitro physiological ocular tear flow.

    PubMed

    Ali, Maryam; Horikawa, Shin; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Saha, Jishnu; Hong, Jong Wook; Byrne, Mark E

    2007-12-20

    Zero-order or concentration independent release kinetics are highly desirable from drug delivery devices. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, zero-order release of a small molecular weight therapeutic, ketotifen fumarate (MW=425), from molecularly imprinted hydrogels used as therapeutic contact lenses. We performed dynamic, in vitro drug release studies from imprinted hydrogel contact lenses within a novel microfluidic device that simulates the volumetric flow rates, tear volume and tear composition of the eye. Imprinted gels with multiple functional monomers and complexation points to the drug demonstrated a significantly delayed release of drug compared to less functionalized systems. There were no statistical differences in experimentally determined equilibrium swollen polymer volume fractions, which correlate with molecular weight between crosslinks and mesh size of the gel. Under infinite sink conditions, imprinted contact lenses demonstrated Fickian (concentration dependent) release kinetics with diffusion coefficients ranging from 4.04 x 10(-9) to 5.57 x 10(-10) cm(2)/s. The highest functionalized gel exhibited a diffusion coefficient averaging ten times smaller than less functionalized gels and released drug for over 5 days with 3 distinct rates of release. Under physiological volumetric flow rates, the release rate was constant for a duration of 3.5 days delivering a therapeutically relevant dosage and was fit to a power law model indicating zero-order release characteristics with n=0.981+/-0.006 (r(2)=0.997). This work demonstrates the potential of micro/nanofluidic devices to determine physiological release rates and stresses the importance of matching local conditions to adequately characterize drug delivery devices. It also demonstrates the enormous potential for molecular imprinting to further tailor therapeutic release kinetics via the imprinting process.

  12. A controlled release of ibuprofen by systematically tailoring the morphology of mesoporous silica materials

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Fengyu; Zhu Guangshan; Lin Huiming; Zhang Weiwei; Sun Jinyu; Li Shougui; Qiu Shilun . E-mail: sqiu@mail.jlu.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    A series of mesoporous silica materials with similar pore sizes, different morphologies and variable pore geometries were prepared systematically. In order to control drug release, ibuprofen was employed as a model drug and the influence of morphology and pore geometry of mesoporous silica on drug release profiles was extensively studied. The mesoporous silica and drug-loaded samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the drug-loading amount was directly correlated to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore geometry, and pore volume; while the drug release profiles could be controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica carriers. - Graphical abstract: The release of ibuprofen is controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica and drug-loaded samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The drug-loading amount is directly correlated to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore geometry, and pore volume; while the drug release profiles can be controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica carriers.

  13. Computational Studies of Drug Release, Transport and Absorption in the Human Intestines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behafarid, Farhad; Brasseur, J. G.; Vijayakumar, G.; Jayaraman, B.; Wang, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Following disintegration of a drug tablet, a cloud of particles 10-200 μm in diameter enters the small intestine where drug molecules are absorbed into the blood. Drug release rate depends on particle size, solubility and hydrodynamic enhancements driven by gut motility. To quantify the interrelationships among dissolution, transport and wall permeability, we apply lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the drug concentration field in the 3D gut released from polydisperse distributions of drug particles in the "fasting" vs. "fed" motility states. Generalized boundary conditions allow for both solubility and gut wall permeability to be systematically varied. We apply a local 'quasi-steady state' approximation for drug dissolution using a mathematical model generalized for hydrodynamic enhancements and heterogeneity in drug release rate. We observe fundamental differences resulting from the interplay among release, transport and absorption in relationship to particle size distribution, luminal volume, motility, solubility and permeability. For example, whereas smaller volume encourages higher bulk concentrations and reduced release rate, it also encourages higher absorption rate, making it difficult to generalize predictions. Supported by FDA.

  14. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  15. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  16. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it.

  17. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Volume 2, Appendices A - J. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Plan OftEM, 13666). le vim@ wm @vevwe and approved by he Sbtat of Uftbl Depwama of hvlr..umtmi (mm~ and die USA. AS SCOPZ OF TM PRAM Ill M MMPD A.LO...DATEA1FwamE w~ UTHOLWC Pa 0937 D- - 02 At -- foo -’A -f -Y -14 - - -- - -- 4 - -- - -7 - -- - - - ~ _ __ ___ __ ____v . 7L -N PHS 1- W4~ ~tb~T d’ L 2 - -- 4...DATE ( 02 & at Suiy PAL____ ORLUNG CONTRACTO Pi-d....d . t1O$ %;$4hk* DRLLRO -0 ~~WE tq~~f~ BORNODIAMETER ZV TYPE OF PAM1 F west 44 us PU LDK I

