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Sample records for jrrd releases volume

  1. Autocrine signaling involved in cell volume regulation: the role of released transmitters and plasma membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Franco, Rodrigo; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; de la Paz, Lenin D Ochoa

    2008-07-01

    Cell volume regulation is a basic homeostatic mechanism transcendental for the normal physiology and function of cells. It is mediated principally by the activation of osmolyte transport pathways that result in net changes in solute concentration that counteract cell volume challenges in its constancy. This process has been described to be regulated by a complex assortment of intracellular signal transduction cascades. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that alterations in cell volume induce the release of a wide variety of transmitters including hormones, ATP and neurotransmitters, which have been proposed to act as extracellular signals that regulate the activation of cell volume regulatory mechanisms. In addition, changes in cell volume have also been reported to activate plasma membrane receptors (including tyrosine kinase receptors, G-protein coupled receptors and integrins) that have been demonstrated to participate in the regulatory process of cell volume. In this review, we summarize recent studies about the role of changes in cell volume in the regulation of transmitter release as well as in the activation of plasma membrane receptors and their further implications in the regulation of the signaling machinery that regulates the activation of osmolyte flux pathways. We propose that the autocrine regulation of Ca2+-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways by the activation of plasma membrane receptors and swelling-induced transmitter release is necessary for the activation/regulation of osmolyte efflux pathways and cell volume recovery. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying these extrinsic signals because of their significance in the understanding of the physiology of cell volume regulation and its role in cell biology in vivo, where the constraint of the extracellular space might enhance the autocrine or even paracrine signaling induced by these released transmitters. PMID:18300263

  2. Nonsynaptic Communication Through ATP Release from Volume-Activated Anion Channels in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Fields, R. Douglas; Ni, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    The release of neuronal messengers outside synapses has broad biological implications, particularly with regard to communication between axons and glia. We identify a mechanism for nonsynaptic, nonvesicular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from axons through volume-activated anion channels (VAACs) activated by microscopic axon swelling during action potential firing. We used a combination of single-photon imaging of ATP release, together with imaging for intrinsic optical signals, intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+), time-lapse video, and confocal microscopy, to investigate action potential–induced nonsynaptic release of this neurotransmitter. ATP release from cultured embryonic dorsal root ganglion axons persisted when bafilomycin or botulinum toxin was used to block vesicular release, whereas pharmacological inhibition of VAACs or prevention of action potential–induced axon swelling inhibited ATP release and disrupted activity-dependent signaling between axons and astrocytes. This nonvesicular, nonsynaptic communication could mediate various activity-dependent interactions between axons and nervous system cells in normal conditions, development, and disease. PMID:20923934

  3. CoreSVM: a generalized high-order spectral volume method bearing Conservative Order RElease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamouroux, Raphael; Gressier, Jeremie; Joly, Laurent; Grondin, Gilles

    2014-11-01

    The spectral volume method (SVM) introduced by Wang in 2002 is based on a compact polynomial reconstruction where the interpolation's degree is driven by the partition of the spectral volumes. We propose a generalization of the SVM which releases the polynomial degree from this constraint and more importantly that allows to resort to any polynomial order inferior to the regular stencil order without changing the original spectral volume partition. Using one-dimensional advection and Burgers equation, we prove that the proposed extended method exhibits versatile high-order convergence together with conservativity properties. This new method is thus named the CoreSVM for Conservative Order-REleased SVM and we therefore explore its potential towards the numerical simulation of stiff problems. It is stressed that CoreSVM is indeed particularly suited to handle discontinuities, as the order-reduction serves to damp the numerical oscillations due to Runge's phenomenon. To ensure computational stability, local p-coarsening is used to obtain the highest adequate polynomial degree. It is advocated finally that, since the CoreSVM sets the polynomial order adaptation free from any stencil changes, these features do not come at the expense of any extra remeshing or data adaptation cost. Part of this research was funded by the French DGA.

  4. Phasic acetylcholine release and the volume transmission hypothesis: time to move on

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Martin; Parikh, Vinay; Howe, W. Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Traditional descriptions of the cortical cholinergic input system focused on the diffuse organization of cholinergic projections and the hypothesis that slowly changing levels of extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) mediate different arousal states. The ability of ACh to reach the extrasynaptic space (volume neurotransmission), as opposed to remaining confined to the synaptic cleft (wired neurotransmission), has been considered an integral component of this conceptualization. Recent studies demonstrated that phasic release of ACh, at the scale of seconds, mediates precisely defined cognitive operations. This characteristic of cholinergic neurotransmission is proposed to be of primary importance for understanding cholinergic function and developing treatments for cognitive disorders that result from abnormal cholinergic neurotransmission. PMID:19377503

  5. Electrochemical detection of catecholamine release using planar iridium oxide electrodes in nanoliter microfluidic cell culture volumes.

    PubMed

    Ges, Igor A; Currie, Kevin P M; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2012-04-15

    Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by calcium regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular/molecular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. Therefore, this area represents a relevant target for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that provide mechanistically rich data with increased throughput. Toward this goal, we have electrochemically deposited iridium oxide (IrOx) films onto planar thin film platinum electrodes (20 μm×300 μm) and utilized these for quantitative detection of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells trapped in a microfluidic network. The IrOx electrodes show a linear response to norepinephrine in the range of 0-400 μM, with a sensitivity of 23.1±0.5 mA/M mm(2). The sensitivity of the IrOx electrodes does not change in the presence of ascorbic acid, a substance commonly found in biological samples. A replica molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with nanoliter sensing volumes was aligned and sealed to a glass substrate with the sensing electrodes. Small populations of chromaffin cells were trapped in the microfluidic device and stimulated by rapid perfusion with high potassium (50mM) containing Tyrode's solution at a flow rate of 1 nL/s. Stimulation of the cells produced a rapid increase in current due to oxidation of the released catecholamines, with an estimated maximum concentration in the cell culture volume of ~52 μM. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of an integrated microfluidic network with IrOx electrodes for real-time quantitative detection of catecholamines released from small populations of chromaffin cells. PMID:22398270

  6. Control of hepatic nitrogen metabolism and glutathione release by cell volume regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hüssinger, D; Lang, F; Bauers, K; Gerok, W

    1990-11-13

    1. Urea synthesis was studied in isolated perfused rat liver during cell volume regulatory ion fluxes following exposure of the liver to anisotonic perfusion media. Lowering of the osmolarity in influent perfusate from 305 mOsm/l to 225 mOsm/l (by decreasing influent [NaCl] by 40 mmol/l) led to an inhibition of urea synthesis from NH4Cl (0.5 mmol/l) by about 60% and a decrease of hepatic oxygen uptake by 0.43 +/- 0.03 mumol g-1 min-1 [from 3.09 +/- 0.13 mumol g-1 min-1 to 2.66 +/- 0.12 mumol g-1 min-1 (n = 9)]. The effects on urea synthesis and oxygen uptake were observed throughout hypotonic exposure (225 mOsm/l). They persisted although volume regulatory K+ efflux from the liver was complete within 8 min and were fully reversible upon reexposure to normotonic perfusion media (305 mOsm/l). A 42% inhibition of urea synthesis from NH4Cl (0.5 mmol/l) during hypotonicity was also observed when the perfusion medium was supplemented with glucose (5 mmol/l). Urea synthesis was inhibited by only 10-20% in livers from fed rats, and was even stimulated in those from starved rats when an amino acid mixture (twice the physiological concentration) plus NH4Cl (0.2 mmol/l) was infused. 2. The inhibition of urea synthesis from NH4Cl (0.5 mmol/l) during hypotonicity was accompanied by a threefold increase of citrulline tissue levels, a 50-70% decrease of the tissue contents of glutamate, aspartate, citrate and malate, whereas 2-oxoglutarate, ATP and ornithine tissue levels, and the [3H]inulin extracellular space remained almost unaltered. Further, hypotonic exposure stimulated hepatic glutathione (GSH) release with a time course roughly paralleling volume regulatory K+ efflux. NH4Cl stimulated lactate release from the liver during hypotonic but not during normotonic perfusion. In the absence of NH4Cl, hypotonicity did not significantly affect the lactate/pyruvate ratio in effluent perfusate. With NH4Cl (0.5 mmol/l) present, the lactate/pyruvate ratio increased from 4.3 to 8.2 in

  7. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  8. Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.; Head, J. W.; Leask, H. J.; Ghatan, G.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss estimates of water fluxes on Mars and suggest that many are overestimates. Even so, we can only explain very high martian outflow rates by either unusually permeable aquifer systems or sudden release of shallow concentrations of water.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1983. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1983 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1983 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1982. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.

    1986-02-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1982 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1982 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  16. Changing paradigms: Manufacturing vs. fabricating a high volume Hold Down and Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl; Monick, Doug

    1995-01-01

    A detailed description of the Hold Down and Release Mechanisms designed for a 70+ constellation of spacecraft is presented. The design is reviewed to understand the practical implications of severely constraining cost. Strategies for adapting the traditional aerospace design paradigm to a more commercial, cost driven paradigm are discussed and practical examples are cited.

  17. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  18. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

  19. Technical basis for radiological release of Grand Junction Office Building 2. Volume 2, dose assessment supporting data

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The second volume of the Grand Junction Office Action Program Technical Basis for Radiological Release of Grand Junction Office Building 2 report includes the data quality objectives (DQO), sampling plan, collected data, and analysis used to model future radiation doses to members of the public occupying Building 2 on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) site. This volume was assembled by extracting relevant components of the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project Building 2 Public Dose Evaluation (DOE 1996) and inserting recent additional data that was gathered and dose pathway modeling that was performed. The intent of this document is to provide all derived guidance decisions, assumptions, measured data, testing results, and pathway modeling software input and output data that supports the discussion and determinations presented in Volume 1 of this report. For constructive employment of this document, the reader is encouraged to closely follow Volume 1 for proper association with the segment of information being examined.

  20. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  1. Long-term ground penetrating radar monitoring of a small volume DNAPL release in a natural groundwater flow field.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Keun; Endres, Anthony L; Piggott, Scott D; Parker, Beth L

    2008-04-01

    An earlier field experiment at Canadian Forces Base Borden by Brewster and Annan [Geophysics 59 (1994) 1211] clearly demonstrated the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) reflection profiling to detect and monitor the formation of DNAPL layers in the subsurface. Their experiment involved a large volume release (770 L) of tetrachloroethylene into a portion of the sand aquifer that was hydraulically isolated from groundwater flow by sheet pile walls. In this study, we evaluated the ability of GPR profiling to detect and monitor much smaller volume releases (50 L). No subsurface confining structure was used in this experiment; hence, the DNAPL impacted zone was subjected to the natural groundwater flow regime. This condition allowed us to geophysically monitor the DNAPL mass loss over a 66 month period. Reflectivity variations on the GPR profiles were used to infer the presence and evolution of the solvent layers. GPR imaging found significant reflectivity increases due to solvent layer formation during the two week period immediately after the release. These results demonstrated the capacity of GPR profiling for the detection and monitoring of lesser volume DNAPL releases that are more representative of small-scale industrial spills. The GPR imaged solvent layers subsequently reduced in both areal extent and reflectivity after 29 months and almost completely disappeared by the end of the 66 month monitoring period. Total DNAPL mass estimates based on GPR profiling data indicated that the solvent mass was reduced to 34%-36% of its maximum value after 29 months; only 4%-9% of the solvent mass remained in the study area after 66 months. These results are consistent with independent hydrogeological estimates of remaining DNAPL mass based on the downgradient monitoring of the dissolved solvent phase. Hence, we have concluded that the long-term GPR reflectivity changes of the DNAPL layers are likely the result from the dissolution of chlorinated solvents residing

  2. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  3. Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios. Volume 3. PWR, subatmospheric containment design

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R.S.; Gieseke, J.A.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Jordan, H.; Curtis, L.A.; Kelly, R.F.; Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1986-07-01

    This report presents results of analyses of the enviromental releases of fission products (source terms) for severe accident scenarios in a pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment design. The analyses were performed to support the Severe Accident Risk Reduction/Risk Rebaselining Program (SARRP) which is being undertaken for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Sandia National Laboratories. In the SARRP program, risk estimates are being generated for a number of reference plant designs. the Surry plant has been used in this study as the reference plant for a subatmospheric design.

  4. Flight Set 360T004 (STS-30) Insulation Component, Interim Release, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The insulation component of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) is discussed. The results of all visual evaluations and a thermal safety factor analysis are given. The data contained here supersedes the interim release and the insulation data presented in the Clearfield 10 day report. The objective is to document the postflight condition of the internal and external insulation of nozzle to case joints, the case field joints, the igniter to case joints, and the acreage insulation which made up RSRM-4A and RSRM-4B.

  5. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  6. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  7. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1981. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1981. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways from 48 sites ranged from a high of 20 person-rem to a low of 0.008 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 160 person-rem for the 98 million people considered at risk.

  8. Technical basis for radiological release of Grand Junction Office Building 2. Volume 1, dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.; Warga, J.; Thorne, D.

    1997-07-01

    Building 2 on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) site is part of the GJO Remedial Action Program (GJORAP). During evaluation of Building 2 for determination of radiological release disposition, some inaccessible surface contamination measurements were detected to be greater than the generic surface contamination guidelines of DOE Order 5400.5 (which are functionally equivalent to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] Regulatory Guide 1.86). Although the building is nominal in size, it houses the site telecommunications system, that is critical to continued GJO operations, and demolition is estimated at $1.9 million. Because unrestricted release under generic surface contamination guidelines is cost-prohibitive, supplemental standards consistent with DOE Order 5400.5 are being pursued. This report describes measurements and dose analysis modeling efforts to evaluate the radiation dose to members of the public who might occupy or demolish Building 2, a 2,480 square-foot (ft) building constructed in 1944. The north portion of the building was used as a shower facility for Manhattan Project uranium-processing mill workers and the south portion was a warehouse. Many originally exposed surfaces are no longer accessible for contamination surveys because expensive telecommunications equipment have been installed on the floors and mounted on panels covering the walls. These inaccessible surfaces are contaminated above generic contamination limits.

  9. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  10. Aerosol release and transport program. Semiannual progress report, October 1985-March 1986. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes progress for the Aerosol Release and Transport Program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Accident Evaluation, for the period October 1985-March 1986. Topics discussed include (1) Aerosol-Moisture Interaction Test (AMIT) experiments 5002 through 5006; (2) efforts to measure the aerodynamic shape factor chi during these experiments; (3) a development test for determining parameters for generating concrete aerosols; (4) data concerning water-vapor generation during plasma torch operation; (5) the use of the ideal gas law in calculating relative humidity; (6) initial comparisons of CONTAIN code results with experimental data for an iron oxide aerosol-steam experiment in the NSPP Facility; (7) pretest predictions using the CONTAIN code for LACE experiment LA-2.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACT-RELEASE VOLUME PHENOMENON AS A RAPID TEST FOR DETECTING SPOILAGE IN BEEF.

    PubMed

    JAY, J M; KONTOU, K S

    1964-07-01

    Ground beef of several grades, obtained fresh and held refrigerated until spoiled, was presented to a test panel for scoring on color, odor, and tactile response (tackiness) as to degree of acceptance. Panel scores were correlated with total bacterial counts, ninhydrin-reactive substances, and ERV (extract-release volume) on the same meat. ERV correlated highest with bacterial counts the largest number of times; tackiness, odor, ninhydrin, and color followed in that order. Correlation between bacterial numbers and organoleptic qualities was best, with tackiness followed closely by odor, and then by color. Correlation between tackiness and odor was high. The degree of correlation between bacterial numbers, tackiness, and ERV was high enough to warrant the use of the ERV phenomenon as a rapid test of microbial quality of beef. An ERV value of 25 under the conditions of the test was supported as a divider between acceptable and unacceptable ground beef. PMID:14201094

  12. EVALUATION OF THE EXTRACT-RELEASE VOLUME PHENOMENON AS A RAPID TEST FOR DETECTING SPOILAGE IN BEEF.

    PubMed

    JAY, J M; KONTOU, K S

    1964-07-01

    Ground beef of several grades, obtained fresh and held refrigerated until spoiled, was presented to a test panel for scoring on color, odor, and tactile response (tackiness) as to degree of acceptance. Panel scores were correlated with total bacterial counts, ninhydrin-reactive substances, and ERV (extract-release volume) on the same meat. ERV correlated highest with bacterial counts the largest number of times; tackiness, odor, ninhydrin, and color followed in that order. Correlation between bacterial numbers and organoleptic qualities was best, with tackiness followed closely by odor, and then by color. Correlation between tackiness and odor was high. The degree of correlation between bacterial numbers, tackiness, and ERV was high enough to warrant the use of the ERV phenomenon as a rapid test of microbial quality of beef. An ERV value of 25 under the conditions of the test was supported as a divider between acceptable and unacceptable ground beef.

  13. Patterns of renal dopamine release to regulate diuresis and natriuresis during volume expansion. Role of renal monoamine-oxidase.

    PubMed

    de Luca Sarobe, Verónica; Di Ciano, Luis; Carranza, Andrea M; Levin, Gloria; Arrizurieta, Elvira E; Ibarra, Fernando R

    2010-01-01

    Diuretic and natriuretic effects of renal dopamine (DA) are well established. However, in volume expansion the pattern of renal DA release into urine (UDAV) and the role of enzymes involved in DA synthesis/degradation have not yet been defined. The objective was to determine the pattern of UDAV during volume expansion and to characterize the involvement of monoamine-oxidase (MAO) and aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) in this response. In this study male Wistar rats were expanded with NaCl 0.9% at a rate of 5% BWt per hour. At the beginning of expansion three groups received a single drug injection as follows: C (vehicle, Control), IMAO (MAO inhibitor Pargyline, 20 mg/kg BWt, i.v.) and BNZ (AADC inhibitor Benserazide, 25 mg/kg BWt, i.v.). Results revealed that in C rats UDAV (ng/30 min/100g BWt) increased in the first 30 min expansion from 11.5 +/- 1.20 to 21.8 +/- 3.10 (p < 0.05) and decreased thereafter. IMAO showed a similar pattern but significantly higher than C at 30 min expansion (32.5 +/- 2.20, p < 0.05). IMAO greatly reduced MAO activity from 8.29 +/- 0.35 to 1.1 +/- 0.03 nmol/mg tissue/hour and significantly increased diuresis and natriuresis over controls. BNZ abolished the early UDAV peak to 3.2+/-0.72 (p < 0.01) and though, UDAV increased over C after 60 min expansion, natriuresis and diuresis were diminished by BNZ treatment. Results indicate that an increment in renal DA release into urine occurs early in expansion and in a peak-shaped way. In this response MAO plays a predominant role.

  14. Shrinkage of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia and reduction of prostatic cell volume by a gastrin-releasing peptide antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Ferenc G.; Abi-Chaker, Andrew; Szalontay, Luca; Perez, Roberto; Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Jayakumar, Arumugam R.; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Szepeshazi, Karoly; Vidaurre, Irving; Halmos, Gabor; Krishan, Awtar; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrin releasing-peptide (GRP) is a potent growth factor in many malignancies. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive age-related proliferation of glandular and stromal tissues; various growth factors and inflammatory processes are involved in its pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that potent antagonists of GRP inhibit growth of experimental human tumors including prostate cancer, but their effect on models of BPH has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the effects of GRP antagonist RC-3940-II on viability and cell volume of BPH-1 human prostate epithelial cells and WPMY-1 prostate stromal cells in vitro, and in testosterone-induced BPH in Wistar rats in vivo. RC-3940-II inhibited the proliferation of BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and reduced prostatic cell volume in vitro. Shrinkage of prostates was observed after 6 wk of treatment with RC-3940-II: a 15.9% decline with 25 μg/d; and a 18.4% reduction with 50 μg/d (P < 0.05 for all). Significant reduction in levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, NF-κβ/p50, cyclooxygenase-2, and androgen receptor was also seen. Analysis of transcript levels of genes related to growth, inflammatory processes, and signal transduction showed significant changes in the expression of more than 90 genes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, GRP antagonists reduce volume of human prostatic cells and lower prostate weight in experimental BPH through direct inhibitory effects on prostatic GRP receptors. GRP antagonists should be considered for further development as therapy for BPH. PMID:23359692

  15. In vitro comparative fluoride release, and weight and volume change in light-curing and self-curing glass ionomer materials.

    PubMed

    Wandera, A; Spencer, P; Bohaty, B

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro fluoride release from and weight and volume changes of Photac-Fil, a light-curing polymaleinate restorative glass ionomer, with Ketac-Fil, a self-curing glass ionomer, and Ketac-Silver, a metal reinforced glass ionomer. Five discs of each material, measuring 2 mm height and 5 mm diameter, were suspended in separate vials of distilled water and laboratory artificial saliva. Fluoride release into the solutions was measured using a calibrated fluoride-sensitive ion meter initially at 24 hr and then weekly from 1 to 9 weeks. These results were evaluated statistically using repeated measures analysis of variance. Volumes and weights were recorded at the start and end of the experiment and analyzed using the paired t-test. Photac-Fil released similar amounts of fluoride to Ketac-Silver, but significantly less than Ketac-Fil in distilled water (P < or = 0.05). In artificial saliva, Photac-Fil released similar amounts to Ketac-Fil, but significantly more than Ketac-Silver (P < or = 0.05). Photac-Fil volume increased in distilled water and artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05) as did Ketac-Fil and Ketac-Silver in artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05). The only material that demonstrated significant net weight increase was Ketac-Silver in artificial saliva (P < or = 0.05). In summary, differences in fluoride release between these three glass ionomer materials varied as a function of the media in which they were stored. Whereas Ketac-Fil exhibited significantly greater fluoride release than the other materials in distilled water, in artificial saliva Ketac-Fil and Photac-Fil exhibited comparable fluoride release. Dimensional change, as evaluated by volume and weight differences, was also affected by storage media.

  16. Total flammable mass and volume within a vapor cloud produced by a continuous fuel-gas or volatile liquid-fuel release.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael; Fauske, Hans K

    2007-08-25

    The top-hat jet/plume model has recently been employed to obtain simple closed-form expressions for the mass of fuel in the flammable region of a vapor "cloud" produced by an axisymmetric (round) continuous-turbulent jet having positive or negative buoyancy [1]. The fuel release may be a gas or a volatile liquid. In this paper, the top-hat analysis is extended to obtain closed-form approximate expressions for the total mass (fuel+entrained air) and volume of the flammable region of a release cloud produced by either a round or a plane (two-dimensional) buoyant jet. These expressions lead to predicted average fuel concentrations in the flammable regions of the release clouds which, when compared with the stoichiometric concentration, serve as indicators of the potential severity of release cloud explosions. For a fixed release mass, the combustion overpressure following ignition of a hydrogen/air cloud is anticipated to be significantly lower than that due to ignition of a hydrocarbon/air cloud. The predicted average hydrogen concentration within the flammable region of the release cloud is below the lower detonability limit. The facility with which the expressions can be used for predictions of combustion overpressures is illustrated for propane releases and deflagrations in a closed compartment. PMID:17363152

  17. Total flammable mass and volume within a vapor cloud produced by a continuous fuel-gas or volatile liquid-fuel release.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael; Fauske, Hans K

    2007-08-25

    The top-hat jet/plume model has recently been employed to obtain simple closed-form expressions for the mass of fuel in the flammable region of a vapor "cloud" produced by an axisymmetric (round) continuous-turbulent jet having positive or negative buoyancy [1]. The fuel release may be a gas or a volatile liquid. In this paper, the top-hat analysis is extended to obtain closed-form approximate expressions for the total mass (fuel+entrained air) and volume of the flammable region of a release cloud produced by either a round or a plane (two-dimensional) buoyant jet. These expressions lead to predicted average fuel concentrations in the flammable regions of the release clouds which, when compared with the stoichiometric concentration, serve as indicators of the potential severity of release cloud explosions. For a fixed release mass, the combustion overpressure following ignition of a hydrogen/air cloud is anticipated to be significantly lower than that due to ignition of a hydrocarbon/air cloud. The predicted average hydrogen concentration within the flammable region of the release cloud is below the lower detonability limit. The facility with which the expressions can be used for predictions of combustion overpressures is illustrated for propane releases and deflagrations in a closed compartment.

  18. Integrity of structures, and fluid systems, hazardous release protection, piping and pipe supports, and pumps and valves. PVP-Volume 333

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.H.; Brown, S.J.; Goodling, E.C. Jr.; Ezekoye, L.I.

