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Sample records for jrvik tiit raid

  1. RAID 7 disk array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Lloyd

    1993-01-01

    Each RAID level reflects a different design architecture. Associated with each is a backdrop of imposed limitations, as well as possibilities which may be exploited within the architectural constraints of that level. There are three unique features that differentiate RAID 7 from all other levels. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to usage of I/O data paths. Each I/O drive (includes all data and one parity drives) as well as each host interface (there may be multiple host interfaces) has independent control and data paths. This means that each can be accessed completely, independently, of the other. This is facilitated by a separate device cache for each device/interface as well. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to device hierarchy and data bus utilization. Each drive and each interface is connected to a high speed data bus controlled by the embedded operating system to make independent transfers to and from central cache. RAID 7 is asynchronous with respect to the operation of an embedded real time process oriented operating system. This means that exclusive and independent of the host, or multiple host paths, the embedded OS manages all I/O transfers asynchronously across the data and parity drives. A key factor to consider is that of the RAID 7's ability to anticipate and match host I/O usage patterns. This yields the following benefits over RAID's built around micro-code based architectures. RAID 7 appears to the host as a normally connected Big Fast Disk (BFD). RAID 7 appears, from the perspective of the individual disk devices, to minimize the total number of accesses and optimize read/write transfer requests. RAID 7 smoothly integrates the random demands of independent users with the principles of spatial and temporal locality. This optimizes small, large, and time sequenced I/O requests which results in users having an I/O performance which approaches performance to that of main memory.

  2. RAID Disk Arrays for High Bandwidth Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moren, Bill

    1996-01-01

    High bandwidth applications require large amounts of data transferred to/from storage devices at extremely high data rates. Further, these applications often are 'real time' in which access to the storage device must take place on the schedule of the data source, not the storage. A good example is a satellite downlink - the volume of data is quite large and the data rates quite high (dozens of MB/sec). Further, a telemetry downlink must take place while the satellite is overhead. A storage technology which is ideally suited to these types of applications is redundant arrays of independent discs (RAID). Raid storage technology, while offering differing methodologies for a variety of applications, supports the performance and redundancy required in real-time applications. Of the various RAID levels, RAID-3 is the only one which provides high data transfer rates under all operating conditions, including after a drive failure.

  3. RAID/C90 Technology Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciotti, Bob; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In March 1993, NAS was the first to connect a Maximum Strategy RAID disk to the C90 using standard Cray provided software. This paper discusses the problems encountered, lessons learned, and performance achieved.

  4. Improvement in HPC performance through HIPPI RAID storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Blake

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, RAID (redundant array of inexpensive (or independent) disks) technology was introduced as a viable solution to the I/O bottleneck. A number of different RAID levels were defined in 1987 by the Computer Science Division (EECS) University of California, Berkeley, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. With multiple RAID options available, taking advantage of RAID technology required matching particular RAID levels with specific applications. It was not possible to use one RAID device to address all applications. Maximum Strategy's Gen 4 Storage Server addresses this issue with a new capability called programmable RAID level partitioning. This capability enables users to have multiple RAID levels coexist on the same disks, thereby providing the versatility necessary for multiple concurrent applications.

  5. RAID-S Technical Overview: Raid 4 and 5-Compliant Hardware and Software Functionality Improves Data Availability Through Use of XOR-Capable Disks in an Integrated Cached Disk Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Brett

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical description of redundant array of independent disks - Symmetrix (RAID-S). It is intended to give the reader an understanding of how RAID-S is architected and implemented in the EMC Symmetrix 3000/5000 series integrated cached disk array. Topics include RAID-S taxonomy, configuration considerations, operational characteristics, performance, and implementation guidelines.

  6. Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: insights into human warfare?

    PubMed

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathryn; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on the first cases ever witnessed of raiding parties of male spider monkeys, a species expected to show such a behavioral tendency, given its similarity with humans and chimpanzees in critical socio-ecological characteristics, such as fission-fusion social dynamics and male-male bonding. Despite the high degree of arboreality of spider monkeys, all seven witnessed raids involved the males progressing single file on the ground in unusual silence. This is remarkably similar to the behavior of chimpanzees. The circumstances around the raids suggest that factors such as reduced mating opportunities, number of males relative to that in the neighboring community, and the strength of bonds among males could play a role in the timing of such actions. The raids did not appear to be aimed at finding food, whereas there is some indication that they may directly or indirectly increase reproductive opportunities. Although no killing was observed, we cannot exclude the possibility that spider monkey raids may be aimed at harming rivals if a vulnerable individual were encountered. The similarity of spider monkey raids with those of chimpanzees and humans supports the notion that lethal raiding is a convergent response to similar socio-ecological conditions.

  7. The Future of Raiding: Lessons in Raiding Tactics from the Indian Wars and Law Enforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    equestrian skills to emerge as superior nomadic warrior societies that preyed on the sedentary farming and ranching people of the surrounding areas through...hunting lifestyle following the enormous buffalo herds. Indians met their needs through the complete utilization of the killed animals. Meat, hides...that they could live a more fulfilled lifestyle by raiding and stealing the immense horse-wealth and other possessions belonging to their neighbors to

  8. Terabyte IDE RAID-5 Disk Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Sanders et al.

    2003-09-30

    High energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. We report on tests of redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) prices now are less than the cost per terabyte of million-dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  9. Is the bang worth the buck? A RAID performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Berman, Lewis E.; Thoma, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Expecting a high data delivery rate as well as data protection, the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications procured a RAID system to house image files for image delivery applications. A study was undertaken to determine the configuration of the RAID system that would provide for the fastest retrieval of image files. Average retrieval times with single and with concurrent users were measured for several stripe widths and several numbers of disks for RAID levels 0, 0+1 and 5. These are compared to each other and to average retrieval times for non-RAID configurations of the same hardware. Although the study in ongoing, a few conclusions have emerged regarding the tradeoffs among the different configurations with respect to file retrieval speed and cost.

  10. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Graham E.; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species. PMID:23056378

  11. Performance measurements of the first RAID prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, Ann L.

    1990-01-01

    The performance is examined of Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) the First, a prototype disk array. A hierarchy of bottlenecks was discovered in the system that limit overall performance. The most serious is the memory system contention on the Sun 4/280 host CPU, which limits array bandwidth to 2.3 MBytes/sec. The array performs more successfully on small random operations, achieving nearly 300 I/Os per second before the Sun 4/280 becomes CPU limited. Other bottlenecks in the system are the VME backplane, bandwidth on the disk controller, and overheads associated with the SCSI protocol. All are examined in detail. The main conclusion is that to achieve the potential bandwidth of arrays, more powerful CPU's alone will not suffice. Just as important are adequate host memory bandwidth and support for high bandwidth on disk controllers. Current disk controllers are more often designed to achieve large numbers of small random operations, rather than high bandwidth. Operating systems also need to change to support high bandwidth from disk arrays. In particular, they should transfer data in larger blocks, and should support asynchronous I/O to improve sequential write performance.

  12. Multi-terabyte EIDE disk arrays running Linux RAID5

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.A.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Joy, M.D.; Summers, D.J.; Petravick, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    High-energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. Grid Computing is one method; however, the data must be cached at the various Grid nodes. We examine some storage techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. Disk arrays using RAID level 5 (RAID-5) include both parity and striping. The striping improves access speed. The parity protects data in the event of a single disk failure, but not in the case of multiple disk failures. We report on tests of dual-processor Linux Software RAID-5 arrays and Hardware RAID-5 arrays using a 12-disk 3ware controller, in conjunction with 250 and 300 GB disks, for use in offline high-energy physics data analysis. The price of IDE disks is now less than $1/GB. These RAID-5 disk arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to small institutions and used when fast random access at low cost is important.

  13. Engineering the object-relation database model in O-Raid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewan, Prasun; Vikram, Ashish; Bhargava, Bharat

    1989-01-01

    Raid is a distributed database system based on the relational model. O-raid is an extension of the Raid system and will support complex data objects. The design of O-Raid is evolutionary and retains all features of relational data base systems and those of a general purpose object-oriented programming language. O-Raid has several novel properties. Objects, classes, and inheritance are supported together with a predicate-base relational query language. O-Raid objects are compatible with C++ objects and may be read and manipulated by a C++ program without any 'impedance mismatch'. Relations and columns within relations may themselves be treated as objects with associated variables and methods. Relations may contain heterogeneous objects, that is, objects of more than one class in a certain column, which can individually evolve by being reclassified. Special facilities are provided to reduce the data search in a relation containing complex objects.

  14. Hurry All to Sea: Union Naval, Strategy to Counter Confederate Commerce Raiding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    HURRY ALL TO SEA: UNION NAVAL STRATEGY TO COUNTER CONFEDERATE COMMERCE RAIDING AD-A268 096 by 11111111 Jil "Joseph Murray RuppertII ommander, SC, U.S...Classification] Hurry All to Sea: Union Naval Strategy to Counter Confederate Commerce Raiding 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Joseph It. Ruppert, CDR, SC, USN 13a...COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Confederate Commerce Raiding

  15. ZFS on RBODs - Leveraging RAID Controllers for Metrics and Enclosure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stearman, D. M.

    2015-03-30

    Traditionally, the Lustre file system has relied on the ldiskfs file system with reliable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage underneath. As of Lustre 2.4, ZFS was added as a backend file system, with built-in software RAID, thereby removing the need of expensive RAID controllers. ZFS was designed to work with JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks) storage enclosures under the Solaris Operating System, which provided a rich device management system. Long time users of the Lustre file system have relied on the RAID controllers to provide metrics and enclosure monitoring and management services, with rich APIs and command line interfaces. This paper will study a hybrid approach using an advanced full featured RAID enclosure which is presented to the host as a JBOD, This RBOD (RAIDed Bunch Of Disks) allows ZFS to do the RAID protection and error correction, while the RAID controller handles management of the disks and monitors the enclosure. It was hoped that the value of the RAID controller features would offset the additional cost, and that performance would not suffer in this mode. The test results revealed that the hybrid RBOD approach did suffer reduced performance.

  16. Formation of raiding parties for intergroup violence is mediated by social network structure

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; Isakov, Alexander; Wrangham, Richard W.; McDermott, Rose; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup violence is common among humans worldwide. To assess how within-group social dynamics contribute to risky, between-group conflict, we conducted a 3-y longitudinal study of the formation of raiding parties among the Nyangatom, a group of East African nomadic pastoralists currently engaged in small-scale warfare. We also mapped the social network structure of potential male raiders. Here, we show that the initiation of raids depends on the presence of specific leaders who tend to participate in many raids, to have more friends, and to occupy more central positions in the network. However, despite the different structural position of raid leaders, raid participants are recruited from the whole population, not just from the direct friends of leaders. An individual’s decision to participate in a raid is strongly associated with the individual’s social network position in relation to other participants. Moreover, nonleaders have a larger total impact on raid participation than leaders, despite leaders’ greater connectivity. Thus, we find that leaders matter more for raid initiation than participant mobilization. Social networks may play a role in supporting risky collective action, amplify the emergence of raiding parties, and hence facilitate intergroup violence in small-scale societies. PMID:27790996

  17. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government . IRB Protocol number...B. GOVERNMENT -BACKED CROSS-BORDER RAIDS AND SECURITY... GOVERNMENT -BACKED CROSS BORDER RAIDS AND SECURITY

  18. RAID Unbound: Storage Fault Tolerance in a Distributed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Brian

    1996-01-01

    Mirroring, data replication, backup, and more recently, redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID) are all technologies used to protect and ensure access to critical company data. A new set of problems has arisen as data becomes more and more geographically distributed. Each of the technologies listed above provides important benefits; but each has failed to adapt fully to the realities of distributed computing. The key to data high availability and protection is to take the technologies' strengths and 'virtualize' them across a distributed network. RAID and mirroring offer high data availability, which data replication and backup provide strong data protection. If we take these concepts at a very granular level (defining user, record, block, file, or directory types) and them liberate them from the physical subsystems with which they have traditionally been associated, we have the opportunity to create a highly scalable network wide storage fault tolerance. The network becomes the virtual storage space in which the traditional concepts of data high availability and protection are implemented without their corresponding physical constraints.

  19. Army ants in four forests: geographic variation in raid rates and species composition.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Lattke, John; Powell, Scott; Kaspari, Michael

    2007-05-01

    1. The New World army ants are top predators in the litter of tropical forest, but no comprehensive studies exist on variation in assemblage-wide activity and species composition. We used standardized protocols to estimate foraging raid rates and species composition of army ant communities in four Neotropical forests. The study sites spanned approximately 10 degrees latitude, with two sites each in Central and South America. 2. We recorded a total of 22 species of army ants. The four sites varied in observed and estimated species richness. Species overlap was highest between the Central American sites, and lowest between the South American sites. 3. Raid activity varied significantly among sites. Raid activity per kilometre of trail walks was over four times higher at the most active site (Sta. Maria, Venezuela) than at the least active site (Barro Colorado Island, Panama). Furthermore, each site showed a different diel pattern of activity. For example, raid activity was higher during daylight hours in Costa Rica, and higher at night in Venezuela. Raid activity relationships with ambient temperature also varied significantly among sites. 4. The overall rate of army ant raids passing through 1 m(2) plots was 0.73 raids per day, but varied among sites, from 0 raids per day (Panama) to 1.2 raids per day (Venezuela). 5. Primarily subterranean species were significantly more abundant in Venezuela, and above-ground foragers that form large swarm fronts were least abundant in Panama. The site heterogeneity in species abundance and diel activity patterns has implications for army ant symbionts, including ant-following birds, and for the animals hunted by these top predators.

  20. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding

    PubMed Central

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human–wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions. PMID:25035800

  1. An invasive ant species able to counterattack marabunta raids.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the Neotropics where it was introduced, the invasive ant Pheidole megacephala counterattacked raids by the army ants Eciton burchellii or E. hamatum. The Eciton workers that returned to their bivouac were attacked and spread-eagled and most of them killed by their outgoing colony mates. Little by little the zone where returning and outgoing Eciton workers encountered one another moved away from the Pheidole nest which was no longer attacked, so that most of the colony was spared. Using a water-based technique rounded out by bioassays, we show that Pheidole compounds were transferred onto the Eciton cuticle during the counterattacks, so that outgoing workers do not recognize returning colony mates, likely perceived as potential prey. Because P. megacephala is an introduced African species, this kind of protection, which cannot be the result of coevolutive processes, corresponds to a kind of by-product due to its aggressiveness during colony defence.

  2. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network.

  3. Determinants of intracolonial relatedness in Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera; Formicidae): mating frequency and brood raids.

    PubMed

    Gadau, J; Strehl, C-P; Oettler, J; Hölldobler, B

    2003-07-01

    The genus Pogonomyrmex is one of three ant genera with an effective mating frequency (me) > 2.0. We developed microsatellites to determine me for P. rugosus because mating frequency of P. rugosus was known only from observational data which do not allow an estimate of me. We genotyped 474 workers from 20 colonies for two microsatellite loci. Observed mating frequencies ranged from 3 to 12 and me for P. rugosus was 4.71. Observed patriline frequencies were significantly different from the expected patriline frequencies generated with a simulated data set under the assumption of equal patriline representation. The available mating frequency data and phylogenetic information of the genus Pogonomyrmex suggest that multiple mating is the ancestral state in the North American Pogonomyrmex sensu stricto. Established P. rugosus colonies raid and destroy smaller conspecific colonies. During these raids ant workers were observed carrying pupae and larvae from the raided colony into the nest of the raiding colony. However, it was not clear whether raided brood emerged in the raiding colony and were subsequently recruited into the work force (intraspecific slavery) or were used as food (predation). Our analyses indicate 6 of 14 field colonies contained foreign P. rugosus workers (43%). The range of the intracolonial frequency of foreign workers collected directly from the nest entrance was between 4 and 28%.

  4. ICE Raids, Children, Media, and Making Sense of Latino Newcomers in Flyover Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Reeves, Jenelle

    2012-01-01

    Extant cultural models articulated in "Flyover Country" print media responses to ICE workplace raids showed a welcome of sorts of Latino newcomers. These models suggest a place for Latino students at school and more broadly for Latino children and parents in these communities. Thus, they index an unwillingness to see Latino newcomers in…

  5. Establishing the Rhetorical Presidency through Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt and the Brownsville Raid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt was an important figure in the development of the presidency as a primary and authoritative source for definitions of national identity. Through an analysis of three specific rhetorical moves Roosevelt made in arguments over the "proper" interpretation of the Brownsville Raid, this essay examines how Roosevelt both justified his…

  6. HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Mike

    2009-01-01

    HICO and RAIDS Experiment Payload - Hyperspectral Imager For The Coastal Ocean (HREP-HICO) will operate a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Maritime Hyperspectral Imaging (MHSI) system, to detect, identify and quantify coastal geophysical features from the International Space Station.

  7. On the Use of GPUs in Realizing Cost-Effective Distributed RAID

    SciTech Connect

    Khasymski, Aleksandr; Rafique, Mustafa; Butt, Ali R; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth in user and application data entails new means for providing fault tolerance and protection against data loss. High Performance Computing (HPC) storage systems, which are at the forefront of handling the data deluge, typically employ hardware RAID at the backend. However, such solutions are costly, do not ensure end-to-end data integrity, and can become a bottleneck during data reconstruction. In this paper, we design an innovative solution to achieve a flexible, fault-tolerant, and high-performance RAID-6 solution for a parallel file system (PFS). Our system utilizes low-cost, strategically placed GPUs - both on the client and server sides - to accelerate parity computation. In contrast to hardware-based approaches, we provide full control over the size, length and location of a RAID array on a per file basis, end-to-end data integrity checking, and parallelization of RAID array reconstruction. We have deployed our system in conjunction with the widely-used Lustre PFS, and show that our approach is feasible and imposes acceptable overhead.

  8. Contemporary Deportation Raids and Historical Memory: Mexican Expulsions in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the United States with respect to Mexican migrants has reached a level of intensity that harkens back to the mass expulsions of the 1930s and the 1950s, when millions were forcefully removed south across the border. Recent deportation raids have targeted food processing plants and other large businesses hiring migrant…

  9. Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Simanjorang, Hubert V P; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Linkie, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human

  10. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants.