  18. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 4. DoD Productions Cleared for Public Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    knligh .n..angt Remedial and advanced instruction in English gramar , vocabulary, *spelling, speaking and writing. Also includes reading and speed reading...CORRESPONDENT ROY MEAL SERVES AS PROCESS OF THE THREE MAIN PARTS OF THE HOSPITALIZATION OR TREATMENT IS ESSENTIAL HOST MODERATOR FOR PANEL DISCUSSION OF...WORST FLOOD OF THE C[ASSIFIED DEFENSE CONTRACTS CAN JEOPARDIZE 4PPLICATION, ESSENTIALS , AND TECHNIQUES OF CENTURY. SECURITY BY PLAYING INTO THE HANDS OF

  19. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Phase 1 RFI report. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    location of the continental storm track , most of the precipitation in the Tooele Valley occurs as snow between the months of October and May. Summers are...of railroad tracks . Stormwater from the Administration Area drains via an underground concrete piping system to a depression in a dry wash, where it...Shank (JMM) with Ammunition survelliance Chief, Milo Serreyn, Tooele Army Depot, Utah, October 1992. Siniscalchi, 1991. Telephone interview conducted

  20. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2007. West Point Releases First Issue of CTC Sentinel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    the Combating Terrorism Center’s dual mission of educating a new generation of leaders and conducting objective, policy-relevant, informative and...Sentinel Staff DECEMBER 2007 . VoL 1 . Issue 1 About the CTC Sentinel the combating terrorism center is an independent educational and research...doctrine, to introduce self-criticism as an accepted genre and method in jihadist thinking and his attempts to critically analyze the jihadist current

  1. Volume 1: Calculating potential to emit releases and doses for FEMP's and NOCs

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    The purpose of this document is to provide Hanford Site facilities a handbook for estimating potential emissions and the subsequent offsite doses. General guidelines and information are provided to assist personnel in estimating emissions for use with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) and regulatory notices of construction (NOCs), per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61, Subpart H, and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247 requirements. This document replaces Unit Dose Calculation Methods and Summary of Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determinations (WHC-EP-0498). Meteorological data from 1983 through 1996, 13-year data set, was used to develop the unit dose factors provided by this document, with the exception of two meteorological stations. Meteorological stations 23 and 24, located at Gable Mountain and the 100-F Area, only have data from 1986 through 1996, 10-year data set. The scope of this document includes the following: Estimating emissions and resulting effective dose equivalents (EDE) to a facility's nearest offsite receptor (NOR) for use with NOCs under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with NOCs under the WAC Chapter 246-247 requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with FEMPs and FEMP determinations under DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 requirements.

  2. The Ballistic Research Laboratory CAD Package Release, 4.0, Volume 1: The BRL CAD Philosophy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    various ambient conditions, natural and man-made , backgrounds, and etc can make the evaluation virtually impossible using highly detailed models. And, of...Documeniers Workbench trorr) dvi - DeVice Independent code (TeX output) Cb - frame buffer display interface. g - geometry data base. imp - Imagen

  3. Flight set 360L001 (STS-26) insulation component. Volume 3: Final release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, K.; Passman, J.

    1989-01-01

    The postfire condition of the external and internal insulation for STS-26 is documented and the thermal safety factors of the RSRM-1A and RSRM-1B internal insulation are evaluated. The Insulation Component Program Team assessment of the observation is discussed.

  4. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium.

  5. The Effect of Ethanol on the Release of Opioids from Oral Prolonged-Release Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Malcolm; Nicholls, Fiona A.; Smith, Kevin J.; Tucker, Geoffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent experience has prompted the US FDA to consider whether ethanol ingestion may modify the release characteristics of prolonged-release formulations, where dose dumping may be an issue for patient safety. The influence of ethanol on the in vitro release of opioid drugs from some prolonged-release formulations utilizing different release technologies was examined. Results indicated that the prolonged-release mechanisms remained intact under the testing conditions, although one product showed initial sensitivity to ethanol in its release characteristics. Nevertheless, in this case, extrapolation of the findings to likely outcome in vivo indicated no risk of dose-dumping. It is proposed that prolonged-release medicinal products should be tested during development to ensure robustness to the effects of ethanol on drug release. PMID:17882730

  6. Model for TCLP Releases from Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2003-05-01

    A first-order property model for normalized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) release as a function of glass composition was developed using data collected from various studies. The normalized boron release is used to estimate the release of toxic elements based on the observation that the boron release represents the conservative release for those constituents of interest. The current TCLP model has two targeted application areas: (1) delisting of waste-glass product as radioactive (not mixed) waste and (2) designating the glass wastes generated from waste-glass research activities as hazardous or non-hazardous. This report describes the data collection and model development for TCLP releases and discusses the issues related to the application of the model.