    1996-12-01

    A primary objective of the Operations, Applications, and Components (OAC) Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division is to disseminate information and advance current theories and practices in pressure vessels, steam generators, heat exchangers, piping and pipe supports, pump and valves, and other components. The topics included in this volume are: (1) integrity of structures and fluid systems; (2) pipe supports, restraints, and other pressure piping components; (3) hazardous release protection; and (4) pumps and valves. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this volume.

  19. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 1, Text: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo ``realizations`` of the hourly release histories.

  20. Mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenhua; Li, Xiangde; Qian, Jun; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm(3)/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction.

  1. Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenhua; Li, Xiangde; Qian, Jun; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm3/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction. PMID:25784801

  2. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  3. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  4. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 0, Computer Codes Volume 1: Inventory, Release, and Transport Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W. ); Engel, David W. ); Gerhardstein, Lawrence H. ); Lopresti, Charles A. ); Nichols, William E. ); Strenge, Dennis L. )

    2001-12-01

    One activity of the Department of Energy's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project is an assessment of cumulative impacts from Hanford Site wastes on the subsurface environment and the Columbia River. Through the application of a system assessment capability (SAC), decisions for each cleanup and disposal action will be able to take into account the composite effect of other cleanup and disposal actions. The SAC has developed a suite of computer programs to simulate the migration of contaminants (analytes) present on the Hanford Site and to assess the potential impacts of the analytes, including dose to humans, socio-cultural impacts, economic impacts, and ecological impacts. The general approach to handling uncertainty in the SAC computer codes is a Monte Carlo approach. Conceptually, one generates a value for every stochastic parameter in the code (the entire sequence of modules from inventory through transport and impacts) and then executes the simulation, obtaining an output value, or result. This document provides user instructions for the SAC codes that handle inventory tracking, release of contaminants to the environment, and transport of contaminants through the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and the Columbia River.

  5. Seasonal changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I immunoreactivity in relation with testicular volume in adult male free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pintér, O; Péczely, P

    2010-09-01

    Birds from the temperate and cold zones show annual sexual activity accompanied by gonadal changes and fluctuation in their brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels. However, most of the studies were done on captive birds where the constant environment can profoundly modify periodical changes. Therefore our aim was to reveal annual variations of hypothalamic and gonadal changes in male, free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) captured directly from their natural environment. We analyzed hypothalamic GnRH-I immunoreactivity and testes volume. Four key time points of the active reproductive cycle and the photorefractory phase were studied. GnRH-I immunoreactivity was analyzed in the preoptic area (POA) and the median eminence (ME). Photorefractory birds (August) with regressed gonads had the lowest level of GnRH-I immunoreactivity compared to other birds from the active reproductive phases. These results suggest that parallel with the gonadal volume GnRH-I undergoes seasonal changes in adult male free-living European starlings. PMID:20724271

  6. Protolichesterinic Acid, Isolated from the Lichen Cetraria islandica, Reduces LRRC8A Expression and Volume-Sensitive Release of Organic Osmolytes in Human Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    We have tested the effect of protolichesterinic acid (PA) on the activity of the volume-sensitive release pathway for the organic osmolyte taurine (VSOAC) and the expression of the leucine-rich-repeat-channel 8A (LRRC8A) protein, which constitutes an essential VSOAC component. Exposing human lung cancer cells (A549) to PA (20 µg/mL, 24 h) reduces LRRC8A protein expression by 25% and taurine release following osmotic cell swelling (320 → 200 mOsm) by 60%. C75 (20 µg/mL, 24 h), a γ-lactone with a C8 carbon fatty acid chain, reduces VSOAC activity by 30%, i.e. less than PA. Stearic acid (20 µg/mL, 24 h) has no effect on VSOAC. Hence, length of PA's fatty acid chain adds to γ-lactone's inhibitory action. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity is essential for swelling-induced activation of VSOAC. PA has no effect on cellular concentration of leukotrienes (5-HETE/LTB4 ) under hypotonic conditions, excluding that PA mediated inhibition of VSOAC involves 5-LO inhibition. A549 cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (10 μM, 24 h) reveal signs of apoptosis, i.e. 25% reduction in cell viability as well as 1.3-, 1.5- and 3.3-fold increase in the expression of LRRC8A, Bax (regulator of apoptosis) and p21 (regulator of cell cycle progression), respectively. PA reduces cell viability by 30% but has no effect on p21/Bax expression. This excludes PA as a pro-apoptotic drug in A549 cells. PMID:26549524

  7. The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V.; Geidmanis, D.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid - dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid - wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative. The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents

  8. Spatial patterns of rockfall in recently deglaciated high-alpine rock faces: Analysing rockfall release zones and volumes based on a multiannual LiDAR time series, Kitzsteinhorn, Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Delleske, Robert; Wichmann, Volker; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Rock instabilities in high-alpine areas represent a considerable risk factor for man and infrastructure. In the Alps numerous, mainly visual, observations suggest an increasing occurrence of rockfall events potentially associated to climate warming. However, unbiased high-precision information on the location of rockfall release zones and the size of event volumes is scarce. Thus, frequency/magnitude patterns of high-alpine rockfall often remain elusive. The presented study addresses the need for systematically acquired, objective field data by presenting an extensive, multiannual LiDAR time series from a high-alpine (peri)glacial environment. The study area is located in the summit region of the Kitzsteinhorn (3.203 m), Hohe Tauern Range, Austria. The beginning of the terrestrial laserscanning (TLS) monitoring campaign dates back to July 2011. Since then six rock faces have been scanned repeatedly at an interval of 1-2 months during the snow-free summer season (June to October). The investigated rock faces predominantly consist of calcareous mica-schist and differ in terms of height, slope, aspect, and discontinuity orientation. The rock faces are partially underlain by permafrost, their combined surface area is approx. 1.3 km². They are located directly adjacent to the Schmiedingerkees cirque glacier, which has retreated and thinned significantly in recent decades (downwasting rate ~1.5 m/a). TLS data acquisition was performed using a Riegl LMS-Z620i. During data acquisition no permanently fixed installations and no artificial reflective markers were used. This is in line with the requirement to develop a quick, flexible methodology that can be applied not only at the Kitzsteinhorn, but also in other, similar environments. For data post-processing a new analysis procedure has been developed which allows (i) point cloud alignment by surface geometry matching, (ii) objective, automated discrimination between measurement errors und real surface changes, and (iii

  9. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which CBP deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used only...

  10. 19 CFR 142.41 - Line Release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line Release. 142.41 Section 142.41 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.41 Line Release. Line Release is an automated system designed to... importers of merchandise which Customs deems to be repetitive and high volume. Line Release may be used...

  11. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest

  12. Estimation of the release and migration of lead through soils and groundwater at the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, K.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Cantrell, K.J.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.; Kincaid, C.T.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential for transport of lead from the Hanford Site 218-E-12B Burial Ground to the surrounding surface- and groundwater. Burial of metal components containing nickel alloy steel and lead at this location may eventually result in release of lead to the subsurface environment, including groundwater aquifers that may be used for domestic and agricultural purposes in the future and, ultimately, to the Columbia River. The rate at which lead is transported to downgradient locations depends on a complex set of factors, such as climate, soil and groundwater chemistry, and the geologic and hydrologic configuration of the subsurface region between the burial ground and a potential receptor location. The groundwater transport analysis was conducted using a one-dimensional screening model with a relatively conservative matrix of parameters obtained from the hydrogeologic and geochemical studies.

  13. Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River. Volume 1, Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Brothers, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort on Columbia River work to most effectively extend work performed in Phase I of the project (PNL 1991a, PNL 1991b) to meet the project objectives. A number of options were analyzed. Four stretches of the Columbia River and adjacent Pacific coastal waters were defined and investigated for four time periods. Radiation doses arising from ten potentially major exposure pathways were evaluated for each of the time/location combinations, and several alternative methods were defined for estimating the doses from each pathway. Preliminary cost estimates were also developed for implementing dose estimation activities for each of the possible combinations.

  14. Energy Information Administration new releases. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This publication of the National Energy Information Center contains news items and information sources related primarily to electricity generation. News items reported on in this issue include utility compliance costs for the Clean Air Act, 1995 profits for major energy companies, and competition issues in the electric power and natural gas industries. A summary report on crude oil prices is also presented. Other information provided includes a listing of 1996 publications from the center, electronic information services, and energy data information contacts.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of rock fall in a (peri)glacial environment: a LiDAR-based, multi-year investigation of rock fall release zones and volumes, Kitzsteinhorn, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delleske, Robert; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    October). All scans (n = 41) were conducted using a RIEGL LMS-Z620. The resulting spatial resolution varies between 0.1 and 0.5 m and object distance (i.e. distance between scanner and rock face) ranges from 250 to 500 m. Post-processing of TLS data enabled to precisely identify rock fall release zones, rock fall volumes and surface changes of the Schmiedingerkees glacier (lowering rate of approximately 1.5 m per year). Since 2011 a total number of nine rock fall events with a volume exceeding 100 m³ have been recorded - with the largest reaching a volume of approx. 500 m³. All were triggered from areas that have been exposed by the retreating Schmiedingerkees glacier over the last 1-2 decades. Thus, glacial debuttressing and subsequent exposure to atmospheric influences might be considered as the dominant destabilizing factors. Temporal clustering of rock fall events over the first three seasons (2011 to 2013) tentatively indicates a bimodal occurrence pattern with a first maximum during snowmelt (May/June) and a second distinct peak during the warmest period of the year (August).

  16. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Yang, Robert Alexander (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a pyrotechnic actuated release mechanism which is mechanically two fault tolerant for effecting release. It is particularly well suited for releasably connecting structures to be used in the space environment or in other aerospace applications. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each attachable to either one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and the body are fastenable by a toggle supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end, which is received in a central opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein, the toggle is restrained by three retractable latching pins. Each pin is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge. While retraction of all three pins releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt is mounted on the fastener plate as a support for the socket mounting of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for pre-loading the toggle.

  17. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  18. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  19. An evaluation of the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and medroxyprogesterone acetate on uterine leiomyomata volume by magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Carr, B R; Marshburn, P B; Weatherall, P T; Bradshaw, K D; Breslau, N A; Byrd, W; Roark, M; Steinkampf, M P

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the effectiveness of administering medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 20 mg/day) in either the first (protocol A) or last (protocol B) 12-week period along with a 6-month course of the GnRH analog (GnRH-a; leuprolide acetate; 1 mg/day, sc) on uterine and leiomyomata volumes and hormone (estradiol, LH, and FSH) and serum lipid (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high and low density lipoprotein) levels. Sixteen women were randomized into protocol A or B, received either MPA or placebo along with GnRH-a, respectively, and were then crossed over at 12 weeks to placebo or MPA, respectively, for the final 12-week interval of GnRH-a therapy. Total, myoma, and nonmyoma uterine volumes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging, and serum studies were performed at the beginning of the study and at 12 and 24 weeks. In both protocols, LH and estradiol levels declined by 80-90% (P < 0.03) and 55-72% (P < 0.02) of the baseline, respectively, at 12 weeks and remained at this level at 24 weeks. There were no significant changes in the other laboratory tests between protocols or longitudinally over time. Total uterine volume decreased to 73% of the baseline at 12 weeks in protocol B (P < 0.04), but did not change in protocol A. After crossover at 12 weeks, the total uterine volume of women in protocol A decreased to 74% of the baseline (P < 0.02) at 24 weeks. Between-protocol comparisons demonstrated a greater decline in total uterine volume in protocol B than A at 12 weeks, but after cross-over, MPA addition was associated with a significant increase in total uterine volume (protocol B) compared to a decrease in protocol A at 24 weeks (P < 0.005). In contrast, although myoma volume declined in both protocols, no significant changes in myoma volume were detected within or between groups over the treatment period. Nonmyoma volume changes in protocols A and B roughly paralleled total uterine volume changes, with MPA

  20. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  1. Analysis of release kinetics of ocular therapeutics from drug releasing contact lenses: Best methods and practices to advance the field.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, Arianna; Boggs, Aarika C; Pourjavad, Payam; Byrne, Mark E

    2014-08-01

    Several methods have been proposed to achieve an extended and controlled release of ocular therapeutics via contact lenses; however, the experimental conditions used to study the drug release vary greatly and significantly influence the release kinetics. In this paper, we examine variations in the release conditions and their effect on the release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs (ketotifen fumarate, diclofenac sodium, timolol maleate and dexamethasone) from conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses. Drug release was studied under different conditions, varying volume, mixing rates, and temperature. Volume had the biggest effect on the release profile, which ironically is the least consistent variable throughout the literature. When a small volume (2-30 mL) was used with no forced mixing and solvent exchange every 24 h, equilibrium was reached promptly much earlier than solvent exchange, significantly damping the drug release rate and artificially extending the release duration, leading to false conclusions. Using a large volume (200-400 mL) with a 30 rpm mixing rate and no solvent exchange, the release rate and total mass released was significantly increased. In general, the release performed in small volumes with no force mixing exhibited cumulative mass release amounts of 3-12 times less than the cumulative release amounts in large volumes with mixing. Increases in mixing rate and temperature resulted in relatively small increases of 1.4 and 1.2 times, respectively in fractional mass released. These results strongly demonstrate the necessity of proper and thorough analysis of release data to assure that equilibrium is not affecting release kinetics. This is paramount for comparison of various controlled drug release methods of therapeutic contact lenses, validation of the potential of lenses as an efficient and effective means of drug delivery, as well as increasing the likelihood of only the most promising methods reaching in vivo studies. PMID

  2. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

  3. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  4. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  5. Controlled Drug Release from Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhyun Hannah; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers providing spatiotemporal control of drug release contribute to reducing toxicity and improving therapeutic efficacy of a drug. On the other hand, nanocarriers face unique challenges in controlling drug release kinetics, due to the large surface area per volume ratio and the short diffusion distance. To develop nanocarriers with desirable release kinetics for target applications, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which a carrier retains and releases a drug, the effects of composition and morphology of the carrier on the drug release kinetics, and current techniques for preparation and modification of nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of drug release mechanisms and various nanocarriers with a specific emphasis on approaches to control the drug release kinetics. PMID:25684779

  6. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 40; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Assessment Report for the Beta-Release L4_SM Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Jackson, Thomas; Kimball, John

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch SMAP calibration and validation (Cal/Val) phase there are two objectives for each science data product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithm, and 2) validate the accuracy of the science data product as specified in the science requirements and according to the Cal/Val schedule. This report provides an assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture Passive (L4_SM) product specifically for the product's public beta release scheduled for 30 October 2015. The primary objective of the beta release is to allow users to familiarize themselves with the data product before the validated product becomes available. The beta release also allows users to conduct their own assessment of the data and to provide feedback to the L4_SM science data product team. The assessment of the L4_SM data product includes comparisons of SMAP L4_SM soil moisture estimates with in situ soil moisture observations from core validation sites and sparse networks. The assessment further includes a global evaluation of the internal diagnostics from the ensemble-based data assimilation system that is used to generate the L4_SM product. This evaluation focuses on the statistics of the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals and the analysis increments. Together, the core validation site comparisons and the statistics of the assimilation diagnostics are considered primary validation methodologies for the L4_SM product. Comparisons against in situ measurements from regional-scale sparse networks are considered a secondary validation methodology because such in situ measurements are subject to upscaling errors from the point-scale to the grid cell scale of the data product. Based on the limited set of core validation sites, the assessment presented here meets the criteria established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites for Stage 1 validation and supports the beta release of the data. The validation against

  7. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part C, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 5: A summary of information concerning historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    DaMassa, C.L.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    A significant number of information sources have been identified that are relevant to historical locations and activities of populations potentially affected by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information that has been reviewed as part of this Task 5 investigation has shown that numerous residences and farms have historically been present near the ORR boundary and that a variety of land uses and recreational activities have been practiced. Based on this information alone, it would appear that many routes of off-site exposure could have been plausible. Most of the available published information addresses demographic and land use data on a regional or county-wide basis over fairly broad time periods. The information sources that are most readily available do not support direct evaluation of potential exposure pathways at specific geographic locations near the Oak Ridge facilities at specific points in time. A number of information sources have been identified that can provide demography and land use information more specific to locations and time periods that are identified to be of interest. Examples of data sources in this category include individual USGS topographic maps, aerial photographs, lowest-level census tract data, and interviews with long-time local residents. However, specific release events and periods of interest should be identified prior to attempts to collect more specific demographic or land use information for actual dose reconstruction.

  8. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  9. The illustris simulation: Public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D.; Pillepich, A.; Genel, S.; Vogelsberger, M.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, V.; Sijacki, D.; Snyder, G. F.; Griffen, B.; Marinacci, F.; Blecha, L.; Sales, L.; Xu, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present the full public release of all data from the Illustris simulation project. Illustris is a suite of large volume, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code AREPO and including a comprehensive set of physical models critical for following the formation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Each simulates a volume of (106.5 Mpc)3 and self-consistently evolves five different types of resolution elements from a starting redshift of z = 127 to the present day, z = 0. These components are: dark matter particles, gas cells, passive gas tracers, stars and stellar wind particles, and supermassive black holes. This data release includes the snapshots at all 136 available redshifts, halo and subhalo catalogs at each snapshot, and two distinct merger trees. Six primary realizations of the Illustris volume are released, including the flagship Illustris-1 run. These include three resolution levels with the fiducial "full" baryonic physics model, and a dark matter only analog for each. In addition, we provide four distinct, high time resolution, smaller volume "subboxes". The total data volume is ∼265 TB, including ∼800 full volume snapshots and ∼30,000 subbox snapshots. We describe the released data products as well as tools we have developed for their analysis. All data may be directly downloaded in its native HDF5 format. Additionally, we release a comprehensive, web-based API which allows programmatic access to search and data processing tasks. In both cases we provide example scripts and a getting-started guide in several languages: currently, IDL, Python, and Matlab. This paper addresses scientific issues relevant for the interpretation of the simulations, serves as a pointer to published and on-line documentation of the project, describes planned future additional data releases, and discusses technical aspects of the release.

  10. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  11. Optimization of release from magnetically controlled polymeric drug release devices.

    PubMed

    Edelman, E R; Langer, R

    1993-07-01

    Release rates from drug:polymer matrices embedded with small magnets increase in the presence of oscillating magnetic fields. Previous studies of these systems have defined those parameters that determine the extent of the increase in release, and implied that not only was the force generated within the matrix an important determinant of the extent of modulation but also that the greater the amount of matrix actually displaced, the greater the observed modulation. We investigated this possibility in the magnetic system and developed a model taking into account the intersection of the volume of a cylindrical polymer-drug magnet embedded matrix with an imaginary sphere representing the upper limit of matrix deformation by the magnet. The intersection correlated in a linear fashion with the increase in release (slope = 1.16 +/- 0.26, R = 0.864, P = 0.003, s.e.e. = 1.38). Magnet orientation alone was insufficient to explain the data. It appears that a modulated system is optimized when the modulating force overlaps precisely with the maximum amount of matrix drug that can be released. If the size of the matrix, position of the magnet, force generated on the matrix by the magnet, viscoelastic properties of the matrix, etc. are not matched then modulation is inefficient. These results should provide further insight into and a means of optimization for externally regulated controlled release systems.

  12. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2, Part B, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 3 and 4, Identification of important environmental pathways for materials released from the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Brorby, G.P.; Bruce, G.M.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    While each of the three different screening comparisons made in this report (i.e., within-medium evaluation, between-media evaluation and relative importance grouping) individually provides information potentially of value in focusing future studies, each one is subject to a variety of limitations, the most important being associated with the absence or variable quality of environmental data for a number of the contaminants and media. These screening exercises are intended to provide an initial framework for approaching the study of an extremely complex site. Other approaches could very well yield somewhat different priorities, and the identification or reinterpretation of data in subsequent detailed studies are likely to invalidate some of the results of these screening exercises. However, these evaluations provide a logical approach to defining initial off- site health impact study priorities for the ORR. Therefore, while care must be taken in attempting to make any broad generalizations or greatly simplifying assumptions with regard to the potential health hazards posed by the complex releases from the Reservation, Table 6-1 represents an attempt to summarize a set of recommendations that are derived from the screening exercises presented in this report. Table 6-1 identifies the facilities, processes and contaminants believed to have the highest potential for resulting in off-site health impacts. Table 6-2 identifies contaminants for which no ranking could be performed as part of this feasibility study, because of the absence of any appropriate data for any environmental medium.

  13. Reusable Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Slider release mechanism reusable. Bears heavy loads while latched, yet gives smooth release motion. Release effected by explosively driving perpendicular slider out of engagement with load-bearing shank. Device has potential industrial applications such as emergency release of lifting cables from helicopters, cranes and hoists.

  14. Somatodendritic dopamine release: recent mechanistic insights

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in motor, reward and cogitative pathways, with DA dysfunction implicated in disorders including Parkinson's disease and addiction. Located in midbrain, DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta project via the medial forebrain bundle to the dorsal striatum (caudate putamen), and DA neurons in the adjacent ventral tegmental area project to the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal cortex. In addition to classical vesicular release from axons, midbrain DA neurons exhibit DA release from their cell bodies and dendrites. Somatodendritic DA release leads to activation of D2 DA autoreceptors on DA neurons that inhibit their firing via G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels. This helps determine patterns of DA signalling at distant axonal release sites. Somatodendritically released DA also acts via volume transmission to extrasynaptic receptors that modulate local transmitter release and neuronal activity in the midbrain. Thus, somatodendritic release is a pivotal intrinsic feature of DA neurons that must be well defined in order to fully understand the physiology and pathophysiology of DA pathways. Here, we review recent mechanistic aspects of somatodendritic DA release, with particular emphasis on the Ca2+ dependence of release and the potential role of exocytotic proteins. PMID:26009764

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  16. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  17. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  18. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  19. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes. PMID:23439145

  20. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  1. Large scientific releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics.

  2. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  3. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  4. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance. PMID:12785532

  5. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance.

  6. Advanced release technologies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Bill

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the ARTS program was to develop lighter and less expensive spacecraft ordnance and release systems that answer to the requirements of a wide variety of spacecraft applications. These improvements were to be evaluated at the spacecraft system level, as it was determined that there were substantial system-level costs associated with the present ordnance and release subsystems. New, better devices were to be developed, then flight qualified, then integrated into a flight experiment in order to prove the reliability required for their subsequent use on high-reliability spacecraft. The secondary goal of the program was to quantify the system-level benefits of these new subsystems based upon the development program results. Three non-explosive release mechanisms and one laser-diode-based ordnance system were qualified under the program. The release devices being developed were required to release high preloads because it is easier to scale down a release mechanism than to scale it up. The laser initiator developed was required to be a direct replacement for NASA Standard Initiators, since these are the most common initiator in use presently. The program began in October, 1991, with completion of the flight experiment scheduled for February, 1994. This paper provides an overview of the ARTS program, discusses the benefits of using the ARTS components, introduces the new components, compares them with conventional systems and each other, and provides recommendations on how best to implement them.

  7. Release of ATP induced by hypertonic solutions in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aleu, Jordi; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Navarro, Piedad; de Lara, Ivanna Pérez; Bahima, Laia; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-01-01

    ATP mediates intercellular communication. Mechanical stress and changes in cell volume induce ATP release from various cell types, both secretory and non-secretory. In the present study, we stressed Xenopus oocytes with a hypertonic solution enriched in mannitol (300 mm). We measured simultaneously ATP release and ionic currents from a single oocyte. A decrease in cell volume, the activation of an inward current and ATP release were coincident. We found two components of ATP release: the first was associated with granule or vesicle exocytosis, because it was inhibited by tetanus neurotoxin, and the second was related to the inward current. A single exponential described the correlation between ATP release and the hypertonic-activated current. Gadolinium ions, which block mechanically activated ionic channels, inhibited the ATP release and the inward current but did not affect the decrease in volume. Oocytes expressing CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) released ATP under hypertonic shock, but ATP release was significantly inhibited in the first component: that related to granule exocytosis. Since the ATP measured is the balance between ATP release and ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes, we measured the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity of the oocyte surface during osmotic stress, as the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, which was inhibited by more than 50 % in hypertonic conditions. The best-characterized membrane protein showing NTPDase activity is CD39. Oocytes injected with an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to CD39 mRNA released less ATP and showed a lower amplitude in the inward current than those oocytes injected with water. PMID:12562935

  8. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  9. Fluid operated quick release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas operated release mechanism releases load by fluid pressure to provide positive action quick release. Method can be used with large loads and is useful in repetitive cycling functions where shear pins and similar devices would be cumbersome.