    PubMed

    Chiyo, Patrick I; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Factors that influence learning and the spread of behavior in wild animal populations are important for understanding species responses to changing environments and for species conservation. In populations of wildlife species that come into conflict with humans by raiding cultivated crops, simple models of exposure of individual animals to crops do not entirely explain the prevalence of crop raiding behavior. We investigated the influence of life history milestones using age and association patterns on the probability of being a crop raider among wild free ranging male African elephants; we focused on males because female elephants are not known to raid crops in our study population. We examined several features of an elephant association network; network density, community structure and association based on age similarity since they are known to influence the spread of behaviors in a population. We found that older males were more likely to be raiders than younger males, that males were more likely to be raiders when their closest associates were also raiders, and that males were more likely to be raiders when their second closest associates were raiders older than them. The male association network had sparse associations, a tendency for individuals similar in age and raiding status to associate, and a strong community structure. However, raiders were randomly distributed between communities. These features of the elephant association network may limit the spread of raiding behavior and likely determine the prevalence of raiding behavior in elephant populations. Our results suggest that social learning has a major influence on the acquisition of raiding behavior in younger males whereas life history factors are important drivers of raiding behavior in older males. Further, both life-history and network patterns may influence the acquisition and spread of complex behaviors in animal populations and provide insight on managing human-wildlife conflict.

  11. Olfactory Detection of Prey by the Termite-Raiding Ant Pachycondyla analis

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Abdullahi Ahmed; Crewe, Robin M.; Pirk, Christian W. W.

    2014-01-01

    The African termite-raiding ant Pachycondyla analis Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) organizes group raids on termites of the sub-family Macrotermitinae. Termites and ants occupy and share similar habitats, resulting in a co-evolutionary arms race between termites as prey and ants as predators. The present study explored whether P. analis uses semiochemical signaling cues to detect potential termite prey prior to and during raids. Ants' responses to odors emitted from termites alone, termite gallery soil, and termites inside their galleries were tested using Y-tube olfactometer assays. The results showed that P. analis detected odors of termites and those of their galleries, and odors from termites inside their galleries were more attractive to both minor and major ant workers than odors from termites alone. The composition of these odor sources was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. While the odors from termite gallery soils were compositionally richer (containing 13 compounds rather than nine from termites alone), those from the termites alone were quantitatively richer, releasing about six times more odors than gallery soil. Most of the compounds in the odor profiles were identified as hydrocarbons. Naphthalene, previously identified as an insect repellent, was also identified as a component of the odors from the gallery soil. These results demonstrate that odors play an important role in prey detection by P. analis. PMID:25373200

  12. RAId_aPS: MS/MS analysis with multiple scoring functions and spectrum-specific statistics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-11-16

    Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.

  13. Hunting, food subsidies, and mesopredator release: the dynamics of crop-raiding baboons in a managed landscape.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachel A; Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Johnson, Leah R

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of protected areas or parks has become an important tool for wildlife conservation. However, frequent occurrences of human-wildlife conflict at the edges of these parks can undermine their conservation goals. Many African protected areas have experienced concurrent declines of apex predators alongside increases in both baboon abundance and the density of humans living near the park boundary. Baboons then take excursions outside of the park to raid crops for food, conflicting with the human population. We model the interactions of mesopredators (baboons), apex predators, and shared prey in the park to analyze how four components affect the proportion of time that mesopredators choose to crop-raid: (1) the presence of apex predators; (2) nutritional quality of the crops; (3) mesopredator "shyness" about leaving the park; and (4) human hunting of mesopredators. We predict that the presence of apex predators in the park is the most effective method for controlling mesopredator abundance, and hence significantly reduces their impact on crops. Human hunting of mesopredators is less effective as it only occurs during crop-raiding excursions. Furthermore, making crops less attractive, for instance by planting crops further from the park boundary or farming less nutritional crops, can reduce the amount of time mesopredators crop-raid.

  14. Failing in place for low-serviceability storage infrastructure using high-parity GPU-based RAID.

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew L.; Ward, H. Lee; Skjellum, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    In order to provide large quantities of high-reliability disk-based storage, it has become necessary to aggregate disks into fault-tolerant groups based on the RAID methodology. Most RAID levels do provide some fault tolerance, but there are certain classes of applications that require increased levels of fault tolerance within an array. Some of these applications include embedded systems in harsh environments that have a low level of serviceability, or uninhabited data centers servicing cloud computing. When describing RAID reliability, the Mean Time To Data Loss (MTTDL) calculations will often assume that the time to replace a failed disk is relatively low, or even negligible compared to rebuild time. For platforms that are in remote areas collecting and processing data, it may be impossible to access the system to perform system maintenance for long periods. A disk may fail early in a platform's life, but not be replaceable for much longer than typical for RAID arrays. Service periods may be scheduled at intervals on the order of months, or the platform may not be serviced until the end of a mission in progress. Further, this platform may be subject to extreme conditions that can accelerate wear and tear on a disk, requiring even more protection from failures. We have created a high parity RAID implementation that uses a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to compute more than two blocks of parity information per stripe, allowing extra parity to eliminate or reduce the requirement for rebuilding data between service periods. While this type of controller is highly effective for RAID 6 systems, an important benefit is the ability to incorporate more parity into a RAID storage system. Such RAID levels, as yet unnamed, can tolerate the failure of three or more disks (depending on configuration) without data loss. While this RAID system certainly has applications in embedded systems running applications in the field, similar benefits can be obtained for servers that are

  15. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator.

    PubMed

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein A M J; McCall, Michael K; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-03-01

    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding records, household surveys, Bayesian expert system, and least-cost path simulation were used to predict four alternative categories of daily corridors: (1) footpaths, (2) dry river beds, (3) stepping stones along scattered small farms, and (4) trajectories of shortest distance to refuges. The corridor alignments were compared in terms of their minimum cumulative resistance to elephant movement and related to crop-raiding zones quantified by a kernel density function. The "stepping stone" corridors predicted the crop-raiding patterns. Elephant presence was confirmed along these corridors, demonstrating that small farms located between refuges and contiguous farmland increase habitat connectivity for elephant. Our analysis successfully predicted elephant occurrence in farmland where daytime counts failed to detect nocturnal presence. These results have conservation management implications.

  16. TITLE: Remote sensing of lower thermospheric temperatures with the RAIDS experiment on the International Space Station (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Crowley, G.

    2010-12-01

    Current research into the processes operative in the lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere of the Earth's atmosphere is stressing the importance of dynamic interactions in determining the physical and chemical state of the region. Exploration of this sparsely sampled region was the purpose of the Radiation and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). RAIDS comprises 8 instruments including a near infrared spectrometer (NIRS) designed to routinely measure temperatures in the lower thermosphere from approximately 100 to 140 km altitude. Commencing in October, 2009, limb profiles of the neutral kinetic temperature have been obtained in a limb scanning mode viewing aft from the experiment porch on the JEM module. Spectra of the airglow are obtained across the wavelength range 725 to 870 nm in a step/stare mode of the RAIDS experiment. Dayside and nightside temperatures are derived from spectral measurements of the O2(1 Sigma) Atmospheric 0-0 and 1-1 band profiles. The temperature profiles obtained are in good agreement on average with the MSIS model, however they show significantly more variability than given by MSIS or TIEGCM model runs. The variability shows up as scan to scan variations in the temperature profile, where due to the data collection cadence, most of the measurements are collected over about 5 degrees in latitude and spaced approximately 15 degrees in latitude thus providing clues to the scale size of the variations. Seasonal trends and comparisons with TIMED/SABER measurements will be presented.

  17. Instrumentation on the RAIDS experiment 2: Extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, photometer, and near IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Kayser, D. C.; Pranke, J. B.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McCoy, R. P.

    1994-02-01

    The RAIDS experiment consists of eight instruments spanning the wavelength range from the extreme ultraviolet (55 nm) to the near infrared (800 nm) oriented to view the Earth's limb from the NOAA-J spacecraft to be launched into a circular orbit in 1993. Through measurements of the natural optical emissions and scattered sunlight originating in the upper atmosphere including the mesosphere and thermosphere, state variables such as temperature, composition, density and ion concentration of this region will be inferred. This report describes the subset of instruments fabricated or otherwise provided by the Space and Environment Technology Center (formerly Space Sciences Laboratory) at The Aerospace Corp. The companion to this report describes the instruments from the Naval Research Laboratory. The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS), the three fixed filter photometers OI (630), OI (777), and Na (589), and the near infrared spectrometer (NIR) will be described. These are all mounted on a mechanical scan platform that scans the limb from approximately 75 to 750 km in the orbital plane of the satellite every 90 seconds.

  18. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period.

  19. Une lombalgie révélatrice d'un syndrome de l'homme raide

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Mckeon, Andrew; Najeh, Boussetta; Leila, Metoui; Imen, Gharsallah; Bassem, Louzir; Salah, Othmani

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome de l'homme raide est une pathologie neurologique rare. Son diagnostic est souvent très retardé à cause de sa présentation trompeuse. L′expression clinique est purement motrice, progressive avec une hypertonie axiale et des racines des membres, une hyperlordose souvent douloureuse, et un examen neurologique normal en dehors d'une augmentation des réflexes ostéotendineux. Le diagnostic est confirmé par l'examen électromyographique des muscles para-spinaux lombaires avec persistance d'une activité au repos de potentiel d'unité motrice d'allure normale, et une augmentation des anticorps anti acide glutamique décarboxylase (GAD). Le traitement de référence est le diazépam. Les immunoglobulines intraveineuses ont amélioré la qualité de vie des patients. L′évolution est longue et, si l′aggravation peut être stoppée, l′amélioration est souvent incomplète. Nous rapportons une observation de syndrome de l'homme raide, découvert à l'occasion de lombalgies mécaniques chroniques résistantes aux antalgiques améliorées par des cures d'immunoglobulines intraveineuses. PMID:24778753

  20. Analysis of the mean time to data loss of nested disk arrays RAID-01 on basis of a specialized mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, P. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this scientific paper a specialized Markov chain for a reliability model of the fault-tolerant system with two types of failures, single batch repair and full restore after reaching the failed state is discussed. The generalized formulas for calculation of the system’s stationary availability factor, the mean time to failure and the mean time to repair are also introduced. Application of the special type of the Markov chain in the reliability model of the nested disk array ‘RAID-01’ and calculation of mean time to data loss by using the generalized formulas are also discussed. The calculation examples of mean time to data loss of the ‘RAID-01’ array are also given.

  1. The Hammelburg Raid Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Oppenheim and secured a foothold for follow-on I units. Patton’s beloved 4th Armored Division, 8 which had expected to lead the river crossing, was...for the operation was threefold: 1) I deception, 2) create confusion, and 3) free prisoners, with objectives one and two achieved. 1 4 9 Robert Reppa...the Army. He served in a variety assignments including military aide to Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson,I Chief of Military Assistance Staff in

  2. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  3. Musculoskeletal injuries in a resource-constrained environment: comparing diagnostic accuracy of on-the-spot ultrasonography and conventional radiography for bone fracture screening during the Paris–Dakar rally raid

    PubMed Central

    Larbi, Ahmed; Lefere, Mathieu; Perozziello, Anne; Hauger, Olivier; Pommerie, Florence; Fraboulet, Bénédicte; Jacob, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) is a good first-line alternative for the diagnosis of bone fractures in adults as well as children. Our study shows that, compared to X-ray, in a resource-constrained environment, on-site US has a high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (96%) in the diagnosis of bone fractures. Purpose To compare the accuracy of on-the-spot US with conventional radiography in the screening for bone fractures during the Paris–Dakar rally raid. Material and Methods Eighty-three patients (81 men, 2 women) with clinically suspected bone fractures were included in 2013 and 2014. They underwent X-ray and US on the spot, blindly interpreted by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Using X-ray as gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US, for each anatomic location. The accuracy of US and radiography were also assessed, as were the number of fragments and their degree of displacement (Student’s t-test). Results Compared with X-ray, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of on-site US were, respectively, for the presence (or absence) of fractures: 98%, 98%, 100%, and 95%. The accuracy of US was 99%. Only one radial styloid process fracture was misdiagnosed with US. There was no significant difference between US and X-ray (P > 0.93) concerning the number of fragments and their degree of displacement. Conclusion Bedside musculoskeletal ultrasound performed by trained musculoskeletal radiologists is a useful method in determining and assessing bone fractures in a resource constrained environment. PMID:26034643

  4. Public Colleges Fight Raids on Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Public colleges and universities are girding themselves to win the war for tenured talent. Some are succeeding. State budget woes and a rocky economy have shaken public colleges and universities. One of the most noticeable shudders has been a pervasive "brain drain," as many state institutions face competition for their best faculty members from…

  5. Wisconsin's Flagship Is Raided for Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Wisconsin's stagnating state higher-education budget has forced the university to keep faculty salaries far below average. When professors get feelers from elsewhere, they learn that a move can easily mean a 100-percent salary increase--sometimes more. Budget problems have also depleted money for perks that keep faculty members on board--funds for…

  6. Commerce Raiding: Historical Case Studies, 1755-2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    reproduced in Lucas Molina Franco and José María Manrique, Legion Condor : La historia olvidada (Valladolid, Sp.: Quirón, 2000), pp. 45–77. 34. For the... Condor : La historia olvidada. Valladolid, Sp.: Quirón, 2000. Frank, Willard C., Jr. “German Clandestine Submarine Warfare in the Spanish Civil War

  7. Schweinfurt Raids and the Pause in Daylight Strategic Bombing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    German homeland defenses were upgraded and better coordinated, with established defense sectors, plus an additional three hundred flak guns positioned......when hit by the fighter’s superior firepower of 20mm/cannon and machine guns . A well coordinated attack by three to four fighters could also divide

  8. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOEpatents

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  9. Binary random systematic erasure code for RAID system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pengguo; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Liang; Yuan, Dezhai

    2017-03-01

    As the increasing expansion of data scale, storage systems grow in size and complexity, the requirements for systems scalability and methodologies to recover simultaneous disk and sector failures are inevitable. To ensure high reliability and flexible scalability, erasure codes with high fault tolerance and flexibility are required. In this pa per, we present a class of erasure codes satisfied the previous requirements, which referred as Binary Random Systematic erasure code, called BRS code for short. BRS code constructs its generator matrix based on random matrix, whose elements are in Galois Field GF (2), and takes the advantage of exclusive-or (XOR) operations to make it work much fast. It is designed as a systematic code to facilitate the store and recovery. Moreover, δ random redundancies make the probability of successfully decoding controllable. Our evaluations and experiments show that BRS code is flexible on parameters and fault tolerance setting, and has high computing efficiency on encoding and decoding speeds, what is more, when the code length is long enough, BRS code is approximately MDS, thus make it have nearly optimal storage efficiency.

  10. Raiding the Continent: The Origins of British Special Service Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    success is to be achieved. In forces dependent upon technology , this is self evident; the argument usually concerns the probability of need, in the...overall strategy, of the particular capability the technology bestows. The most intense, and perhaps most interesting, debates, however, arise over the...Div No. 9 Ind Coy-38 Div No. 5 Ind Coy-i London Div No. 10 Ind Coy-66 Div 16. 79/MOB/3433/129(M)( Mobl ) 22 Apr 40, 79/MOB/3433/140(M)(Gobl) 24 Apr 40

  11. Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hybridization can have complex effects on evolutionary dynamics in ants because of the combination of haplodiploid sex-determination and eusociality. While hybrid non-reproductive workers have been found in a range of species, examples of gene-flow via hybrid queens and males are rare. We studied hybridization in East African army ants (Dorylus subgenus Anomma) using morphology, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and nuclear microsatellites. Results While the mitochondrial phylogeny had a strong geographic signal, different species were not recovered as monophyletic. At our main study site at Kakamega Forest, a mitochondrial haplotype was shared between a "Dorylus molestus-like" and a "Dorylus wilverthi-like" form. This pattern is best explained by introgression following hybridization between D. molestus and D. wilverthi. Microsatellite data from workers showed that the two morphological forms correspond to two distinct genetic clusters, with a significant proportion of individuals being classified as hybrids. Conclusions We conclude that hybridization and gene-flow between the two army ant species D. molestus and D. wilverthi has occurred, and that mating between the two forms continues to regularly produce hybrid workers. Hybridization is particularly surprising in army ants because workers have control over which males are allowed to mate with a young virgin queen inside the colony. PMID:21859477

  12. Raiding the pharmacy: genomic screening identifies known chemotherapies as negative regulators of MCL1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite multiple studies demonstrating the importance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 in tumor cell survival and treatment resistance, a clinically important inhibitor has yet to be developed. A recent study by Guo Wei and colleagues published in Cancer Cell has utilized a novel high-throughput approach to identify compounds that act as transcriptional repressors of MCL1 expression. Their findings identified a number of candidate drugs to be tested for clinical relevance in human cancers dependent on MCL1 expression. PMID:22742055

  13. Proving Correctness of a Controller Algorithm for the RAID Level 5 System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    appear in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing, 1998. STAUEN ENT A Distritut1om Un..Ited 19980508 079 This...a first step towards building such a tool, our approach consists of studying several controller algorithms manually, to determine the key properties...a tool, our validity of the controller algorithm obtained. However approach consists of studying several controller algo- the latter task may be

  14. Pearl Harbor and America's Homefront Children: First Fears, Blackouts, Air Raid Drills, and Nightmares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    In conducting research about U.S. homefront children during the Second World War, a professor of history wrote to the 100 largest-circulation newspapers in the United States as well as 75 African-American, Hispanic American, and Jewish-American newspapers and magazines seeking letters from people who experienced the War as children. More than…

  15. Thrilling but Pointless: General JO Shelby’s 1863 Cavalry Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    stepbrothers into Shelby’s life, including Howard Gratz, who would partner with Shelby in the hemp and rope business in Missouri.3 Shelby’s cousin Francis ...Federal government, or even the supply of Missouri troops for Federal service. This group was led primarily by Congressman Francis P. Blair, a...Lincoln’s Postmaster General, which gave Francis Blair more access to the President than would be expected of a Congressman. Blair viewed the election

  16. Observations of the migrating semidiurnal and quaddiurnal tides from the RAIDS/NIRS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, Irfan; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Christensen, Andrew B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze temperature data from the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) instrument on Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System experiment on the International Space Station and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics satellite during June and July 2010 to investigate structures of the migrating semidiurnal (12 h) and quaddiurnal (6 h) tides in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Temperature measurements from the NIRS and SABER instruments allow us to examine the tides from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. We find that the amplitude of the migrating 6 h tide grows from ~5 K near 100 km altitude to ~30 K near 130 km. The amplitudes of the tide at altitudes accessible by NIRS are much larger than those previously reported at lower altitudes from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and the SABER instruments. The amplitude of the 12 h tide in the NIRS data shows two peaks in the lower thermosphere (between 95 and 130 km) with a maximum around 60 K occurring in the winter hemisphere near 20° latitude and a second maximum around 40 K occurring in the summer hemisphere near 30° latitude. The structure of the migrating terdiurnal (8 h) tide is also investigated in the NIRS data and shows increasing amplitude with altitude over a broad range of latitudes, roughly between 50°N and 30°S. Altitudinal variations seen in the 6, 8, and 12 h tides suggest an evolving mix of various Hough modes.