  7. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  8. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  9. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  10. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  11. Surface, Volume, and Elephants' Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven

    1982-01-01

    Explores changes that occur in surface area and volume as an object increases in size and examines the implications these changes have for living things. Students can discover and extend many surface area/volume relationships by arranging and rearranging blocks and then applying relationships they discover to living things. (Author/JN)

  12. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  13. Estimating volume from stump measurements

    Treesearch

    Kenneth L. Quigley

    1954-01-01

    Foresters sometimes have to estimate the volume of timber harvested from the stumps that remain after logging. Such estimates may be needed when the timber cutters have crossed property lines or when they have removed trees not marked for cutting. Stump measurements on sample areas may also be used for state or regional estimates of the volume of timber cut annually,...

  14. Constructing aerial photo volume tables.

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Pope

    1962-01-01

    Although most foresters are familiar with the use of aerial photo volume tables, little has been written on how to make them. Certain pitfalls in the construction process have either been ignored or only casually mentioned in the existing literature. The forester tackling his first photo volume table is likely to bypass some of the important considerations without...

  15. Controlled release metoprolol for aortic regurgitation: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Broch, Kaspar; Urheim, Stig; Lønnebakken, Mai Tone; Stueflotten, Wenche; Massey, Richard; Fosså, Kristian; Hopp, Einar; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) creates a volume load on the left ventricle, which induces adaptive responses. With time, excessive left ventricular (LV) dilatation may precipitate heart failure. β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (β-blockers) are beneficial in patients with heart failure, but their effect in AR is unclear. This trial was designed to evaluate the effect of controlled release metoprolol on LV remodelling in patients with AR. In this double blind trial, 75 asymptomatic patients aged 44±14 years, 89% males, fulfilling at least two echocardiographic criteria for moderate or severe chronic AR, were randomised to receive metoprolol CR/XL up-titrated to 200 mg/day, or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was LV end diastolic volume, measured by MRI after 6 months of treatment. After 6 months, the difference in the baseline-adjusted LV end diastolic volume between patients allocated to metoprolol and those allocated to placebo was 8 (95% CI -8 to 25) mL (p=0.32). The adjusted LV ejection fraction was 2.7 (95% CI 0.1 to 5.3) percentage points higher in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group (p=0.04). The exercise capacity and peak oxygen consumption did not differ between treatment arms. Serum concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were 138 (95% CI 71 to 205) pg/mL higher in the metoprolol group (p<0.001). There were no serious adverse events in either treatment arm. Treatment with metoprolol of adults with chronic, moderate to severe AR had no effect on LV volumes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01157572-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Double-Swivel Mechanism For Reliable Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Guy L.; Schneider, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Double-swivel toggle mechanism releases large, heavy objects reliably. Double-swiveling action of mechanism ensures it clears restraining pins upon release. Pins retain toggle and its load. If pin fails to withdraw at designated time for releasing payload, toggle swivels about its upper ball, and ring swivels about lower ball so ring flange clears failed pin. Double-swivel action ensures disengagement even it two pins fail to withdraw.

  17. GROA AIRBORNE RELEASE DISPERSION FACTOR CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wang

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this document is to calculate airborne release dispersion factors ({chi}/Q) for the surface and subsurface facilities at the Geological Repository Operations Area (GROA). The calculated {chi}/Q values may be used to estimate radiological consequences to workers for potential releases from normal operations and event sequences for License Application. The scope of this document is to provide estimates of {chi}/Q values at potential onsite receptors from facility releases, under normal operating conditions and event sequences.

  18. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  19. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  20. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  1. Animation framework using volume visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  2. Plasma volume in isosmotic hypervolaemia.

    PubMed

    Kishegyi, J; Horváth, G; Kövér, G

    1978-01-01

    The Evans-blue distribution volume, haematocrit, and plasma protein concentration were investigated in non-hydrated (control), hydrated, and acutely nephrectomized hydrated, anaesthetized dogs. In control anaesthetized dogs a decrease of the plasma protein level was observed as part of the plasma proteins was lost into the extravascular space and did not return into the circulating plasma during the experimental period. Under the effect of hydration, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased significantly, while the haematocrit and plasma volume did not change. The phenomenon was ascribed to an increase in capillary permeability. During hydration following acute nephrectomy, the Evans-blue distribution volume increased but the haematocrit disecreased and the circulating plasma volume increased. It is concluded that a material (or materials) orginating from the kidney may influence capillary permeability.

  3. Arthroscopic Capsular Release of the Talocalcaneonavicular Joint.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Arthrofibrosis of the talocalcaneonavicular joint can follow talar neck fracture especially if anterior approaches have been used for fracture fixation. Capsular release of the talocalcaneonavicular joint is indicated if the painful hindfoot stiffness cannot be controlled with conservative treatment. Open capsular release of the talocalcaneonavicular joint demands extensive soft tissue dissection and hinders early postoperative mobilization exercise of the joint. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a minimally invasive approach of arthroscopic capsular release of the talocalcaneonavicular joint that is composed of arthroscopic release of the talonavicular joint and the anterior subtalar joint. This allows immediate postoperative mobilization of the joint.