  10. High-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P; Diringer, Michael N

    2011-09-01

    Outcome from trauma, surgery, and a variety of other medical conditions has been shown to be positively affected by providing treatment at facilities experiencing a high volume of patients with those conditions. An electronic literature search was made to identify English-language articles available through March 2011, addressing the effect of patient treatment volume on outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited data were identified, with 16 citations included in the current review. Over 60% of hospitals fall into the lowest case-volume quartile. Outcome is influenced by patient volume, with better outcome occurring in high-volume centers treating >60 cases per year. Patients treated at low-volume hospitals are less likely to experience definitive treatment. Furthermore, transfer to high-volume centers may be inadequately arranged. Several factors may influence the better outcome at high-volume centers, including the availability of neurointensivists and interventional neuroradiologists. PMID:21792754

  11. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. Two tables are provided at the end of the Glossary to help readers: the first defines the prefixes

  12. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  13. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  14. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  15. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  16. Benzene release. status report

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.; Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-11-04

    Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

  17. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-04

    ... Book .    NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27 th . The data, as well as space weather forecasts with a 30-45 minute lead-time will be available via the Space ...

  18. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  19. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  20. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-26

    ... Data and Information Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a NOAA/NASA mission located near the ... Format Control Book. NOAA will release data from the space weather instruments on July 27th. The data, as well as space weather ...

  1. Release the Prisoners Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  2. Gas release and ordering of carbon in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Read, N.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to ascertain whether the inert gas atoms leave their carrier phases by volume diffusion, with intact internal phase frameworks, or are instead expelled from the solids as a results of substantial rearrangement, during release from samples of the Allende carbonaceous meteorite. Gas release over the 300-1100 C range was followed by Raman spectroscopic studies in the 1360 and 1580/cm wavelength bands of carbon. The results obtained indicate that the gas release at high temperatures is causally related to the ordering of carbon.

  3. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  4. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed) elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy) associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage) during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1) the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2) the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement) on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU) during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe) in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc) of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3), the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago) and largest single (effusive) Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago), both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  5. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  6. Extrasynaptic release of GABA and dopamine by retinal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Hajime; Contini, Massimo; Raviola, Elio

    2015-01-01

    In the mouse retina, dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells synthesize both dopamine and GABA. Both transmitters are released extrasynaptically and act on neighbouring and distant retinal neurons by volume transmission. In simultaneous recordings of dopamine and GABA release from isolated perikarya of DA cells, a proportion of the events of dopamine and GABA exocytosis were simultaneous, suggesting co-release. In addition, DA cells establish GABAergic synapses onto AII amacrine cells, the neurons that transfer rod bipolar signals to cone bipolars. GABAA but not dopamine receptors are clustered in the postsynaptic membrane. Therefore, dopamine, irrespective of its site of release—synaptic or extrasynaptic—exclusively acts by volume transmission. Dopamine is released upon illumination and sets the gain of retinal neurons for vision in bright light. The GABA released at DA cells' synapses probably prevents signals from the saturated rods from entering the cone pathway when the dark-adapted retina is exposed to bright illumination. The GABA released extrasynaptically by DA and other amacrine cells may set a ‘GABAergic tone’ in the inner plexiform layer and thus counteract the effects of a spillover of glutamate released at the bipolar cell synapses of adjacent OFF and ON strata, thus preserving segregation of signals between ON and OFF pathways. PMID:26009765

  7. Application of controlled nutrient release to permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-03-15

    The application of controlled release nutrient (CRN) materials to permeable reactive barriers to promote biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was investigated. The longevity of release, influence of flow velocity and petroleum hydrocarbon concentration on nutrient release was assessed using soluble and ion exchange CRN materials; namely Polyon™ and Zeopro™. Both CRN materials, assessed at 4 °C and 23 °C, demonstrated continuing release of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K) at 3500 bed volumes passing, with longer timeframes of N-P-K release at 4 °C. Zeopro™-activated carbon mixtures demonstrated depletion of N-P-K prior to 3500 bed volumes passing. Increased flow velocity was shown to lower nutrient concentrations in Polyon™ flow cells while nutrient release from Zeopro™ was largely unchanged. The presence of petroleum hydrocarbons, at 1.08 mmol/L and 3.25 mmol/L toluene, were not shown to alter nutrient release from Polyon™ and Zeopro™ across 14 days. These findings suggest that Polyon™ and Zeopro™ may be suitable CRN materials for application to PRBs in low nutrient environments.

  8. Triggered release kinetics of living cells from composite microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Shwan A; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2013-02-21

    We have developed a theoretical model for the kinetics of release of living cells from composite shellac-cell microcapsules. The model describes the kinetics of cell release from the microcapsules triggered by: (i) pH change, which dissolves the shellac and (ii) the growth of the encapsulated cells, when placed in culture media. For pH triggered release of cells from the composite microcapsules, the rate constant of cell release depends on the swelling/dissolution rate of the shellac matrix and varies with the pH of the aqueous media. The model links the microcapsules disintegration time with the cell release rate constant. For growth triggered release of cells from the composite microcapsules, the cell release rate constant depends on concentration of nutrients in the culture media and the volume fraction of cells in the microcapsules. In a complementary experimental study we compare the release rate constants of cells from shellac-cell microcapsules at different values of pH in the aqueous media. This study may allow fine-tuning of the rate of cell release in a variety of encapsulated cell products, including cell implants, probiotics, and live vaccines. PMID:23295583

  9. Environmental releases for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.P.; Curn, B.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1993 from facilities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. As part of this executive summary, comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1993 are displayed in tables. These tables represent the following: radionuclide air emissions data; data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil; radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River; nonradioactive air emissions data; total volumes and flow rates of 200/600 area liquid effluents. Both summary and detailed presentations of these data are given. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  10. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  12. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  13. Releasable Locking Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  14. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, D. C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  15. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  16. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  17. Clinton releases oceans report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton is trying to beat the clock on the January 20 close of his administration by maintaining a flurry of activity on resource and conservation issues.During a December 4 speech in Washington, D.C., he released a broad-ranging report by the Presidents Panel on Ocean Exploration, entitled “Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration.”

  18. EIA new releases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  19. Slow-release fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  20. Preload release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generoli, Robert M. (Inventor); Young, Harry J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a preload release mechanism comprising a preload spring assembly adapted to apply a preload to a first connector member which is mounted on a support structure and adapted for connection with a second connector member on an object. The assembly comprises telescoped bushings and a preload spring. A tubular shaft extends through the spring assembly and openings in the first connector member and support structure, on which it is clamped. A plunger rod in the shaft is provided with a tip end and a recess in the rod near the other end thereof. A retainer precludes passage of the rod through the shaft in one direction and an end cap closes the bore of the shaft at the other end and provides a shoulder which extends radially of the shaft. A plunger return spring biases the plunger rod against the plunger retainer with the plunger tip protruding from the shaft and a spring assembly return spring engages at its ends the shoulder of the end cap and one end of the spring assembly. Detents received in lateral openings in the tubular shaft are held captive by the plunger rod and one end of the spring assembly to lock the spring assembly on the tubular shaft and apply a preload to the first connector member. Upon completion of the connection, detents and spring assembly are released by plunger contact with the object to be connected, thereby releasing the preload while the connection is maintained.

  1. Contact: Releasing the news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  2. Front Matter: Volume 8454

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPIE, Proceedings of

    2012-05-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8454, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  3. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  4. Initial parametric study of the flammability of plume releases in Hanford waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Recknagle, K.P.

    1997-08-01

    This study comprised systematic analyses of waste tank headspace flammability following a plume-type of gas release from the waste. First, critical parameters affecting plume flammability were selected, evaluated, and refined. As part of the evaluation the effect of ventilation (breathing) air inflow on the convective flow field inside the tank headspace was assessed, and the magnitude of the so-called {open_quotes}numerical diffusion{close_quotes} on numerical simulation accuracy was investigated. Both issues were concluded to be negligible influences on predicted flammable gas concentrations in the tank headspace. Previous validation of the TEMPEST code against experimental data is also discussed, with calculated results in good agreements with experimental data. Twelve plume release simulations were then run, using release volumes and flow rates that were thought to cover the range of actual release volumes and rates. The results indicate that most plume-type releases remain flammable only during the actual release ends. Only for very large releases representing a significant fraction of the volume necessary to make the entire mixed headspace flammable (many thousands of cubic feet) can flammable concentrations persist for several hours after the release ends. However, as in the smaller plumes, only a fraction of the total release volume is flammable at any one time. The transient evolution of several plume sizes is illustrated in a number of color contour plots that provide insight into plume mixing behavior.

  5. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  6. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  7. Shock- and release-wave properties of MJ-2 grout

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Furnish, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    High pressure Hugoniot and release equation of state data are provided for a high-silica high-water content rock-simulating grout (Mini Jade Two grout) over a pressure range of approximately 1 to 70 GPa. High velocity gun impact shock wave techniques and velocity interferometry diagnostics were used to obtain the experimental data. New experimental methods and analysis techniques were developed to perform the tests and extract the Hugoniot and pressure-volume release properties of the grout. The data are appropriate for high pressure equation of state development through both computational simulation and direct comparison with Hugoniot and release isentrope behavior. Nonlinear deformation phenomena associated with material strength, pressure-induced phase transformation and pressure-volume hysteresis are identified within the experimental results and the underlying responsible physical issues are addressed. 29 refs., 68 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The design of wrinkled microcapsules for enhancement of release rate.

    PubMed

    Ina, Maria; Zhushma, Aleksandr P; Lebedeva, Natalia V; Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, Mohammad; Olson, Sean D; Sheiko, Sergei S

    2016-09-15

    Thermally expandable microcapsules (TEMs) with wrinkled shells are prepared by one-step suspension polymerization, allowing for encapsulation and controlled release of cargos. Wrinkling results from concurrent crosslinking of shell copolymers and vaporization of volatile reagents along with density increase upon polymerization. Through control of the vapor pressure of the reagents and systematic variation of the suspension composition, microcapsules with different degrees of wrinkling are prepared, ranging from locally dimpled to highly crumpled morphologies. The corresponding increase of the surface-to-volume ratio results in increasing release rate of encapsulated oil red dye as a model cargo. As such, in addition to shell thickness and radius, the wrinkleness provides an effective control parameter for adjusting the release rate. The wrinkled microcapsules with a large surface-to-volume ratio may find applications in drug delivery, chemicals scavenging, and self-healing materials. PMID:27309950

  9. Sustained-release, extended-release, and other time-release formulations in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-08-01

    Pills and capsules may release their contents within minutes of ingestion; these are immediate-release formulations. Pills and capsules may also release their contents after a time lag, or a little at a time, or in some other predetermined way; these are time-release formulations. Many drugs in psychiatry have been time-release formulated to reduce their local adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract, to reduce adverse effects associated with peak blood levels, or to artificially extend their half-life. Time-release formulations are associated with the added advantages of convenience of dosing, improved compliance, and less fluctuation in blood levels across the course of the day. A disadvantage of time-release formulations is that they may be incompletely absorbed; this is a serious issue in patients with acute or chronic intestinal hurry disorders, such as gastroenteritis or irritable bowel syndrome. Time-release formulations may also be more expensive than immediate-release formulations.

  10. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  11. Riola release report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Birth control - slow release methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries from releasing an egg. Releasing egg during menstrual cycle is called ovulation. They do this by changing ... implants are likely to get pregnant. Your regular menstrual cycles should return within 3 to 4 weeks after ...

  13. A controlled-release microchip.

    PubMed

    Santini, J T; Cima, M J; Langer, R

    1999-01-28

    Much previous work in methods of achieving complex drug-release patterns has focused on pulsatile release from polymeric materials in response to specific stimuli, such as electric or magnetic fields, exposure to ultrasound, light or enzymes, and changes in pH or temperature. An alternative method for achieving pulsatile release involves using microfabrication technology to develop active devices that incorporate micrometre-scale pumps, valves and flow channels to deliver liquid solutions. Here we report a solid-state silicon microchip that can provide controlled release of single or multiple chemical substances on demand. The release mechanism is based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin anode membranes covering microreservoirs filled with chemicals in solid, liquid or gel form. We have conducted proof-of-principle release studies with a prototype microchip using gold and saline solution as a model electrode material and release medium, and we have demonstrated controlled, pulsatile release of chemical substances with this device.

  14. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  15. Arthroscopic Posteromedial Capsular Release.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Chahla, Jorge; Mikula, Jacob D; Mitchell, Justin J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Post-traumatic or postsurgical flexion contractures of the knee can significantly limit function and lead to gait abnormalities. In this setting, interventions to regain full extension may include bracing, physical therapy, and open or arthroscopic surgery. Open surgical approaches to restore full motion often demand extensive recovery and promote further adhesions and loss of motion, which has led to the advent of arthroscopic techniques to address these pathologies. We present a safe, effective, and reproducible arthroscopic technique for posteromedial capsular release to address knee flexion contractures. PMID:27656368

  16. Impact of variable reservoir releases on management of downstream water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, John C.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2001-06-01

    A coupled unsteady flow and heat transport model is used to determine the impacts of fluctuating reservoir releases on downstream water temperatures. Maintenance of stream temperatures is one of the most common reasons cited for imposition of minimum flow requirements in regulated (reservoir controlled) rivers. Minimum flow constraints for temperature control are typically developed using worst-case scenarios (i.e., maximum air temperature, clear sky, etc.) of atmospheric conditions. We show that short- term modifications to reservoir releases based on local meteorological conditions can reduce the volume of water released, while still meeting temperature objectives. A case study of the Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam shows that for certain sets of temperature objectives and atmospheric conditions, a diurnally varying release may be the only way to meet multiple temperature objectives at different downstream locations. In the examples discussed, savings of nearly 20% in total release volume could be realized by using variable releases.

  17. 49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... Figure 3D(1) and Figure 3D(2) for an interior release mechanism for a rear emergency exit door, and within the high force access region shown in Figure 3D(1) for an exterior release mechanism for a...

  18. Source of released carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for the release of carbon fibers from aircraft crashes/fires is addressed. Simulation of the conditions of aircraft crash fires in order to predict the quantities and forms of fibrous materials which might be released from civilian aircraft crashes/fires is considered. Figures are presented which describe some typical fiber release test activities together with some very preliminary results of those activities. The state of the art of carbon fiber release is summarized as well as some of the uncertainties concerning accidental fiber release.

  19. Alkali activation of halloysite for adsorption and release of ofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-12-01

    Halloysite nanotubes are promising vehicles for the controlled release of drug molecules. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of alkali activation on the physicochemical properties, structure and morphology of halloysite nanotubes by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM, etc. Afterwards, the adsorption and in vitro release properties of halloysite for cationic ofloxacin (OFL) were evaluated. The results indicate that alkali activation dissolves amorphous aluminosilicate, free silica and alumina, which results in the increase in pore volume and pore size. OFL is adsorbed onto halloysite via electrostatic interaction and complexation. Alkali activation could increase the adsorption capacity of halloysite for OFL and prolong release of the adsorbed OFL compared with the natural halloysite. Thus, alkali activation of halloysite is an effective protocol to improve the adsorption and prolong release for cationic drug molecules.

  20. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  1. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  2. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  3. QUICK RELEASABLE DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1958-07-01

    A quick releasable mechanical drive system suitable for use in a nuclear reactor is described. A small reversible motor positions a control rod by means of a worm and gear speed reducer, a magnetic torque clutch, and a bell crank. As the control rod is raised to the operating position, a heavy coil spring is compressed. In the event of an emergency indicated by either a''scram'' signal or a power failure, the current to the magnetic clutch is cut off, thereby freeing the coil spring and the bell crank positioner from the motor and speed reduction gearing. The coil spring will immediately act upon the bell crank to cause the insertion of the control rod. This arrangement will allow the slow, accurate positioning of the control rod during reactor operation, while providing an independent force to rapidly insert the rod in the event of an emergency.

  4. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent.

    PubMed

    Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P

    2015-03-01

    The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.

  5. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  6. Free volume under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  7. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  8. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  9. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  10. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  11. Controlled release formulations of acephate: water and soil release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Walia, Suresh; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-08-01

    Controlled release formulations of insecticide acephate (O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate) have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, carboxy methyl cellulose and carboxy methyl cellulose with kaolinite. Kinetics of acephate release in soil and water from the different formulations was studied in comparison with the commercially available formulation 75 DF. Release from the commercial formulation was faster than the new controlled pesticide release (CR) formulations. Addition of clay in the carboxy methyl cellulose matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of acephate in water and soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.875 and 0.420 to 0.547 respectively in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (T(1/2)) of 2.97 to 52.41 days in water and 2.98 to 76.38 days in soil from different matrices. The maximum release of acephate in water and soil from controlled released formulations occurred between 6.33 to 36.34 and 12.49 to 29.09 days respectively. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of acephate can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. PMID:20183059

  12. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  13. Triggered drug release from dynamic microspheres via a protein conformational change.

    PubMed

    King, William J; Pytel, Nicholas J; Ng, Kelvin; Murphy, William L

    2010-06-11

    In this study we formed and characterized dynamic hydrogel microspheres in which a protein conformational change was used to control microsphere volume changes and the release of an encapsulated drug. In particular, a specific biochemical ligand, trifluoperazine, induced calmodulin's nanometer scale conformation change, which translated to a 48.7% microsphere volume decrease. This specific, ligand-induced volume change triggered the release of a model drug, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), at pre-determined times. After release from the microspheres, 85.6 +/- 10.5% of VEGF was in its native conformation. Taken together, these results suggest that protein conformational change could serve as a useful mechanism to control drug release from dynamic hydrogels.

  14. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  15. Roles of cell volume in molecular and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jean-Marc; Rouzaire-Dubois, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Extracellular tonicity and volume regulation control a great number of molecular and cellular functions including: cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, hormone and neuromediator release, gene expression, ion channel and transporter activity and metabolism. The aim of this review is to describe these effects and to determine if they are direct or are secondarily the result of the activity of second messengers. PMID:22192789

  16. Volume-dependent osmolyte efflux from neural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Stephen K.; Cheema, Tooba A.; Foster, Daniel J.; Heacock, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    The CNS is particularly vulnerable to reductions in plasma osmolarity, such as occurr during hyponatremia, the most commonly encountered electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. In response to a lowered plasma osmolarity, neural cells initially swell but then are able to restore their original volume through the release of osmolytes, both inorganic and organic, and the exit of osmotically obligated water. Given the importance of the maintenance of cell volume within the CNS, mechanisms underlying the release of osmolytes assume major significance. In this context, we review recent evidence obtained from our laboratory and others that indicates that the activation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors can markedly enhance the volume-dependent release of osmolytes from neural cells. Of particular significance is the observation that receptor activation significantly lowers the osmotic threshold at which osmolyte release occurs, thereby facilitating the ability of the cells to respond to small, more physiologically relevant, reductions in osmolarity. The mechanisms underlying G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated osmolyte release and the possibility that this efflux can result in both physiologically beneficial and potentially harmful pathophysiological consequences are discussed. PMID:18518929

  17. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  18. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  19. New Enhancements in April 85 NASTRAN Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Several features were added to COSMIC NASTRAN, along with some enhancements to improve or update existing capabilities. Most of these additions and enhancements were provided by industry users to be incorporated into NASTRAN for wider use. DIAG 48 provides a synopsis of significant developments in past NASTRAN releases (1983-1985) and indexes all diagnostic output messages and operation requests (DOMOR). Other features include: volume and surface computation of the 2-D and 3-D elements, NOLIN5 input and; NASTRAN PLOTOPT-N (where N = 2, 3, 4, or 5); shrink element plots; and output scan. A nonprint option on stress and force output request cards was added. Automated find and nofind options on the plot card, fully stressed design, high level plate elements, eigenvalue messages, and upgrading of all FORTRAN source code to the ANSI standard are enhancements made.

  20. Controlled Release Applications of Organometals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews two classes of controlled release organometals: (1) distributional, to distribute bioactive materials to control a certain target organism; and (2) protective, to protect surface or interior of some structure from attach by organisms. Specific examples are given including a discussion of controlled release for schistosomiasis. (SK)

  1. Analysis of Peptidoglycan Fragment Release.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Ryan E; Lenz, Jonathan D; Dillard, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria break down a significant portion of their cell wall peptidoglycan during each round of growth and cell division. This process generates peptidoglycan fragments of various sizes that can either be imported back into the cytoplasm for recycling or released from the cell. Released fragments have been shown to act as microbe-associated molecular patterns for the initiation of immune responses, as triggers for the initiation of mutualistic host-microbe relationships, and as signals for cell-cell communication in bacteria. Characterizing these released peptidoglycan fragments can, therefore, be considered an important step in understanding how microbes communicate with other organisms in their environments. In this chapter, we describe methods for labeling cell wall peptidoglycan, calculating the rate at which peptidoglycan is turned over, and collecting released peptidoglycan to determine the abundance and species of released fragments. Methods are described for both the separation of peptidoglycan fragments by size-exclusion chromatography and further detailed analysis by HPLC.

  2. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  3. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  4. Kepler Data Release 4 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey (Editor); Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Doug; Allen, Christopher L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Gilliland, Ron; Girouard, Forrest; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Middour, Christopher K.; Pletcher, David L.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Twicken, Joe; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFIs and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 4 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html. Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  5. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  6. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  7. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  8. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  9. Introduction to the Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  10. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  11. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  12. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  13. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  14. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in the media withmore » pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.« less

  15. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabalan, R. T.; Alexander, G. W.; Waiting, D. J.; Barr, C. S.

    2013-07-01

    A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS) saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe- species.

  16. ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

    2008-07-31

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping

  17. Some Are More Equal - A Comparative Study on Swab Uptake and Release of Bacterial Suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Warnke, Philipp; Warning, Liesa; Podbielski, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Swabs are widely used to collect samples for microbiological analyses from various clinical settings. They vary by material, size, and structure of the tip. This study investigates the uptake and release capacities for liquid and bacteria. Methods Five swabs were analyzed for their uptake and release capacities of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis suspensions. Two approaches were investigated providing volume-restricted and unrestricted amounts of bacterial suspensions to mimic various clinical situations. Volume and bacterial uptake and release were measured in milligrams and by counting colony forming units (CFU), respectively. Results Volume uptake and release in the unrestricted setting varied highly significant between 239.6 mg and 88.7 mg (p<0.001) and between 65.2 mg and 2.2 mg (p<0.001), respectively. In the volume-restricted setting the complete volume was absorbed by all swabs, volume release could only be detected for flocked swabs (2.7 mg; p<0.001). Highest amount of CFU release was detected for the MWE Dryswab in the unrestricted setting for both S. aureus and S. epidermidis with 1544 CFU and 553 CFU, respectively, lowest release for the Sarstedt neutral swab with 32 CFU and 17 CFU, respectively (p<0.001). In the volume-restricted setting MWE Σ-Swab released the highest bacterial amount with 135 CFU S. aureus and 55 CFU S. epidermidis, respectively, the lowest amount was released by Mast Mastaswab with 2 CFU S. aureus and 1 CFU S. epidermidis, respectively (p<0.001). Within the range of the utilized bacterial concentrations, uptake/release ratios were identical for the particular swab types and independent of the bacterial species. Conclusions The influence of the swab type on subsequent diagnostic results is often underestimated. Uptake and release of the investigated bacteria vary significantly between different swab types and sampling conditions. For best diagnostic outcome swabs should be chosen according to the

  18. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A.

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  19. Environmental releases for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-08-25

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (PNNL-11795). The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public concerning the impact of Hanford Site operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1997. Comprehensive data summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents in 1997 are displayed in Tables ES-1 through ES-5. These tables represent the following: Table ES-1--Radionuclide air emissions data (detailed data on emissions are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-2--Data on radioactive liquid effluents discharged to the soil (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-3--Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0); Table ES-4--Nonradioactive air emissions data (detailed data are presented in Section 2.0); Table ES-5--Total Volumes and Flow Rates of 200/600 Area Radioactive Liquid Effluents (detailed data are presented in Section 3.0).