  17. Raiding the pharmacy: genomic screening identifies known chemotherapies as negative regulators of MCL1.

    PubMed

    Pfannenstiel, Lukas W; Demelash, Abeba; Gastman, Brian R

    2012-06-27

    Despite multiple studies demonstrating the importance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 in tumor cell survival and treatment resistance, a clinically important inhibitor has yet to be developed. A recent study by Guo Wei and colleagues published in Cancer Cell has utilized a novel high-throughput approach to identify compounds that act as transcriptional repressors of MCL1 expression. Their findings identified a number of candidate drugs to be tested for clinical relevance in human cancers dependent on MCL1 expression.

  18. The Ijmuiden Power Plant Raids of WWII (World War II) Airpower Misapplied.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    crew were tasked to practice navigating to and bombing a raft out in the Gulf of Mexico , but again there was absolutely no supervision; and all bombing...Noord Zee Canal. At that point, Captain Scott headed the formation towards the target some 30 degrees off heading. As the formation approached the target

  19. Operation JUBILEE: The Allied Raid on Dieppe (1942) -- A Historical Analysis of a Planning Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-06

    b. Air Force Commander: Air Vice Marshall Leigh-Mallory, RAP; and, 5 I 1- ,I ~, c. Naval Force Commander: Rear-Admiral H.T. Baillie-Grohman, RN.17...Lovat ~~ Air Vice- Marshall Trafford Leigh-Mallory F-ll2 APPENDIX F - DETAILED OBJECTIVES OPERATION JUBILEE! No.3 Commando -land at beaches Yellow I and...para. :i6:.!)..’ ~ ... -(iv) Mihtary,·~’tPP(lrt during-landing (para. 363),: .::i (b) The bombardment Clf ~Ianluy Island by JL~r.S... K~nya," a 6

  20. "Knowledge Universe" and Virtual Schools: Educational Breakthrough or Digital Raid on the Public Treasury? Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Correspondence schools, motion pictures, radio, educational television, and computer-assisted instruction have all been hailed as technological innovations that would revolutionize education, reducing, if not eliminating entirely, education's dependence on traditional schools and their teachers. The latest innovation is "virtual…

  1. Psychologic scars remain 50 years after Dieppe raid, study of Canadian veterans finds.

    PubMed Central

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    A Toronto psychologist has conducted a 50-year follow-up study of the psychologic problems faced by Canadian troops who landed on the beaches of Dieppe, France, in 1942. Lynne Beal says many of the men have suffered in silence, never realizing that they were experiencing the widespread condition known as post-traumatic stress disorder. The veterans hope her work will help them win greater official recognition of their condition. Images p1325-a PMID:7497395

  2. Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price’s Raid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Louisiana . In the wake of his army, most of the guerrillas fled the state for winter quarters in Texas while Quantrill formed a group of 30 guerrillas...through Missouri including Confederate victories in Louisiana and Arkansas freeing Price’s force to return 8 to Missouri. It also describes...Pennsylvania’s southern border and the Ohio River--slave states were to the south. No distinction had been made west of the Mississippi River in the Louisiana

  3. RAID-2: Design and implementation of a large scale disk array controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. H.; Chen, P. M.; Drapeau, A. L.; Lee, E. K.; Lutz, K.; Miller, E. L.; Seshan, S.; Patterson, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a large scale disk array controller and subsystem incorporating over 100 high performance 3.5 inch disk drives. It is designed to provide 40 MB/s sustained performance and 40 GB capacity in three 19 inch racks. The array controller forms an integral part of a file server that attaches to a Gb/s local area network. The controller implements a high bandwidth interconnect between an interleaved memory, an XOR calculation engine, the network interface (HIPPI), and the disk interfaces (SCSI). The system is now functionally operational, and we are tuning its performance. We review the design decisions, history, and lessons learned from this three year university implementation effort to construct a truly large scale system assembly.

  4. Strategic Air Attack in Military Operations Other Than War Strikes and Raids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    terrorist bomb blew up the La Belle Disco in West Berlin, a popular club to American soldiers; one US servicemen was killed...incontrovertible”; West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl asserted, “I have not the slightest doubt that the trail of blood from the Berlin disco bombing leads to...the administration argued that for political reasons the strike had to clearly announce itself as a response to the disco bombing, directly attacking

  5. BATMAN (Battle-Management Assessment System) and ROBIN (Raid Originator Bogie Ingress): Rationale, Software Design, and Database Descriptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    background color of the screen when entering a new user’s name and social security number. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See...buttoncolor above. userbgcolor: the color of empty slots in the "list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See buttoncolor above. -66...BATMAN & ROBIN Database Descriptions userfgcolor: the color of users’ names in the "list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset

  6. Battle Experience From Pearl Harbor to Midway December 1941 to June 1942 Including Makin Island Raid 17-18 August

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-02-15

    of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1943 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4... WALKE , were sunk and a third destroyer, BEMAM, badly damaged. This des­ troyer broke up the next day, due to heavy seas, while en route to a re­...good drill mines - no experience in laying and sweeping. Inadequate expenditure of service mines in proof, anti-countermining service tests, ef

  7. Avenging Angel? John Brown, the Harpers Ferry Raid and the "Irrepressible" Conflict. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    This unit deals with the struggle between proslavery and antislavery proponents which exacerbated sectional discord and culminated in secession of the southern states and the Civil War. The lessons would most appropriately be taught as a prelude to the Civil War and as a culmination of units on the heightened sectional conflict resulting from…

  8. Usefulness of Iron Deficiency Correction in Management of Patients With Heart Failure [from the Registry Analysis of Iron Deficiency-Heart Failure (RAID-HF) Registry].

    PubMed

    Wienbergen, Harm; Pfister, Otmar; Hochadel, Matthias; Michel, Stephan; Bruder, Oliver; Remppis, Björn Andrew; Maeder, Micha Tobias; Strasser, Ruth; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Pauschinger, Matthias; Senges, Jochen; Hambrecht, Rainer

    2016-12-15

    Iron deficiency (ID) has been identified as an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Intravenous iron therapy reduced symptoms and rehospitalizations of iron-deficient patients with HF in randomized trials. The present multicenter study investigated the "real-world" management of iron status in patients with HF. Consecutive patients with HF and ejection fraction ≤40% were recruited and analyzed from December 2010 to October 2015 by 11 centers in Germany and Switzerland. Of 1,484 patients with HF, iron status was determined in only 923 patients (62.2%), despite participation of the centers in a registry focusing on ID and despite guideline recommendation to determine iron status. In patients with determined iron status, a prevalence of 54.7% (505 patients) for ID was observed. Iron therapy was performed in only 8.5% of the iron-deficient patients with HF; 2.6% were treated with intravenous iron therapy. The patients with iron therapy were characterized by a high rate of symptomatic HF and anemia. In conclusion, despite strong evidence of beneficial effects of iron therapy on symptoms and rehospitalizations, diagnostic and therapeutic efforts on ID in HF are low in the actual clinical practice, and the awareness to diagnose and treat ID in HF should be strongly enforced.

  9. Ranald S. Mackenzie and the Fourth Cavalry Cross-Border Raid on the Mexican Kickapoo Indians near Remolino, Coahuila, 17-21 May 1873

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    standards would elevate the conduct of United States government and Indian relations. In theory , moralistic Indian agents and representatives with would...chiefs apprehended by Mackenzie, Satank, died after a struggle with soldiers during an escape attempt.34 The two other chiefs, Satanta and Big Tree...to develop any rational strategy. Even if there had been a strategy, the Frontier Regiment was never big enough, properly organized, or mobile enough

  10. Detection of Biological Threat Agents by Real-Time PCR: Comparison of Assay Performance on the R.A.I.D., the LightCycler, and the Smart Cycler Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    specific tool for the molecular identification of these agents. A common chemistry that can be used on a variety of rapid, real - time PCR instruments...provides the greatest flexibility for assay utilization. Methods: Real - time PCR primers and dual-labeled fluorogenic probes were designed to detect Bacillus

  11. "I wz wondering-uhm could 'Raid' uhm 'e'ffect the brain permanently d'y know?": Some Observations on the Intersection of Speaking and Writing in Calls to a Poison Control Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on how written records are created during calls to a Poison Control Center. Describes the relationship between writing and speaking in this bureaucratic context. Finds that keeping written records extends the length of call processing time, representing a barrier to handling new calls promptly. (MS)

  12. Feeding outside the forest: the importance of crop raiding and an invasive weed in the diet of gallery forest ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) following a cyclone at the Beza Mahafaly special reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, M; Gould, L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a cyclone hit southern Madagascar, including the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, disrupting the flowering/fruiting cycle of Tamarindus indica, leaving Lemur catta without its major food resource during reproductive periods. We studied two adjacent groups of L. catta during the late gestation period, and both groups ventured outside the reserve to feed. The Red group (RG) fed daily on cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves in a nearby field, and both groups consumed leaves and stems of the invasive terrestrial flowering herb Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana), growing outside the reserve. The Green group (GG) spent significantly more time feeding than did RG, and more time feeding inside the forest compared to outside. The members of RG spent half of their time feeding in the crops, and nearly half of their diet consisted of easy-to-process sweet potato leaves. Additionally, RG defended and restricted GG's access to the crop territory. Of the two non-forest foods, A. mexicana leaves were higher in protein and most minerals (P, Mg, K and Na, but not Ca) and lower in fiber than sweet potato leaves, but sweet potato leaves were preferred by RG. L. catta is a markedly flexible primate with respect to diet, and switches to fallback foods from outside the forest during periods of low food availability. In the highly seasonal and unpredictable climate of southern Madagascar, such behavioral adaptations are important to the survival of this species.

  13. Decentralized Storage Consistency via Versioning Servers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    2000). Published as ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, 28(1):34–43. ACM Press, 2000. [6] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine...and Luis-Felipe Cabrera . Swift/RAID: a distributed RAID system. Computing Systems, 7(3):333–359. Usenix, Summer 1994. [22] Jean-Philippe Martin, Lorenzo

  14. U.S. Policy and Strategy Toward Afghanistan After 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    interest in Af- ghanistan is connected to a widespread popular and policymaker belief, especially since the 2011 Abbot- tabad raid (Operation NEPTUNE SPEAR...support. The United States has also conducted cross-border raids, most notably Operation NEPTUNE SPEAR that killed Osama bin Laden in May 2011

  15. Opaque Communities: A Framework for Assessing Potential Homeland Security Threats from Voids on the Map

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    87 1. The Making of John Africa ...............................................................88 2...International Studies, May 17, 2012, https://csis.org/publication/emerging-anti-accessarea-denial-challenge 3 Stuart A. Wright, “Deconstructing...Official Rationales for the Texas State Raid on the FLDS,” in Saints under Siege: The Texas State Raid on the Fundamentalist Latter Day Saints, ed. Stuart A

  16. Microsatellite analysis reveals strong but differential impact of a social parasite on its two host species.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Blass, Birgit; Heinze, Jürgen; Foitzik, Susanne

    2006-03-01

    The speed and the dynamics of the co-evolutionary process strongly depend on the relative strengths of reciprocal selection pressures exerted by the interacting species. Here, we investigate the influence of an obligate social parasite, the slave-making ant Harpagoxenus sublaevis, on populations of the two main host species Leptothorax acervorum and Leptothorax muscorum from a German ant community. A combination of genetic and demographic data allowed us to analyse the consequences of raiding pressure on the hosts' life history and possible host preferences of the parasite. We can demonstrate that slave raids during which the social parasite pillages brood from neighbouring host colonies are both frequent and extremely destructive for both host species. Microsatellite analysis showed that, on average, a single slave-maker colony conducts more than three raids per year and that host colonies mostly perish in the aftermath of these parasite attacks. Only in few cases, surviving nests of previously raided host colonies were found in the surroundings of slave-maker colonies. As a consequence of the high prevalence of parasites and their recurrent and devastating slave raids on host colonies, the life expectancy of host colonies was severely reduced. Combining our results on host-specific parasitic colony founding and raiding frequencies with the post-raid survival rate, we can demonstrate an overall higher mortality rate for the smaller host species L. muscorum. This might be caused by a preference of H. sublaevis for this secondary host species as demographic data on host species usage indicate.

  17. 11. VIEW EAST OF WEST ELEVATION AND NORTHWEST WING WALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW EAST OF WEST ELEVATION AND NORTHWEST WING WALL. NOTE DETAIL OF AQUEDUCT REPAIR AFTER AUGUST 1864 CONFEDERATE RAID. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  18. Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Beckerman, Stephen; Erickson, Pamela I.; Yost, James; Regalado, Jhanira; Jaramillo, Lilia; Sparks, Corey; Iromenga, Moises; Long, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Waorani may have the highest rate of homicide of any society known to anthropology. We interviewed 121 Waorani elders of both sexes to obtain genealogical information and recollections of raids in which they and their relatives participated. We also obtained complete raiding histories of 95 warriors. An analysis of the raiding histories, marital trajectories, and reproductive histories of these men reveals that more aggressive warriors have lower indices of reproductive success than their milder brethren. This result contrasts the findings of Chagnon [Chagnon N (1988) Science 239:985–992] for the Yanomamo. We suggest that the spacing of revenge raids may be involved in the explanation of why the consequences of aggressiveness differ between these 2 warlike lowland South American peoples. PMID:19433797

  19. Cuckoo: Layered Clustering for NFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    encyclopedia of ornithology. Cambridge University Press, 1991. [5] Luis-Felipe Cabrera and Darrell D. E. Long. Swift: using distributed disk striping to...provide high I/O data rates. Computing Systems, 4(4):405–436, Fall 1991. [6] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine fault tolerance...E. Long, Bruce R. Montague, and Luis-Felipe Cabrera . Swift/RAID: a distributed RAID system. Computing Systems, 7(3):333– 359. Usenix, Summer 1994. [16

  20. Efficient Consistency for Erasure-Coded Data via Versioning Servers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Parallel Data Lab who released cluster machines so that we could run experiments. References [1] Atul Adya, William J. Bolosky, Miguel Castro, Gerald...7] Elwyn Berlekamp. Algebraic coding theory. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968. [8] Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical byzantine fault tolerance...25(5):226–238, 1991. [35] Darrell D. E. Long, Bruce R. Montague, and Luis-Felipe Cabrera . Swift/RAID: a distributed RAID system. Computing Systems, 7(3

  1. Battle Analysis, Wonsan, Rear Area Operations, Rear Area Security, (3d Infantry Division, Korea, November 1950)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    with North Korean forces in ambushes and roadblocks along the regimental. main supply routes between Majon-ni and Tongyong. DD 1473 EDITIONMor INOV ...BEGIN CONDUCTING RAIDS ON TARGETS OF OPPORTUNITY USUALLY FOR FOOD AND AMMUNITION, Ř .’.4_ THE LEADERSHIP PROVIDED BY CHINESE OR RUSSIAN OFFICERS AND...WHOSE ACTIVITIES WERE GENERALLY CONCERNED WITH MINOR RAIDS, AMBUSHES, AND ATTACKS ON VILLAGES TO OBTAIN FOOD AND CLOTHING. NOW THESE ELEMENTS HAD

  2. Aeronomy from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lessons learned with The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) a new NASA experiment studying the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from a vantage point on the International Space Station (ISS) will be reviewed. The RAIDS mission focuses on the coupling and transition from the coldest part of the atmosphere, the mesopause near 85 km, up to the hottest regions of the thermosphere above 300 km. Built jointly by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and The Aerospace Corporation, RAIDS also is serving as a pathfinder experiment for atmospheric remote sensing aboard the ISS. The 51.6 deg. orbital inclination and roughly 340 km orbital altitude of the ISS required tailoring atmospheric science objectives appropriate for low- and mid-latitude observations. Orbital precession enables observations over a range of local time and solar illumination conditions, but also causes the orbital plane to intersect the Sun roughly monthly, requiring a temporary shutdown of the RAIDS sensors. Extensive station structures near the field-of-regard pose a risk of scattered light contamination which must be mitigated through good baffling of optical sensors. Activities aboard the manned station, including attitude perturbations from spacecraft dockings and construction activities, occasionally disrupt observations. A significant challenge for limb-viewing RAIDS was ISS pitch oscillations up to ±0.75 deg. per orbit associated with solar array rotation, but NASA adjusted the station’s flight characteristics to provide ±0.2 deg. pitch stability for RAIDS. Jitter and vibration at the extremity of the ISS have not been a concern for RAIDS. Finally, manned environments are notoriously dirty with respect to contamination-sensitive optical instruments, but after twelve months of continuous operation RAIDS does not exhibit any unusual degradation in sensor performance.

  3. ARN Program, PDIT Final Technical Report - Deliver Orders 3, 12, 13

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-05

    access. The database server cannot be addressed externally, but only through the web server. This prevents hackers from even being able to...understand that the database server even exists, which means that it is impossible for hackers to access the database server. RAID A RAID (Redundant Array...of TYPE_DI = “ FB ” D6U – Material receipt from non- procurement instrument from requisition from a non-DLA but other DoD activity None Arrival of

  4. The 21st Century Marine Expeditionary Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    future, the MEU may be tasked with conducting an Amphibious Assault, Amphibious Raid, Port / Airfield Seizure, or Advance Force Operations in support...end of ROMO include: Amphibious Assault, Amphibious Raid, Port / Airfield Seizure, and Advance Force Operations. These missions are defined in...Asymmetrical Conflict (Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government , Faculty Research Working Papers Series, 2007), http://www.brookings.edu

  5. Mosby’s Rangers and Partisan Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    recorded their initial impressions of their new commander. John Munson wrote: Nervously I swept my eyes over the band in search for a big man with a showy...to keep all booty or spoils of war. Mosby maintained the respect of his men and superior 22 officers by personally refusing to keep war plunder. Raids...a dance and were captured by a Federal raiding party. Only five men reported at the rendezvous point on the seventh. Mosby altered his plan and

  6. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    PubMed

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  7. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  8. Interfacing a high performance disk array file server to a Gigabit LAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Srinivasan; Katz, Randy H.