  4. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  5. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  6. Quick-release medical tape

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive–skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes. PMID:23112196

  7. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2017-01-31

    Thyroid hormones (TH) 3,5,3',5'- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine atoms as part of their structure, and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Iodide reaches thyroid cells through the bloodstream that supplies the basolateral plasma membrane of thyrocytes, where it is avidly taken up through the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Thyrocytes are also specialized in the secretion of the high molecular weight protein thyroglobulin (TG) in the follicular lumen. The iodination of the tyrosyl residues of TG preceeds TH biosynthesis, which depends on the interaction of iodide, TG, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) at the apical plasma membrane of thyrocytes. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.

  8. Quick-release connector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedig, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multi-bay electrical connector is described, of the type that has a frame (12, FIG. 2 ) with cavities (14) that each holds a separate module 20, which enables quick withdrawal of a single module from the frame and its quick replacement. A lock arm (42) is slidable along a first side (50) of a first cavity, and has at least one lock lug (80). A first module has a barrier part (70) that lies inward of the lock lug, which prevents outward movement of the first module out of the frame cavity. The lock arm can be moved to an unlocked position wherein the barrier part on the module lies inward of a gap (84) in the lock arm to permit the module to be pulled out of the frame cavity and later inserted therein. A latch (54) is slidable on the frame in directions (A, B) perpendicular to the sliding movement of the lock arm, and has an abutment (112, FIG. 5 ) that abuts a shoulder (114) on the lock arm to keep the lock arm in its unlocked position until the latch is released.

  9. Quick-release medical tape.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-13

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive-skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes.

  10. Sharp Ca2+ nanodomains beneath the ribbon promote highly synchronous multivesicular release at hair cell synapses

    PubMed Central

    Graydon, Cole W.; Cho, Soyoun; Li, Geng-Lin; Kachar, Bechara; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Hair cell ribbon synapses exhibit several distinguishing features. Structurally, a dense body, or ribbon, is anchored to the presynaptic membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles; functionally, neurotransmitter release is dominated by large EPSC events produced by seemingly synchronous multivesicular release. However, the specific role of the synaptic ribbon in promoting this form of release remains elusive. Using complete ultrastructural reconstructions and capacitance measurements of bullfrog amphibian papilla hair cells dialyzed with high concentrations of a slow Ca2+ buffer (10 mM EGTA), we found that the number of synaptic vesicles at the base of the ribbon correlated closely to those vesicles that released most rapidly and efficiently, while the rest of the ribbon-tethered vesicles correlated to a second, slower pool of vesicles. Combined with the persistence of multivesicular release in extreme Ca2+ buffering conditions (10 mM BAPTA), our data argues against the Ca2+-dependent compound fusion of ribbon-tethered vesicles at hair cell synapses. Moreover, during hair cell depolarization, our results suggest that elevated Ca2+ levels enhance vesicle pool replenishment rates. Finally, using Ca2+ diffusion simulations, we propose that the ribbon and its vesicles define a small cytoplasmic volume where Ca2+ buffer is saturated, despite 10 mM BAPTA conditions. This local buffer saturation permits fast and large Ca2+ rises near release sites beneath the synaptic ribbon that can trigger multiquantal EPSCs. We conclude that, by restricting the available presynaptic volume, the ribbon may be creating conditions for the synchronous release of a small cohort of docked vesicles. PMID:22090491

  11. Association of cyclosporin to isohexylcyanoacrylate nanospheres and subsequent release in human plasma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bonduelle, S; Foucher, C; Leroux, J C; Chouinard, F; Cadieux, C; Lenaerts, V

    1992-01-01

    Polyisohexylcyanoacrylate nanocapsules containing cyclosporin were prepared by mixing in a 1:2 ratio an oil/ethanol solution of monomer and drug with an aqueous phase. Drug nanoencapsulation rate was controlled by its partition coefficient between the inner (organic) and outer (aqueous) phases. Thus highest encapsulation yields (88 per cent) were achieved by reducing cyclosporin solubility in the aqueous phase, i.e. by reducing ethanol concentration under reduced pressure, achieving a 3-fold volume reduction. Due to the relative insolubility of cyclosporin in water, no drug was released from the nanocapsules during storage in this injectable vehicle. Upon a 1/5 dilution in human plasma at 37 degrees C in vitro around 40 per cent of the initially encapsulated cyclosporin diffused quickly out of the capsules and an equilibrium was reached, the drug being most likely dissolved in the fatty compartment of the plasma such as lipoproteins, etc. This release mechanism is different from plain polymeric nanoparticles. Indeed, in this case the drug was released in two phases: an initial burst (around 60 per cent) of adsorbed drug as a result of the dilution, followed by a slow release (around 20 per cent over 3 h) which is likely to result from the progressive enzymatic erosion of the polymer. The initial burst was markedly more pronounced (around 80 per cent) when nanoparticle suspensions were evaporated to 1/3 of their initial volume under reduced pressure. Finally, experiments performed at 0 degree C allowed a reduction of the fraction released immediately from both types of nanospheres, probably because of a reduced solubility in plasma. In the case of nanoparticles the second phase of slow release is also inhibited at 0 degree C, in agreement with an enzymatically controlled release mechanism.