  20. Equipment for drug release testing of medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Kvist, L C; Andersson, S B; Berglund, J; Wennergren, B; Fors, S M

    2000-04-01

    An apparatus was specially designed and constructed for release testing of medicated chewing gums. The adjustable instrumental settings such as temperature, chewing frequency, chewing time, volume of test medium, distance between the jaws and twisting angle increased the versatility of the apparatus. Selection of the test medium was also an important parameter. Each sample was kneaded mechanically in separate test chambers and the drug release was followed by sampling and HPLC analysis. Different gum formulations were tested and the obtained results demonstrated satisfactory release curves for a variety of formulations and active ingredients. The tested gum formulations comprised nicotine, meclizine, dimenhydrinate and xylitol. The apparatus proved to be suitable in product control of commercial batches but also a useful tool in the research and development of medicated gum formulations. PMID:10766358

  1. Modeling of Progesterone Release from Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Analia I; Bermudez, José M; Villegas, Mercedes; Dib Ashur, María F; Parentis, Mónica L; Gonzo, Elio E

    2016-08-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biodegradable polymeric membranes were evaluated as platform for progesterone (Prg)-controlled release. In the design of new drug delivery systems, it is important to understand the mass transport mechanism involved, as well as predict the process kinetics. Drug release experiments were conducted and the experimental results were evaluated using engineering approaches that were extrapolated to the pharmaceutical field by our research group. Membranes were loaded with different Prg concentrations and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images showed that membranes have a dense structure before and after the progesterone addition. DSC and FTIR allowed determining the influence of the therapeutic agent in the membrane properties. The in vitro experiments were performed using two different techniques: (A) returning the sample to the receptor solution (constant volume of the delivery medium) and (B) extracting total volume of the receptor solution. In this work, we present a simple and accurate "lumped" second-order kinetic model. This lumped model considers the different mass transport steps involved in drug release systems. The model fits very well the experimental data using any of the two experimental procedures, in the range 0 ≤ t ≤ ∞ or 0 ≤ M t  ≤ M ∞. The drug release analysis using our proposed approaches is relevant for establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations in future tests in animals.

  2. Modeling of Progesterone Release from Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Analia I; Bermudez, José M; Villegas, Mercedes; Dib Ashur, María F; Parentis, Mónica L; Gonzo, Elio E

    2016-08-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biodegradable polymeric membranes were evaluated as platform for progesterone (Prg)-controlled release. In the design of new drug delivery systems, it is important to understand the mass transport mechanism involved, as well as predict the process kinetics. Drug release experiments were conducted and the experimental results were evaluated using engineering approaches that were extrapolated to the pharmaceutical field by our research group. Membranes were loaded with different Prg concentrations and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images showed that membranes have a dense structure before and after the progesterone addition. DSC and FTIR allowed determining the influence of the therapeutic agent in the membrane properties. The in vitro experiments were performed using two different techniques: (A) returning the sample to the receptor solution (constant volume of the delivery medium) and (B) extracting total volume of the receptor solution. In this work, we present a simple and accurate "lumped" second-order kinetic model. This lumped model considers the different mass transport steps involved in drug release systems. The model fits very well the experimental data using any of the two experimental procedures, in the range 0 ≤ t ≤ ∞ or 0 ≤ M t  ≤ M ∞. The drug release analysis using our proposed approaches is relevant for establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations in future tests in animals. PMID:26729524

  3. Toxics Release Inventory indicates big increases in releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 4 billion pounds of tracked toxic chemicals were released into the environment throughout the United States during 2010, according to an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), the agency announced on 5 January. This is a 16% increase above 2009. The agency said the increase is mainly due to changes in the metal-mining sector, where differences in the chemical composition of ore being mined can result in significant changes in the amount of toxic chemicals. The chemical and primary metals industries were other sectors with increases in toxic releases in 2010, the latest year for which data collection is complete. EPA also noted that although releases in 2010 were higher than during the previous 2 years, they were lower than in 2007 and in prior years.

  4. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  5. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  6. Estimating emissions from accidental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have an objective sources of air emissions through programs such as Title III, which is aimed at reducing hazardous air pollutant emissions. However, under Section 112(r) of the CAAA of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also developed requirements for owners and operators of facilities regulated for hazardous substances to implement accidental release prevention programs for non-continuous emissions. Provisions of 112(r) include programs for release prevention, emergency planning and risk management. This paper examines methodologies available to regulated facilities for estimating accidental release emissions and determining off-site impacts.

  7. Characteristics of renin release from isolated superfused glomeruli in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Blendstrup, K; Leyssac, P P; Poulsen, K; Skinner, S L

    1975-01-01

    , together with the release observed with increased sodium concentration at constant osmolarity, suggests a dependence of renin release upon the mechanism controlling the volume of the juxtaglomerular cell or its organelles. PMID:1133791

  8. Radioactive releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, C.S.; Martin, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988 (WSRC-RP-89-737) is the continuation of a series of reports, previously titled Releases of Radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant (DPSU-1-YR-25). The series reflects the use of air and liquid effluent sample analyses in determining the amount of radioactivity released from Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The identification and characterization of these source terms since plant startup in 1954 have aided Site personnel in confining and limiting the amount of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS facilities. Data contained in this report are used for a variety of purposes, including the calculation of offsite dose estimates and aiding special environmental studies. This document is an effluent/source term report. The report is divided into four summary sections. Summary A details volumes of air and water released from emission sources since plant startup. Summary B lists annual radioactive release data from these emission sources, grouped by nuclide and area. Summary C provides yearly totals of radioactive releases by radionuclide, under the headings Atmospheric,'' Liquid to streams,'' or Liquid to Seepage Basins'' accordingly. Monthly radioactive releases from each emission source from 1986 to 1988 are found in Summary D. Where appropriate, headings in the summary tables have been changed to clarify and simplify emission data (see Appendix B). Additionally, any new discharge points, such as the liquid discharge from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), are included in this report. A listing of 1988 source term and onsite discharge designations is provided in Appendix C. 36 refs.

  9. Variable volume calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

  10. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  11. Volume regulation of spermatozoa by quinine-sensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S B; Sauna, Z E; Somlata, V; Sitaramam, V

    1997-04-01

    Bovine spermatozoa were shown to exhibit rapid regulatory volume decrease (RVD) when exposed to hypotonic saline media. This quinine- and quinidine-sensitive regulatory volume decrease was coincident with K+ release due to stretch-activation of inhibitor-specific presumptive K+ channels. The regulatory volume decrease response was much faster than a similar phenomenon observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Studies on volume changes in different electrolyte and nonelectrolyte media suggested that: (1) this inhibitor-specific channel could also be a nonspecific pore in the spermatozoal membrane for nonelectrolytes below 150 daltons; (2) subpopulations (of nearly equal size) of the spermatozoa differ in the expression of the pore; (3) capacitation abolishes this distinction between subpopulations of spermatozoa; and (4) the general case of RVD for other mammalian spermatozoa was also established.

  12. SELF-RELEASING GRAPPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, D.A. Sr.

    1963-11-01

    >A self-releasing grappling device that lifts by virtue of engagement between clamping jaws and the undercut lower side of a conical head of a lifting lug attached to the object to be lifted and employs a releasing sleeve on the lug to free the jaws from the lug is presented. When the jaws are to be released, they are dropped over the releasing sleeve, which is located well below lug head. When the jaws are lifted, they engage a conical surface on the sleeve and lift it up to the head of the lifting lug. In this position of the sleeve, the lower side of the lug head is covered by the sleeve and so cannot be engaged by the jaws, which move past before clearing the sleeve. (AEC)

  13. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  14. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

  15. Energy release in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John C.; Correia, Emilia; Farnik, Frantisek; Garcia, Howard; Henoux, Jean-Claude; La Rosa, Ted N.; Machado, Marcos E. (Compiler); Nakajima, Hiroshi; Priest, Eric R.

    1994-01-01

    Team 2 of the Ottawa Flares 22 Workshop dealt with observational and theoretical aspects of the characteristics and processes of energy release in flares. Main results summarized in this article stress the global character of the flaring phenomenon in active regions, the importance of discontinuities in magnetic connectivity, the role of field-aligned currents in free energy storage, and the fragmentation of energy release in time and space.

  16. Slow Release of Permanganate from Injectable Fumed Silica Gel: Rheological Properties and Release Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    ISCO (In Situ Chemical Oxidation) has been proved to be a useful remediation technology in destroying most prevalent aqueous organic contaminants. For permanganate (MnO4-) in particular, the chemistry of degradative oxidation is well established for cleaning up groundwater containing trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). However the long-term effectiveness of the application of this oxidant has been questioned due to the observed post remediation rebound of contaminant concentrations. To improve the efficiency of ISCO using MnO4-under specific site conditions, the technology of emplacing slow-releasing permanganate in an aquifer has been studied. We have developed an injectable slow-release permanganate slurry/gel (ISRPG) by mixing KMnO4 with fumed silica in water. Ideally, the slurry/gel forms would release low concentration of MnO4- by diffusion to maintain a desired concentration level of the agent within the chemically active zone. We have investigated the properties and tested the application of this ISRPG in laboratory studies. Rheological study indicated ISRPG has high viscosity and shear thinning property. The viscosity of silica gel could be lowered by mechanical mixing thus making it easy for subsurface injection. Batch tests revealed that MnO4- was diffused from ISRPG and the gel did not disperse but maintained its initial shape. In column experiments we showed that permanganate release covered 6 times more effluent pore volumes when ISRPG was injected compared to MnO4- solution injection. We also observed TCE degradation by released MnO4-, and the remedial performance occurred over a much longer timeframe with ISRPG compared to MnO4- solution injection. In 2-D flow cell tests we demonstrated that water flows around the injected gel, carrying MnO4- diffused out from the gel and forming a downstream oxidant plume, while the gel was stationary. ISRPG slowly released low concentrations of permanganate to maintain a predetermined level of the

  17. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release. PMID:26276252

  18. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release.

  19. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  20. Evidence for a Humoral Mechanism in Volume Expansion Natriuresis

    PubMed Central

    Kaloyanides, George J.; Azer, Maher

    1971-01-01

    The role of a humoral mechanism in the natriuresis induced by volume expansion was evaluated using an isolated dog kidney perfused by a second dog which had been pretreated with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). Expansion of the perfusion dog with an equilibrated volume of blood from a reservoir, resulted in an increase in UnaV (sodium excretion) from 153.6±27.9 (sem) to 345.5±57.8 μEq/min, P<0.001. FEna (fractional sodium excretion) increased from 3.4±0.6 to 8.1±1.2%, P<0.01. The natriuresis occurred in the face of a significant decrease in Cin, RBF, and renal arterial pressure, and in the absence of any change in plasma protein concentration or packed cell volume. In a control group of experiments, sodium excretion did not change when the perfusion dog was not volume expanded, although Cin (inulin clearance) and RBF (renal blood flow) decreased to the same degree as in the expanded group. These data support the conclusion that volume expansion of the perfusion dog either stimulated the release of a natriuretic factor or suppressed the release of an antinatriuretic factor which was manifested by an increase in sodium excretion in the isolated kidney. PMID:5097568

  1. Initial burst measures of release kinetics from fiber matrices.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Abraham; Parker, Nadia; Parkhi, Veena; Nelson, Kevin D

    2003-10-01

    A comprehensive axisymmetric diffusion model of drug release from a fiber is developed to account for both the initial burst (IB) phenomenon as well as the later diffusion-dominated release. This model is an enhancement over previous models in that a set of four IB parameters are calculated, which both describe the initial burst phenomenon as well as improve the fit for the diffusion-dominated release phase. This model is also an enhancement over previous models in allowing: finite dissolution volumes, finite stirring levels of the medium, and user-specified initial drug dispersion within the device. Five different drug release data sets are used to verify the model and to derive values for the IB parameters. Two of the data sets are from experiments conducted in this study, and the other three sets are from previously published data. These data sets were selected to cover a wide range of possibilities, i.e., from nearly 0% to nearly 100% of the total drug release during IB, yet the model handles all cases equally well.

  2. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  3. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  4. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a HAp-based biomarker with controlled drug release for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    González, Maykel; Merino, Ulises; Vargas, Susana; Quintanilla, Francisco; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2016-04-01

    A biocompatible hybrid porous polymer-ceramic material was synthesized to be used as a biomarker in the treatment of breast cancer. This device was equipped with the capacity to release medicaments locally in a controlled manner. The biomaterial was Hydroxyapatite(HAp)-based and had a controlled pore size and pore volume fraction. It was implemented externally using a sharp end and a pair of barbed rings placed opposite each other to prevent relative movement once implanted. The biomarker was impregnated with cis-diamine dichloride platinum (II) [Cl2-Pt-(NH3)2]; the rate of release was obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and release occurred over the course of three months. Different release profiles were obtained as a function of the pore volume fraction. The biomaterial was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26838911

  6. Influence of pore water velocity on the release of carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial granulates embedded in a porous matrix.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, J Eugenio

    2012-11-01

    Pore water flow velocity can influence the processes involved in the contaminant transport between relative stagnant zones of porous media and their adjacent mobile zones. A particular case of special interest is the occurrence of high flow rates around the controlled release granules containing pesticides buried in soil. The release of the pesticides carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial controlled release formulations (CRFs) was studied, comparing release tests in a finite volume of water with water flow release tests in saturated packed sand at different seepage velocities. For water release kinetics, the time taken for 50% of the pesticide to be released (T(50)) was 0.64 hours for carbofuran and 1.97 hours for fenamiphos. In general, the release rate was lower in the porous matrix than in the free water tests. The faster release rate for carbofuran was attributed to its higher water diffusivity. The seepage velocity has a strong influence on the pesticide release rate. The dominant release mechanism varies with the progress of release. The evolution of the mechanism is discussed on the basis of the successive steps that involve the moving boundary of the dissolution front of the pesticide inside the granule, the concentration gradient inside the granule and the flow boundary layer resistance to solute diffusion around the granule. The pore water velocity influences the overall release dynamics. Therefore, seepage velocity should be considered in pesticide release to evaluate the risk of pesticide leaching, especially in scenarios with fast infiltration.

  7. Influence of pore water velocity on the release of carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial granulates embedded in a porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradelo, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, J. Eugenio

    2012-11-01

    Pore water flow velocity can influence the processes involved in the contaminant transport between relative stagnant zones of porous media and their adjacent mobile zones. A particular case of special interest is the occurrence of high flow rates around the controlled release granules containing pesticides buried in soil. The release of the pesticides carbofuran and fenamiphos from commercial controlled release formulations (CRFs) was studied, comparing release tests in a finite volume of water with water flow release tests in saturated packed sand at different seepage velocities. For water release kinetics, the time taken for 50% of the pesticide to be released (T50) was 0.64 hours for carbofuran and 1.97 hours for fenamiphos. In general, the release rate was lower in the porous matrix than in the free water tests. The faster release rate for carbofuran was attributed to its higher water diffusivity. The seepage velocity has a strong influence on the pesticide release rate. The dominant release mechanism varies with the progress of release. The evolution of the mechanism is discussed on the basis of the successive steps that involve the moving boundary of the dissolution front of the pesticide inside the granule, the concentration gradient inside the granule and the flow boundary layer resistance to solute diffusion around the granule. The pore water velocity influences the overall release dynamics. Therefore, seepage velocity should be considered in pesticide release to evaluate the risk of pesticide leaching, especially in scenarios with fast infiltration.

  8. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  9. CIRMIS Data system. Volume 2. Program listings

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for utilization by the hydraulic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required.The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System is a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display. This is the second of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  10. Downstream effects of reservoir releases to the Potomac River from Luke, Maryland, to Washington, DC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trombley, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A digital computer flow-routing model was developed for the Potomac River in order to determine the downstream effects of flow releases from the Bloomington and Savage River Reservoirs. Both reservoirs are located above Luke, Maryland approximately 230 miles upstream from Washington, D. C. The downstream effects of reservoir releases were determined by using the unit-response method of flow routing implemented by a diffusion analogy. Results are in the form of unit response coefficients which are used to route flows downstream from Luke. A 24-hour sustained reservoir release input at Luke will result in 35 percent of the flow arriving at Washington, D.C., during the 4th day after the beginning of the release, followed by 61 percent and 4 percent arriving on the 5th and 6th days, respectively. For a 7-day sustained reservoir release, 47 percent of the flow will arrive during the 1st week, and 53 percent will arrive the 2d week. Two methods were used to estimate the amount of water that goes into channel storage between Luke and Washington, D.C., during sustained reservoir releases. Analysis of the flow-routing results indicates channel storage is equivalent to the volume of water releases over a 3.7-day period. Using channel geometry relationships, that volume is equal to 3.2 days ' release. (USGS)

  11. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  12. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  13. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices: 1985 supplement, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, K. E.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.; Dantas, A. R. V.; Price, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data are provided, in graphic format, for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. The document is in two volumes: Volume 1 provides data on diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous semiconductor types, and Volume 2 provides total-dose radiation test data on integrated circuits. Volume 1 of this 1985 Supplement contains new total-dose radiation test data generated since the August 1, 1981 release date of the original Volume 1. Publication of Volume 2 of the 1985 Supplement will follow that of Volume 1 by approximately three months.

  14. 26 CFR 301.6343-1 - Requirement to release levy and notice of release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions in paragraph (b) of this section (conditions requiring release) exist. The director must make a determination whether any of the conditions requiring release exist if a taxpayer submits a request for release... release exists. (b) Conditions requiring release. The director must release the levy upon all or a part...

  15. Sand release apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.D.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes a sand release apparatus for enabling the release of a pump. It comprises first and second telescoped tubular sleeves; a first restricting means; sleeve located drain opening means and means for enabling controlled separation of the pump from the apparatus at a specified joint. This patent also describes a method for releasing a pump determined to be sand locked. It comprises applying an upward force on the sucker rod string to break a shear pin restricting relative axial extension of telescoped sleeve members connected in the well below the pump; extending the telescoped sleeve members to expose drain openings to permit sand to flow away from the annular space; and disconnecting from the tubing string below the pump to pull the pump free of the sand locked condition.

  16. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  17. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  18. Payload holddown and release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Dale; Visconti, Mark; Edwards, Michael; Moran, Tom

    1994-01-01

    A payload holddown and release mechanism, designated the Model 1172, was designed and built at G&H Technology during the winter of 1992/1993. The mechanism is able to restrain and release a 45-pound payload with minimal tipoff. The payload is held in place by a stainless steel band and released using electrically triggered non-explosive actuators. These actuators provide reliable operation with negligible shock and no special handling requirements. The performance of the mechanism was demonstrated in two flight tests. Data showed pitch and yaw tipoff rates of less than 0.07 radian (4 degree) per second. The Model 1172 design is an efficient replacement for conventional payload deployment devices, especially where low transmitted shock is required.

  19. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  20. Release behavior and kinetic evaluation of berberine hydrochloride from ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Cao, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Novel ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres (ECCMs) were prepared by the method of w/o/w emulsion and solvent evaporation. The microspheres were spherical, adhesive, and aggregated loosely with a size not bigger than 5 μm. The drug loading efficiency of berberine hydrochloride (BH) loaded in microspheres were affected by chitosan (CS) concentration, EC concentration and the volume ratio of V(CS)/ V(EC). ECCMs prepared had sustained release efficiency on BH which was changed with different preparation parameters. In addition, the pH value of release media had obvious effect on the release character of ECCMs. The release rate of BH from sample B was only a little more than 30% in diluted hydrochloric acid (dHCl) and that was almost 90% in PBS during 24 h. Furthermore, the drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models to analyze the release kinetics and the mechanism from the microspheres. The released results of BH indicated that ECCMs exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in dHCl and diffusion-controlled drug release based on Fickian diffusion in PBS. So the ECCMs might be an ideal sustained release system especially in dHCl and the drug release was governed by both diffusion of the drug and dissolution of the polymeric network.

  1. Fabrication of drug eluting implants: study of drug release mechanism from titanium dioxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlekhan, Azhang; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Yarin, Alexander L.; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2015-06-01

    Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) on a titanium surface holds great potential for promoting desirable cellular response. However, prolongation of drug release from these nano-reservoirs remains to be a challenge. In our previous work TNTs were successfully loaded with a drug. In this study the effect of TNTs dimensions on prolongation of drug release is quantified aiming at the introduction of a simple novel technique which overcomes complications of previously introduced methods. Different groups of TNTs with different lengths and diameters are fabricated. Samples are loaded with a model drug and rate of drug release over time is monitored. The relation of the drug release rate to the TNT dimensions (diameter, length, aspect ratio and volume) is established. The results show that an increase in any of these parameters increases the duration of the release process. However, the strongest parameter affecting the drug release is the aspect ratio. In fact, TNTs with higher aspect ratios release drug slower. It is revealed that drug release from TNT is a diffusion-limited process. Assuming that diffusion of drug in (Phosphate-Buffered Saline) PBS follows one-dimensional Fick’s law, the theoretical predictions for drug release profile is compatible with our experimental data for release from a single TNT.

  2. Drug release from film-coated chlorpheniramine maleate nonpareil beads: water influx and development of a new drug release model.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Wigent, R J; Schwartz, J B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate drug release from film-coated chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) nonpareils (sugar spheres) and the effect of water influx on the drug release mechanism. The methods used in the study involved the layering of CPM onto nonpareil cores using a fluid-bed apparatus. These CPM cores were then coated with an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion, which was blended with a solution of hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) at different concentrations. The net water influx was determined by measuring water uptake during dissolution. The film surface area was calculated from bead diameters measured with an optical microscope. Drug release profiles were measured using USP dissolution method I (basket). The results showed that significant water influx occurred, which produced an internal liquid phase ranging from 0 to 1.8 x 10(3) mm3/g of sample. As a result of the water uptake, an increase in bead size was observed. The bead surface area varied over the range of 40-80 x 10(3) mm2/g sample because of a combined effect of the water uptake and the release of the bead contents. A bead geometry parameter was proposed as the ratio of the bead surface area to the volume of the internal liquid phase. This bead geometry parameter was measured as a function of time and fit to an equation using a computer curve-fitting technique. This equation was substituted into an existing drug release model to give a more appropriate mathematical model describing drug release from this system. The conclusion drawn from these results is that the influx of water during drug dissolution creates a progressive increase in the liquid phase within the nonpareil bead; this causes a corresponding increase in the bead surface area which influences the drug release rate.

  3. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  4. ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M

    2006-02-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar

  5. Hydrocarbon release investigations in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Fels, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    Hydrocarbon releases are among the most common environmental problems in Missouri, as well as across the country. Old, unprotected underground storage tanks and buried piping from the tanks to pumps are notorious sources of petroleum contamination at LUST (leaking underground storage tank) sites. Missouri has an estimated 5000 LUST sites across the state with the majority being simple spills into clay-rich soils or into a shallow perched water system. However, in the southern half of the state, where residual soils and karst bedrock are not conducive to trapping such releases, significant groundwater supplies are at risk. This article discusses the process used to identify the source of contamination.

  6. Variable-volume turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, N.; Matsura, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Kohketsu, S.

    1988-01-19

    A variable-volume turbocharger device is described comprising a turbine housing having at least first and second exhaust gas passages divided by a partition wall provided in the housing. The first exhaust gas passage has a large flow characteristic and the second exhaust gas passage has a small flow characteristic. A first valve means operable to open and shut the first exhaust gas passage, and a second valve means operative to open and shut the second exhaust gas passage independently from the first valve means, each of the valve means having a valve member which cooperates with a valve seat to open and shut the corresponding exhaust gas passage, the valve members being arranged so as to open toward the upstream side of the flowing direction of exhaust gas with respect to the valve seats.

  7. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  8. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  9. Bioinspired, releasable quorum sensing modulators.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José; Grunau, Alexander; Lawrence, Adrien K; Eberl, Leo; Gademann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis and immobilization of natural product hybrids featuring an acyl-homoserine lactone and a nitrodopamine onto biocompatible TiO(2) surfaces through an operationally simple dip-and-rinse procedure. The resulting immobilized hybrids were shown to be powerful quorum sensing (QS) activators in Pseudomonas strains acting by slow release from the surface. PMID:23169441

  10. 2014 Pee Dee germplasm releases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PD 05035, PD 05041, PD 05064, PD 05069, PD 05070, PD 05071, PD 06001, and PD 06078 are noncommercial breeding lines of cotton jointly released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clemson University Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated in 2014. These ...