    1993-01-01

    Our previous prototype, RAID-1, identified several bottlenecks in typical file server architectures. The most important bottleneck was the lack of a high-bandwidth path between disk, memory, and the network. Workstation servers, such as the Sun-4/280, have very slow access to peripherals on busses far from the CPU. For the RAID-2 system, we addressed this problem by designing a crossbar interconnect, Xbus board, that provides a 40MB/s path between disk, memory, and the network interfaces. However, this interconnect does not provide the system CPU with low latency access to control the various interfaces. To provide a high data rate to clients on the network, we were forced to carefully and efficiently design the network software. A block diagram of the system hardware architecture is given. In the following subsections, we describe pieces of the RAID-2 file server hardware that had a significant impact on the design of the network interface.

  9. Raiders of Fukien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L. T.; Isorena, E.; Borja, R.; Magno-Canto, M.; Villanoy, C. L.; Gordon, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    1174-1190 AD marked years of coastal raids for the Province of Fukien (also known as Fujian). These raids were initially attributed to inhabitants of southwestern Formosa (now Taiwan) by Ma Tuan Lin (translated in 1273). Based on linguistic and historical evidence, however, later works analysed that these raids were more likely to be coming from the Visayan and Bicolandia- inhabitants of south and Philippines. This paper examines oceanographic features which further strengthens this conjecture. Specifically, how the strength and behaviour of the Kuroshio might allow for raiders to traverse the distance between the Visayan and Fujian and appear as if they were originating from Formosa. In situ oceanographic observations also demonstrate that it is possible for the raiders to have made use of a narrow band of southward heading current just east of the Kuroshio to travel back home.

  10. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin P; Priston, Nancy E C

    2010-09-01

    The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human-macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques.

  11. Improving the Availability of Supercomputer Job Input Data Using Temporal Replication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Zhe; Ma, Xiaosong; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Mueller, Frank

    2009-06-01

    Storage systems in supercomputers are a major reason for service interruptions. RAID solutions alone cannot provide sufficient protection as (1) growing average disk recovery times make RAID groups increasingly vulnerable to disk failures during reconstruction, and (2) RAID does not help with higher-level faults such failed I/O nodes. This paper presents a complementary approach based on the observation that files in the supercomputer scratch space are typically accessed by batch jobs whose execution can be anticipated. Therefore, we propose to transparently, selectively, and temporarily replicate 'active' job input data by coordinating the parallel file system with the batch job scheduler. We have implemented the temporal replication scheme in the popular Lustre parallel file system and evaluated it with real-cluster experiments. Our results show that the scheme allows for fast online data reconstruction, with a reasonably low overall space and I/O bandwidth overhead.

  12. The United States Air Force in Korea: A Chronology, 1950-1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    used the Pusan Air- field . Fifth Air Force reserved a fourth South Korean airfield, Shachon, for emergency landings. B-26s of the 3d BG, based in...raid enemy lines of communication, air- fields , and close air support targets in South Korea. Fifth Air Force B-26s and F-82s conducted night raids...with fighter cover rescued eleven U.S. and twenty-four ROK soldiers from a field eight miles behind en- emy lines. General Walker, Commander, U.S

  13. Military Adaptation in War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the rights of Germans who lived in the duchy of Schleswig- Holstein . This conflict certainly looked much more like the European conception of war...hitting more trees and cows than their intended targets. The first raid on the Ruhr on 15 May 1940 killed one dairyman in Cologne and wounded two people in

  14. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  15. A Selective Chronology of Terrorist and Counter-Terrorist Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam

    1986-01-01

    Beginning with the July 22, 1966, Palestinian hijacking of an El Al airliner and ending with the April 5, 1986, bombing raid on Libya by the United States, this chronology details 56 terrorist events which were covered in the world press. (JDH)

  16. Genetic evidence for intra- and interspecific slavery in honey ants (genus Myrmecocystus).

    PubMed

    Kronauer, D J C; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B

    2003-04-22

    The New World honey ant species Myrmecocystus mimicus is well known for its highly stereotyped territorial tournaments, and for the raids on conspecific nests that can lead to intraspecific slavery. Our results from mitochondrial and nuclear markers show that the raided brood emerges in the raiding colony and is subsequently incorporated into the colony's worker force. We also found enslaved conspecifics in a second honey ant species, M. depilis, the sister taxon of M. mimicus, which occurs in sympatry with M. mimicus at the study site. Colonies of this species furthermore contained raided M. mimicus workers. Both species have an effective mating frequency that is not significantly different from 1. This study provides genetic evidence for facultative intra- and interspecific slavery in the genus Myrmecocystus. Slavery in ants has evolved repeatedly and supposedly by different means. We propose that, in honey ants, secondary contact between two closely related species that both exhibit intraspecific slavery gave rise to an early form of facultative interspecific slavery.

  17. Military Review, May 1992. Volume 72, Number 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    terrorism, etcetera, etcetera, etcetera. If you have ever entertained the thought of writing an article for Military Review, get off your duff and do it...Dimniaons of the 71h Ligh 24. Naftos Reesard Coucilsd. kjoilog for the F#"t~n Man Wahn- Inintry Division,’ in D. H. Martoe. LWV Meag Sytem Raid Evaiui

  18. ADEQUATE SHELTERS AND QUICK REACTIONS TO WARNING: A KEY TO CIVIL DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    LYNCH, F X

    1963-11-08

    Case histories collected by investigators in Japan during 1945 illustrate both the effectiveness of shelters and the dangers inherent in apathy of the population, which suffered needless casualties by ignoring air raid warnintgs. Adequate shelters and immediate response to warnings are essential to survival in nuclear attack.

  19. Healthcare in the cross hairs. California patient-dumping investigation unwinds into billing probe, fueling enforcers' national fraud-fighting efforts.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Gregg

    2008-08-11

    Fraud enforcers say the FBI's raid of three Southern California hospitals last week offered new evidence that aggressive measures are needed to battle abuse. Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo, left, sees the case as emblematic. "Our healthcare system in America is broken--it's never been more clear to me that is the case," he said. "There's so much pressure ... to make profits".

  20. Models and Analogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Jane; Curtis, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    How do teachers help children understand the difference between the structure of a flower and that of a root? Depending on the time of year this activity is quite easy. Get a bunch of flowers, germinate some chickpeas and raid the kitchen for carrots and beetroots--the children can experience the "real thing". But what if teachers want the…

  1. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES: Funding of 2000 Slots Sets Off Musical Chairs.

    PubMed

    Kondro, W

    2000-06-23

    Four months before it goes into effect, a $605 million program to help Canadian universities attract and retain the best scientific talent has ignited a furor within Canadian academe. Research-intensive universities have begun aggressively shopping for prospective candidates, using the new chairs as bait. Smaller universities say that has left them fending off talent raids.

  2. Combatting Terrorism through Study of the Genetic Psychology of Terrorist Leaders. The Early Development of the Terrorist Mind

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    well .... One day, he visited Rimini after an air-raid; in some half-ruined villa he took out his violin and played the solo line of the Beethoven ... Violin Concerto to some high German officers. They clapped him enthusiastically, and he closed his eyes as though he had just made a speech from the

  3. The Dragon’s Reach: An Assessment of the People’s Republic of China’s Expeditionary Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    varies depending on the specific purpose of the operation and the near certainty of enemy opposition. The US raid on Grenada shows the limited duration......attachment_data/file/43340/jdp3522nded.pdf. Cole, Ronald H. Operation Urgent Fury: Grenada . Washington, DC: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of

  4. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  5. Keeper of the Gates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Floyd Wiggins, Jr., veteran school security chief for Richmond (Virginia) Public Schools. Besides a security force, the district uses hand-held metal-detectors and police-dog raids in its secondary schools and is considering use of student identification cards, security video cameras, and a larger parent volunteer force. Wiggins feels…

  6. Problems of Providing Joint Operation of Radio-Electronic Equipment (Selected Portions) (Problemy Obespecheniya Sovmestnoy Raboty Radioelektronnoy Apparatury)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-17

    transceivers, which work on the intermediate and ultra short waves, for the connection/communication in the limited coastal areas and on the raids ; such...nena 5.Jamn transmitter ( MP4 . (6.Jamn taittr(P 7.Darmo accumulation o~~~~ data., (8) Jamng Nutrasitr" 9.Epy (10). ~~ Control of nefrecs (11

  7. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  8. Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem through Evolutionary Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    M FILE Cun ARI Research Note 87-04 -- w CM o> < i Q < ADDRESSING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM THROUGH EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION David B...TITLE raid SubMII«; ’ 1 Addressing the Travelling Salesman Problem 1 Through Evolutionary...1 Optimizing the " travelling salesman" problem continues to

  9. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  10. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  11. The Hospital for Tropical Diseases at Endsleigh Gardens, Euston--1920-1939.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2015-11-01

    From 1920 until 1939, London's Hospital for Tropical Diseases sponsored by the Seamen's Hospital Society was located at Endsleigh Gardens, Euston. Unfortunately, written records of that era were destroyed in air raids on Greenwich in 1940 and 1941. Oral reminiscences documented in this paper help remedy this loss.

  12. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement Strategies on Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Calderon, Miriam; Chaudry, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Researchers, advocates, and community agencies are beginning to question the impact of U.S. immigration enforcement strategies on very young children. In particular, immigration raids may suddenly and sometimes violently separate children from their parents, place them in unstable living environments, and create barriers to accessing needed…

  13. Haunted by Enron's ghost. National Century Financial Enterprises files for Chapter 11, leaving a string of broken healthcare chains and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark

    2002-11-25

    Some are calling it the Enron of the healthcare industry. Ryder trucks hauled possible evidence from embattled financier National Century Financial Enterprises during an FBI raid. NCFE filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection last week, sending ripples through the industry and contributing to the bankruptcies of a string of national healthcare chains and at least six hospitals.

  14. Educational Equity and Rights: The Responsibilities of California's Public Schools towards Immigrant Students and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivos, Edward M.; Mendoza, Marcela

    2009-01-01

    Immigration enforcement efforts have become increasingly intrusive and arbitrary in Latino-origin communities in the U.S. As a result, there are very real possibilities that schools which serve large Latino populations may be affected by immigration enforcement activities (also known as "raids") in their communities. This article offers…

  15. The role of sensation seeking, perceived peer pressure, and harmful alcohol use in riding with an alcohol-impaired driver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns.

  16. Flowering times in genetically modified Brassica hybrids in the absence of selection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in days to flowering (DTF) were observed among reciprocal F1 progeny of Brassica napus ‘RaideRR’ with other B. napus and also with weedy B. rapa. Changes in DTF are presented as factors to consider in evaluating the potential of crop to weed gene flow in different geograp...

  17. Indian Surface Combatants: Sea Power for the 1990’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Force Development ........................................................................ 17 5. Logstic Support...prior to the weapons release point of ingressing aircraft. If the Indian Navy’s aircraft are unable to successfully interdict inbound air raids, the...engagement ranges allow for fewer engagements of inbound missiles 73 on aircraft and greatly decrease the probability of eliminating large numbers of

  18. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska,…

  19. Negroes in Pre-Civil War History: New Myths in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Lois

    1974-01-01

    This article analyzes three incidents in pre-Civil War history; Crispus Attucks and the Boston Massacre, John Brown and the raid on Harpers Ferry, and Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation. The article examines how these incidents have been distorted into myths and stereotypes and offers more correct historical interpretations. (DE)

  20. Teaching the Nuclear Age: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 14, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2009-01-01

    On March 28-29, 2009, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 43 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching the nuclear age. In his opening remarks, Walter A. McDougall observed that although students today are not made to crawl under their desks in air raid drills, that atomic power remains, and it is still necessary to raise a…

  1. Fitness costs of warfare for women.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2014-12-01

    Research to date has focused on fitness costs that coalitional aggression imposes on men and how these may have shaped male cognitive design. This study investigated whether warfare may have shaped female cognitive design by identifying fitness costs that lethal raiding imposes on women and determining how widespread these fitness costs are across a sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist societies. To this end, archaeological and ethnographic accounts of lethal raiding were used to generate a list of fitness costs suffered by women in warfare. Five costs were identified: woman killed, woman captured, offspring killed, mate killed/captured, and adult male kin killed/captured. A cross-cultural sample of forager and forager-horticulturalist oral traditions was then surveyed for the presence of these costs. Results suggest that lethal raiding has recurrently imposed fitness costs on women, and that female cognitive design bears reexamination in terms of the motivational and decision-making mechanisms that may have evolved in response to them. This study differs from previous studies of lethal raiding by addressing the lack of comparative research on the fitness costs of warfare for women, by examining a wider range of fitness costs, and by using oral tradition as a database.

  2. The Gonzo Scientist. Slaying monsters for science.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, John

    2008-06-20

    Slaying Monsters for Science John Bohannon The first scientific conference held in Azeroth, the online universe of the role-playing game World of Warcraft, went off virtually without a hitch. Although the participants all died during the final day's social event - a massive raid on an enemy fort - they agree that this event is a glimpse at the future of scientific exchange.

  3. Education in a Recovering Nation: Renewing Special Education in Kosovo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Brendan; Power, Des; Blatch, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "The inexhaustible problem of the Balkans" (Tuchman, 1962, p. ix). Kosovo, technically still a province of Serbia, was devastated by the wars of the 1990s, culminating in 1999 in the flight of refugees to neighboring countries, whether voluntarily or through deliberate "ethnic cleansing", the NATO bombing raids; the withdrawal…

  4. "The Story of Running Eagle" and "The Cause of Things."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James Willard

    The two illustrated children's stories are part of a series about the Blackfeet Indians. The first story, originally published in 1916, is the story of Weasel Woman, an orphaned girl who stole her way into a raiding party and became a successful warrior and, ultimately, a war chief named Running Eagle. The second story is a Blackfeet creation tale…

  5. Inland Evolution of the Coastal Front During IOP-2, 25 January 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Bejerknes, J., 1919: On the structure of moving cyclones. GQfrL EubL, 1, 1-8. -, 1932: Explorations de quelques perturbations atmospheriques a raide...Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling. Atmospheric Sciences Library, 358 pp. Palmen, E. and C.W. Newton, 1969: Atmospheric Circulation

  6. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  7. Resolving Ambiguity in Familiar and Unfamiliar Casual Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, Annelie; Mitterer, Holger; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In British English, the phrase "Canada aided" can sound like "Canada raided" if the speaker links the two vowels at the word boundary with an intrusive /r/. There are subtle phonetic differences between an onset /r/ and an intrusive /r/, however. With cross-modal priming and eye-tracking, we examine how native British English listeners and…

  8. Red Cloud’s War: An Insurgency Case Study for Modern Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Indian ponies who subsisted solely on native grass had a distinct advantage in a supply limited situation. Nonetheless, the around the clock raids...their most able braves on their best ponies .92 Two weeks later, the Indians made another probing attack using similar tactics.93 This skirmish on

  9. Using Utility Functions to Control a Distributed Storage System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Amiri and Wilkes [1996] produced similar models for availability and reliability. Gibson [1991] examined the reliability of RAID arrays. Also, Burkhard ...Browning, E. K. and Zupan, M. A. (1996).Microeconomic Theory and Applications. HarperCollins, fifth edition. 6 Burkhard , W. A. and Menon, J. (1993). Disk

  10. DDG 51 Operational Evaluation: Measures of Workload from Combat Information Center Communication Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    RAIDS ......... 39 ix I. INTRODUCTION Communication is the act of sharing information. This thesis is about human communication , but human ...high costs, high stakes, high drama, and Ligh workload. From a methodological perspective, this thesis is about using natural human communication patterns...34* Fourth. The Operational Test and Evaluation (OPEVAL) of USS ARLEIGH BURKE (DDG 51) presented an opportunity to examine human communication patterns

  11. Visualization of Expert Chat Development in a World of Warcraft Player Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes expertise development in a player group in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft using visualization of chat log data. Charts were created to get a general sense of chat trends in a specific player group engaged in "high-end raiding", a 40-person collaborative activity. These charts helped identify patterns…

  12. Harmonia: A Globally Coordinated Garbage Collector for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Lee, Junghee; Dillow, David A; Wang, Feiyi

    2011-01-01

    Solid-State Drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDD) on a number of workloads. The frequency of garbage collection (GC) activity is directly correlated with the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests, and scheduling of GC is controlled by logic internal to the SSD. SSDs can exhibit significant performance degradations when garbage collection (GC) conflicts with an ongoing I/O request stream. When using SSDs in a RAID array, the lack of coordination of the local GC processes amplifies these performance degradations. No RAID controller or SSD available today has the technology to overcome this limitation. This paper presents Harmonia, a Global Garbage Collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID array of SSDs. Our proposal includes a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices, as well as algorithms to coordinate the global GC cycles. Our simulations show that this design improves response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write dominant workloads response time was improved by 69% while performance variability was reduced by 71%.

  13. Fragility and State-Society Relations in South Sudan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    subjected to forced displacement, slavery , and cattle raiding by northern militias. The LRA in northern Uganda conducted regular attacks and kidnappings... sexual violence with impunity.”34 Increasing accountability for violent crimes through public prosecutions and trials, especially for rural

  14. Physician Migration to and from Canada: The Challenge of Finding the Ethical and Political Balance between the Individual's Right to Mobility and Recruitment to Underserved Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinee, W. Dale

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration to and from countries results from many local causes and international influences. These factors operate in the context of an increasingly globalized economy. From an ethical point of view, selective and targeted "raiding" of developing countries' medical workforce by wealthier countries is not acceptable. However,…

  15. In Sciences, the Reflected Prestige of the Nobel Prize Extends Far Beyond Anything Its Creator Imagined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    As the ultimate symbol of excellence, the Nobel Prize has had a tremendous effect on scholars, institutions, and national pride. Topics discussed include: recruitment and fund raising, salaries and other perks, "raids" from other institutions, students seeking out winners, publication declines, etc. (MLW)

  16. [Impact of new information and communication technologies (NTIC) on hospital administration and patient management. Care Network for Diagnosing and Treating Neurologic Emergencies].