  12. Control of drug release by incorporation of sorbitol or mannitol in microcrystalline-cellulose-based pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2010-12-01

    Mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with sorbitol (up to 50%) or mannitol (up to 80%) were investigated as major excipients for controlled accelerated release of the model poorly water-soluble drug hydrochlorothiazide from pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Optimal wetting volume decreased with increasing polyol content and was always less than the volume required for maximum wet mass consistency. All pellet formulations had satisfactory morphological, mechanical and flow properties, although sorbitol/MCC pellets were rougher than mannitol/MCC pellets. Together they presented a wide range of drug release profiles in 0.1 M HCl, allowing the rate of drug release into aqueous media to be controlled by manipulation of sorbitol or mannitol content. Pellets with a 50% sorbitol content released hydrochlorothiazide faster than pellets with a 50% mannitol content because of their greater porosity and the greater solubility of sorbitol in water. Fastest release was from pellets with an 80% mannitol content, which rapidly underwent complete disintegration.

  13. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  14. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  15. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  16. Ten Ways to Get Attention with Your Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kooten, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Recommends 10 steps that can increase chances of having press release published. Advises readers to use required format; determine what constitutes news; keep release short; include contact person in release; incorporate good quotes; send releases to right person; understand that release will be edited; time arrival of release; follow up with…

  17. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  18. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  19. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  20. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    PubMed

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles.

  1. Determinants of pulmonary blood volume

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Milena L.; Gnoj, Julian; Fisher, Vincent J.; Christianson, Lynn C.

    1970-01-01

    Pulmonary blood volume was determined by the radiocardiographic technique in 49 patients coming to cardiac catheterization. Since this method has not been directly compared with the more commonly used double injection of dye. 25 comparisons were carried out in 13 patients of the series. Agreement was good over a range of 4.5-21.1 heart cycles since there was no statistically significant difference between transit time values measured by the two methods. The relation of pulmonary blood volume to other hemodynamic factors in these 49 patients, with and without cardiac or pulmonary disease, was evaluated by means of multiple regression analysis. The analysis carried out for mean transit time indicates that this parameter varies predominately with flow. Pulmonary blood volume, in this series of resting recumbent individuals, varies to a significant degree only with total blood volume and with pulmonary venous pressure. No parameters of vascular distensibility, such as pulmonary vascular resistance, were found to affect the volume of blood in the lungs. The fact that variations in pulmonary blood volume among the subjects could be described by a multiple regression equation linear with respect to total blood volume and pulmonary venous pressure indicates that these variations are the result of passive distention of components of the vascular bed. PMID:4902826

  2. Prospects for isomeric energy release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.

    2008-07-01

    The state of experimental studies and promising proposals for the application of nuclear isomers presented as controlled energy or γ-ray sources are reviewed. The properties of isomeric states, methods of their production, and approaches to their efficient stimulation using various types of radiation are analyzed. The long-lived isomers, which can be accumulated in reactor irradiations or in other nuclear interactions with abundant yield, are listed. The isomers are estimated according to their specific energy accumulated per nucleus and the level of the cross section for their formation in reactions with neutrons. The nuclei are classified as promising either for obtaining controlled γ-ray pulses, for the enhanced release of the radioactive decay energy, or for experimental studies on detecting forbidden electromagnetic transitions from the ground to isomeric state. In all cases, the possibility of external-stimulus action on nuclear transitions has key significance, which should become the subject of investigations. The results of successful observation of stimulation of isomers are described at excitation energy E* > 1 MeV in the reactions with bremsstrahlung photons and Coulomb excitation in the ion beam. The essential increase in the K-hindered transitions with increasing energy and also the K-mixing at high rotational frequency for high-spin levels are discussed. The attention is focused on attempts to detect the triggering induced by the radiation in the x-ray range, in particular, that of the 178 m2Hf isomer with the help of x-ray sources and the synchrotron radiation. Proposals for experiments with other isomers are considered. The possibility of affecting the nuclear states by means of ionization of electron shells of a corresponding atom is discussed as promising, and various schemes of similar experiments are proposed. The atomic cross sections are eight orders of magnitude higher than the nuclear ones; therefore, the stimulation of an isomer can