  11. Photodegradable Polyesters for Triggered Release

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Tang, Xinjing

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradable polyesters were synthesized with a photolabile monomer 2-nitrophenylethylene glycol and dioyl chlorides with different lengths. These polymers can be assembled to form polymeric particles with encapsulation of target substances. Light activation can degrade these particles and release payloads in both aqueous solutions and RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:23208376

  12. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  13. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  14. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  15. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  16. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  17. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  18. Kepler Data Release 3 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    This describes the collection of data and the processing done on it so when researchers around the world get the Kepler data sets (which are a set of pixels from the telescope of a particular target (star, galaxy or whatever) over a 3 month period) they can adjust their algorithms fro things that were done (like subtracting all of one particular wavelength for example). This is used to calibrate their own algorithms so that they know what it is they are starting with. It is posted so that whoever is accessing the publicly available data (not all of it is made public) can understand it .. (most of the Kepler data is under restriction for 1 - 4 years and is not available, but the handbook is for everyone (public and restricted) The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFls and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 3 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http:// archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html .Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  19. Cell swelling-induced ATP release is tightly dependent on intracellular calcium elevations

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Francis; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical stresses release ATP from a variety of cells by a poorly defined mechanism(s). Using custom-designed flow-through chambers, we investigated the kinetics of cell swelling-induced ATP secretion, cell volume and intracellular calcium changes in epithelial A549 and 16HBE14o− cells, and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Fifty per cent hypotonic shock triggered transient ATP release from cell confluent monolayers, which consistently peaked at around 1 min 45 s for A549 and NIH/3T3, and at 3 min for 16HBE14o− cells, then declined to baseline within the next 15 min. Whereas the release time course had a similar pattern for the three cell types, the peak rates differed significantly (294 ± 67, 70 ± 22 and 17 ± 2.8 pmol min−1 (106 cells)−1, for A549, 16HBE14o− and NIH/3T3, respectively). The concomitant volume changes of substrate-attached cells were analysed by a 3-dimensional cell shape reconstruction method based on images acquired from two perpendicular directions. The three cell types swelled at a similar rate, reaching maximal expansion in 1 min 45 s, but differed in the duration of the volume plateau and regulatory volume decrease (RVD). These experiments revealed that ATP release does not correlate with either cell volume expansion and the expected activation of stretch-sensitive channels, or with the activation of volume-sensitive, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid-inhibitable anion channels during RVD. By contrast, ATP release was tightly synchronized, in all three cell types, with cytosolic calcium elevations. Furthermore, loading A549 cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA significantly diminished ATP release (71% inhibition of the peak rate), while the calcium ionophore ionomycin triggered ATP release in the absence of cell swelling. Lowering the temperature to 10°C almost completely abolished A549 cell swelling-induced ATP release (95% inhibition of the peak rate). These results strongly suggest that calcium-dependent exocytosis plays a

  20. Instantaneous stroke volume by PDE during and after constant LBNP (-50 torr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Six male subjects were exposed to -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 10 min while stroke volume was recorded beat by beat at regular intervals before, during and after release of LBNP. Stroke volume was calculated from the systolic velocity integral in the ascending aorta by pulsed Doppler echocardiography (PDE) and the cross sectional area of the vessel by M mode echocardiography. Changes in leg volume were recorded continuously and blood pressure was taken every minute. Stroke volume dropped by 51% of the control in the first 33 sec of LBNP and continued to decline slowly to -62% toward the end. Heart rate increased by 15% in the first 10 sec and was 22% above control at the end of exposure. The resulting cardiac output closely followed the course of stroke volume (-47% at 33 sec, -53% at 8 min) showing that the modest increase in heart rate did little to offset the drop in stroke volume. Leg volume increased markedly within the first 10 sec with a more gradual rise reaching +3.5% at the end. Upon sudden release of LBNP, leg volume dropped significantly during the first 3 sec simultaneously with an increase in stroke volume followed by a substantial decline in heart rate below the baseline.

  1. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  2. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. PMID:26470065

  3. Tailored Sequential Drug Release from Bilayered Calcium Sulfate Composites

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Bryan R.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt%) of metronidazole-loaded poly poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography (MicroCT) images showed the overall layered geometry as well as homogenous distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4% per day). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects. PMID:25175211

  4. Tailored sequential drug release from bilayered calcium sulfate composites.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Bryan R; Puleo, David A

    2014-10-01

    The current standard for treating infected bony defects, such as those caused by periodontal disease, requires multiple time-consuming steps and often multiple procedures to fight the infection and recover lost tissue. Releasing an antibiotic followed by an osteogenic agent from a synthetic bone graft substitute could allow for a streamlined treatment, reducing the need for multiple surgeries and thereby shortening recovery time. Tailorable bilayered calcium sulfate (CS) bone graft substitutes were developed with the ability to sequentially release multiple therapeutic agents. Bilayered composite samples having a shell and core geometry were fabricated with varying amounts (1 or 10 wt.%) of metronidazole-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles embedded in the shell and simvastatin directly loaded into either the shell, core, or both. Microcomputed tomography showed the overall layered geometry as well as the uniform distribution of PLGA within the shells. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the amount of PLGA particles (i.e., 1 vs. 10 wt.%) had a small but significant effect on the erosion rate (3% vs. 3.4%/d). Mechanical testing determined that introducing a layered geometry had a significant effect on the compressive strength, with an average reduction of 35%, but properties were comparable to those of mandibular trabecular bone. Sustained release of simvastatin directly loaded into CS demonstrated that changing the shell to core volume ratio dictates the duration of drug release from each layer. When loaded together in the shell or in separate layers, sequential release of metronidazole and simvastatin was achieved. By introducing a tunable, layered geometry capable of releasing multiple drugs, CS-based bone graft substitutes could be tailored in order to help streamline the multiple steps needed to regenerate tissue in infected defects.

  5. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse.

  6. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  7. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  8. Chronic, Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Releases in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshgar Asl, S.; Amos, J.; Woods, P.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    We used satellite remote sensing to quantify hydrocarbon releases cataloged in the Gulf of Mexico. Satellite SAR has frequently been used for detecting small volume releases of oil in the Gulf. Hydrocarbon compounds reduce water surface roughness and therefore can be detected on SAR images as dark areas. We compiled National Response Center (NRC) oil and hazardous materials spill reports in the Gulf of Mexico submitted by the polluters and by passers-by, collected and filtered by SkyTruth from 2001 to 2012 and determined whether the reports coincided with archived SAR images. So, 316 out of a total 4,574 reports could be investigated from 64 SAR images over the report locations. Some of the images covered multiple reports and oil releases described one report could be observed in more than one image. Current information on platforms, pipeline locations, and ages provided by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEM) can also help us in identifying sources of anthropogenic pollution. The visibility analysis indicated 66 reports of releases were from pipeline, platforms or other anthropogenic sources. Of these, 21 could be seen in SAR images. There were also 133 reports of releases from unknown sources. Of these, 28 were visible in the images. Moreover, 103 anthropogenic reports were attributed to the Taylor offshore platform (platform 23051 in Mississippi Canyon Block 20) which was destroyed during Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and subsequently removed. Of those, 55 were visible in the SAR images and were significantly larger when compared with other reported anthropogenic slicks. The rest of the reports were coded invisible for reasons such as attendance of multiple slicks which makes the decision difficult, report falling outside of the image, image contrast, noisy image, no slick at all, wrong coding, and no slick at the site but another slick in proximity. We then focused on the size of the visible reports which were extracted. The

  9. Induction heating and controlled drug release from thermosensitive magnetic microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, R.; Bhattarai, S. R.; Sudakar, C.; Wani, A. S.; Cunninghum, R.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Naik, R.; Oupicky, D.; Lawes, G.

    2010-04-01

    Poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) is a biocompatible thermosensitive polymer that exhibits reversible volume phase transition from a hydrophilic coil to hydrophobic globule at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32 ^oC. To stimulate conformational change we introduced magnetite nanoparticles (size ˜12 nm) in the PNIPAM matrix. The PNIPAM/magnetite nanoparticles composite was then exposed to an alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 380 kHz to induce heating in the nanoparticles by Neel and Brownian relaxations. We report in vitro controlled release of anti-cancer drug mitoxantrone which was loaded into PNIPAM/magnetite nanoparticles composite, driven solely by the heating induced by the external magnetic field. We found that the drug released reached 4% in only 4 minutes of heating to 50 ^oC. We also present results on dielectric and magnetic anomalies near the LCST of the PNIPAM-Fe3O4 composite.

  10. In situ rheology and gas volume in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Brewster, M.E.; Chen, G.; Reid, H.C.; Shepard, C.L.; Terrones, G.; Mendoza, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a detailed characterization of gas retention and release in 6 Hanford DS waste tanks. The results came from the ball rheometer and void fraction instrument in (flammable gas watch list) tanks SY-101, SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 are presented. Instrument operation and derivation of data reduction methods are presented. Gas retention and release information is summarized for each tank and includes tank fill history and instrumentation, waste configuration, gas release, void fraction distribution, gas volumes, rheology, and photographs of the waste column from extruded core samples. Potential peak burn pressure is computed as a function of gas release fraction to portray the `hazard signature` of each tank. It is shown that two tanks remain well below the maximum allowable pressure, even if the entire gas content were released and ignited, and that none of the others present a hazard with their present gas release behavior.

  11. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  12. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    PubMed

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  13. Some effects of heat release in premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, I.G.

    1994-03-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented to illustrate some hydrodynamic effects of heat release in premixed flames. The heat release is represented by a simple model which treats the flame front as a two dimensional line source of volume. The velocity and strain rate induced in the flow field are determined and the numerical solution for the case of a laminar double kernel ignition is obtained. Of primary interest is the strain induced in the reactants between the expanding flame kernels and, for heat release rates typical of hydrocarbon flames, the strain rate at the plane of symmetry midway between the kernels up to 150 s{sup {minus}1}. The effects of kernel size, density ratio across the flame front and laminar burning velocity are studied. For the case of turbulent combustion the velocity induced in the reactant stream is measured in a plane parallel to the flame holder of an open premixed turbulent V-shaped flame. A divergent flow field, with a strain rate of 50 s{sup {minus}1}, is induced by the heat release in the flame zone and the consequences of this for determining the turbulent burning velocity in this and similar systems is reviewed.

  14. Membrane perturbations of erythrocyte ghosts by spectrin release.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeo; Ozaki, Shinnosuke; Shimomura, Taiji; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-01

    The cytoskeleton plays an important role in the stability and function of the membrane. Spectrin release from erythrocyte ghosts makes the membrane more fragile. However, the detail of membrane fragility has remained unclear. In the present study, the effects of incubation temperatures and polyamines on the membrane structure of ghosts under hypotonic conditions have been examined. Upon exposure of ghosts to a hypotonic buffer at 0-37 degrees C, reduction of ghost volume, spectrin release and decrease of band 3-cytoskeleton interactions were clearly observed above 30 degrees C. However, such changes were completely inhibited by spermine and spermidine. Interestingly, conformational changes of spectrin induced at 37 degrees C or 49 degrees C were not suppressed by both polyamines. Flow cytometry of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled ghosts exposed to 37 degrees C demonstrated the two peaks corresponding to ghosts with normal spectrin content and decreased one. Taken together, these results indicate that the degree of spectrin release from the membrane under hypotonic conditions is not same in all ghosts, and that polyamines inhibit the spectrin release followed by changes in the membrane structure, but not conformational changes of spectrin.

  15. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  16. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and "Bibliography. The second section,…

  17. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  18. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  19. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  20. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts.

  1. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts. PMID:22329456

  2. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the risk of such flooding, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes flooded. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e. the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability because it requires no particular expertise to carry out. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using the ASTER data. The distribution follows a power-law function, and we identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3 that require further detailed field investigations.

  3. Defects in pulsatile LH release in normally menstruating runners.

    PubMed

    Cumming, D C; Vickovic, M M; Wall, S R; Fluker, M R

    1985-04-01

    Intense physical exercise has been associated with reproductive dysfunction and menstrual cycles may be abnormal in a majority of women with a heavy training load. To determine whether training influenced pulsatile LH release, we measured LH pulse frequency, LH pulse amplitude and area under the curve over six hours during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in four sedentary women and six eumenorrheic women runners with a training volume of at least 32 km per week. All three LH variables were significantly lower in runners than in controls. These data suggest that there is a central inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in eumenorrheic runners.

  4. Neutron-absorber release device

    DOEpatents

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  5. Neural control of renin release.

    PubMed

    Stella, A; Golin, R; Zanchetti, A

    1989-02-01

    Among the major mechanisms controlling the renal release of renin, renal nerves are known to exert a direct stimulating action on juxtaglomerular cells that is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of the renal nerves also exerts an important permissive role in order to amplify and possibly accelerate responses to stimuli affecting the vascular and macula densa mechanisms. Reduction of renal perfusion pressure, intravenous infusion of furosemide, and captopril administration cause a greater increase in renin release from innervated kidneys than from denervated kidneys. A complex interaction between neural and non-neural mechanisms in the control of renin secretion is suggested. Efferent renal nerve activity controlling the renin secretion rate is mainly under the inhibitory influence of vagal afferent fibers originating from the cardiopulmonary region. Recent experiments have demonstrated that a similar reflex tonic inhibition of renin secretion is also exerted by renal afferent fibers.

  6. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

    2013-07-01

    Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the outburst probability, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes experienced an outburst flood. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e., the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability to assess the possibility of GLOF hazards because it requires no particular expertise to carry out, though the PFV does not quantify the GLOF risk. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using visible band images and DEMs of ASTER data. The PFV distribution follows a power-law function. We found that 794 lakes did not have an SLA, and consequently had a PFV of zero, while we also identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3, which is a comparable volume to that of recorded major GLOFs. This PFV approach allows us to preliminarily identify and prioritize those Himalayan glacial lakes that require further detailed investigation on GLOF hazards and risk.

  7. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  8. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Page Field, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... District Office, Revision Date 11/22/ 00 [FR Doc. 2012-1053 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3324] [FR Doc No: 2012-1053] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Release of...

  9. Nanoparticles of lanthanide oxysulfate/oxysulfide for improved oxygen storage/release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuyuan; Arends, Isabel W C E; Djanashvili, Kristina

    2016-09-28

    Lanthanide oxysulfates have the ability to store and release large volumes of oxygen under oxidizing/reducing conditions, rendering them interesting as automotive catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a remarkable improvement of both processes by utilization of nanoparticles compared to the bulk materials. A further improvement of the catalytic activity was achieved by cost-effective doping with 1.9 wt% of Ni.

  10. Nucleotide release by airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario, Lucia; Esther, Charles R; Kreda, Silvia M

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic events regulating the airways' innate defenses are initiated by the release of purines from the epithelium, which occurs constitutively and is enhanced by chemical or mechanical stimulation. While the external triggers have been reviewed exhaustively, this chapter focuses on current knowledge of the receptors and signaling cascades mediating nucleotide release. The list of secreted purines now includes ATP, ADP, AMP and nucleotide sugars, and involves at least three distinct mechanisms reflecting the complexity of airway epithelia. First, the constitutive mechanism involves ATP translocation to the ER/Golgi complex as energy source for protein folding, and fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the plasma membrane. Second, goblet cells package ATP with mucins into granules, which are discharged in response to P2Y(2)R activation and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. Finally, non-mucous cells support a regulated mechanism of ATP release involving protease activated receptor (PAR)-elicited G(12/13) activation, leading to the RhoGEF-mediated exchange of GDP for GTP on RhoA, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Together, these pathways provide fine tuning of epithelial responses regulated by purinergic signaling events. PMID:21560042

  11. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (<100 nm) during abrasive procedures to shape, finish or remove restorations but, so far, whether airborne nanoparticles are released has never been investigated. In this study, composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs.

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Hattori, Soichi; Shinga, Kotaro; Ichikawa, Ken; Yamada, Shin

    2016-06-01

    Various surgical procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome exist, such as open release, ultrasound-guided percutaneous release, and endoscopic release. Postoperative pain, scarring, and slow recovery to normal function are reported complications of open release. Damage to vessels and the median nerve and its branches underlying the transverse carpal ligament is a reported complication of ultrasound-guided percutaneous release. Damage to the superficial palmar arch and incomplete release are reported complications of endoscopic release. By performing endoscopic carpal tunnel release with ultrasound assistance, we could visualize neurovascular structures directly with the endoscope and also indirectly with ultrasound to minimize complications. We could also evaluate the morphologic changes of the median nerve dynamically before and after the release. We discuss the technique for this procedure and outline pearls and pitfalls for success. PMID:27656366

  13. Volume rendering for neurosurgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke J.; Rutten, G. J. M.; Willems, Peter W. A.; van Veelen, C. W. M.; van Rijen, P. C.; Viergever, Max A.

    2001-01-01

    A volume rendering library is presented to interactively analyze volume data from modalities like CT, MR, PET, SPECT< and fMRI for the planning of nuerosurgical procedures. Current applications are logging of Penfield procedures, fMRI visualization, blood vessel visualization and interactive localization of EEG electrodes implanted in the subdural space of a patient with epilepsy.

  14. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  15. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  16. Instantaneous stroke volume in man during lower body negative pressure /LBNP/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Richards, K. L.; Greene, E. R.; Eldridge, M. W.; Hoekenga, D. E.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an examination of the instantaneous time course of the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (Q) in response to the onset and release of -50 torr lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are reported. Six male subjects were sealed into a LBNP box up to the iliac crest while being monitored by echocardiograph for centerlamina blood velocity, fluid displacement, stroke volume, heart rate, and leg volume. Particular use was made of pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocity meters for measuring the blood velocities and flow dynamics. Measurements were made of the subjects continuously beginning from 20 sec prior to and one min after LBNP onset and release. A linear fall in the SV was observed with LBNP at 49% of the baseline value after 33 sec. A 62% drop, the lowest, was detected after 8 min of LBNP. The leg volume was inversely related to Q for the duration of the experiment.

  17. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  18. Prion protein facilitates synaptic vesicle release by enhancing release probability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Susan W; Nugent, Marie L; Dinsdale, David; Steinert, Joern R

    2014-09-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases as a result of protein misfolding. In humans, prion disease occurs typically with a sporadic origin where uncharacterized mechanisms induce spontaneous PrP(C) misfolding leading to neurotoxic PrP-scrapie formation (PrP(SC)). The consequences of misfolded PrP(C) signalling are well characterized but little is known about the physiological roles of PrP(C) and its involvement in disease. Here we investigated wild-type PrP(C) signalling in synaptic function as well as the effects of a disease-relevant mutation within PrP(C) (proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 101). Expression of wild-type PrP(C) at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction leads to enhanced synaptic responses as detected in larger miniature synaptic currents which are caused by enlarged presynaptic vesicles. The expression of the mutated PrP(C) leads to reduction of both parameters compared with wild-type PrP(C). Wild-type PrP(C) enhances synaptic release probability and quantal content but reduces the size of the ready-releasable vesicle pool. Partially, these changes are not detectable following expression of the mutant PrP(C). A behavioural test revealed that expression of either protein caused an increase in locomotor activities consistent with enhanced synaptic release and stronger muscle contractions. Both proteins were sensitive to proteinase digestion. These data uncover new functions of wild-type PrP(C) at the synapse with a disease-relevant mutation in PrP(C) leading to diminished functional phenotypes. Thus, our data present essential new information possibly related to prion pathogenesis in which a functional synaptic role of PrP(C) is compromised due to its advanced conversion into PrP(SC) thereby creating a lack-of-function scenario.

  19. Novel chlorhexidine releasing system developed from thermosensitive vinyl ether-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kiremitçi, Arlin S; Ciftçi, Arzu; Ozalp, Meral; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effective concentrations of chlorhexidine on the release for prolonged periods of time from a novel hydrogel system. A hydrogel that exhibits a volume phase transition in response to temperature was synthesized by radiation copolymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether and butyl vinyl ether in the presence of crosslinking agent, diethylene glycol divinyl ether. Hydrogel samples in the disc form (diameter, 10 mm and height, 1.5 mm) were utilized as a matrix for the release of an antimicrobial agent, chlorhexidine diacetate. Chlorhexidine loading into the hydrogel was performed by water sorption at 4 degrees C, which allows high swelling and thus high loading capacity, i.e., approximately 36 mg drug per gram of dry gel. Chlorhexidine release was examined as short-term (24 h) and long-term (27 days) by UV spectrophotometer. Microbial studies were carried out by micro-dilution method in order to determine the effectiveness of the drug release. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for the pathogens of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei were determined. The long-term chlorhexidine release is initially very fast. After that, the drug release reaches a slow but a steady rate. Such a release pattern provides an effective drug release. The prolonged release of chlorhexidine is continued up to the 27th day. MIC values for the two pathogens have been shown that the release rate from disc is effective to inhibit the growth of pathogens. These in vitro drug release results suggested that the thermosensitive hydrogel system developed in this study can be evaluated as a delivery system for the release of chlorhexidine.

  20. Canada goose posterior lobe pituicytes: seasonal ultrastructural changes in relation to axonal release of neurosecretion.

    PubMed

    George, J C; John, T M; Frombach, S K

    1987-01-01

    Changes in ultrastructure of the posterior lobe pituicytes during six phases (Spring premigratory, Spring postmigratory, breeding, moulting, Fall premigratory and Fall postmigratory) of the annual life cycle of the migratory Canada goose, were studied. Pituicyte nuclear volume in females was significantly greater than that in males during the Spring premigratory and moulting phases. In the Fall postmigratory phase, nuclear volume in males was greater than that in females. During Spring premigratory phase, the axonal endings in males contained fewer neurosecretory granules (NSG) than those in the Fall postmigratory phase. In females, however, the number of NSG was relatively more than that in males in the Spring premigratory phase but fewer in the moulting phase. Nuclear volume is correlated with pituicyte function in releasing NSG containing arginine vasotocin (AVT) from axonal endings. The significance of AVT release is discussed in relation to initiation of reproductive and migratory behaviour, and to osmotic and metabolic regulation. PMID:3652739

  1. Synapsins differentially control dopamine and serotonin release.

    PubMed

    Kile, Brian M; Guillot, Thomas S; Venton, B Jill; Wetsel, William C; Augustine, George J; Wightman, R Mark

    2010-07-21

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knock-out (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  2. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion.

  3. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  4. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  5. Role of size and shape on biofilm eradication for nitric oxide-releasing silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Slomberg, Danielle L; Lu, Yuan; Broadnax, Angela D; Hunter, Rebecca A; Carpenter, Alexis W; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2013-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a reactive free radical, has proven effective in eradicating bacterial biofilms with reduced risk of fostering antibacterial resistance. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of NO-releasing silica nanoparticles against Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus biofilms as a function of particle size and shape. Three sizes of NO-releasing silica nanoparticles (i.e., 14, 50, and 150 nm) with identical total NO release (∼0.3 μmol/mg) were utilized to study antibiofilm eradication as a function of size. To observe the role of particle shape on biofilm killing, we varied the aspect ratio of the NO-releasing silica particles from 1 to 8 while maintaining constant particle volume (∼0.02 μm(3)) and NO-release totals (∼0.7 μmol/mg). Nitric oxide-releasing particles with decreased size and increased aspect ratio were more effective against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms, with the Gram-negative species exhibiting the greatest susceptibility to NO. To further understand the influence of these nanoparticle properties on NO-mediated antibacterial activity, we visualized intracellular NO concentrations and cell death with confocal microscopy. Smaller NO-releasing particles (14 nm) exhibited better NO delivery and enhanced bacteria killing compared to the larger (50 and 150 nm) particles. Likewise, the rod-like NO-releasing particles proved more effective than spherical particles in delivering NO and inducing greater antibacterial action throughout the biofilm.

  6. Formaldehyde release from selected consumer products: influence of chamber loading, multiple products, relative humidity, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Griffis, L.C.; Mokler, B.V.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1984-09-01

    Formaldehyde release rates were measured for one sample each of a variety of consumer products under various conditions of temperature, humidity, and mass loading in a ventilated chamber. The rate of formaldehyde released from pressed wood products was much greater than from insulation material or carpeting, whether measured in a dynamic (ventilated) or static (nonventilated) chamber. Formaldehyde was released from wood products at a more rapid rate when chamber loadings (product surface area/chamber volume) and chamber concentrations of formaldehyde were reduced. Formaldehyde release from particle board and plywood was not substantially affected by the different temperatures (25-35/sup 0/C) and humidities (40-90%) tested. When particle board was paired with plywood, insulation, or carpet, the formaldehyde released was less than the sum of that released when each product was tested alone. These data suggest that these samples of plywood, insulation, or carpet (slow releasers of formaldehyde) absorbed formaldehyde released from the higher emitting particle board. Consequently, the surface area of carpet, insulation, and/or wood in a ventilated room relative to that of pressed wood products may be an important determinant of formaldehyde concentrations in the air of that room.