    PubMed

    Moulin, T; Retel, O; Chavot, D

    2003-04-01

    The combination of specialised in-patient management, the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, the standardisation of procedures and organisation of the dies will allow for improving the prognosis of neurological patients seen in emergency situations. In order to achieve this objective, the Networks for Diagnosing and Treating Neurological Emergencies (RAIDS-UN) in Franche-Comté (FC) aim to better the quality of in-patient management for emergency on-set neurological pathologies such as traumatic brain injuries and strokes, the preparation and structuring of the dies for diagnosis and treatment, and assistance in neurology decision making. Based upon the needs of networks which approach the problem from two different directions--the RAIDS-UN/FC network (for neurological emergencies) and the RAIDS-UN/AVC network (for prevention and treatment of strokes)--they should both be able to benefit from new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to promote and support innovations in practice and contribute to the improvement in quality and health promotion effectiveness. In light of these developments, one may better understand the significance of the School of Medicine's role in training experts, advisors and supervisors as well as in providing a high level of quality and effective continuing education. Since 2001, the expansion of the RAIDS-UN networks has emphasised the need for the development of new professional specialties arising on the border between technology and medicine. The operation of these networks requires a strong partnership with health professionals and strategically relies upon a regional dynamic interaction which includes the hospitals, the city, the institutions and the university. It is in this manner that the RAIDS-UN networks will support other initiatives such as the Towards Unity for Health project.

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 06/12/1990

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ClOIMl1I4 u~ TI'It 'OI-OW''', ,lp"'5 01 (loft·" •• . r.".'I'~II!'''S pr~.ct lOfll \\li!'hf'd ''''~1·1o(I1On1 :loI.'S ;>If·.·.tJPy .~, gof'C.·c~,·. 11 ".1 .'I~ ~"f1 ... sn,s TO I( tAU"'. ...

  18. Infantry Instructors’ Conference. 15-19 July 1963

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-01-01

    BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES P.O. BOX 2060. FORT ISENNING. GEORGIA 3105 8 August 1979 SUBJECT: S ipnent (l Docuiments D~ eenkle I k)ewle tiit11:l 1ll...Battalion and Brigade Communication Systems to include an orientation on-new items of communications equipment. 0925 - 0945 Coffee Break 0945 - 1005...division support command elements supporting the brigade. vii 0950 - 1010 Coffee Break 1010 - 1055 "Departmentof Nonresident Instruction" Scope: A

  19. Efficacy and Duration of Three Residual Insecticides on Cotton Duck and Vinyl Tent Surfaces for Control of the Sand Fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    i,tN $tii$t’:l~r,,ry ~:o>r,lf»l un. JC"’’’ ~u<:ll ,·on•hH<lll <., <lUf f :’!lUII <. o’ ll",, r;y 111•’h. <::._,. !b d >xhl’ ’l :t•.-;u iAbl .., h

  20. Characteristic Based Methods for the Time-Domain Maxwell Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-09

    2-D results on Cartesian frame demonstrated a potential for numerical efficiency improvement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Time-domain...11 4 Discussion of Numerical Results ........................ 19 5 C onclusion...l ill tiit, pruIcIt a1lyis lder this’ Iranirwurk. Ilulilerical results it’lect tfi heIcst puss,’ibk 1)1(2pefon~lI liace of t he iiew aiiuiirical j

  1. Reciprocal protection from natural enemies in an ant-wasp association.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Roger; Corbara, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Azémar, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain

    2015-04-01

    We show that in French Guiana the large carton nests of Azteca chartifex, a territorially-dominant arboreal dolichoderine ant, are protected from bird attacks when this ant lives in association with Polybia rejecta, an epiponine social wasp. Because A. chartifex colonies are well known for their ability to divert army ant raids from the base of their host tree so that they protect their associated wasps from these raids, there is a reciprocal benefit for these two partners, permitting us to call this association a mutualism. We also show that P. rejecta nests are significantly less often attacked by birds than are those of two compared epiponine social wasp species. Furthermore, experimentation using a standardized protocol demonstrated the significantly higher aggressiveness of P. rejecta compared to seven other wasp species. We conclude that the efficacious protection of its associated ant nests is likely due to the extreme aggressiveness of P. rejecta.

  2. The origin of war: new 14C dates from ancient Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Kent V; Marcus, Joyce

    2003-09-30

    New 14C dates from archaeological sites in Oaxaca, Mexico, support R. C. Kelly's observation that intervillage raiding may begin as soon as a region has segmentary societies. The oldest defensive palisade dates to 3260-3160 B.P. in conventional radiocarbon years, only a few centuries after village life was established. Over the next millennium raiding evolved into war, with residences and temples burned, captives killed, and populations moving to defensible hills. 14C dates are now available for the first use of hieroglyphic writing to record a captive's name, military victories leading to the consolidation of the Zapotec state, the first skull rack, and the building of a fortress in conquered territory.

  3. Continuous-Tone Electrostatic Electrography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-15

    of v«sluos among th^ «ot^let of ©ach group*» 5fha Esaxlipai^ und siinknaa vplüoo ctra ehovfn a^övo the worägo vftluo«. 2/ mp4 & 4$$* «wifptf ono... raid sine tit&nate, ooe Progroflo -Report Ho. 1„ page 29.) * ü fhö nw’bore appö&rlng in thi-i column shev roughly how tho materials- «hieb...anpunt of Lnpurity whllo agitating tho. flolonlun"to innuro obtaining a honoganoun nrtcrial, raid (c) casting tho e-olssiua i&is sticks», -_ fflablo

  4. Reactions by army ant workers to nestmates having had contact with sympatric ant species.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    It was recently shown that Pheidole megacephala colonies (an invasive species originating from Africa) counterattack when raided by the army ant, Eciton burchellii. The subsequent contact permits Pheidole cuticular compounds (that constitute the "colony odour") to be transferred onto the raiding Eciton, which are then not recognised by their colony-mates and killed. Using a simple method for transferring cuticular compounds, we tested if this phenomenon occurs for Neotropical ants. Eciton workers rubbed with ants from four sympatric species were released among their colony-mates. Individuals rubbed with Solenopsis saevissima or Camponotus blandus workers were attacked, but not those rubbed with Atta sexdens, Pheidole fallax or with colony-mates (control lot). So, the chemicals of certain sympatric ant species, but not others, trigger intra-colonial aggressiveness in Eciton. We conclude that prey-ant chemicals might have played a role in the evolution of army ant predatory behaviour, likely influencing prey specialization in certain cases.

  5. School shooting as a culturally enforced way of expressing suicidal hostile intentions.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Suicide with hostile intent encompasses a wide range of behaviors, from self-killing by methods that can harm others, to the suicide that generally follows a spree-killing raid. Reports on school shooting, a highly dangerous and lethal behavior that is spreading from North America to European countries, are analyzed within the paradigm of suicide with hostile intent, with the purpose of discovering some elements that might prevent and limit the dissemination of this behavior by imitation. In school shooting, the perpetrators often register a message before their killing raid, as in an ancient form of suicidal assault, the devotio, that was widespread across ancient Mediterranean Roman, Greek, and Hebrew cultures. The development of a code of rules to report on these episodes, likely to attract the interest of the population for their bloody implications, could prevent the dissemination of cultural norms that encourage this behavior.

  6. Evaluating 6 ricin field detection assays.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Sparding, Nadja; Tanassi, Julia Tanas; Steenhard, Nina R; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2014-01-01

    This study presents data showing the performance of 6 commercial detection assays against ricin around concentrations specified as detection limits by the producers. A 2-fold dilution series of 20 ng/ml ricin was prepared and used for testing the lateral-flow kits: BADD, Pro Strips™, ENVI, RAID DX, Ricin BioThreat Alert, and IMASS™ device. Three of the 6 tested field assays (IMASS™ device, ENVI assay, and the BioThreat Alert assay) were able to detect ricin, although differences in the measured detection limits compared to the official detection limits and false-negative results were observed. We were not able to get the BADD, Pro Strips™, and RAID assays to function in our laboratory. We conclude that when purchasing a field responder assay, there is large variation in the specificity of the assays, and a number of in-house tests must be performed to ensure functionality.

  7. Insider Threat Detection on the Windows Operating System using Virtual Machine Introspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    its own disk queries for normal system usage. This could be alleviated through the use of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) level 0 or...CMAT-V to obtain additional information from the guest’s memory. Table 2.3: Description of CMAT-V Feature Files. Filename Suffix Description _1.txt...because through the DROPFILES structure, a double null terminated character array that contained the source and destination file names and paths could

  8. Operational Art in the Campaign of Stephen Watts Kearny to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846-7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    business was to seize control of Santa Fe and California.43 Mexico had all but abandoned New Mexico because of the prevalence of raiding Indians, its...from Mexico with even more troops. Contrasting those rumors were indications that “a year before, the Mexican government had virtually abandoned ... Arkansas River distinguished each from the others, but all the routes eventually came together on the Cimarron River near the Cimarron Spring.79 Kearny

  9. Automated Imagery Orthorectification Pilot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Formosat-2 automatic image processing system and is currently being used to produce orthoimages on a daily-basis Leprince et al . (2007) [22...clarity. The prototype system, as reported by Smith et al . [10] and shown in Figure 1, consists of a 4 terabyte (TB) RAID array for storage, a front...131.84.11.215. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms [10] S. Smith, B. Bursey , and C. Tucker, "Auto orthorectification experiment: Phase 2 experiment

  10. The Myth of Omniscient Cybernetics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    elements were the moral, physical, mathematical, geographic and statistical military might of a nation. 16 Successful strategy was the com- bination of...expanses of the Pacific Ocean gave clues to the future of war. Senior naval commanders habitually only mon- itored naval battles. During the battle of...raid in military history was launched from a strike force in the Indian Ocean totaling four aircraft carriers (one more than faced the Japanese at the

  11. Cultural Resources Evaluation of the Upper Atchafalaya Backwater Area, Iberville and Pointe Coupee Parishes, SOuth Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    attempt to lage on Bayou Teche. The Cathcart expedition of attack the Bayagoula, killed the priest St. Cosme 1819 described it as a row of palmetto-covered...southeast of the present study area (Newton 1985:16; Prichard et al. 1945:760). Although Cathcart Raids between the Chitimacha and Indian groups does not...utiliz- artifacts on the east side of Bayou Maringouin, about ing centralized landfill and garbage services. Cer- 850 m south of the junction of West

  12. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-13

    and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli. 11 For a...article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For a very different account, see Chuck...Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee, it is an honor

  13. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-06

    and Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John...Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For a very different...is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities

  14. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-27

    and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli. 11 For a...article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin Laden Camp,” Washington Post, August 3, 2011: C1. For another account, see Peter Bergen, “The...follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee

  15. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-18

    Jennifer E. Lake, and CRS Report RL33787, Maritime Security: Potential Terrorist Attacks and Protection Priorities, by Paul W. Parfomak and John Frittelli...08/08/110808fa_fact_schmidle. For a press report commenting on Schmidle’s sources for the article, see Paul Farhi, “Journalist Details Raid On Bin...Warfare Office, is as follows: Chairman Thornberry, Congressman Langevin , and distinguished members of the House Armed Services Emerging Threats and

  16. Fixed-wing Aircraft Combat Survivability Analysis for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Battle Damage 9 1-6 Risk Assessment Matrix 14 2-1 Aircraft Survivability Balance 16 2-2 One vs. One Kill Chain ...Single Shot) 19 2-3 Hypothetical Kill Chain Illustrating an Insurgent vs. Aircraft 20 2-4 Keys to the AEF Vision 24 2-5...early days of the war, the Italian Army Air Corps conducted a bombing raid on a Turkish camp at Ain Zara , Libya. Figure 1-1 shows a replica of a

  17. Interwar Period Leavenworth Student Papers: Perceptions of Airpower and Implications Regarding Effectiveness of the Leavenworth Schools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    bombardment aviation against industrial and population centers. 2 In his 1934 paper Captain St. Clair Streett, AC , stated, “air raids on industrial...for antiaircraft defense, Captain St. Clair Street, AC , cautioned that 74 political pressure would not simply play a significant part determining...both World War I events and interwar period Air Corps testing on the subject. Captain Frederick Eglin, AC , pointed out that as part of the German

  18. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 24, Number 5, Sep/Oct 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Jennifer; Pal, Partha Pratim; Atighetchi, Michael; Rubel, Paul; and Webber, Franklin (2005), Survivability Architecture of a Mission Critical System...Washington (RAID 2005), Springer, pp. 43–62. 27. Cox, Benjamin ; Evans, David; Filipi, Adrian; Rowanhill, Jonathan; Hu, Wei; Davidson, Jack; Knight, John...the practice in developing and fielding large-scale industrial software and the complex factors that govern their outcome. As an inventor , Mr

  19. Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

  20. Petite Guerre: Brigadier General George Cook, Commander of the Department of Arizona, Application of Small War Doctrine Against the Apache 1870-1873

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified UU 53 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...numerous pressures on the executive branch. Regionally, Mexico deplored the repeated Apache infringement into northern Mexico .3 Ineffectual civilian...create stability within the region. The situation in Arizona created a perpetual cycle of violence composed of raids, murder, and reprisals conducted

  1. Bosnia Air Drop Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    operations in Spring of 1994 appear to be characterized by entropy , as preoccupation with other manifestations of the Bosnian conflict took center...brutality and starvation. This man-made crisis has been exacerbated by cycles of flooding and drought in the harsh climate of Sudan. Although the target...shifting battle lines, raids, droughts , flooding, and resultant disruption of normal agriculture and commerce have frequently impelled population

  2. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Hostage Rescue, 1980; Beirut Peacekeeping Force, 1982; Grenada , 1983; and the Bekaa Valley Air Raid, 1984. While not exhaustive, this list...assumptions in the methodology.100 Despite the problems, the methodology reemerged during the Reagan Administration. The Administration assumed that ten...Soviet Union.101 Despite the seeming success of the Reagan Administration’s approach, the U.S. Army definitively discounts this methodology in the 2006

  3. Organizational Culture and Leadership Practices in the 75th Ranger Regiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rangers. Led by Colonel John S. Mosby, this unit was very successful in raiding Union supply trains behind enemy lines. During World War II, six Ranger...Battalions were formed for operations in the European and Pacific Theaters. The 1st Ranger Battalion was formed under Lieutenant Colonel William O...Darby, who later commanded all Ranger forces in the European Theater. Additionally, the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), more commonly known as

  4. Configuring Battalion File Servers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    AGM Server 2008 to load on a Dell D630 laptop. Though not ideal, it did allow the battalion staff and command group to share...and install the AGM Microsoft Server 2008. The final contract included two Dell R610 1U servers with RAID 5 comprising of three 1 TB hard drives...continuity in data between garrison and deployment environ- ments. With the usage of AGM Server operating systems, the Army is

  5. World War II: A Chronology. December 1943

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-12-01

    attack Japanese po-sitions on Hill 1,� and: occupy VJ portion by nightfall. Sixteen TBF’s, in enerJy positions in NE 64 Dec~ 19.43 - SOUTH ru...durin;z; n.i£)lt. In Arawe area, patrol ,.:activitt,-·continuos. EnerJy planes. lightly raid ~Arc:v·Jc befor~:.. I d.s:vm and at nignt: ~ .. I

  6. The Civil War: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Arizona, on 30 June 1995. Tubman �s Triumphs Harriet Tubman , another black woman involved in intelligence col lection for the Union, is much more famous for...raiding party up the Harriet Tubman From Great Negroes Past and Present, Volume 1, by Russell L. Adams, African American Images, Chicago, Illinois...developed an interest in the Union flag-signal system, and he learned all he could about it. The intelligence Harriet Tubman and her spy organization

  7. Rangers and the Strategic Requirements for Direct Action Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface-to-air missile SAR search and rescue Vll SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SEAL Sea-Air-Land SOCEX special operations capability exercise...raids" (in other words, direct action): 1. Terminal guidance operations 2. Pre-strike suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) 3. Recovery 4...that are part of the day-to-day operation of that installation. This, too, serves as a distractor for the troops of the 82nd and prevents the narrow

  8. Changes in Espionage by Americans: 1947-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    founder of the Azzam Publications website, Babar Ahmad, a British national of Pakistani descent, and his colleague, Syed Talha Ahsan, were indicted in...their arrest, a raid 14 The case of Babar Ahmad, which is outside the scope of this study since Ahmad...fellow would-be jihadist, Derrick Shareef, when news broke that Babar Ahmad had been arrested in London and the Azzam website had been shut down. Shareef

  9. Effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on flocks of African ant-following birds.

    PubMed

    Peters, Marcell K; Likare, Smith; Kraemer, Manfred

    2008-06-01

    Tropical rain forests are rapidly cleared, fragmented, and degraded in sub-Saharan Africa; however, little is known about the response of species and even of key ecological groups to these processes. One of the most intriguing (but often neglected) ecological phenomena in African rain forests is the interaction between swarm-raiding army ants and ant-following birds. Similar to their well-known Neotropical representatives, ant-following birds in Africa track the massive swarm raids of army ants and feed on arthropods flushed by the ants. In this study we analyzed the effect of habitat fragmentation and degradation of a mid-altitude Congo-Guinean rain forest in western Kenya on the structure of ant-following bird flocks. Significant numbers of swarm raids were located in all forest fragments and in both undegraded and degraded forest. Fifty-six different species of birds followed army ant raids, forming bird flocks of one to 15 species. We quantitatively differentiated the bird community into five species of specialized ant-followers and 51 species of opportunistic ant-followers. Species richness and size of bird flocks decreased with decreasing size of forest fragments and was higher in undegraded than in degraded habitat. This was caused by the decrease of the species richness and number of specialized ant-followers at swarms, while the group of opportunistic ant-followers was affected little by habitat fragmentation and degradation. The composition of bird flocks was more variable in small fragments and degraded forest, compared to undegraded habitat in large fragments. The effect of habitat fragmentation on flock structure was best explained by the strong decline of the abundance of specialized ant-followers in small forest fragments. To conserve the association of army ants and ant-following birds in its natural state, vast areas of unfragmented and undegraded tropical rain forest are necessary.