  3. Niacin extended-release/simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark; Curran, Monique P

    2008-01-01

    Niacin extended-release (ER)/simvastatin is a once-daily, fixed-dose combination of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin and an ER formulation of niacin (a B-complex vitamin). In healthy volunteers who were given niacin ER/simvastatin 2000 mg/40 mg, niacin exposure was similar to that with niacin ER 2000 mg, while simvastatin exposure was increased compared to that with simvastatin 40 mg. In patients with elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) but with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at or below the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) goal after a > or = 2-week simvastatin 20 mg/day run-in period (SEACOAST I), 24 weeks of niacin ER/simvastatin 1000 mg/20 mg or 2000 mg/20 mg per day reduced median plasma non-HDL-C levels to a significantly greater extent than simvastatin 20 mg/day. In patients with elevated non-HDL-C and LDL-C at any level after a > or = 2-week simvastatin 40 mg/day run-in period (SEACOAST II), 24 weeks of niacin ER/simvastatin 1000 mg/40 mg or 2000 mg/40 mg per day was noninferior to simvastatin 80 mg/day in reducing median plasma non-HDL-C levels. Compared with simvastatin monotherapy, there was no significant difference in reduction in plasma LDL-C levels with niacin ER/simvastatin in SEACOAST I, and the noninferiority criterion for LDL-C was not met in SEACOAST II. However, plasma HDL-C levels increased more and triglyceride levels were lowered more than with simvastatin monotherapy (SEACOAST I and II). Niacin ER/simvastatin was generally well tolerated, with flushing being the most common adverse reaction.

  4. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-02-22

    Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received ;at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste`s Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995).

  5. Synthesis of CaTiO3 Nanofibers with Controllable Drug-Release Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Ren, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Calcium titanate (CaTiO3) nanofibers with controlled microstructure were fabricated by a combination of sol–gel and electrospinning approaches. The fiber morphology has been found to rely significantly on the precursor composition. Altering the volume ratio of ethanol to acetic acid from 3.5 to 1.25 enables the morphology of the CaTiO3 nanofibers to be transformed from fibers with a circular cross section to curved ribbon-like structures. Ibuprofen (IBU) was used as a model drug to investigate the drug-loading capacity and drug-release profile of the nanofibers. It was found that the BET surface area and the pore volume decrease markedly with the utilization of F127 surfactant. The nanofibers synthesized without F127 surfactant present the highest drug-loading capacity and the most sustained release kinetics. This study suggests that calcium titanate nanofibers can offer a promising platform for localized drug delivery. PMID:27818612

  6. Application of curdlan to controlled drug delivery. III. Drug release from sustained release suppositories in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kanke, M; Tanabe, E; Katayama, H; Koda, Y; Yoshitomi, H

    1995-08-01

    The use of curdlan, a natural beta-1,3-glucan, in the preparation of sustained release suppositories was studied in vitro. To prepare the suppositories, indomethacin, prednisolone or salbutamol sulfate was mixed with curdlan gel. Preparation conditions, including heating time and curdlan concentrations of 5 and 10%, had little effect on the drug release. The tonicity (hypotonic or isotonic) of the media for the suppository preparation and for in vitro drug release study also had little effect on drug release. However, the heating temperature during gel preparation, the drug amount in the suppository and the type of release media did affect drug release. It was found that drug release was sustained and diffusion-controlled in the three drugs. And finally, curdlan can be applicable for use in a sustained release suppository.

  7. A Short History of Hanford Waste Generation, Storage, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-10-01

    Nine nuclear reactors and four reprocessing plants at Hanford produced nearly two-thirds of the plutonium used in the United States for government purposes . These site operations also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste. Some contaminants were released into the environment, exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Other contaminants were stored. The last reactor was shut down in 1987, and the last reprocessing plant closed in 1990. Most of the human-made radioactivity and about half of the chemicals remaining onsite are kept in underground tanks and surface facilities. The rest exists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Hanford contains about 40% of all the radioactivity that exists across the nuclear weapons complex. Today, environmental restoration activities are under way.

  8. Electrically actuatable smart nanoporous membrane for pulsatile drug release.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gumhye; Yang, Seung Yun; Byun, Jinseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2011-03-09

    We report on the fabrication of electrically responsive nanoporous membrane based on polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate anion (PPy/DBS) that was electropolymerized on the upper part of anodized aluminum oxide membrane. The membrane has regular pore size and very high pore density. Utilizing a large volume change of PPy/DBS depending on electrochemical state, the pore size was acutated electrically. The actuation of the pores was experimentally confirmed by in situ atomic force microscopy and in situ flux measurement. We also demonstrated successfully pulsatile (or on-demand) drug release by using fluorescently labeled protein as a model drug. Because of a fast switching time (less than 10 s) and high flux of the drugs, this membrane could be used for emergency therapy of angina pectoris and migraine, which requires acute and on-demand drug delivery, and hormone-related disease and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Energy Release Channels During Destruction of Impurity-Helium Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelenko, V. V.; Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.; Lee, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Injection of an impurity-helium gas jet passed through a radiofrequency discharge into a volume of superfluid helium leads to the growth of nanoclusters of impurity species which form impurity-helium condensates (IHCs). IHCs are porous materials with very low impurity density (˜1020 cm-3). High average concentrations of stabilized free radicals can be achieved on the large total surface (˜100 m2/cm3) of impurity nanoclusters. Warming of the IHCs leads to the destruction of the samples and formation of excited atoms and molecules as a consequence of the recombination of stabilized free radicals. We studied the influence of the nitrogen content in neon-helium and krypton-helium gas mixtures on the thermoluminescence spectra accompanying the destruction of the IHC samples, which were formed by using these gas mixtures. The energy release channels in the IHC samples were revealed from analysis of the thermoluminescence spectra.