  7. Proteinases release /sup 35/S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Varsano, S.; Borson, D.B.; Gold, M.; Forsberg, S.; Basbaum, C.B.; Nadel, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ (50..mu..ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable /sup 35/S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of /sup 35/S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released /sup 35/S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released /sup 35/S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW greater than or equal to 10/sup 6/), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 10/sup 5/). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly.

  8. Release of chemical transmitters from cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells

    PubMed Central

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Nicholls, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Papers in this issue concern extrasynaptic transmission, namely release of signalling molecules by exocytosis or diffusion from neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, axons and glia. Problems discussed concern the molecules, their secretion and importance for normal function and disease. Molecules secreted extrasynaptically include transmitters, peptides, hormones and nitric oxide. For extrasynaptic secretion, trains of action potentials are required, and the time course of release is slower than at synapses. Questions arise concerning the mechanism of extrasynaptic secretion: how does it differ from the release observed at synaptic terminals and gland cells? What kinds of vesicles take part? Is release accomplished through calcium entry, SNAP and SNARE proteins? A clear difference is in the role of molecules released synaptically and extrasynaptically. After extrasynaptic release, molecules reach distant as well as nearby cells, and thereby produce long-lasting changes over large volumes of brain. Such changes can affect circuits for motor performance and mood states. An example with clinical relevance is dyskinesia of patients treated with l-DOPA for Parkinson's disease. Extrasynaptically released transmitters also evoke responses in glial cells, which in turn release molecules that cause local vasodilatation and enhanced circulation in regions of the brain that are active. PMID:26009760

  9. In silico study on the effects of matrix structure in controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Rafael; Cordero, Salomón; Maria Vidales, Ana; Domínguez, Armando

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of drug concentration and spatial distribution of the medicament, in porous solid dosage forms, on the kinetics and total yield of drug release. Methods: Cubic networks are used as models of drug release systems. They were constructed by means of the dual site-bond model framework, which allows a substrate to have adequate geometrical and topological distribution of its pore elements. Drug particles can move inside the networks by following a random walk model with excluded volume interactions between the particles. The drug release time evolution for different drug concentration and different initial drug spatial distribution has been monitored. Results: The numerical results show that in all the studied cases, drug release presents an anomalous behavior, and the consequences of the matrix structural properties, i.e., drug spatial distribution and drug concentration, on the drug release profile have been quantified. Conclusions: The Weibull function provides a simple connection between the model parameters and the microstructure of the drug release device. A critical modeling of drug release from matrix-type delivery systems is important in order to understand the transport mechanisms that are implicated, and to predict the effect of the device design parameters on the release rate.

  10. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford single-shell waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Recknagle, K.P.; Reid, H.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford single-shell waste tanks based on theory, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The single-shell tanks likely to pose a flammable gas hazard are listed and described, and photographs of core extrusions and the waste surface are included. The credible mechanisms for significant flammable gas releases are described, and release volumes and rates are quantified as much as possible. The only mechanism demonstrably capable of producing large ({approximately}100 m{sup 3}) spontaneous gas releases is the buoyant displacement, which occurs only in tanks with a relatively deep layer of supernatant liquid. Only the double-shell tanks currently satisfy this condition. All release mechanisms believed plausible in single-shell tanks have been investigated, and none have the potential for large spontaneous gas releases. Only small spontaneous gas releases of several cubic meters are likely by these mechanisms. The reasons several other postulated gas release mechanisms are implausible or incredible are also given.

  11. Calcium release from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Corredig, M

    2014-09-01

    The present work studied the solubilization of Ca during acidification in milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF). The effect of heating milk at 80°C for 15min was also evaluated. In addition to measuring buffering capacity, the amount of Ca released as a function of pH was determined. The area of the maximum peak in buffering capacity observed at pH ~5.1, related to the presence of colloidal Ca phosphate, was significantly affected by casein volume fraction but did not increase proportionally with casein concentration. In addition, a lower buffering capacity and less solubilized Ca were measured in 2× DF milk compared with 2× UF milk. Heat treatment did not change the buffering capacity or Ca release in 1× and 2× concentrated milk. On the other hand, at a higher volume fraction (4×), more Ca was present in the soluble phase in heated 4× UF and DF milk compared with unheated milk. This is the first comprehensive study on the effect of concentration, distinguishing the effect of UF from that of DF, before and after heating, on Ca solubilization. PMID:25022683

  12. Modular Modeling System (MMS): Volume 4B, Applications: 1984 code release workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartells, P.

    1987-04-01

    These proceedings include formal presentations on the following topics: Overview of MMS Code, The MMS Code Enhancements, MMS-02 Development, MMS validation against plant data and codes, MMS validation against Experimental Data, and Utility Applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. Volume 1: Calculating potential to emit releases and doses for FEMP's and NOCs

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    The purpose of this document is to provide Hanford Site facilities a handbook for estimating potential emissions and the subsequent offsite doses. General guidelines and information are provided to assist personnel in estimating emissions for use with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) and regulatory notices of construction (NOCs), per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61, Subpart H, and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247 requirements. This document replaces Unit Dose Calculation Methods and Summary of Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determinations (WHC-EP-0498). Meteorological data from 1983 through 1996, 13-year data set, was used to develop the unit dose factors provided by this document, with the exception of two meteorological stations. Meteorological stations 23 and 24, located at Gable Mountain and the 100-F Area, only have data from 1986 through 1996, 10-year data set. The scope of this document includes the following: Estimating emissions and resulting effective dose equivalents (EDE) to a facility's nearest offsite receptor (NOR) for use with NOCs under 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with NOCs under the WAC Chapter 246-247 requirements Estimating emissions and resulting EDEs to a facility's or emission unit's NOR for use with FEMPs and FEMP determinations under DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 requirements.

  14. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  15. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  16. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  17. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  18. 46 CFR 108.457 - Pressure release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure release. 108.457 Section 108.457 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.457 Pressure release... have a means for releasing pressure that accumulates within the space if CO2 is discharged into...

  19. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS... of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general... reasonable plan for payment shall, where feasible, be included in the parole release plan....

  20. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  1. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In...

  2. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... schools, hospitals, retirement communities, or wetlands). (iv) For each hazardous substance release...) The environmental medium(a) affected by the release: (1) If surface water, the name of the...

  3. CHANGING RELEASE CRITERIA FROM PAST TO PRESENT

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, A.; Valencia, L.

    2003-02-27

    Beginning with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants the release, criteria for radioactive materials has gained importance significantly. After decommissioning and dismantling, most of the residues need not be treated as radioactive waste, since they contain only small amounts of radioactivity. The Karlsruhe Research Center already dismantled two research reactors completely (the Karlstein Super Heated Steam Reactor and the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant), while several additional decommissioning projects are currently in progress. About 70 % of the total waste mass within each project can be released from the area of atomic regulations and licenses. At the Niederaichbach and Karlstein sites the release procedures and the release criteria were determined in the decommissioning license, where issues such as controlling and release values were fixed. Additionally, each step of the release process has to be coordinated with the regulator. Today the general release criteria are contained in the atomic act. Depending on the nature of the material to be released (e.g. building structures or metallic waste), and depending on the further use of the material, such as unrestricted reuse or waste disposal, release values for each nuclide are established. To prepare the release of materials, a release plan including the release measurement results is sent to the regulator, who has to officially approve the concept.

  4. 40 CFR 302.8 - Continuous releases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 355, which require initial telephone and written notifications of continuous releases to be... release data, engineering estimates, knowledge of operating procedures, or best professional judgment to... requirements of this section, the person in charge may rely on recent release data, engineering estimates,...

  5. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  6. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release plans. 2.33 Section 2.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A...

  7. Fully redundant mechanical release actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, Melvin H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for performing a mechanical release function exhibiting low shock. This system includes two pyrotechnic detents fixed mounted in opposing axial alignment within a cylindrical housing having two mechanical bellows. Two mechanical bellow assemblies, each having one end hermetically bonded to the housing and the other to the respective actuator pin extending from either end of the housing, ensure that all outgassing and contamination from the operation of the pyrotechnic devices will be contained within the housing and bellows. The pin on one end of the assembly is fixed mounted and supported, via a bolt or ball-and-socket joint so that when the charge corresponding to that pin ignites, the entire assembly will exhibit rectilinear movement, including the opposing pin providing the unlatching motion. The release detent pin is supported by a linear bearing and when its corresponding pyrotechnic charge ignites the pin is retracted within the housing producing the same unlatching motion without movement of the entire assembly, thus providing complete mechanical, electrical and pyrotechnic redundancy for the unlatching pin.

  8. ATP release through pannexon channels.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed 'pannexon'. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  9. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  11. Nitric oxide releasing acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Moore, P K; Marshall, M

    2003-05-01

    The nitric oxide releasing derivative of acetaminophen (nitroacetaminophen) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity in a variety of animal models. On a mol for mol basis nitroacetaminophen is some 3-20 times more potent than acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen exhibits little or no hepatotoxicity following administration in rat or mouse and indeed protects against the hepatotoxic activity of acetaminophen. Nitroacetaminophen does not affect blood pressure or heart rate of anaesthetised rats but has similar potency to acetaminophen as an anti-pyretic agent. The enhanced anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of nitroacetaminophen and the reduced hepatotoxicity in these animal models is likely to be secondary to the slow release of nitric oxide from the molecule. As yet the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying these actions of nitroacetaminophen are not clear. Evidence for inhibition of cytokine-directed formation of pro-inflammatory molecule production (e.g. COX-2, iNOS) by an effect on the NF-kappaB transduction system and/or nitrosylation (and thence inhibition) of caspase enzyme activity has been reported. Data described in this review indicate that the profile of pharmacological activity of nitroacetaminophen and acetaminophen are markedly different. The possibility that nitroacetaminophen could be an attractive alternative to acetaminophen in the clinic is discussed. PMID:12846444

  12. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  13. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  14. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  15. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  16. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise.

  17. Natural look in volume restoration.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  18. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  19. Estimation of exposure to toxic releases using spatial interaction modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data are frequently used to estimate a community's exposure to pollution. However, this estimation process often uses underdeveloped geographic theory. Spatial interaction modeling provides a more realistic approach to this estimation process. This paper uses four sets of data: lung cancer age-adjusted mortality rates from the years 1990 through 2006 inclusive from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, TRI releases of carcinogens from 1987 to 1996, covariates associated with lung cancer, and the EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. Results The impact of the volume of carcinogenic TRI releases on each county's lung cancer mortality rates was calculated using six spatial interaction functions (containment, buffer, power decay, exponential decay, quadratic decay, and RSEI estimates) and evaluated with four multivariate regression methods (linear, generalized linear, spatial lag, and spatial error). Akaike Information Criterion values and P values of spatial interaction terms were computed. The impacts calculated from the interaction models were also mapped. Buffer and quadratic interaction functions had the lowest AIC values (22298 and 22525 respectively), although the gains from including the spatial interaction terms were diminished with spatial error and spatial lag regression. Conclusions The use of different methods for estimating the spatial risk posed by pollution from TRI sites can give different results about the impact of those sites on health outcomes. The most reliable estimates did not always come from the most complex methods. PMID:21418644

  20. Control of neurotransmitter release by an internal gel matrix in synaptic vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigada, David; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Gorostiza, Pau; Verdaguer, Albert; Gómez de Aranda, Inmaculada; Pineda, Oriol; Vilarrasa, Jaume; Marsal, Jordi; Blasi, Joan; Aleu, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-03-01

    Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles, where they have been assumed to be in free solution. Here we report that in Torpedo synaptic vesicles, only 5% of the total acetylcholine (ACh) or ATP content is free, and that the rest is adsorbed to an intravesicular proteoglycan matrix. This matrix, which controls ACh and ATP release by an ion-exchange mechanism, behaves like a smart gel. That is, it releases neurotransmitter and changes its volume when challenged with small ionic concentration change. Immunodetection analysis revealed that the synaptic vesicle proteoglycan SV2 is the core of the intravesicular matrix and is responsible for immobilization and release of ACh and ATP. We suggest that in the early steps of vesicle fusion, this internal matrix regulates the availability of free diffusible ACh and ATP, and thus serves to modulate the quantity of transmitter released. Abbreviations: ACh, acetylcholine AFM, atomic force microscopy

  1. Radiological release criteria at the Fernald Environmental Management Project theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrter, R.W.

    1995-01-17

    As environmental restoration activities progress at the DOE`s Fernald site, and across the country, large volumes of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) are being generated. Despite the existence of ``free-release`` guidelines from DOE. The strategy of onsite decontamination and release of RSM for unrestricted use has been generally overlooked in recent years. A pilot project was completed at Fernald in which 120 tons of RSM were decontaminated onsite and released for unrestricted use. This paper compares that strategy to more traditional DOE RSM management practices. Many options exist for managing RSM. DOE orders dictate that contractors demonstrate flexibility in utilizing a combination of techniques to optimize the benefits of waste management activates. The FERMCO Recycling Department led an effort to provide their customer with an economical alternative to the traditional approach of burying contaminated metal as LLW, based on established DOE free-release guidelines.

  2. A rapid technique for prediction of nutrient release from controlled release fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating to extend the total duration nutrient release up to 3 to 9 months and rate of release to match the nutrient requirement of the plant during the growing period. Hence these products are termed as “Controlled Release...

  3. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  4. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  5. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  6. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Supplements to volume 1 are presented herein. Included in these papers are information unavailable when volume 1 was written, an evaluation of the proposed nuclear facility, and answers to questions raised by the AEC concerning volume 1.

  7. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  8. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  9. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  10. Supplemental water releases for fisheries restoration in a Brazilian floodplain River: A conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.; Martinez, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly productive floodplain rivers in Brazil and elsewhere provide livelihood and recreational fishing for millions of people around the world, but damming and controlled water discharge are a threat to these valuable ecosystems. Supplemental water releases (SWRs) at a dam are increasingly used for restoring fisheries productivity in many floodplain rivers. We proposed a conceptual model for a hypothetical water release to enhance fisheries using Tre??s Marias Reservoir (TMR) on the Sa??o Francisco River (SFR), Brazil. The information needed by the model follows: (i) Biologically, what is the best release date? (ii) How much water will be released? (iii) What is the pattern of impoundment and how much impounded water will be released? (iv) What is the lost revenue to the power plant associated with SWR? (v) What is the relationship between river discharge and the area of floodplain that is flooded? (vi) What is the relationship between SWR and fisheries value? Ichthyoplankton studies in the SFR showed a clear positive relationship between fish density and water level (WL). While the relationship between WL and floodplain area flooded and recruitment is not known, we concluded the best date for release is when there is a natural flood, which naturally triggers fish spawning and the SWR will add to the natural flood and cover a greater floodplain area. The released volume will range from 0.302km3 to 2.192 km3, depending on SWR duration. In most years from 1976 to 2003, TMR impounded enough water for SWR only in the second half of the fish-spawning season (January-March). Lost revenue at TMR depended on release volume and ranged from US$ 0.493 million to US$ 3.452 million for the actual power rate. However, SWR could increase commercial fisheries income an estimated US$ 4.468 million. We forecast that SWR can bring fisheries benefits that surpass the lost revenue.

  11. Investigation of the release test method for the topical application of pharmaceutical preparations: release test of cataplasm including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Takeshi; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Kogo, Tetsuo; Ueda, Hideo; Numajiri, Sachihiko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2004-02-01

    A simple procedure for determining the in vitro release profile of a cataplasm for use in a quality control procedure has been developed. Since the disk assembly in the USP for patch dosage forms was unsuited for use in a release test due to penetration of the dissolution medium into the cataplasm from the screw part of the device and the cataplasm swelled, new holders were designed. In the new holder, a cataplasm is held in position by sandwiching it between a stainless-steel O-ring and a silicon O-ring on the stainless steel board, 2 acrylic boards hold the O-rings and the stainless steal board, and the entire assembly is placed at the bottom of the dissolution vessel. The release profile was determined using the "Paddle over Disk" method in USP26. Furthermore, in order to prevent the swelling of the cataplasm, artificial sweat was used as the dissolution medium. The release profiles of the nine marketed brands of cataplasm containing indomethacin, ketoprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively, were determined over a 12-h period. By adjusting the ion concentration and volume of the media, and the release surface-area of the cataplasm exposed to each medium, the procedure was found to be reproducible for in vitro release characterization of nine marketed brands. This shows that this technique can be used as a quality control tool for assuring product uniformity. PMID:14757999

  12. Control-release microcapsule of famotidine loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Controlled release effect and enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Baixue; Xu, Lu; Zheng, Nan; Chen, Hongtao; Li, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, control-release microcapsule of famotidine (FMT) loaded biomimetic synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (B-MSNs) was developed, and controlled release effect and stomach adhesion of this formulation in vitro were mainly investigated. B-MSN was previously synthesized and it was amorphous mesoporous nanoparticles with helical channels. Cytotoxicity of B-MSN was studied using human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and the result indicated that cytotoxicity of B-MSN can be neglected. After loading FMT into B-MSN, specific surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of B-MSN were obviously reduced. In vitro dissolution test showed that B-MSN had the ability to slow down FMT release for 15 min. In order to prolong controlled release effect and remained the advantage of B-MSN (improve drug stability due to its rigid silica framework), the combined application of control-release microcapsule (using cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K15M as excipients) with B-MSN was designed. It was obvious that newly designed formulation significantly controlled FMT release with Fickian diffusion mechanism and showed enhanced stomach adhesion in vitro, which has significant value in widening the application of B-MSN in formulation design.

  13. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women.

  14. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  15. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 2. PVP-Volume 324

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K.K.; Bhandari, S.; Bloom, J.M.; Mehta, H.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue and fracture mechanics are very important topics in addressing aging and maintenance aspects of power plants where pressure vessels and piping technologies are applied most. The papers contained in this volume deal primarily with fracture mechanics. This volume has four sections. The section on basic fracture covers new areas of fracture mechanics. There is also a section on material fracture toughness, a section on failure assessment diagram method user experience with four application-type papers, and finally a section on vessels, which contains a large number of papers on subjects such as the master curve method, the shallow flaw, the local approach, Alloy 600 cracking issue, and validation of the fracture mechanics method by large experiments. Separate abstracts were prepared for 30 papers in this volume.

  16. System 80+{trademark} standard design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 13: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-31

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report--Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This report, Volume 13, documents increase and decrease of reactor cooling system inventory and radioactive material release from a subsystem or component.

  17. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume IV. Design drawings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains design drawings for the biomass cogeneration plant to be built in Maine. The drawings show a considerable degree of detail, however, they are not to be considered released for construction. There has been no actual procurement of equipment, therefore equipment drawings certified by suppliers have not been included. (DMC)

  18. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT AT THE SAND CREEK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Releases Control Branch (RCB) has developed a pilot-scale Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) to determine the feasibility of soil washing for the remediation of contaminated soils. This mobile unit, mounted on two trailers, can pro...

  19. Release of Water Soluble Drugs from Dynamically Swelling POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL Methacrylate - CO - Methacrylic Acid) Hydrogels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jim Hwai-Cher

    In this study, ionizable copolymers of HEMA and methacrylic acid (MA) are investigated for their potential use in developing pH dependent oral delivery systems. Because of the MA units, these gels swell extensively at high pH. Since solute diffusion in the hydrophilic polymers depends highly on the water content of the matrix, it is anticipated that the release rate will be modulated by this pH induced swelling. From a practical point of view, the advantage of the present system is that one can minimize drug loss in the stomach and achieve a programmed release in intestine. This approach is expected to improve delivery of acid labile drugs or drugs that cause severe gastrointestinal side effects. This work mainly focuses on the basic understanding of the mechanism involved in drug release from the poly(HEMA -co- MA) gels, especially under dynamic swelling conditions. Equilibrium swelling is first characterized since water content is the major determinant of transport properties in these gels. Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is chosen as the model drug for the release study and its diffusion characteristics in the gel matrix determined. The data obtained show that the PPA diffusivity follows the free volume theory of Yasuda, which explains the accelerating effect of swelling on drug release. A mathematical model based on a diffusion mechanism has been developed to describe PPA release from the swelling gels. Based on this model, several significant conclusions can be drawn. First, the release rate can be modulated by the aspect ratio of the cylindrical geometry, and this has a practical implication in dosage form design. Second, the release rate can be lowered quite considerably if the dimensional increase due to swelling is significant. Consequently, it is the balance between the drug diffusivity increase and the gel dimensional growth that determines the release rate from the swelling matrix. Third, quasi-steady release kinetics, which are characteristic of swelling

  20. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 1. PVP-Volume 323

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, H.S.; Bhandari, S.; Jones, D.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Yoon, K.K.

    1996-12-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue evaluations are an important part of the structural integrity analyses to assure safe operation of pressure vessels and piping components during their service life. The papers presented in this volume illustrate the application of fatigue and fracture mechanics techniques to assess the structural integrity of a wide variety of Pressure Vessels and Piping components. The papers are organized in five sections: (1) fatigue and fracture: piping and components; (2) fatigue and fracture: environmental cracking; (3) leak-before-break analyses; (4) fatigue testing and analyses; and (5) probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses in pressure boundary components. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this volume.

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  2. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  3. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  4. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  5. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27698690

  6. Effect of glycerol on sustained insulin release from PVA hydrogels and its application in diabetes therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Che, Junyi; Yuan, Minglu; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Wei-En

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glycerol on the physical properties and release of an insulin-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel film. The insulin-loaded hydrogel composite film was produced using the freeze-thawing method, after which the in vitro swelling ratio, transmittance and insulin release, and the in vivo pharmacodynamics, of hydrogels containing various volumes of glycerol were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of glycerol reduced the swelling ratio and increased the softness of the PVA hydrogel film. An analysis of insulin release in vitro and of the hypoglycemic effects in rats demonstrated that the PVA hydrogel film had a sustained release of insulin and long-acting effect over 10 days. The results of the present study suggested that, as a hydrophilic plasticizer, glycerol was able to enhance the release of insulin in the early stage of release profile by enhancing the formation of water channels, although the total swelling ratio was decreased. Therefore, the insulin-loaded glycerol/PVA hydrogel film may be a promising sustained-release preparation for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. The study of release of chlorhexidine from preparations with modified thermosensitive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Musial, Witold; Voncina, Bojana; Pluta, Janusz; Kokol, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the release rates of chlorhexidine (CX) base entrapped in the polymeric beads of modified poly-N-isopropylacrylamides (pNIPAMs) at temperatures below and over the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of synthesized polymers: pNIPAM-A with terminal anionic groups resulting from potassium persulfate initiator, pNIPAM-B with cationic amidine terminal groups, and pNIPAM-C comprising anionic terminals, but with increased hydrophobicity maintained by the N-tert-butyl functional groups. The preparations, assessed in vitro below the VPTT, release an initial burst of CX at different time periods between 120 and 240 min, followed by a period of 24 h, when the rate of release remains approximately constant, approaching the zero-order kinetics; the release rates for the polymers beads are as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-B>pNIPAM-A. The pattern of release rates at temperature over the VPTT is as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-A>pNIPAM-B. In the presence of pNIPAM-C, the duration between the start of the release and the attained minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most of the microbes, in conditions over the VPTT, increased from 60 to 90 min. The release prolongation could be ascribed to some interactions between the practically insoluble CX particle and the hydrophobic functional groups of the polymer. PMID:22629123

  8. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

    2007-02-20

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG. PMID:17112658

  9. Applications of texture mapping to volume and flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe six visualization methods which take advantage of hardware polygon scan conversion, texture mapping, and compositing, to give interactive viewing of 3D scalar fields, and motion for 3D flows. For volume rendering, these are splatting of an optimized 3D reconstruction filter, and tetrahedral cell projection using a texture map to provide the exponential per pixel necessary for accurate opacity calculation. For flows, these are the above tetrahedral projection method for rendering the ``flow volume`` dyed after passing through a dye releasing polygon, ``splatting`` of cycled anisotropic textures to provide flow direction and motion visualization, splatting motion blurred particles to indicate flow velocity, and advecting a texture directly to show the flow motion. All these techniques are tailored to take advantage of existing graphics pipelines to produce interactive visualization tools.