  10. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for

  11. Toward the Great War: U.S. Army Operations and Mexico, 1865-1917

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Kickapoo Indians. The Kickapoos were legitimized by the Mexican government, at least at the local level, and had conducted widespread and effective...MacKenzie to counter the Kickapoo raiders. Sheridan translated the guidance from the President into orders to MacKenzie to counter-raid a Kickapoo village...Mexican border against the Kickapoo village. The village contained only women, children, and men older than fighting age, nineteen of whom MacKenzie’s

  12. The US Army on the Mexican Border: A Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    them; most United States citizens never heard of them.”37 One notable example is Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s foray against the Kickapoo Indians in...May 1873. Between the late 1860s and early 1870s, numerous Indian tribes conducted raids across the border. By 1873, the Kickapoos posed the greatest...Kiowa and Comanche attacks, emigrating Kickapoos were brutally assaulted by Texans as they made their way to Mexico. Once firmly established on their

  13. Effect of Air Power on Military Operations, Western Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-07-15

    brought a sharp OIL ATTACK DID reduction in oil output, to an estimated SO % of pre-raid production in NOT AFFECT July 1944 and to 23 % in September. Bad ... bad weather, which played the major role in reducing enemy rail transport capacity for armament production. However the credit for this reduction in...critical situations. A series of marshalling yard attacks in the interdiction program around the REMAGEN bridgehead, which were made during bad weather

  14. DEFENSE MANAGEMENT. Industry Practices Can Help Military Exchanges Better Assure That Their Goods Are Not Made by Child or Forced Labor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    eliminating sweatshops in the United States. However, we reported on the "widespread existence" of sweatshops within the United States in the 1980s and 1990s.6...Monte, California, and found sweatshop working conditions-workers were confined behind razor wire fences and forced to work 20 hours a day for 70 cents...association, the El Monte raid provoked a public outcry and galvanized the U.S. government’s efforts against sweatshops . Concern in the United States about

  15. Predicting Actions Taken to Counter Economic Sanctions: An Examination of U.S. Government Financial Data Collection and Its Usefulness in Determining if Foreign Governments Anticipate Economic Sanctions: A Case Study of Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Butter 4868 3199 4919 F Birds’ eggs for hatching 6799 8741 4229 F Powdered Milk and Cream 0 3861 F Cigarettes 1000 1950 2811 F Yeast 148 671 2810 F...Suspending Trade ....... ............. .. 53 2. Freezing Capital Assets .... .......... .. 54 3. Suspending Credit and Loans ... ........ .. 54 4...were noted as early as June 1979 when an Iraqi air raid across the Iranian border killed six men. Skirmishes along the border increased during the

  16. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Article 51.24 Cyber warfare is unique in that vulnerabilities that a network target may have could be discovered by software developers who then... cyber warfare rather than physical combat, a future subject to air strikes or ground-forces raids would likely be a powerful deterrent. Some in the U.S...Manwaring, The Complexity of Modern Asymmetric Warfare, (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2012), 126-129. 23 Arie J. Schaap, “ Cyber Warfare Operations

  17. Enhancing FBI Terrorism and Homeland Security Information Sharing With State, Local and Tribal Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Surveillance Act GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office IA Intelligence Analyst IB Intelligence Bulletin IIR Intelligence Information Report IRTPA...with the Palmer Raids and Wall Street bombings (FBI, n.d. (k)). Although the exact volume of information collected by the FBI during these decades of...information through Intelligence Information Reports ( IIR ) (“raw intelligence”) Intelligence Bulletins (IB), Situational Intelligence Reports (SIRs) and

  18. Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    provided information on Glyphosate , the herbicide that is used for aerial eradication in Colombia. The booklet’s objective was to persuade Colombians...with Army Rangers who raided a Taliban compound and air base Oct. 19; they heralded the arrival of US forces by spreading leaflets with the picture of a...and Symbols. PSYOP themes, activities, and symbols should be based on a thorough analysis of targets, including friendly and adversary PSYOP

  19. Stratification, Integration and Challenges to Authority in Contemporary South Korea,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    Cheerfl! comzlimnce with ccllo_ -.. ve ncrn Lnd the subordintin -f indi-ua! in .re.t - -- , - . _ " _ ,, . ..... . . . .. . .. - , , . .. . - . , ,o...and large scale raid incastrialization have resulted in nomentcus shift,. both of geographic and occupational population distribution. A rapid decline...the middle classes and the spread of middle class life styles and e:c)Betations throughout society is partic-larly marked. Large scale generational

  20. Predicting Soil Strength with Remote Sensing Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    School (NPS) using data gathered from the Shoalwater Bay Training Area in Queensland , Australia. Similar to the CNMI’10 campaign, the Australia...II Air Raid Bunkers Various local foliage Shallow-water bathymetry Volcanic lava Black and white calibration panels 26 Each of the above data...signature from Tinian is larger than the signatures from Pagan. This can be attributed to the darker volcanic sand that was found on Pagan versus the

  1. Sik-ki-mi. Indian Culture Series: Stories of the Blackfeet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The children's story is one of a series about the Blackfeet Tribe at the height of its power in Southern Alberta and North Central Montana. In the story, Eagle Head, a Blackfeet boy, proves his bravery as he faces the first steamboat on the Yellowstone River and recaptures his chief's favorite buffalo horse, Sik-ki-mi, in a raid on a Crow camp.…

  2. STK Bladestore Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Heer, T

    2003-11-05

    The STK Bladestore is a disk subsystem consisting of ATA disks, fiber channel connectivity, and a RAID controller (LSI manufactured). There are essentially four host connections and four backend fiber connections. The host side ports are 2Gb/sec and with their advertised 400MB/sec bandwidth, the disk side ports are 1GB/sec. Our goal is to test this flavor of disk to see what the real world performance might be.

  3. Elements of Operational Design in the Planning for the Marianas Campaign in 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited cognitive recognition began at this point, “thus, apart from presenting a unique innovation of thought...mission of the raid was to gather intelligence, it combined the use of combat aircraft and submarines to disguise the reconnaissance planes, as well as...Navy. Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1978. Rottman, Gordon L. Saipan and Tinian 1944: Piercing the Japanese Empire. Botley

  4. Air Superiority and Airfield Attack - Lessons from History.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-15

    146 Syrian Airfields ......................... ....... 147 Syrian Air Force/Air Defense Strength ............ 147 Israeli Airfields...counter the warning capability by forming up to the east of Calais below the effective coverage of "Chain Home" ( CH ) stations and beyond the reach of...CHL. The raid assessment capability of both CH and CHL was marginal at maximum range, and "three-plus" or "ten- plus bandits" sometimes became 100

  5. Collective Defense of the Baltic States: A SOF Beginning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    in its foreign policy. In a dramatic example, Russia cut off its delivery of natural gas to the Ukraine in 2006.27 Similarly, it cut off the oil flow...Having specially selected and trained SOF troopers with these experiences has additional synergy as these soldiers are by their nature extremely...specialized in raiding Norway in kayaks and consisted of British, Canadians, North American Indians (Natives) plus members of the US 2 Ranger

  6. Reluctant Allies: The United States Army Air Force and the Soviet Voenno Vozdushnie Sily 1941-1945,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    34 operations occurred for several reasons ~not all of them obvious at first glance. FRANTIC employed unique methods to achieve its ends, and it provided the only...was led by Colonel Harry A. Halverson. HALPRO consisted of thirteen B-24 "Liberator" four-engine heavy bombers. The raid force had originally...staffs almost immediately recommended disapproval . American airmen drew up two principal reasons to scuttle any attempt to hand VELVET planes over to

  7. The Battle of Khafji: An Assessment of Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Battle of Khafji,” p. 15. 30 Notes 9 “ EPW interviews” AWC Khafji Study (Maxwell, AFB: Air Force Historical Research Agency) Computer File Name War_reps...contradict a large-scale offensive. Instead, it appears that the attacks were limited in scope for the purpose of capturing EPWs and gaining tactical...evidence supporting a limited attack scenario were the numerous EPW reports that stated: “The sole purpose of the raid on Al-Khafji was to capture

  8. Making the National Security Council Better In the Bahamas to Resolve Illegal Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    brigands who pirated the area.”44 Raiding pirates like Charles Vane, Mary Reed, Anne Bonny, and Edward Teach —more widely known as Blackbeard... Mindful of The Bahamas’ enduring geostrategic importance to U.S. national security—as evidenced by a variety of sensitive American military...their efforts to escape abstract poverty by risking life and limb in unseaworthy boats in hopes of reaching the islands of The Bahamas.204 Undoubtedly

  9. Specialized Assault Units of the World War I Western Front: A Comparative Study of the German Stormtrooper Battalions, and Canadian Trench Raiders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Kemp, 7 February 1918,” in Mark O. Humphries , ed., The Selected Papers of Sir Arthur Currie: Diaries, Letters, and Report to the Ministry, 1917-1933...Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...Marshal Sir John French, directed his Chief of General Staff to publish a memorandum ordering all field army and corps commands to conduct raids.120

  10. A Theory of Special Operations: The Origin, Qualities, and Use of SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    include the raid on Entebbe53 and the rescue of Kurt Muse from Modelo Prison, Panama, in Operation Just Cause.54 Since SOF have the characteristics of...Nature of Strategy, Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, July 2004, pp . 8-9. See also his subsequent book based on the thesis, Special Operations...Name Copperhead (New York: Pocket Books, 1994), pp . 386-405. 4. The exception is the current period, when SOF have been institutionalized in part

  11. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    context about the often-overlooked aspects of the war in 20 George W. Smith , Carlson’s Raid: The...M. Smith , ―father of modern amphibious warfare,‖ referred to it as a ―piece of folly.‖78 Naval historian Samuel Eliot Morrison, claimed that the...Japanese soldiers captured the remaining forty people, and the western Aleutians were in Imperial hands.167 Admiral Theobald and the commander of the

  12. Sacred Cows and Stubborn Mules: The Imperative to Reform the US Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    2001 with a Master of Fine Arts degree, both in English writing. His civilian career endeavors include freelance writing, public relations, human... Freelancing undermines US soft power. Yet in defense of the raid, the tactics and speed employed to execute decisions were in line with meeting...streamline USG information technologies are needed. Finally, to gain lay-reader coherence, the USC requires common- sense editing. Today’s USC is often

  13. Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, from 14th Naval District Photograph Collection, PHOG No. P.H. 4464-45) Official USN Photo, 1945. REMOVAL OF SPLINTERPROOF SHELTER (FORMER FACILITY S 1122), LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 1 AND 3 IN NAVAL SHIPYARD. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Air Raid Shelters, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. USSR Report, Military Affairs, Aviation and Cosmonautics, No. 2, February 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-06

    allegedly critically weakened by British and U.S. bombing raids on aircraft plants, oilfields and synthetic fuel plants of Germany and its allies...little benefit . In addition, combat pilots get the false impression that victory comes easy, and they become complacent. Naturally initiative and...and technology should be directed toward the benefit of man, in the interests of world peace. The replies by CPSU Central Committee General Secretary

  15. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    wartime evolution of literature and the arts as well as popular culture, I have set those subjects aside and instead focused on war’s principal political...over war’s impact on American society. Decades of debate also stretched the antimilitarists’ argument well be- yond the basic proposition that a powerful...Indian raids on the frontier. British assaults on coastal cities, and sporadic fighting wherever it might occur. What is less well known is that about

  16. Warfare and reproductive success in a tribal population.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Intergroup conflict is a persistent feature of many human societies yet little is known about why individuals participate when doing so imposes a mortality risk. To evaluate whether participation in warfare is associated with reproductive benefits, we present data on participation in small-scale livestock raids among the Nyangatom, a group of nomadic pastoralists in East Africa. Nyangatom marriages require the exchange of a significant amount of bridewealth in the form of livestock. Raids are usually intended to capture livestock, which raises the question of whether and how these livestock are converted into reproductive opportunities. Over the short term, raiders do not have a greater number of wives or children than nonraiders. However, elders who were identified as prolific raiders in their youth have more wives and children than other elders. Raiders were not more likely to come from families with fewer older maternal sisters or a greater number of older maternal brothers. Our results suggest that in this cultural context raiding provides opportunities for increased reproductive success over the lifetime.

  17. Nest predation and maternal care in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) at Lake St Lucia, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Combrink, Xander; Warner, Jonathan K; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-12-01

    Information regarding nest predation, nest abandonment, and maternal care in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is largely restricted to anecdotal observations, and has not been studied quantitatively. Consequently, we investigated their nesting biology using camera-traps over four years at Lake St Lucia, South Africa. We obtained 4305 photographs (daylight captures=90.1%, nocturnal=9.9%) of 19 nest-guarding females. Of 19 monitored nests, 37% were raided by predators (mean=12.1±6.2days subsequent to camera placement). All females returned to their nests following first predation, and on average returned three times between predator raids before nest abandonment. Water monitors (Varanus niloticus) and marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) were the main egg predators. Nesting raids lasted 5.9±1.6days. Diurnally females were seldom on the nest, except during cool/cloudy weather or rain, preferring to guard from nearby shade. Females defended nests aggressively against non-human intruders. Five Nile crocodile females were observed liberating their hatchlings from nests. A detailed sequence of a mother excavating and transporting hatchlings revealed 13 excursions between nest and water over 32.5h. This, after months of continual nest attendance and defence, is illustrative of the high level of maternal care in Nile crocodiles. Camera-trapping is an effective, non-invasive method for further crocodile nesting behaviour research.

  18. Wild Chimpanzees on the Edge: Nocturnal Activities in Croplands

    PubMed Central

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands. PMID:25338066

  19. Wild chimpanzees on the edge: nocturnal activities in croplands.

    PubMed

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands.

  20. The research and design for a high availability object storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Ling; Tan, Zhihu; Gu, Peng; Wan, Jiguang

    2008-12-01

    With the growing scale of the computer storage systems, the likelihood of multi-disk failures happening in the storage systems has increased dramatically. Based on a thorough analysis on the fault-tolerance capability on various existing storage systems, we propose a new hierarchical, highly reliable, multi-disk fault-tolerant storage system architecture: High Availability Object Storage System (HAOSS). In the HAOSS, each object has an attribute field for reliability level, which can be set by the user according to the importance of data. Higher reliability level corresponds to better data survivability in case of multi-device failure. The HAOSS is composed of two layers: the upper-layer and the lower-layer. The upper-layer achieves the high availability by storing multiple replicas for each storage object in a set of storage devices. The individual replicas can service the I/O requests in parallel so as to obtain high performance. The lower-layer deploys RAID5, RAID6 or RAID_Blaum coding schemes to tolerate multi-disk failures. In addition, the disk utilization rate of RAID_Blaum is higher than that of multiple replicas, and it can be further improved by growing the RAID group size. These advantages come at the price of more complicated fault-tolerant coding schemes, which involve a large amount of calculation for encoding and cause an adverse impact on the I/O performance, especially on the write performance. Results from both our internal experiments and third-party independent tests have shown that HAOSS servers have better multi-disk- failure tolerance than existing similar products. In a 1000Mb Ethernet interconnection environment, with a request block size of 1024KB, the sequential read performance for a HAOSS server reaches 104MB/s, which is very close to the theoretical maximum effective bandwidth of Ethernet networks. The HAOSS offers a complete storage solution for high availability applications without the compromises that today's storage systems

  1. Raiders of the Lost Bark: Orangutan Foraging Strategies in a Degraded Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  2. Detailed Modeling of EUV Recombination and Contaminating Emissions Near 911 Å: A New Means of Dayside Ionospheric Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The 911 Å emission is produced by radiative recombination of ionospheric O+ ions and electrons, which makes it useful for satellite remote sensing of the ionosphere during the daytime and at night. However, previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets during the daytime, at altitudes less than 300 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Furthermore, the daytime spectrum was shown to be contaminated by other EUV emissions produced by molecular nitrogen, thus suggesting that the 911 Å was useless as a dayside ionospheric diagnostic. Yet, satellite-based measurements made by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002 at an altitude of ~830 km, showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. Recent measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show that the daytime EUV spectrum is not as strongly contaminated as previously thought; the RAIDS measurements are shown to be in agreement with LORAAS measurements made between 1999-2002. A new analysis of the daytime and nighttime production of the 911 Å emission and the contaminating emissions that takes absorption by O, O2, and N2 into account shows that viewing geometry effects and absorption can explain these seemingly disparate observations. This analysis is shown to be in agreement with the RAIDS, LORAAS, and other recent observations. Simulations of the dayglow measurements are presented confirming that, although contaminated, the measurements can still provide an accurate measure

  3. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark) to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits), when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated) and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which should be used

  4. Proposed Aural Nondetectability Limits for Army Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    C U a 9\\91AD I@ Technical Meemorandum 3-35 PROPOSED AURAL NONDOTECTABILITY LIMITS FOR ARMY MATERIEL 0 Georges R. Garinther I Joel T. Kalb David C...LIMTTS FOR ARMY MATERIEL , ,, 6. P’ErFOPMIN CG RE POR T Njý 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT O;R C-RAId- HUM1cjRý.•; Georges R. Garinther David C. Hodge...Technical Memorandum 3-85 PROPOSED AUTRAL NONDETFCTABILITY LIMITS FOR ARMY MAT1ERIEL Georc~e% R. Garinther Joel T. Kalb David C. Hodge G. Richard Price March

  5. We Will Find A Way: Understanding the Legacy of Canadian Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Operations Forces Command and held the position until August 2009, when he was appointed chief of staff of the Land Force Doc- trine and Training...Diluted among the battalions in 4 and 6 Brigades during the ill-fated Dieppe Raid on 19 August 1942, the original Viking Force commandos were never...leather tough Canadians” and “tough, scrappy and self-reliant.”41 Beach Commando “W” was disbanded at the end of August 1944. Figure 2. Members of

  6. The Russian Military in the Year 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A261 758 1110 STA’rs 4V DTIC 2𔃺•RAID𔃺ýý ELECTE S MARL 81993 D THESIS E THE RUSSIAN MILITARY IN...Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. 2b. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDILE 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Nt MBER( S 5...MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. Dt ICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate

  7. U.S. Lake Erie Natural Gas Resource Development. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    enrv ironment of mlaterta a s usedl inI res irlu Is gentc - cr1 raid a unsequent ly min rimi ze envi ronmenrtal damage vithin ava1il ab I t echnologi...14 - o - mp4 ~ -u0 0 00 0C., F-. 73~ m 2 0,C a .It C6O 3-148 9 II At J. A ,fill] a’>>>’’ ll~ 3-149 at -1~ CaaaC~~ a S a ~ řa~ ta2~t a22~ 5a a

  8. Guide to Simulation Scheduling. Appendices B and C,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    COKT’U CAL014bC * .RITE(6,850) CAL0 14SO 850 F0FI.A(/I.3X, @INPUT ALL PULILAY! (9THER THAN SUNCAYF9: Mp4 ,C[,lY./CAL0150C */93X96LN0 OF DATA PLEAIE PFESS... RAid 79C GC TO 1 GkACi e0C C CRAC181C 7 CENTISLE GRA01&82C C slior CAPACITY (THERE IS NC wORrCEINTE R-LEVEL CAP.) GRA0183C K ILL*C GRA0184C I TNN=C

  9. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  10. Rocket Barge on the Pearl River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    During the early 1970's French settlers once cautiously sailed up the beautiful Pearl River in Hancock County looking for a New World home. Later, swashbuckling pirates took refuge in this historic stream in South Mississippi after raiding merchant ships. Today, a different cargo leaves a wake in the blue waters en route to National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mississippi Test Facility. The huge barge being pushed above contains the free world's largest rocket booster, on its way to the national rocket testing facility for extensive captive firings. Later versions of this huge rocket, first satge of the Apollo/Saturn V, will boost the first Americans to the Moon.