  10. NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and HIDH (Human Integration Design Handbook)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis; Fitts, David; Stroud, Kenneth; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the review and re-issuance of the NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and the Human Integration Design Handbook. These standards were last updated in 1995. The target date for the release is September 2009.

  11. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume IV. Design drawings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains design drawings for the biomass cogeneration plant to be built in Maine. The drawings show a considerable degree of detail, however, they are not to be considered released for construction. There has been no actual procurement of equipment, therefore equipment drawings certified by suppliers have not been included. (DMC)

  12. LOW OZONE-DEPLETING HALOCARBONS AS TOTAL-FLOOD AGENTS: VOLUME 1. CANDIDATE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume describes an effort to identify chemical fire protection and explosion prevention agents which may replace the ozone-depleting agent Halon-1301 (CF3Br). Halon-1301 is used in total-flood fire protection systems where the agent is released as a gas into an enclosed spac...

  13. System 80+{trademark} standard design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 13: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-31

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report--Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This report, Volume 13, documents increase and decrease of reactor cooling system inventory and radioactive material release from a subsystem or component.

  14. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT AT THE SAND CREEK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Releases Control Branch (RCB) has developed a pilot-scale Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) to determine the feasibility of soil washing for the remediation of contaminated soils. This mobile unit, mounted on two trailers, can pro...

  15. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT AT THE SAND CREEK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Releases Control Branch (RCB) has developed a pilot-scale Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) to determine the feasibility of soil washing for the remediation of contaminated soils. This mobile unit, mounted on two trailers, can pro...

  16. LOW OZONE-DEPLETING HALOCARBONS AS TOTAL-FLOOD AGENTS: VOLUME 1. CANDIDATE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume describes an effort to identify chemical fire protection and explosion prevention agents which may replace the ozone-depleting agent Halon-1301 (CF3Br). Halon-1301 is used in total-flood fire protection systems where the agent is released as a gas into an enclosed spac...

  17. Image space adaptive volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Andrew; Dingliana, John

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for interactive direct volume rendering which provides adaptive sampling at a reduced memory requirement compared to traditional methods. Our technique exploits frame to frame coherence to quickly generate a two-dimensional importance map of the volume which guides sampling rate optimisation and allows us to provide interactive frame rates for user navigation and transfer function changes. In addition our ray casting shader detects any inconsistencies in our two-dimensional map and corrects them on the fly to ensure correct classification of important areas of the volume.

  18. 77 FR 1976 - Release of Waybill Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Release of Waybill Data AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Release of Waybill Data; Correction. SUMMARY: This document corrects a notice appearing in the Federal... of Trinity Industries, Inc. (WB605-8-12/20/11) for permission to use certain data from the Board's...

  19. 45 CFR 35.8 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Release. 35.8 Section 35.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.8 Release. Acceptance by the claimant, his agent or legal representative, of any award, compromise...

  20. 34 CFR 35.8 - Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release. 35.8 Section 35.8 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.8 Release. Acceptance by the claimant, his agent or legal representative, of any award, compromise or settlement made...

  1. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer code, the quantity and unit of measure, the release site, the HTSUS number(s), the C-4 Code and... entry number, the date and time of release, the inspector's badge number, the quantity and unit of measure, and the C-4 Code will be printed on the invoice and the manifest document and, when other agency...

  2. Extended-release methylphenidate (Ritalin LA).

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2002-01-01

    An extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin LA), a CNS stimulant that inhibits dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake into presynaptic neurons, has been developed for use in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In children with ADHD and healthy male adults, extended-release methylphenidate 20mg was rapidly absorbed and demonstrated two distinct peak plasma concentrations approximately 4 hours apart. The absorption pharmacokinetics of extended-release methylphenidate 20mg, which closely mimics those of immediate-release methylphenidate 10mg given in two doses 4 hours apart, permits once-daily administration. In a 2-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 134 evaluable children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, symptoms improved to a significantly greater extent with extended-release methylphenidate 10 to 40mg once daily than with placebo. Extended-release methylphenidate improved both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and was effective in children with combined- (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive) type or predominantly inattentive-type ADHD. In clinical trials, the safety and tolerability profiles of extended-release methylphenidate were consistent with that of the immediate-release formulation.

  3. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or...

  4. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  5. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... release data, engineering estimates, knowledge of operating procedures, or best professional judgment to...) The environmental medium(a) affected by the release: (1) If surface water, the name of the surface... use; (3) If a lake, the surface area (in acres) and average depth (in feet or meters); (4) If on or...