  10. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  11. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. PMID:23986307

  12. A mathematical model of drug release from liposomes by low frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Enden, Giora; Schroeder, Avi

    2009-12-01

    Administration of drugs using small (<100 nm) unilamellar liposomes enables effective targeting of tumors and inflamed tissue. Therapeutic efficacy may be enhanced by triggering liposomal drug release in the desired organ in a controlled manner using a noninvasive external signal. Previous studies have demonstrated that low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) can be used to control the release of drugs from liposomes. LFUS irradiation has a twofold effect: (1) it causes the impermeable liposome membrane to become permeable and (2) it induces liposome disintegration. Immediately upon cessation of LFUS irradiation the membrane resumes its impermeable state and liposome disintegration stops. The mathematical model presented here is aimed at providing a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of LFUS-induced liposomal drug release, which is essential for safe and effective implementation of this technique. The time-dependent release patterns are determined by the liposome disintegration patterns and by two key parameters: (a) the average permeability of the membrane to the drug and (b) the ratio between the volume of the entire dispersion and the initial volume of all the liposomes in the dispersion. The present model implies that LFUS irradiation triggers two liposomal drug-release mechanisms: the predominant one is diffusion through the LFUS-compromised liposome membrane, and the less significant one is liposome disintegration. PMID:19731036

  13. Flex bearing UUEC, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    This volume, Volume 2, of this Flex Bearing UUEC Final Report documents findings and data pertaining to Team B's tasks. Team B was organized as one of two sub-teams of the Unplanned/Unintended Event or Condition (UUEC) board established per InterOffice Memorandum (IOM) A100-FY93-072. Team A determined the cause of the unacceptable unbonds (referred to as 'heat-affect' unbonds), including the initial, light rust film, in the FSM #3 flex bearing was overheating of the Forward End Ring (FER) during cure, specifically in zone 8 of the mold. Team A's findings are documented in Volume 1 of this report. Team B developed flight rationale for existing bearings, based on absence or presence of an unpropitious unbond condition like that in FSM #3's flex bearing.

  14. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  15. Weak correlation of starch and volume in synchronized photosynthetic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rading, M. Michael; Sandmann, Michael; Steup, Martin; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    In cultures of unicellular algae, features of single cells, such as cellular volume and starch content, are thought to be the result of carefully balanced growth and division processes. Single-cell analyses of synchronized photoautotrophic cultures of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal, however, that the cellular volume and starch content are only weakly correlated. Likewise, other cell parameters, e.g., the chlorophyll content per cell, are only weakly correlated with cell size. We derive the cell size distributions at the beginning of each synchronization cycle considering growth, timing of cell division and daughter cell release, and the uneven division of cell volume. Furthermore, we investigate the link between cell volume growth and starch accumulation. This work presents evidence that, under the experimental conditions of light-dark synchronized cultures, the weak correlation between both cell features is a result of a cumulative process rather than due to asymmetric partition of biomolecules during cell division. This cumulative process necessarily limits cellular similarities within a synchronized cell population.

  16. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  17. Thai Basic Course. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Warren G.; Tryon, Absorn

    The 40 lessons in these two volumes and the accompanying tape recordings are designed to teach standard spoken Thai to Foreign Service Officers and other American Government personnel. After completing the "Programed Introduction to Thai Phonology," the student should be able to read the phonemic transcription in which all Thai material is…

  18. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  19. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  20. Be the Volume: A Classroom Activity to Visualize Volume Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on activity can help multivariable calculus students visualize surfaces and understand volume estimation. This activity can be extended to include the concepts of Fubini's Theorem and the visualization of the curves resulting from cross-sections of the surface. This activity uses students as pillars and a sheet or tablecloth for the…

  1. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  2. Foaming volume and foam stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  5. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  6. Quick-release medical tape

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive–skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes. PMID:23112196

  7. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  8. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  9. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  10. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Hardback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  11. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2011-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  12. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  13. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  14. Controlled release of thyrotropin releasing hormone from microspheres: evaluation of release profiles and pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Heya, T; Mikura, Y; Nagai, A; Miura, Y; Futo, T; Tomida, Y; Shimizu, H; Toguchi, H

    1994-06-01

    The drug-release kinetics of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) containing copoly(dl-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The drug was encapsulated in PLGA using an in-water drying method through a water in oil in water emulsion. The drug release from the PLGA microspheres in vitro correlated well with that in vivo, and pseudo-zero-order release kinetics were observed. The pharmacokinetics of TRH following administration of this controlled-release parenteral dosage form have been also examined in rats. Following a transient increase in the plasma level due to an initial burst, steady-state plasma levels were observed. The duration of drug release estimated from the plasma level was comparable with the results in the in vitro and in vivo release studies. The steady-state plasma levels correlated well with the levels predicted from the pharmacokinetic parameters following a single subcutaneous or intravenous injection of TRH solution. The results of this study confirm the previously reported in vivo sustained release of TRH achieved with this drug-delivery system. PMID:9120809

  15. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  16. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This volume of newsletters addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Each issue includes feature articles, book reviews, product reviews, letters to the editor, notices of upcoming wilderness conferences and training courses, additional resources, and general information relevant to medical…

  17. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  18. Advances In Librarianship. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.

    The authors of this second volume provide a composite contribution to a broader understanding of some of the major topics affecting libraries and their operation today. These contributions are in keeping with the aim of the series of providing scholarly reviews of specific topics related to the rapidly changing and advancing field of…

  19. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  20. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  1. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  2. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  4. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  5. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  6. Thinkers on Education. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the third volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  7. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention program. The…

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  11. Skylab Experiments, Volume 6, Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Volume 6, one of a series of booklets designed to acquaint teachers with the Skylab Program, is focused on mechanics. Introductory material provides background information on Skylab and its related education program. Section 1 of the booklet presents relevant physics content concerning the concept of mechanics. Section 2 contains a discussion of…

  12. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  13. Construction Cluster Volume 5 [Electrical].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fifth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on electrical work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study: (1) safety precautions and first aid for electrical workers; (2) planning a simple installation;…

  14. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  15. Thinkers on Education. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the second volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  16. Thinkers on Education. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the fourth volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  17. Construction Cluster Volume III [Plumbing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the third of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on plumbing and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) importance of plumbing; (2) pipe and tubing…

  18. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  19. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  20. Thinkers on Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the first volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  1. Emergency department visit volume variability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the most important and basic variables in emergency department (ED) operations is patient visit volumes. This variable is usually predicted on the basis of the average ED patient visit volume over a certain period. However, ED patient visit variability is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated ED patient visit variability in order to determine if the average can be used to operate EDs. Methods Nationwide ED patient visit data were from the standard emergency patient data of the National Emergency Department Information System. The data are transferred automatically by 141 EDs nationwide. The hourly ED visit volumes over 365 days were determined, and the variability was analyzed to evaluate the representativeness of the average. Results A total of 4,672,275 patient visits were collected in 2013. The numbers of daily ED patient visits were widely dispersed and positively skewed rather than symmetric and narrow with a normal distribution. Conclusion The daily variability of ED visit is too large and it did not show normal distribution. The average visit volume does not adequately represent ED operation. PMID:27752589

  2. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, H.

    1996-06-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang`s algorithm. The dual window method was used for scatter subtraction. The author used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of (1) fixed thresholding, (2) automatic thresholding, (3) attenuation, (4) scatter, and (5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are performed. The relative error is within 7% for the GLH method combined with attenuation and scatter corrections.

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  4. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  5. Health Manpower Research. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Bureau of Hospital Administration.

    Some informational materials used in the project reported in "Health Manpower Research. Volume 1" (VT 005 426) are presented. A 97-page bibliography covers manpower, health occupations, planning and legislation, migration of health personnel, staffing and utilization, health economics, and research into health manpower. Appendixes include: (1) a…

  6. Advances in Librarianship. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.; Harris, Michael H., Ed.

    A major theme of this volume is the issue of library accountability and evaluation of productivity. Four review papers deal directly with the topic. The first reviews the literature relating to evaluation of libraries generally with an emphasis on school libraries. The second focuses on the measurement of productivity in the academic library. It…

  7. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  8. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  9. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  10. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Huckaby, James L.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2002-12-18

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  11. Summary Profiles of Hanford Effluent Release Data

    SciTech Connect

    KM Tominey; MK White

    1999-01-07

    Hanford publishes extensive estimates of their offsite releases of various chemical and radiological species annuaIly. In this report we examine using these estimates to develop additional insight into how effectively such releases of hazardous materials are being controlled at Hanford. Historical estimates of airborne and surface water releases of selected contaminants are compared with estimates of the overall Site inventory of those contaminants and with the corresponding release limits and background levels. These comparisons are also examined over a five-year period (1993 to 1997) to determine how these releases have changed during that time. Most of the waste management and environmental restoration activities under way at Hanford are intended to provide final, permanent disposition of the Site's inventory of hazardous materials, with the ultimate objective of ensuring that risks to the public and the environment are controlled to an acceptable level. An important consideration during the conduct of these activities is prott%ting the public and the environment while accomplishing the longer-term ~~ objectives. The amounts of hazardous materials that are being released to the air or surface water while waste management and environmental activities are being conducted is one important measure of their overall effectiveness. The comparisons described in this report indicate that measures to control the release of the selected contaminants from the Hanford Site are, and have been, veryeffective. The amounts of these materials released to surface water and air are very small compared with background and regulatory limits and smaller still considering the inventories" under management. Comparisons of annual releases ranged from slightly over background to five orders of magnitude below background levels (e.g., l/10,000* of background levels), and up to 14 orders of magnitude less than estimates of Site inventories. Annual releases for these contaminants

  12. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  13. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  14. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  15. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  16. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  17. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  18. Ten Ways to Get Attention with Your Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kooten, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Recommends 10 steps that can increase chances of having press release published. Advises readers to use required format; determine what constitutes news; keep release short; include contact person in release; incorporate good quotes; send releases to right person; understand that release will be edited; time arrival of release; follow up with…

  19. Aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop the source terms for these releases. An upper boundary accidental release event would be a pressurized release of powder or liquid in static air. Experiments were run using various source sizes and pressures and measuring the mass airborne and the particle size distribution of aerosols produced by these pressurized releases. Two powder and two liquid sources were used: TiO/sub 2/ and depleted uranium dioxide (DUO); and aqueous uranine (sodium fluorescein) and uranyl nitrate solutions. Results of the experiments showed that pressurization level and source size were significant variables for the airborne powder releases. For this experimental configuration, the liquid releases were a function of pressure, but volume did not appear to be a significant variable. During the experiments 100 g and 350 g of DUO (1 ..mu..m dia) and TiO/sub 2/ (1.7 ..mu..m dia) powders and 100 cm/sup 3/ and 350 cm/sup 3/ of uranine and uranyl nitrate solutions were released at pressures ranging from 50 to 500 psig. The average of the largest fractions of powder airborne was about 24%. The maximum amount of liquid source airborne was significantly less, about 0.15%. The median aerodynamic equivalent diameters (AED) for collected airborne powders ranged from 5 to 19 ..mu..m; liquids ranged from 2 to 29 ..mu..m. All of the releases produced a significant fraction of respirable particles of 10 ..mu..m and less. 12 references, 10 figures, 23 tables.

  20. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    PubMed

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:24468504

  1. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    PubMed

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles.

  2. Effects of bead size and polymerization in PMMA bone cement on vancomycin release.

    PubMed

    Shinsako, K; Okui, Y; Matsuda, Y; Kunimasa, J; Otsuka, M

    2008-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement loaded with antimicrobial agents is used for the treatment and prevention of infections in orthopaedic surgery. The use of antimicrobial-loaded bone cement allows for high local doses while avoiding systemic toxicity. The release of vancomycin (VCM) from bone cement has been reported. However, the exact mechanism behind the release is unknown. We studied the influence of bead size and polymerization time on elution, and considered the release mechanism for VCM. We used CMW Endurance Bone Cement. Cements were prepared by mixing 6 g of VCM with 40 g of polymer, and then 10 g of liquid monomer was added. We kneaded and shaped the preparation into spheres containing 10.7 w/w% VCM. We measured the release of VCM from PMMA beads of three different sizes. Average weights of the beads were 0.96 g (SB) (n = 6), 2.86 g (MB) (n = 2) and 5.65 g (LB) (n = 1). Additionally, we studied beads made with different polymerization times. The polymerization time was taken as the period from the making of the beads until the start of the study, and was 15 min (B15), 20 min (B20), 60 min (B60) or 180 min (B180). The release of VCM showed a bimodal curve with a high initial release followed by a sustained release. Regarding the size of the beads, SB released 7.2%, MB released 4.3% and LB released 3.1%. Regarding polymerization time, B15 released 10.0%, B20 released 6.5%, B60 released 6.3% and B180 released 4.3%, respectively. The release of VCM from PMMA beads was influenced by bead size and polymerization time. Those beads which were smaller and had a shorter polymerization time released more VCM. Total pore volume of beads that polymerization time was 30 min after drug-release test was 1.33 times grater than that of control beads that polymerization time was one week before drug-release test. This suggested that the short polymerization time caused the beads to leak more VCM. We proposed a model with four kinds of the dissolution from bone

  3. The distribution in lunar soil of hydrogen released by pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    The hydrogen contents of various Apollo 15 rocks and Apollo 15 and 16 soil particle types and sieve fractions have been determined by the pyrolysis method. The Apollo 15 crystalline rocks analyzed release very little hydrogen (approximately 6 micromoles H/g sample). The mineral, glass, and light-colored breccia fragments in the soils contain approximately 5, 30, and 10 micromoles H/g sample, respectively. The dark breccias and glassy agglutinates examined have much higher hydrogen contents (60 and 110 micromoles H/g sample). For soil particle diameters less than 105 microns, hydrogen content increases linearly with particle surface area per particle mass. The calculated grain surface average concentrations of hydrogen in the Apollo 15 and 16 soils fall short of experimentally determined saturation values by a factor of 20. The volume-correlated component of hydrogen in a soil increases with the maturity of the soil.

  4. Synthesis of CaTiO3 Nanofibers with Controllable Drug-Release Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Ren, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Calcium titanate (CaTiO3) nanofibers with controlled microstructure were fabricated by a combination of sol–gel and electrospinning approaches. The fiber morphology has been found to rely significantly on the precursor composition. Altering the volume ratio of ethanol to acetic acid from 3.5 to 1.25 enables the morphology of the CaTiO3 nanofibers to be transformed from fibers with a circular cross section to curved ribbon-like structures. Ibuprofen (IBU) was used as a model drug to investigate the drug-loading capacity and drug-release profile of the nanofibers. It was found that the BET surface area and the pore volume decrease markedly with the utilization of F127 surfactant. The nanofibers synthesized without F127 surfactant present the highest drug-loading capacity and the most sustained release kinetics. This study suggests that calcium titanate nanofibers can offer a promising platform for localized drug delivery.

  5. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  6. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to...

  7. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release criteria. (a) The responsible employer must clean beryllium-contaminated equipment and other items to...

  8. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or...

  9. Contamination surveys for release of material

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.; Johnson, M.L.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes, and presents the technical basis for, a methodology for performing instrument surveys to release material from radiological control, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology is based on a fast scan survey, a large-area wipe survey, and a series of statistical, fixed measurements. The methodology meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for release of material in less time than is required by a conventional scan survey. Implementation of the proposed methodology with a confidence interval of 67% will meet the material release requirements. The material evaluation process will allow material that has not been exposed to contamination to be released from radiological control without a survey. For potential radioactive contaminants that are not reserved in DOE Order 5400.5, the methodology will allow material to be released from radiological control. For other radionuclides, with the exception of some difficult-to-detect radionuclides, material may be released for controlled use. Compared with current techniques, the proposed methodology will reduce the amount of time required to perform surveys.

  10. 48 CFR 2905.404 - Release procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... release long-range acquisition estimates under the conditions in FAR 5.404-1. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release procedures. 2905.404 Section 2905.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION...

  11. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  12. In the Stocks: Perilous Press Releases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Linda P.; Loving, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Reviews some of the legal responsibilities of public relations practitioners in the preparation of press releases. Discusses legal criteria for judging the fraudulence of press releases and discusses the timeframe for fraudulent action. Concludes with lessons that practitioners need to understand. (SR)

  13. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PRIOR-SANCTIONED FOOD INGREDIENTS Specific Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.28 Release agents....

  14. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  15. BLOOD TRIGGERED RAPID RELEASE POROUS NANOCAPSULES

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Tiffany P.; Dergunov, Sergey A.; Akers, Walter J.; Cao, Qian; Magalotti, Selena; Achilefu, Samuel; Pinkhassik, Eugene; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-release drug delivery systems present a new paradigm in emergency care treatments. Such systems combine a long shelf life with the ability to provide a significant dose of the drug to the bloodstream in the shortest period of time. Until now, development of delivery formulations has concentrated on slow release systems to ensure a steady concentration of the drug. To address the need for quick release system, we created hollow polyacrylate nanocapsules with nanometer-thin porous walls. Burst release occurs upon interaction with blood components that leads to escape of the cargo. The likely mechanism of release involves a conformational change of the polymer shell caused by binding albumin. To demonstrate this concept, a near-infrared fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was incorporated inside the nanocapsules. ICG-loaded nanocapsules demonstrated remarkable shelf life in aqueous buffers with no release of ICG for twelve months. Rapid release of the dye was demonstrated first in vitro using albumin solution and serum. SEM and light scattering analysis demonstrated the retention of the nanocapsule architecture after the release of the dye upon contact with albumin. In vivo studies using fluorescence lifetime imaging confirmed quick discharge of ICG from the nanocapsules following intravenous injection. PMID:23606942

  16. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  17. Controlled drug release from hydrogel nanoparticle networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Gao, Jun; Hu, Zhibing; St John, John V; Ponder, Bill C; Moro, Dan

    2004-02-10

    Monodisperse nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid (PNIPAM-co-AA) were synthesized. The close-packed PNIPAM-co-allylamine and PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were converted to three-dimensional gel networks by covalently crosslinking neighboring particles at room temperature and neutral pH using glutaric dialdehyde and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. Controlled release studies were conducted using dextran markers of various molecular weights as model macromolecular drugs. Release was quantified under various physical conditions, including a range of temperatures and dextran molecular weights. Dextran, entrapped in cavities in the nanoparticle network, was released with a rate regulated by their molecular weights and cavity size. No release from a conventional bulk PNIPAM gel, with high crosslinking density, was observed. The rate of release from the PNIPAM-co-allylamine network was temperature-dependent, being much faster at room temperature than that at human body temperature. In contrast, release of low molecular weight dextrans from the PNIPAM-co-AA network showed a temperature-independent release profile. These nanoparticle networks have several advantages over conventional bulk gels for controlling the release of high molecular weight biomolecules. PMID:14744482

  18. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  19. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  20. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  1. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  2. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  3. Extended-release methylphenidate (Ritalin LA).

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A; Keating, Gillian M

    2002-01-01

    An extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (Ritalin LA), a CNS stimulant that inhibits dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake into presynaptic neurons, has been developed for use in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In children with ADHD and healthy male adults, extended-release methylphenidate 20mg was rapidly absorbed and demonstrated two distinct peak plasma concentrations approximately 4 hours apart. The absorption pharmacokinetics of extended-release methylphenidate 20mg, which closely mimics those of immediate-release methylphenidate 10mg given in two doses 4 hours apart, permits once-daily administration. In a 2-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 134 evaluable children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, symptoms improved to a significantly greater extent with extended-release methylphenidate 10 to 40mg once daily than with placebo. Extended-release methylphenidate improved both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and was effective in children with combined- (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive) type or predominantly inattentive-type ADHD. In clinical trials, the safety and tolerability profiles of extended-release methylphenidate were consistent with that of the immediate-release formulation.

  4. Automated code compilation via the Release Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golpayegani, N.

    2006-07-01

    GLAST performs automated builds of its C++ code base. These builds reflect a three-tiered approach to code development, allowing us to test and create releases, as well as get a view of new code submissions that will eventually make it into releases. The program responsible for these automated builds is called the Release Manager. It is based on code originally written by Alex Schlessinger. Its main purpose is to provide rapid feedback for developers when code changes occur. It consists of three loosely connected pieces: The batch submission interface, the Workflow manager, and the Release Manager scripts. The batch submission interface is responsible for keeping track of submitted batch jobs and notifying users/programs using various methods when jobs change status. The Release Manager relies heavily on this interface to allow code builds to happen on demand and in parallel. The workflow manager is a generic program responsible for moving from one state to another based on criteria defined. These states are executed using the batch submission program. Finally the Release Manager consists of scripts that are registered as different states in the Workflow Manager. The Release Manager is currently able to run on Linux and Windows. It uses a MySQL database to record its information. It is currently tightly tied to GLAST's build tool, CMT. Other purposes of the Release Manager are to create source packages for developers and binary packages for end users.

  5. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees §...

  6. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure, and the C-4 Code will be printed on the invoice and the manifest document and, when other agency documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... The returned invoice with the release data shall be the release notification to non-ABI...

  7. 19 CFR 142.48 - Release procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure, and the C-4 Code will be printed on the invoice and the manifest document and, when other agency documentation is presented, may be printed on that documentation. The invoice shall be returned to the entry.... The returned invoice with the release data shall be the release notification to non-ABI...

  8. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  9. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  10. 10 CFR 850.31 - Release criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release criteria. 850.31 Section 850.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.31 Release... the equipment or item and its future use and the nature of the beryllium contamination. (c)...

  11. O*NET Final Technical Report. Volume I [and] Volume II [and] Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norman G.; Mumford, Michael D.; Borman, Walter C.; Jeanneret, P. Richard; Fleishman, Edwin A.; Levin, Kerry Y.

    This document contains the three volumes of the technical report for development of the prototype of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), which is intended to replace the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles.""General Introduction" (Norman G. Peterson) presents an overview of O*NET's purpose, content, and structure. "Research Method:…

  12. Shock compression and adiabatic release of lunar fines from Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Cole, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted with the objective to obtain quantitative bounds, in terms of shock pressure and hence meteoroid impact velocity, concerning the conditions required to compact and lithify lunar fines. The measured pressure-particle velocity release states provide a basis for the determination of the approximate values of shock pressure associated with various postshock volumes and temperatures concomitant with solid-state vitrification and thermal melting. The implications of the obtained results for the study of regolith evolution are discussed.

  13. Nanoparticles of lanthanide oxysulfate/oxysulfide for improved oxygen storage/release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuyuan; Arends, Isabel W C E; Djanashvili, Kristina

    2016-09-28

    Lanthanide oxysulfates have the ability to store and release large volumes of oxygen under oxidizing/reducing conditions, rendering them interesting as automotive catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a remarkable improvement of both processes by utilization of nanoparticles compared to the bulk materials. A further improvement of the catalytic activity was achieved by cost-effective doping with 1.9 wt% of Ni. PMID:27515224

  14. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NO’s pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  15. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    PubMed Central

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  16. Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, Z.C.

    1995-05-01

    Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

  17. Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.

    2006-12-15

    Micrometer-sized particles adhered to a surface can be released when exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes almost exponentially in time, which is consistent with a random process. As proposed here, charges of particles adhered to the surface fluctuate. These charges experience a fluctuating electric force that occasionally overcomes the adhesive van der Waals force, causing particle release. The release rate increases with plasma density, so that plasma cleaning is feasible at high plasma densities. Applications of this cleaning include controlling particulate contamination in semiconductor manufacturing, dust mitigation in the exploration of the moon and Mars, and dusty plasmas.

  18. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 deg ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  19. Quantification of Energy Release in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2003-01-01

    Energy release rate is usually suggested as a quantifier for assessing structural damage tolerance. Computational prediction of energy release rate is based on composite mechanics with micro-stress level damage assessment, finite element structural analysis and damage progression tracking modules. This report examines several issues associated with energy release rates in composite structures as follows: Chapter I demonstrates computational simulation of an adhesively bonded composite joint and validates the computed energy release rates by comparison with acoustic emission signals in the overall sense. Chapter II investigates the effect of crack plane orientation with respect to fiber direction on the energy release rates. Chapter III quantifies the effects of contiguous constraint plies on the residual stiffness of a 90 ply subjected to transverse tensile fractures. Chapter IV compares ICAN and ICAN/JAVA solutions of composites. Chapter V examines the effects of composite structural geometry and boundary conditions on damage progression characteristics.