  11. Performance consequences of parity placement in disk arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Edward K.; Katz, Randy H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a variety of parity placement schemes are defined and investigated to demonstrate that, at relatively large request sizes of hundreds of kilobytes, the choice of parity placement significantly affects performance (20 to 30 percent for the disk array configurations that are common today). It is shown that the left-symmetric, extended-left-symmetric and flat-left-symmetric are the best RAID level 5 parity placements. The placement with the highest read performance, flat-left-symmetric, has the lowest write performance, while the placement with the lowest read performance, left-symmetric, has the highest write performance. Suggestions for optimizing parity placements are included.

  12. Civilian Morale under Aerial Bombardment 1914-1939. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-01

    terminals, shipping, or munitions plants were legitimate targets and that it was unfor- tunate that the falling bombs had missed the edges of the... plant managers that on the morrow of a raid not more than ten percent of the outside workers would be in their places at their usual time and that...du Maroc et 1«affaire du Sahgo," Revue de 1’Armee de l’Air. VI, Oct 1934. 3Haldane, og. cit., pp 42-44. "It is important to real- ize when we

  13. Instrumentation for planetary and terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.; Christensen, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses the optical design of the UV imaging spectrograph for the Cassini mission to Saturn, auroral X-ray imaging from high and low earth orbits, the WIND Imaging Interferometer, the FUV imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers and EUV instruments of the RAIDS experiment, a gas-ionization solar spectral monitor, and the calculation of the isoplanatic patch for multiconjugate adaptive optics. Also discussed are a novel low resolution broadband IR spectrograph, a visible airglow limb imaging spectrograph, shortwave calibrations of active cavity radiometers using tungsten lamps, and a UV ionospheric imaging experiment for the ARGOS satellite.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  15. Overview of TPC Benchmark E: The Next Generation of OLTP Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Trish

    Set to replace the aging TPC-C, the TPC Benchmark E is the next generation OLTP benchmark, which more accurately models client database usage. TPC-E addresses the shortcomings of TPC-C. It has a much more complex workload, requires the use of RAID-protected storage, generates much less I/O, and is much cheaper and easier to set up, run, and audit. After a period of overlap, it is expected that TPC-E will become the de facto OLTP benchmark.

  16. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Jet Forward Air Controllers in SEAsia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-10-15

    a var’lation of the 3 earlier HUNTER-KILLER operation--the SNARE DRUM mission, Unl-4.e the war in STEEL TIGER, the conflict in northern Laos was a...the use of ARC LIGHT B-52 ~ 323 I raids. SNARE DRUM , or min-ARC LIGH T st ’jKe! were substituted On these missions, a Laredo FAC led a force of s...pteen ’or moe) F-4s t, toie t ’get and 31, directed them against t After one ?O-.h p SNARE DRUM m, on, the Air I Attache at Ventiane reported. "The pr

  17. Exclusive inclusion: the violation of human rights and US immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Drevdahl, Denise J; Dorcy, Kathleen Shannon

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we examine US immigration policies relative to those who work as nurses and those who are manual/low-wage laborers. Recruiting foreign nurses from developing countries to alleviate the nursing shortage is a common practice. While specialized visas for these healthcare professionals facilitate the visa application and approval process, immigrants employed in low-wage positions are subjected to long waits for visas, workplace raids, and subsequent deportation. Selective assistance to some immigrants violates basic human rights and global expectations of justice. Moral and ethical frameworks need to guide US immigration policy.

  18. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  19. Operation JUBILEE: Dieppe 1942 - The Myth of Retro-Active Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    Norway. 6 Russell F. Weighley, An American Way of War (Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1977), p. 260. 7 Robin Neillands, The Dieppe...Desmond. A Military History of Canada. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 2007. Neillands, Robin . The Dieppe Raid: the Story of the Disastrous 1942...their use :l:lS. l ’nl. --. meam fur th~ provi:,ion u( nverwht’]mm~ cltJs~ ŕppor1 an· av~ilauh•, assaulb >hOilld h· )’ l’" ’""d tn <io’\\’clop round

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    ret) Ivan Tikhonovich Yaki- menko has died unexpectedly. ...He was a member of the Communist Party since 1941. I.T. Yakimenko was born on 31 March...Two days before its start, Ye. Shmelev , oblast civil defense chief of staff, decided to check the readiness of the leaders of his services. This...But, first he woke up all the oblast leaders, and then turned on the "air raid warning" alarm. When the infuriated Shmelev ordered him to turn it off

  1. Targeted Lymphoma Cell Death by Novel Signal Transduction Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cell, and even other anti-CD22 mAb (4-6). In fact, the NCI has approved and funded the humanization of the anti-CD22 blocking mAb, HB22.7 through...the Rapid Access Intervention Drug (RAID) Program. Humanized HB22.7 could become an exciting new therapy for patients with CD22-positive non...apoptosis, and lymphomacidal effects in human NHL xenografts. We also have the capacity to use small animal immuno-positron emission tomography

  2. The Islamic State We Knew: Insights Before the Resurgence and Their Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    already proved valuable. It helped save Erbil, the capital of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, in August 2014. It enabled military gains by the peshmerga...the armed forces of the Kurdistan Region.110 And an air-enabled raid in Syria on May 16, 2015, resulted in the death of a senior financial officer...Foreign Affairs, Vol. 93, No. 6, November/December 2014). 121 Janine Di Giovanni, “The March on Mosul and the Future of Kurdistan ,” Newsweek

  3. Laboratory Modeling of Aspects of Large Fires,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    7 -7 g~L AD-A153 152 DNA-TR- 84-18 LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES G.F. Carrier "URARY F.E. Fendell b DVSO R.D. Fleeter N. Got L.M...I1I TITLE (include Socurty Olassihicarion) LABORATORY MODELING OF ASPECTS OF LARGE FIRES 12. PERSONAL AUrHoR(S G.F. Carrier F.E. Fendell R.D. Fleeter N...Motorbuch Verlag.___ Caidin, M. (1960). A Torch to the Enemy: the Fire Raid on Tokyo. New York, NY: Ballantine. Carrier, G. F., Fendell , F. E., and

  4. The NOAO Data Cache Initiative - Building a Distributed Online Datastore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.; Barg, I.; Zárate, N.; Smith, C.; Saavedra, N.

    2005-12-01

    The Data Cache Initiative (DCI) of the NOAO Data Products Program is a prototype Data Transport System for NOAO and affiliate facilities. DCI provides pre-tested solutions for conveying data from our large suite of instrumentation to a central mountain data cache. The heart of DCI is an extension of the Save-the-Bits safestore, running for more than a decade (more than 4 million images saved, comprising more than 40 Tbytes). The iSTB server has been simplified by the removal of STB's media handling functionality, and iSTB has been enhanced to remediate each incoming header with information from a database of NOAO instrumentation and an interface to the NOAO proposal database. Each mountain data cache has been implemented on commodity hardware running Redhat 9.0. Software RAID 1 runs over hardware RAID 5 to provide maximum storage reliability for each copy of the data. Each image is transferred from Kitt Peak or Cerro Tololo to the corresponding datastore at the Tucson or La Serena data centers using an rsync-based queue adopted from NCSA. From each data center, the files are transported to the other NOAO data center and also to NCSA for off-site storage using the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) of the San Diego Supercomputer Center. Thus we have three copies of each file on spinning disks or near-online. Major institutional users will be given access to the datastores.

  5. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  6. Margaret Sanger: birth control's successful revolutionary.

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, D

    1980-01-01

    The year 1979 marked the centennial of Margaret Sanger, birth control pioneer. Sanger worked to secure two new human rights: the right to decide whether to have a child and the right of a child to be wanted. Beginning in 1873, antipornography crusader Anthony Comstock lobbied through Congress and the state legislatures laws forbidding the distribution of contraceptive devices and even information. He equated these with erotic postcards as "obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, indecent and disgusting." Sanger's strategy was to challenge the Comstock laws in the courts. She studied birth control methods abroad and published a pamphlet, Family Limitation, in 1914. It was the first modern marriage manual; it was also illegal. The publicity her trial generated was immense and highly sympathetic. The government dropped its case when it saw it could only make her a martyr. An obstetrical nurse, Sanger had seen the plight of factory women in the poorest sections of New York City. In order to provide the medical advice and supplies women clamored for, Sanger opened the first U.S. birth control clinic, in Brooklyn in 1916. The New York City Vice Squad raided and closed it, and jailed Sanger. Margaret Sanger underwent other trials, raids, and harassments, but each time won additional public support for her organization--Planned Parenthood--and her cause. Images p737-a p740-a p741-a PMID:6992603

  7. Multi-Temporal Analysis of WWII Reconnaissance Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, P.; Eckstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    There are millions of aerial photographs from the period of the Second Wold War available in the Allied archives, obtained by aerial photo reconnaissance, covering most of today's European countries. They are spanning the time from 1938 until the end of the war and even beyond. Photo reconnaissance provided intelligence information for the Allied headquarters and accompanied the bombing offensive against the German homeland and the occupied territories. One of the initial principal targets in Bohemia were the synthetized fuel works STW AG (Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG) in Zaluzi (formerly Maltheuren) near Most (formerly Brück), Czech Republic. The STW AG synthetized fuel plant was not only subject to bombing raids, but a subject to quite intensive photo reconnaissance, too - long before the start of the bombing campaign. With a multi-temporal analysis of the available imagery from international archives we will demonstrate the factory build-up during 1942 and 1943, the effects of the bombing raids in 1944 and the struggle to keep the plant working in the last year of the war. Furthermore we would like to show the impact the bombings have today, in form of potential unexploded ordnance in the adjacent area of the open cast mines.

  8. Development of electronic cinema projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William E.

    2001-03-01

    All of the components for the electronic cinema are now commercially available. Sony has a high definition progressively scanned 24 frame per second electronic cinema camera. This can be recorded digitally on tape or film on hard drives in RAID recorders. Much of the post production processing is now done digitally by scanning film, processing it digitally, and recording it on film for release. Fiber links and satellites can transmit cinema program material to theaters in real time. RAID or tape recorders can play programs for viewing at a much lower cost than storage on film. Two companies now have electronic cinema projectors on the market. Of all of the components, the electronic cinema projector is the most challenging. Achieving the resolution, light, output, contrast ratio, and color rendition all at the same time without visible artifacts is a difficult task. Film itself is, of course, a form of light-valve. However, electronically modulated light uses other techniques rather than changes in density to control the light. The optical techniques that have been the basis for many electronic light-valves have been under development for over 100 years. Many of these techniques are based on optical diffraction to modulate the light. This paper will trace the history of these techniques and show how they may be extended to produce electronic cinema projectors in the future.

  9. The Utilization of Robotic Pets in Dementia Care

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sandra; Houston, Susan; Qin, Huanying; Tague, Corey; Studley, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioral problems may affect individuals with dementia, increasing the cost and burden of care. Pet therapy has been known to be emotionally beneficial for many years. Robotic pets have been shown to have similar positive effects without the negative aspects of traditional pets. Robotic pet therapy offers an alternative to traditional pet therapy. Objective: The study rigorously assesses the effectiveness of the PARO robotic pet, an FDA approved biofeedback device, in treating dementia-related symptoms. Methods: A randomized block design with repeated measurements guided the study. Before and after measures included reliable, valid tools such as: RAID, CSDD, GDS, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, and GSR. Participants interacted with the PARO robotic pet, and the control group received standard activity programs. Five urban secure dementia units comprised the setting. Results: 61 patients, with 77% females, average 83.4 years in age, were randomized into control and treatment groups. Compared to the control group, RAID, CSDD, GSR, and pulse oximetry were increased in the treatment group, while pulse rate, pain medication, and psychoactive medication use were decreased. The changes in GSR, pulse oximetry, and pulse rate over time were plotted for both groups. The difference between groups was consistent throughout the 12-week study for pulse oximetry and pulse rate, while GSR had several weeks when changes were similar between groups. Conclusions: Treatment with the PARO robot decreased stress and anxiety in the treatment group and resulted in reductions in the use of psychoactive medications and pain medications in elderly clients with dementia. PMID:27716673

  10. Remote sensing from manned low Earth orbit spacecraft: implications for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the question of what contributions the International Space Station (ISS) can make as a sensor based remote sensing platform. There is precedent for the use of manned platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Skylab had the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the Shuttle -Mir program, the Piroda module was dedicated to Earth sensing. One experiment in the Piroda, the Multispectral Stereo Scanner (MOMS-2PP) was used for quantifying the advantages of performing remote sensing on the ISS. The Space Shuttle program also made significant contributions to Earth observations. Sixteen missions carried electronic experiment packages for Earth observations and crew on almost every mission performed earth observations using cameras. Experiments planned for the ISS can also tell us much about the potential the ISS has as a remote sensing platform by examining their design and objectives. In March of 2009 an experiment called Agricultural Camera (AgCam) was delivered to the ISS for installation in the window of the Laboratory module. In fall of 2009 two more remote sensing experiments will arrive on the ISS - the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS). These instruments will be combined on one experiment package, HICO- RAIDS experiment package (HREP), and will be placed outside the ISS, on an external platform.

  11. Comparing the Effects of Multisensory Stimulation and Individualized Music Sessions on Elderly People with Severe Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alba; Maseda, Ana; Marante-Moar, M Pilar; de Labra, Carmen; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-03-08

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a multisensory stimulation environment (MSSE) and individualized music sessions on agitation, emotional and cognitive status, and dementia severity in a sample of institutionalized patients with severe dementia. Twenty-two participants with a diagnosis of severe or very severe dementia were randomly assigned to two groups: MSSE and individualized music sessions. Both groups participated in two 30-min weekly sessions over 16 weeks. Outcomes were agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, CMAI), mood (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, CSDD), anxiety (Rating Anxiety in Dementia, RAID), cognitive function (Severe Mini-Mental State Examination, SMMSE), and the overall severity of dementia (Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale, BANS-S). They were assessed at baseline (pre-trial), in the middle (mid-trial), at the end of the intervention (post-trial), and 8 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Patients in the MSSE group showed significant improvement in their RAID and BANS-S scores compared with the individualized music group post- versus pre-trial. With regard to agitation, there was improvement during the intervention in both the MSSE and individualized music groups in the CMAI total score after 16 weeks of intervention, with no significant differences between the groups. The results suggest that MSSE could have better effects on anxiety symptoms and dementia severity in comparison with individualized music sessions in elderly patients with severe dementia.

  12. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  13. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species.

  14. The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Robert E

    2003-10-15

    The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

  15. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  16. Spatiotemporal resource distribution and foraging strategies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lanan, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of food resources in space and time is likely to be an important factor governing the type of foraging strategy used by ants. However, no previous systematic attempt has been made to determine whether spatiotemporal resource distribution is in fact correlated with foraging strategy across the ants. In this analysis, I present data compiled from the literature on the foraging strategy and food resource use of 402 species of ants from across the phylogenetic tree. By categorizing the distribution of resources reported in these studies in terms of size relative to colony size, spatial distribution relative to colony foraging range, frequency of occurrence in time relative to worker life span, and depletability (i.e., whether the colony can cause a change in resource frequency), I demonstrate that different foraging strategies are indeed associated with specific spatiotemporal resource attributes. The general patterns I describe here can therefore be used as a framework to inform predictions in future studies of ant foraging behavior. No differences were found between resources collected via short-term recruitment strategies (group recruitment, short-term trails, and volatile recruitment), whereas different resource distributions were associated with solitary foraging, trunk trails, long-term trail networks, group raiding, and raiding. In many cases, ant species use a combination of different foraging strategies to collect diverse resources. It is useful to consider these foraging strategies not as separate options but as modular parts of the total foraging effort of a colony. PMID:25525497

  17. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  18. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R.

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  19. From Forest to Farm: Systematic Review of Cultivar Feeding by Chimpanzees – Management Implications for Wildlife in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, Kimberley J.; McLennan, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human–wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified ‘high’ and ‘low’ conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected

  20. Performance metric development for a group state estimator in airborne UHF GMTI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwell, Ryan A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of evaluation metrics for group state estimator (GSE, i.e. group tracking) algorithms. Key differences between group tracker metrics and individual tracker metrics are the method used for track-to-truth association and the characterization of group raid size. Another significant contribution of this work is the incorporation of measured radar performance in assessing tracker performance. The result of this work is a set of measures of performance derived from canonical individual target tracker metrics, extended to characterize the additional information provided by a group tracker. The paper discusses additional considerations in group tracker evaluation, including the definition of a group and group-to-group confusion. Metrics are computed on real field data to provide examples of real-world analysis, demonstrating an approach which provides characterization of group tracker performance, independent of the sensor's performance.

  1. Organizing lesbian/queer bathhouse events: Emerging forms of sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Gailey, Nerissa

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of public sexual spaces in the social science literature have, until recently, been dominated by analyses of men's use of these spaces for erotic expression. In the late 1990s, feminist collectives began to explore the emancipatory potentials these spaces can have for lesbian sexualities. After a police raid on one such event called the "Pussy Palace," scholars in diverse disciplines began to explore how these events have both opened up and restricted erotic possibilities for lesbians, queer women, and trans* attendees. This article reviews the existing social science literature on lesbian and queer bathhouse events and highlights several key themes and subthemes that have dominated the discourse, including the importance that these spaces be recognized for their ability to both shape and be shaped by principles of community, safety, and sexual health/wellness.

  2. Neurological problems of jazz legends.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Phillip L

    2009-08-01

    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  3. US defensive operations against Libya and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. Res. 424 and H. Res 440, May 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The House Foreign Affairs Committee met to mark up two resolutions: H. Res. 424 and H. Res. 440. H. Res. 424 thanks the United Kingdom for its assistance in the April 14, 1986 operation against Libya. Despite objections to the raid and to including the British, as well as questions about the quality of the US response and about the President's compliance with the Constitution and the War Powers Resolution, the resolution passed. H. Res. 440 expresses sympathy to the victims of the Chernobyl accident and asks the Soviet Union to relax restrictions on communications and the transfer of whatever technology and assistance will be helpful. It also criticizes the Soviet handling of information about the accident. An amendment strengthened the wording of the criticism, and the resolution passed. The report includes the committee discussion and the tests of the two resolutions.