  6. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stack, the stack height (in feet or meters). (D) The frequency of the release and the fraction of the... use; (3) If a lake, the surface area (in acres) and average depth (in feet or meters); (4) If on or... stack, the stack height (in feet or meters). (iv) The frequency of the release and the fraction of...

  7. Shape-Memory-Alloy Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnis, Darin

    1993-01-01

    Release-nut mechanism activated by electric current applied to shape-memory alloy. Separates attached objects quickly by remote control. Does not create hazard or cause damage. Shape-memory release-nut mechanism unaffected by moisture or vacuum. Requires sustained current lasting 5 seconds or longer, and insensitive to electromagnetic interference. Mechanism can be reused.

  8. Extracellular proton release by stimulated neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    van Zwieten, R.; Wever, R.; Hamers, M.N.; Weening, R.S.; Roos, D.

    1981-07-01

    We have tried to elucidate the mechanism of phagosome acidification in human neutrophils. Assuming that phenomena occurring at the plasma membrane reflect reactions in the phagocytic vacuoles, we have stimulated human neutrophils with agents that induce a ''respiratory burst,'' and we have measured the release of protons into the extracellular medium. Phorbol myristate acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and serum-opsonized zymosan particles each caused a rapid release of protons, concomitant with the increase in oxygen consumption. The stimulated release of protons was strictly coupled to the increase respiration of the cells, because inhibition of the respiration of either anaerobiosis, chlorpromazine, or glycolytic inhibitors also inhibited the release of protons. Also, in the presence of the above-mentioned stimulating agents, neutrophils from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease enhanced neither respiration not proton release. In normal cells, the ratio of deltaH+/-deltaO2 was 1.04 +/- 0.19 (mean +/ SD, n . 13). The mechanism of this proton release is not clear. The amount of lactic and carbonic acid produced by stimulated neutrophils was inadequate to explain the amount of protons released. Perhydroxyl radicals were also ruled out as the source of the protons. Because the cells did not release measurable amounts of phosphate ions, a phosphate-hydroxyl-ion antiport was also excluded. Finally, the lack of any effect of uncouplers renders it unlikely that a respiration-driven proton gradient is built up across the plasma membrane.

  9. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  10. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  11. A Model for Delimited Information Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    A Model for Delimited Information Release Andrei Sabelfeld?1 and Andrew C. Myers2 1 Department of Computer Science, Chalmers University of Technology ...system is given that straightforwardly and provably enforces delimited release. Keywords: Computer security, confidentiality , information flow, nonin...verifiably protect the confidentiality of sensitive information in practical computing systems. One of the most vexing difficulties is that realistic

  12. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  14. Release of Unreviewed Studies Sparks Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Studies generally undergo an evaluation process before they are accepted for publication in an academic journal, presented at a conference, or released by a think tank. This article discusses the release of unreviewed research that sparks debate over the need for tighter peer-review mechanisms. Researchers from two of the nation's most eminent…

  15. Releasing yellow birch saplings and poles

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson

    1992-01-01

    Yellow birch needs moisture, nutrients, overhead light, and enough space for the crown to expand in order to compete successfully with faster-growing northern hardwoods. By releasing crowns early, you can increase the number of future veneer and saw log trees in a stand and double the growth rate, thus cutting rotations in half. If you delay crown release too long,...

  16. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  17. Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.

    PubMed

    Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

    2010-09-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes.

  18. Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Release from Filled Resins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, C.; Zhang, N.-Z.; Anusavice, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20581354

  19. A practical guide to oak release.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2006-01-01

    Oregon white oak savannas and woodlands represent a biological and cultural legacy in the Pacific Northwest. Many Oregon white oak stands are deteriorating owing to invasion and eventual overtopping by Douglas-fir or other conifers. Releasing the shade-intolerant oak trees from overtopping conifers can often restore these oak stands. When planning a release operation,...

  20. Retractions, press releases and newspaper coverage.

    PubMed

    Rada, Roy F

    2007-09-01

    To explore how often newspapers cover the retraction of a medical journal article and whether newspaper coverage corresponds with the appearance of a press release about the retraction. Fifty citations were identified in PubMed that had been indexed with the Medical Subject Heading 'Retracted Publication'. Next, the archives of LexisNexis's 'Major Newspapers' and EurekAlert's press releases were searched to find references to those retracted publications. Newspaper articles addressed exactly three of the 50 retracted publications, and press releases, exactly four of the 50 retracted publications. All three retracted publications that received newspaper coverage also had a press release. In other words, newspapers only covered a retraction that had been introduced by a press release. One would expect that newspaper coverage would increase after a press release, but the suggested relationships among a medical journal article retraction, a press release and newspaper coverage should be further investigated. If the linkage suggested by the data of this study holds, and if newspaper coverage stimulates library patron interest, then a medical library might prepare itself for information requests following a press release.