  20. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  1. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  2. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  3. Locking and releasing system in space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijian; Dong, Jihong; Li, Wei; Zhao, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    Space telescope locking and releasing system is one of the most important part in aerospace. It can provide the part in the spacecraft from being under attack. In this letter, the developing status and primary characteristics of several locking and releasing system in recent years were summarized. The main locking and releasing system can be part with pyrotechnic device and un-pyrotechnic device. The paper introduces the system and the way that the device released by compared the pyrotechnic and the un-pyrotechnic device. In the way of comparing the different device, the letter made the point that each of these device had its advantages that should been developed, and the disadvantages that should been improved. These analyses will provide references for the design of the locking and releasing system in the future of telescope research.

  4. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes.

    PubMed

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjaer Unmack; Chernyy, Sergey; Andresen, Thomas L; Larsen, Niels B

    2016-01-21

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patient-specific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduced as a flexible and cost-efficient method for producing multiplexed dosing assays. The high spatial resolution of light projector technology defines multiple compound doses by the volume of individual compound-embedded hydrogel segments. Quantitative dosing of multiple proteins with a dynamic range of 1-2 orders of magnitude is demonstrated using fluorescently labeled albumins. The hydrogel matrix results from photopolymerization of low-cost poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGDA), and tuning of the PEGDA composition enables fast complete dosing of all tested species. Dosing of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds is demonstrated using two first-line chemotherapy regimens combining oxaliplatin, SN-38, 5-fluorouracil, and folinic acid, with each compound being dosed from a separate light-defined hydrogel segment. Cytotoxicity studies using a colorectal cancer cell line show equivalent effects of dissolved and released compounds. Further control of the dosing process is demonstrated by liposomal encapsulation of oxaliplatin, stable embedding of the liposomes in hydrogels for more than 3 months, and heat-triggered complete release of the loaded oxaliplatin. PMID:26619161

  5. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina

    2010-08-17

    Each year, the University of California (UC), as the managing and operating contractor of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepares an integrated report regarding its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2009 summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2009. Throughout this report, 'Berkeley Lab' or 'LBNL' refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its environmental management system (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The Site Environmental Report is distributed by releasing it on the World Wide Web (Web) from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. Links to documents available on the Web are given with the citations in the References section. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows Berkeley Lab's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily controlled-release oxybutynin and immediate-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Reiz, Joseph L; Salem, Paulette; Darke, Andrew C

    2007-03-01

    Oxybutynin is used to treat patients with urinary urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence. In this 2-way, multiple-dose, crossover study, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once-daily controlled-release oxybutynin were compared with immediate-release oxybutynin. Eighteen healthy male volunteers received one 15-mg controlled-release oxybutynin tablet once daily for 5 days or one 5-mg immediate-release oxybutynin tablet every 8 hours for 5 days. The washout period between treatments was > or =7 days. The mean steady-state AUC for oxybutynin following controlled-release oxybutynin treatment was higher (73.0 ng.h/mL) than following immediate-release oxybutynin treatment (53.6 ng.h/mL) (P = .0001). The mean C(max) was lower for controlled-release oxybutynin (5.7 ng/mL) than for immediate-release oxybutynin (7.5 ng/mL) (P = .0051), with a smaller fluctuation in oxybutynin plasma concentration for controlled-release oxybutynin (135.6%) than for immediate-release oxybutynin (319.3%) (P = .0001). Mean stimulated saliva output was greater for controlled-release oxybutynin, and mean dry mouth severity was less than immediate-release oxybutynin.

  8. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  9. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  10. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airport at the time the airplane would arrive at the alternate airport. However, the flight release may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  11. A Rapid Test for Prediction of Nutrient Release from Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient release from soluble granular fertilizers can be modified by polymer coating. The coating technology can be fine-tuned to change the duration (3 to 9 months) and rate of nutrient release, hence these products are termed as controlled release fertilizers (CRF). There is a need to develop a r...

  12. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  13. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10, two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol...

  14. Mercury release of amalgams with various silver contents after exposure to bleaching agent

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Mahmoud; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Pouralibaba, Firoz; Morsali Ahari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Since it is possible for carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agent to contact old amalgam restorations, the present in vitro study evaluated the amount of dissolved mercury released from amalgam restorations with various percent-ages of silver content subsequent to the use of 15% CP. Methods. Thirty ANA 2000 amalgam disks with 43.1% silver content and thirty ANA 70 amalgam disks with 69.3% silver content were prepared. In each group, 15 samples were randomly placed in glass tubes containing 15% CP (as experimental groups) and the remaining 15 samples were placed in buffered phosphate solution (as control groups) with the same 3-mL volume for 48 hours. Subsequently, the amount of mercury dissolved in each test tube was measured using Mercury Analyzing System (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption, MASLO, Shimadzu, Japan). Data was analyzed with two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. (α = 0.05). Results. The amount of mercury released after exposure to CP was significantly higher than that released after exposure to buffered phosphate (P < 0.001). In addition, the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam with a silver content of 43% was significantly higher than that released from dental amalgam with a silver content of 69% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The amount of mercury release is inversely proportional to the silver content of dental amalgam. PMID:27429729

  15. Mercury release of amalgams with various silver contents after exposure to bleaching agent.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Mahmoud; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Pouralibaba, Firoz; Morsali Ahari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Since it is possible for carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agent to contact old amalgam restorations, the present in vitro study evaluated the amount of dissolved mercury released from amalgam restorations with various percent-ages of silver content subsequent to the use of 15% CP. Methods. Thirty ANA 2000 amalgam disks with 43.1% silver content and thirty ANA 70 amalgam disks with 69.3% silver content were prepared. In each group, 15 samples were randomly placed in glass tubes containing 15% CP (as experimental groups) and the remaining 15 samples were placed in buffered phosphate solution (as control groups) with the same 3-mL volume for 48 hours. Subsequently, the amount of mercury dissolved in each test tube was measured using Mercury Analyzing System (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption, MASLO, Shimadzu, Japan). Data was analyzed with two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. (α = 0.05). Results. The amount of mercury released after exposure to CP was significantly higher than that released after exposure to buffered phosphate (P < 0.001). In addition, the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam with a silver content of 43% was significantly higher than that released from dental amalgam with a silver content of 69% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The amount of mercury release is inversely proportional to the silver content of dental amalgam. PMID:27429729

  16. Dynamics of Crust Dissolution and Gas Release in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, Scot D.; Stewart, Charles W.; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.; Antoniak, Zenen I.; Cuta, Judith M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Terrones, Guillermo; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.

    2000-01-24

    Due primarily to an increase in floating crust thickness, the waste level in Tank 241-SY-101 has grown appreciably and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a potential hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from the nonconvective layer at the bottom of the tank, SY-101 will be diluted to dissolve a large fraction of the solids that allow the waste to retain gas. The plan is to transfer some waste out and back-dilute with water in several steps. In this work, mechanisms and rates of waste solids dissolution and gas releases are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Particular emphasis is given to crust dissolution processes and associated gas releases, although dissolution and gas release from the mixed-slurry and nonconvective layers are also considered. The release of hydrogen gas to the tank domespace is modeled for a number of scenarios. Under the tank conditions expected at the time of back-dilution, no plausible continuous or sudden gas release scenarios resulting in flammable hydrogen concentrations were identified.

  17. Mathematical Model-Based Accelerated Development of Extended-release Metformin Hydrochloride Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Desai, D; Good, D; Crison, J; Timmins, P; Paruchuri, S; Wang, J; Ha, K

    2016-08-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to predict metformin release from a hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrix-based extended-release formulation that took into consideration the physical and chemical properties of the drug substance, composition, as well as size and shape of the tablet. New high dose strength (1000 mg) tablet geometry was selected based on the surface area/volume (SA/V) approach advocated by Lapidus/Lordi/Reynold to obtain the desired equivalent metformin release kinetics. Maintaining a similar SA/V ratio across all extended-release metformin hydrochloride (Met XR) tablet strengths that had different geometries provided similar simulations of dissolution behavior. Experimental dissolution profiles of three lots of high-strength tablets agreed with the simulated release kinetics. Additionally, a pharmacokinetic absorption model was developed using GastroPlus™ software and known physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and in vitro dissolution properties of metformin to predict the clinical exposure of the new high strength (1000 mg) tablet prior to conducting a human clinical bioequivalence study. In vitro metformin release kinetics were utilized in the absorption model to predict exposures in humans for new 1000-mg Met XR tablets, and the absorption model correctly projected equivalent in vivo exposure across all dose strengths. A clinical bioequivalence study was pursued based on the combined modeling results and demonstrated equivalent exposure as predicted by the simulations. PMID:26729531

  18. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

  19. Blood volume determination in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Riches, A. C.; Sharp, J. G.; Thomas, D. Brynmor; Smith, S. Vaughan

    1973-01-01

    1. The blood volume of the mouse has been measured using 59Fe-labelled red cells to determine the red cell volume and 131I-labelled human serum albumin to determine the plasma volume. 2. Values for the blood volume of 95·0 ± 1·5, 96·3 ± 2·7 and 84·7 ± 1·2 ml./kg body wt. were found for CSI female, CBA female and CBA male mice respectively. 3. A marked discrepancy was observed between the venous (cardiac) haematocrit and the whole body haematocrit. 4. The blood volume of the mouse must be determined from the red cell volume and the plasma volume, measured using appropriate labels, and not from the red cell volume or the plasma volume using the venous haematocrit. PMID:4687099

  20. Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Park, Young-Seuk

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers database in Korea from 1999 to 2010. From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries. The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map. Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes. The different patterns of the effluent volumes in heavy metals were closely associated with the differences of industrial types, and the changes of effluents of heavy metals reflected the changes in regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystem management. PMID:24577281

  1. Silver Dissolution and Release from Ceramic Water Filters.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Lantagne, Daniele S; Rayner, Justine; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-07-21

    Application of silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) has been shown to improve the microbiological efficacy of ceramic water filters used for household water treatment. Silver release, however, can lead to undesirable health effects and reduced filter effectiveness over time. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of nanoparticle detachment, dissolution, and cation exchange to silver elution, and to estimate silver retention under different influent water chemistries. Dissolved silver (Ag(+)) and nAg release from filter disks painted with 0.03 mg/g casein-coated nAg or AgNO3 were measured as a function of pH (5-9), ionic strength (1-50 mM), and cation species (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). Silver elution was controlled by dissolution as Ag(+) and subsequent cation exchange reactions regardless of the applied silver form. Effluent silver levels fell below the drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) after flushing with 30-42 pore volumes of pH 7, 10 mM NaNO3 at pH 7. When the influent water was at pH 5, contained divalent cations or 50 mM NaNO3, silver concentrations were 5-10 times above the standard. Our findings support regular filter replacement and indicate that saline, hard, or acidic waters should be avoided to minimize effluent silver concentrations and preserve silver treatment integrity. PMID:26068303

  2. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  3. Silver Dissolution and Release from Ceramic Water Filters.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Lantagne, Daniele S; Rayner, Justine; Pennell, Kurt D

    2015-07-21

    Application of silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3) has been shown to improve the microbiological efficacy of ceramic water filters used for household water treatment. Silver release, however, can lead to undesirable health effects and reduced filter effectiveness over time. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of nanoparticle detachment, dissolution, and cation exchange to silver elution, and to estimate silver retention under different influent water chemistries. Dissolved silver (Ag(+)) and nAg release from filter disks painted with 0.03 mg/g casein-coated nAg or AgNO3 were measured as a function of pH (5-9), ionic strength (1-50 mM), and cation species (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). Silver elution was controlled by dissolution as Ag(+) and subsequent cation exchange reactions regardless of the applied silver form. Effluent silver levels fell below the drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) after flushing with 30-42 pore volumes of pH 7, 10 mM NaNO3 at pH 7. When the influent water was at pH 5, contained divalent cations or 50 mM NaNO3, silver concentrations were 5-10 times above the standard. Our findings support regular filter replacement and indicate that saline, hard, or acidic waters should be avoided to minimize effluent silver concentrations and preserve silver treatment integrity.

  4. Post-Detonation Energy Release from TNT-Aluminum Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Anderson, John; Yoshinaka, Akio

    2007-06-01

    Detonation and post-detonation energy release from TNT and TNT-aluminum composite have been experimentally studied in an air-filled chamber, 26 m^3 in volume and 3 m in diameter. While TNT has a high oxygen deficiency, experiments with 1.1 kg to 4 kg charges yield energy releases reaching only 86% of theoretical equilibrium values, possibly due to the non-uniform mixing between the detonation products and air. In order to improve mixing and further increase afterburning energy, large mass fractions of large aluminum particles are combined with TNT. The effect of particle distribution is also investigated in two composite configurations, whereby the aluminum particles are uniformly mixed in cast TNT or arranged in a shell surrounding a TNT cylinder. It is shown that the TNT-aluminum composite outperforms pure TNT, while improved performance is achieved for the shell configuration due to enhanced spatial mixing of hot fuels with oxidizing gases. Comparisons with the equilibrium theory and a liquid-based aluminized composite explosive (with an oxygen deficiency less than that of TNT) are conducted to further explore the mixing and afterburning mechanism.

  5. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    PubMed

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum.

  6. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapleyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), + 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 sec (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  7. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a Photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones - 18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos (delta) sec (R.A.), + 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 SCC (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  8. Appropriate technology sourcebook. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.; Keller, K.; Pam, R

    1981-01-01

    The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.

  9. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -18 through -37 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.) +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees. The probable error of a photographic magnitude as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude is given as +/- 0.055 mag. From an analysis of the taint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2 but it is stated that it will be found practically complete in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  10. Astronautic Structures Manual, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This document (Volumes I, II, and III) presents a compilation of industry-wide methods in aerospace strength analysis that can be carried out by hand, that are general enough in scope to cover most structures encountered, and that are sophisticated enough to give accurate estimates of the actual strength expected. It provides analysis techniques for the elastic and inelastic stress ranges. It serves not only as a catalog of methods not usually available, but also as a reference source for the background of the methods themselves. An overview of the manual is as follows: Section A is a general introduction of methods used and includes sections on loads, combined stresses, and interaction curves; Section B is devoted to methods of strength analysis; Section C is devoted to the topic of structural stability; Section D is on thermal stresses; Section E is on fatigue and fracture mechanics; Section F is on composites; Section G is on rotating machinery; and Section H is on statistics. These three volumes supersede Volumes I and II, NASA TM X-60041 and NASA TM X-60042, respectively.

  11. Systems Description; Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System - Phase I and Phase II; Final Report, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01

    This Volume should be considered the introductory volume to the series of six volumes even though numbered out of sequence. Volumes I and II were completed first and released in 1981 while a staff member was available to do the work. Volumes III through VI are being written and released some two years later as DOE funding became available for the purpose. They are as complete as possible considering that almost all the people involved in the program are now unavailable. This Volume III is an overview of the entire program, and many of the items presented herein briefly will be found in expanded form in one of the other five volumes. It will be noticed that assumptions and parameters such as well flow, well temperature, wet bulb temperatures, etc., involved in the several different performance calculations in the volume vary somewhat. These calculations were made at different times for different purposes and no attempt has been made to bring them into exact agreement.

  12. Role of volume in the regulation of vasopressin secretion during pregnancy in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Barron, W M; Stamoutsos, B A; Lindheimer, M D

    1984-01-01

    We previously observed that osmoregulation and the osmotic threshold for antidiuretic hormone secretion were altered during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats and the present study evaluated the influence of volume on arginine vasopressin (AVP) release during gestation in this species. Basal plasma osmolality (Posm) and intravascular volume were 297 +/- 3 mosmol/kg and 16.2 +/- 1.2 ml in virgin animals compared with 290 +/- 2 mosmol/kg and 20.2 +/- 2.3 ml in 14-d pregnant rats and 287 +/- 3 mosmol/kg and 25.2 +/- 2.3 ml in 21-d (near-term) pregnant rats (P less than 0.001, each pregnant group vs. virgin). Isosmotic volume depletion was produced by intraperitoneal polyethylene glycol. Volume decreased from 1 to 26% and blood pressure remained stable during decrements as high as 16%. Plasma AVP (PAVP) did not rise significantly in either group of pregnant animals or virgin controls until blood volume depletion reached 6-7%, after which levels rose in a similar exponential manner in virgin, 14-d, and 21-d pregnant animals. In terms of absolute changes, however, PAVP in gravid rats started to increase when intravascular volume was still considerably greater than basal blood volume in the nonpregnant controls. Other experiments, where Posm was increased by intraperitoneal hypertonic saline, reconfirmed that the osmotic threshold for AVP secretion was reduced congruent to 10 mosmol/kg during pregnancy and that AVP release was stimulated by increments in body tonicity as small as 1-2%. In parallel studies, blood volume contraction and increases in Posm were evoked by intraperitoneal polyethylene glycol dissolved in hypertonic saline and results compared with animals receiving intraperitoneal saline alone. Decrements in volume (congruent to 7%), which alone would increase PAVP minimally, increased the sensitivity of the secretory response to changes in osmolality two- to three-fold, an effect which was similar in virgin and gravid animals. Finally, restricting water intake

  13. Fabrication of autofluorescent porous silica nanoparticles for redox-responsive drug release.

    PubMed

    Cao, Na; Zhao, Yanbao; Sang, Bin; Wang, Zhihua; Cao, Liuqin; Sun, Lei; Zou, Xueyan

    2016-12-01

    Porous silica nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion-condensation route. The silica nanoparticles with diameter of 50nm have both accessible center-radial large pore channels (19.9nm) and small pore size of 3.5nm. The hierarchical porous structure endows them large pore volume for loading drugs and sustained release property. The silica nanoparticles were further modified with glucose-oxidized glutathione. The formulated Schiff base and disulfide bonds render the silica nanoparticles auto-fluorescent and redox-responsive properties. The cleavage of disulfide bonds caused by reactive thiols facilitates aminomethylbenzoic acid (AMA) release. The release of drug leads to the loss of fluorescence, which would be used to monitor the drug delivery and carrier distribution. PMID:27612720

  14. Strong Nanocomposites with Ca, PO4, and F Release for Caries Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H.H.K.; Weir, M.D.; Sun, L.; Moreau, J.L.; Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Antonucci, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies on: (1) the synthesis of novel calcium phosphate and calcium fluoride nanoparticles and their incorporation into dental resins to develop nanocomposites; (2) the effects of key microstructural parameters on Ca, PO4, and F ion release from nanocomposites, including the effects of nanofiller volume fraction, particle size, and silanization; and (3) mechanical properties of nanocomposites, including water-aging effects, flexural strength, fracture toughness, and three-body wear. This article demonstrates that a major advantage of using the new nanoparticles is that high levels of Ca, PO4, and F release can be achieved at low filler levels in the resin, because of the high surface areas of the nanoparticles. This leaves room in the resin for substantial reinforcement fillers. The combination of releasing nanofillers with stable and strong reinforcing fillers is promising to yield a nanocomposite with both stress-bearing and caries-inhibiting capabilities, a combination not yet available in current materials. PMID:19948941

  15. Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Robles Martinez, Pamela; Buanz, Asma; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of combining hot melt extrusion (HME) with 3D printing (3DP) technology, with a view to producing different shaped tablets which would be otherwise difficult to produce using traditional methods. A filament extruder was used to obtain approx. 4% paracetamol loaded filaments of polyvinyl alcohol with characteristics suitable for use in fused-deposition modelling 3DP. Five different tablet geometries were successfully 3D-printed-cube, pyramid, cylinder, sphere and torus. The printing process did not affect the stability of the drug. Drug release from the tablets was not dependent on the surface area but instead on surface area to volume ratio, indicating the influence that geometrical shape has on drug release. An erosion-mediated process controlled drug release. This work has demonstrated the potential of 3DP to manufacture tablet shapes of different geometries, many of which would be challenging to manufacture by powder compaction. PMID:25934428

  16. [Cyto B dependent and ouabain insensitive regulatory volume decrease in bicellular mouse embryo].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, M A; Golichenkov, V A; Tarasov, A V; Pogorelova, V N; Panait, A I; Pogorelov, A G

    2012-01-01

    Mouse single-cell embryos exhibit robust Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). In what manner the very early mammalian embryo following zygote stage is appreciably altered by the anisotonic extracellular solution is, as yet, totally unclear. Little attention was paid to this direction since there was no way to determine the blastomere volume. This work has served to quantitatively investigate the osmotic response of bicellular mouse embryos employing Laser Scanning Microtomography (LSM) followed with three-dimensional reconstruction (3 DR). We have shown that bicellular mouse embryos in hypotonic Dulbecco's experience RVD. Embryonic cells subjected to hyposmolar exhibit rapid osmotic swelling followed by gradual shrinking back toward their original volume. The van't Hoff law defines swelling phase with the effective hydraulic conductivity of 0.3 micron x min(-1) x atm(-1). Water release during RVD in bicellular mouse embryos is abolished by Cytochalasin B (Cyto B) and the volume recovery is insensitive to ouabain treatment. PMID:22650075

  17. Patterned dual pH-responsive core-shell hydrogels with controllable swelling kinetics and volumes.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Kyle N; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2004-08-01

    Dual pH-responsive core-shell hydrogels containing both a vinyl pyridine component and a 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate component were prepared using an in situ photopolymerization process. Complementary photomasks were utilized to prepare hydrogels with core/shell volume ratios of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2. Depending on the location of each polymer component, dramatically different swelling profiles were achieved. Selective swelling of the shell followed by the core components allowed the hydrogel to expand with the usual kinetics; however, by switching the location of each polymer component and swelling the core first, swelling rates decreased by over 1 order of magnitude and were dependent on the shell component's volume. The ability to pattern core/shell volumes also provided the ability to fabricate hydrogels that possess a constant maximum diameter but different cutoff points between its first and its second transition volumes. These materials may be of interest for controlled release applications. PMID:15274549

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 2, Exhibits

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The overall objective of the study in this report was to gather data on waste management technologies to allow comparison of various alternatives for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objectives of the study were to: 1. Compile detailed data for existing waste management technologies on costs, environmental releases, energy requirements and production, and coproducts such as recycled materials and compost. Identify missing information necessary to make energy, economic, and environmental comparisons of various MSW management technologies, and define needed research that could enhance the usefulness of the technology. 3. Develop a data base that can be used to identify the technology that best meets specific criteria defined by a user of the data base. Volume I contains the report text. Volume II contains supporting exhibits. Volumes III through X are appendices, each addressing a specific MSW management technology. Volumes XI and XII contain project bibliographies.

  19. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions.

    PubMed

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, Allan; Thomsen, Carsten E; Jensen, Siri B; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Bakke, Merete; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-09-15

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup comprised three separate series of a 4-min chewing period. These series differed only with respect to CF, i.e., habitual frequency, and 60 and 88 strokes/min. Results showed that more than 50% of the released menthol and menthone could be retrieved in the expired air and saliva. After 2-min of chewing, the concentration of flavour compounds in the expired air depended primarily on MMA and CF, becoming higher with increased MMA and CF. The concentration of flavour compounds in saliva depended primarily on SFR and the duration of the chewing task, becoming lower with high SFR and prolonged chewing duration. An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth. PMID:15276819

  20. Degassing, gas retention and release in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Aki S; Jekel, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion of Fe(0) has been successfully utilized for the reductive treatment of multiple contaminants. Under anaerobic conditions, concurrent corrosion leads to the generation of hydrogen and its liberation as a gas. Gas bubbles are mobile or trapped within the irregular pore structure leading to a reduction of the water filled pore volume and thus decreased residence time and permeability (gas clogging). With regard to the contaminant transport to the reactive site, the estimation of surface properties of the reactive material indicated that individual gas bubbles only occupied minor contact areas of the reactive surface. Quantification of gas entrapment by both gravimetrical and tracer investigations revealed that development of preferential flow paths was not significant. A novel continuous gravimetrical method was implemented to record variations in gas entrapment and gas bubble releases from the reactive filling. Variation of grain size fractions revealed that the pore geometry had a significant impact on gas release. Large pores led to the release of comparably large gas amounts while smaller volumes were released from finer pores with a higher frequency. Relevant processes are explained with a simplified pictorial sequence that incorporates relevant mechanisms.