  4. Sugary food robbing in ants: a case of temporal cleptobiosis.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Dejean, Alain; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2004-05-01

    This study reports new information on interactions between Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae) and Crematogaster limata parabiotica (Myrmicinae). Workers of these sympatric arboreal ant species forage on the same pioneer trees. Diurnally, Ectatomma preyed on Crematogaster workers that avoided overt aggression by respecting a 'safe distance'. At night, Crematogaster initiated raids within the Ectatomma nests that they apparently left with their abdomen empty, then remained near the nest entrances where they successfully intercepted 75.2% of the returning Ectatomma foragers (N = 322). Certain intercepted workers rapidly resumed their return trip. Others (39.1%) were stopped, explored and licked during a long time by the Crematogaster. Most of them were carrying between their mandibles a droplet of liquid food that was stolen. This relationship, that appears to be a typical case of interspecific cleptobiosis, whose expression varies during the daytime, demonstrates for the first time sugary-food robbing, instead of prey robbing, in ants.

  5. Instrumentation for planetary and terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya; Christensen, Andrew B.

    1992-06-01

    The present conference discusses the optical design of the UV imaging spectrograph for the Cassini mission to Saturn, auroral X-ray imaging from high and low earth orbits, the WIND Imaging Interferometer, the FUV imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers and EUV instruments of the RAIDS experiment, a gas-ionization solar spectral monitor, and the calculation of the isoplanatic patch for multiconjugate adaptive optics. Also discussed are a novel low resolution broadband IR spectrograph, a visible airglow limb imaging spectrograph, shortwave calibrations of active cavity radiometers using tungsten lamps, and a UV ionospheric imaging experiment for the ARGOS satellite. (For individual items see A93-27077 to A93-27108)

  6. Introduction to Data Acquisition 3.Let’s Acquire Data!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hideya; Okumura, Haruhiko

    In fusion experiments, diagnostic control and logging devices are usually connected through the field bus, e.g. GP-IB. Internet technologies are often applied for their remote operation. All equipment and digitizers are driven by pre-programmed sequences, in which clocks and triggers give the essential timing for data acquisition. Data production rate and amount must be checked in comparison with the transfer and store rates. To store binary raw data safely, journaling file systems are preferably used with redundant disks (RAID) or mirroring mechanism, such as “rsync”. A proper choice of the data compression method not only reduces the storage size but also improves the I/O throughputs. DBMS is even applicable to quick search or security around the table data.

  7. The systems approach to airport security: The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)/BWI (Baltimore-Washington International) Airport demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, D.L.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in designing, installing and evaluating security systems for various applications during the past 15 years. A systems approach to security that evolved from this experience was applied to aviation security for the Federal Aviation Administration. A general systems study of aviation security in the United States was concluded in 1987. One result of the study was a recommendation that an enhanced security system concept designed to meet specified objectives be demonstrated at an operational airport. Baltimore-Washington International Airport was selected as the site for the demonstration project which began in 1988 and will be completed in 1992. This article introduced the systems approach to airport security and discussed its application at Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Examples of design features that could be included in an enhanced security concept also were presented, including details of the proposed Ramps Area Intrusion Detection System (RAIDS).

  8. The robotized workstation "MASTER" for users with tetraplegia: description and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Busnel, M; Cammoun, R; Coulon-Lauture, F; Détriché, J M; Le Claire, G; Lesigne, B

    1999-07-01

    The rehabilitation robotics MASTER program was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and evaluated by the APPROCHE Rehabilitation centers. The aim of this program is to increase the autonomy and quality of life of persons with tetraplegia in domestic and vocational environments. Taking advantage of its experience in nuclear robotics, the CEA has supported studies dealing with the use of such technical aids in the medical area since 1975 with the SPARTACUS project, followed by MASTER 10 years later, and its European extension in the framework of the TIDE/RAID program. The present system is composed of a fixed robotized workstation that includes a six-axis SCARA robot mounted on a rail to allow horizontal movement and is equipped with tools for various tasks. The Operator Interface (OI) has been carefully adapted to the most severe tetraplegia. Results are given following a 2-year evaluation in real-life situations.

  9. Department of the Navy Justification of Estimates FY 1990/1991 Biennial Budget Submitted to Congress January 1989. Operations and Maintenance, Navy Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    MP4 02 U 91 4 V AV ’M -i0 W L -0 >- w 10 0.- %40 C -400 00GM60a. U-O ) a0 C 0a W h0) 4-( .. 4. -e -w = W W -4 M0 02L 00- 0" CU4 0-4 -4 w Li4 .0 )L...4b. rAid - 4 (1 U 0 CJ a Du . to M41 mU 41 > 0 w~ 0 -. (U =4 0 #r.C A L c. 0--4- - IdI 0m& oWM -4ci W 4Z 6𔃾 00a Z = 0 u=0 ft 0 =44-M’ I C W Ql b 0 a

  10. Comparative magnetic measurements of migratory ant and its only termite prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.; Cernicchiaro, G. R.; Alves, O. C.

    2004-07-01

    Termites and ants are social insects living organized in nests in castes. Behavioral studies with the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata have shown that it conducts well-organized predatory raids toward nests of its only prey, the termite Neocapritermes opacus. The magnetic materials in these two insects were studied using a SQUID magnetometer for two orientations. The Jr/ Js and Jr/ χ0, ratios were calculated from the two insects hysteresis curves. These ratios are in the range of magnetite pseudo-single or multi-domain particle values. The magnetic material are distinguishable by Hc values (30 Oe for ants and 100 Oe for termites) and by the magnetization magnitude, which is about two magnitude orders higher in the termite than in migratory ant. The Pachycondyla marginata SQUID results show an anisotropy in the magnetic material arrangement while for Neocapritermes opacus termite it is revealed by FMR spectra.

  11. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. DURING THE 1980S, A NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS CONCERNING SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ERRORS SURFACED, CULMINATING IN THE 1989 RAID ON THE PLANT BY THE FBI FOR ALLEGED ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTIONS. THAT SAME YEAR, PRODUCTION AT THE PLANT WAS HALTED FOR CORRECTION OF SAFETY DEFICIENCIES. BY 1991, A SERIES OF EVENTS WORLDWIDE REDUCED THE COLD WAR THREAT, AND IN 1992, THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY ANNOUNCED THAT THE MISSION AT THE PLANT WOULD BE CHANGED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, WITH THE GOAL OF CLEANING UP THE PLANT AND SITE (1989). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Study of information hiding algorithm based on GHM and color transfer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuai; Mu, De-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Taking the feature that the energy of the image would gather and spread on four components ( LL 2, LH 2, HL 2 and HH 2) in the sub-image after first-order GHM multi-wavelet-transform. And by using the color control ability of lαβ color space in color transfer theory (CTT), an information hiding algorithm based on GHM-CTT is proposed. In this way, the robust parameters are embedded in the LL 2, the hidden information is set in LH 2 and HL 2 with RAID4, and fragile sign is set in HH 2. The consistence between the embedded data bits’ order and the embedded code of the sub-image is improved by using the chaotic mapping and the genetic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that the GHM-CTT can increase the imperceptibility by 15.72% averagely and robustness by 18.89% at least.

  13. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  14. Producers don't deserve the bad rap they get

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas producers care about a clean environment. They haven't acquired a sparkling clean image in the public's eye just yet, but they do a pretty good job. Since 1980, the oil and gas industry moved steadily toward a brighter, sharper, cleaner image. Today, the picture is not perfect. And yet, even the industry's harshest critics have to admit, much progress has been made. In this report, examples of good industry practices are presented. Some are small and almost unnoticed, such as switching to a battery that creates no disposal problem. Many examples concern big changes in technology, steps forward in new ways to dispose of drill cuttings or better methods to drill in a national wildlife refuge. Still others are nothing more than simple housekeeping chores, ordinary means of cleaning up a site, or restoring a forest, and raiding a nest of eagles in a bayou cypress tree to ensure all the young survive to adulthood.

  15. Redundant disk arrays: Reliable, parallel secondary storage. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Garth Alan

    1990-01-01

    During the past decade, advances in processor and memory technology have given rise to increases in computational performance that far outstrip increases in the performance of secondary storage technology. Coupled with emerging small-disk technology, disk arrays provide the cost, volume, and capacity of current disk subsystems, by leveraging parallelism, many times their performance. Unfortunately, arrays of small disks may have much higher failure rates than the single large disks they replace. Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) use simple redundancy schemes to provide high data reliability. The data encoding, performance, and reliability of redundant disk arrays are investigated. Organizing redundant data into a disk array is treated as a coding problem. Among alternatives examined, codes as simple as parity are shown to effectively correct single, self-identifying disk failures.

  16. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  17. ARRA-INPRVMNTS IN CMPTNG &CMMNC;RECOVERY ACT RESEARCH IN THEORETICAL HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, SCOTT

    2011-03-15

    The RAID array of 80 terabytes of hard disk data storage that was purchased on this project and interfaced with the existing Rutgers high energy physics computer farm has been used in support of a number of research projects during the last budget period. Monte carlo simulations for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been continued for multi-jet signatures. The additional disk storage supported by this project allowed next to leading order matching effects of QCD radiation to be included in this study. Simulations to validate the technique of shot-gun sequencing of cascade decay trees in multi-dimensional Dalitz spaces have also been advanced. The results of this work will be applied to searches for quantum dimensions at the LHC. Simulations to investigate the possibility of extending these techniques to the search for the Higgs boson are also underway. The funds supporting this project have been entirely expended during the last period.

  18. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.

  19. Predictor of requested imagery and migration engine (PRIME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Keith; Baraghimian, Tony

    1995-01-01

    Although emerging mass storage devices, including robotic tape libraries, optical jukeboxes, and redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) systems, enable large softcopy image archives, timely dissemination of any image from the archive is not possible with popular hierarchical storage techniques. Significant delays occur for images located on slower storage devices such as robotic tape libraries. We developed a prototype, predictor of requested imagery and migration engine (PRIME), to provide more timely dissemination. PRIME reduces analysts' wait time by predicting the image requests and migrating the most likely of these images from slower to faster archive devices before analysts make these requests. PRIME uses a fuzzy logic expert system both to make the prediction and to perform the migration. We describe the PRIME environment, including the prediction and migration issues, and a description of the prototype.

  20. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  1. Distribution of chimpanzees and interactions with humans in Guinea-Bissau and western Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Brugiere, David; Badjinca, Iacouba; Silva, Cristina; Serra, Abubacar

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the distribution and the status of chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau and on the border with Guinea, we conducted an interview survey with hunters in 110 and 60 villages in Guinea-Bissau and Guinea, respectively. Based on the results of the survey, the northern distribution limit of chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau appears to be located between the Corubal river (which once was suspected to represent the distribution limit) and the Gabù-Bafata road. Chimpanzees were reported to be common in most of the surveyed area and are not a game species. Crop-raiding by chimpanzees was mentioned by most interviewees. The implementation of a land management system that maintains a mosaic of habitats is the priority for the long-term conservation of this cross-border population.

  2. The Advantages of Parametric Modeling for the Reconstruction of Historic Buildings. The Example of the in War Destroyed Church of ST. Catherine (katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.

    2013-02-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.

  3. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  4. Experiences From NASA/Langley's DMSS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has placed such a system into production use. This paper will present the experiences, both good and bad, we have had with this system since putting it into production usage. The system is comprised of: 1) National Storage Laboratory (NSL)/UniTree 2.1, 2) IBM 9570 HIPPI attached disk arrays (both RAID 3 and RAID 5), 3) IBM RS6000 server, 4) HIPPI/IPI3 third party transfers between the disk array systems and the supercomputer clients, a CRAY Y-MP and a CRAY 2, 5) a "warm spare" file server, 6) transition software to convert from CRAY's Data Migration Facility (DMF) based system to DMSS, 7) an NSC PS32 HIPPI switch, and 8) a STK 4490 robotic library accessed from the IBM RS6000 block mux interface. This paper will cover: the performance of the DMSS in the following areas: file transfer rates, migration and recall, and file manipulation (listing, deleting, etc.); the appropriateness of a workstation class of file server for NSL/UniTree with LaRC's present storage requirements in mind the role of the third party transfers between the supercomputers and the DMSS disk array systems in DMSS; a detailed comparison (both in performance and functionality) between the DMF and DMSS systems LaRC's enhancements to the NSL/UniTree system administration environment the mechanism for DMSS to provide file server redundancy the statistics on the availability of DMSS the design and experiences with the locally developed transparent transition software which allowed us to make over 1.5 million DMF files available to NSL/UniTree with minimal system outage

  5. Apes in Space: Saving an Imperilled Orangutan Population in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131±46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m±350, SD) and females (866 m±195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across

  6. Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-02-16

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD) and females (866 m ± 195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat

  7. Radioimmunodetection of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma with radiolabelled LL2 monoclonal antibody. Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparini, M.; Buraggi, G.L.; Tondini, C.

    1994-05-01

    Radioimmunodetection (RAID) with 99m technetium labelled B cell lymphoma monoclonal antibody (MAb) (IMMU-LL2 Fab`, Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, N.J.) was investigated in 8 patients (5 female and 3 male; age range 20-72 years) with histologically proven non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL). Of the 8 lymphomas, 5 were intermediate grade and 3 low grade. Whole body images with multiple planar views were obtained at 30 min, 4-6 and 24 hours after the I.V. injection of 1 mg LL2-Fab` labelled with 20-25 mCi (740-925 MBq) {sup 99}Tc. SPECT of chest or abdomen was performed at 5-8 hours after injection in all patients. No adverse reactions were observed in any patient after MAb infusion and no appreciable changes were seen in the blood counts, renal and liver function tests. A total of 17 of 18 (94.4%) lymphoma lesions were detected by RAID. All the tumor localizations were confirmed by clinical examination and with other imaging techniques, such as CT scan, MRI or gallium scan. In this series of patients no false positive results were noted and only 1 false negative resulted in a patient who had a mediastinal bulky disease. As regard the biodistribution of the immunoreagent we can make the following conclusions: (1) no appreciable bone marrow activity was seen, (2) splenic targeting was demonstrated in all patients, (3) tumor-to-non tumor ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 as measured by ROI technique, (4) no difference of uptake was noted for different tumor grades. The images performed 24 hours after injection did not detect new lesions, but areas of doubtful uptake were seen as positive focal areas in the delayed scan. In these preliminary results the LL2-Fab` MAb seems to be useful for detection, staging and follow up of NHL patients.

  8. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mariel; Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-12-01

    Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management-relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs should be

  9. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  10. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  11. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  12. Profiling unauthorized natural resource users for better targeting of conservation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Julia; Twinamatsiko, Medard; Milner‐Gulland, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unauthorized use of natural resources is a key threat to many protected areas. Approaches to reducing this threat include law enforcement and integrated conservation and development (ICD) projects, but for such ICDs to be targeted effectively, it is important to understand who is illegally using which natural resources and why. The nature of unauthorized behavior makes it difficult to ascertain this information through direct questioning. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, has many ICD projects, including authorizing some local people to use certain nontimber forest resources from the park. However, despite over 25 years of ICD, unauthorized resource use continues. We used household surveys, indirect questioning (unmatched count technique), and focus group discussions to generate profiles of authorized and unauthorized resource users and to explore motivations for unauthorized activity. Overall, unauthorized resource use was most common among people from poor households who lived closest to the park boundary and farthest from roads and trading centers. Other motivations for unauthorized resource use included crop raiding by wild animals, inequity of revenue sharing, and lack of employment, factors that created resentment among the poorest communities. In some communities, benefits obtained from ICD were reported to be the greatest deterrents against unauthorized activity, although law enforcement ranked highest overall. Despite the sensitive nature of exploring unauthorized resource use, management‐relevant insights into the profiles and motivations of unauthorized resource users can be gained from a combination of survey techniques, as adopted here. To reduce unauthorized activity at Bwindi, we suggest ICD benefit the poorest people living in remote areas and near the park boundary by providing affordable alternative sources of forest products and addressing crop raiding. To prevent resentment from driving further unauthorized activity, ICDs

  13. A Comparison of Electron Density Profiles Derived from the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) Ultraviolet Measurements: Resolution of the 911 Å Conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K.; Budzien, S. A.; Coker, C.; Nicholas, A. C.; Stephan, A. W.; Bishop, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Previous measurements of the 911 Å emission made by sounding rockets, at altitude less than 320 km, indicated that the emission was either very weak or non-existent. Newer measurements made by the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) currently in operation aboard the International Space Station, at an altitude of 340 km, show the same behavior. Yet, satellite-based measurements made at altitudes above 800 km showed the emission to be present and strong enough to be accurately measured and inverted; those inversions were validated against ionosonde measurements and demonstrated the possibility of using the 911 Å emission for daytime ionospheric sensing. So the conundrum is: why do measurements made at lower altitudes (< 350 km) indicate weak or non-existent emission while satellite measurements at higher altitudes (>800 km) show the presence of the emission at the expected level? We present our measurements of the daytime and nighttime electron density derived by analysis of the O I 1356 and O I 911 Å altitude profiles measured by the Low Resolution Airglow and Aurora Spectrograph (LORAAS) instrument launched aboard the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), which operated between mid-May 1999 and April 2002. We compare the retrieved electron density profiles inferred from the limb intensities of the ultraviolet emissions to peak heights and peak densities measured during ionosonde overflights. We show that the 911 Å emission is strongly affected by the height of the ionosphere and show that this is consistent with absorption of the 911 Å by atomic oxygen. Model results are presented showing that the RAIDS and sounding rocket measurements can be explained by this absorption.

  14. Impact of climate change on human-wildlife-ecosystem interactions in the Trans-Himalaya region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Achyut; Brunton, Dianne; Raubenheimer, David

    2014-02-01

    The Trans-Himalaya region boasts an immense biodiversity which includes several threatened species and supports the livelihood of local human populations. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the impact of recent climate change on the biodiversity and human inhabitants of the upper Mustang region of the Trans-Himalaya, Nepal. We found that the average annual temperature in the upper Mustang region has increased by 0.13 °C per year over the last 23 years; a higher annual temperature increase than experienced in other parts of Himalaya. A predictive model suggested that the mean annual temperature will double by 2161 to reach 20 °C in the upper Mustang region. The combined effects of increased temperature and diminished snowfall have resulted in a reduction in the area of land suitable for agriculture. Most seriously affected are Samjung village (at 4,100 m altitude) and Dhey village (at 3,800 m) in upper Mustang, where villagers have been forced to relocate to an area with better water availability. Concurrent with the recent change in climate, there have been substantial changes in vegetation communities. Between 1979 and 2009, grasslands and forests in the Mustang district have diminished by 11 and 42 %, respectively, with the tree line having shifted towards higher elevation. Further, grasses and many shrub species are no longer found in abundance at higher elevations and consequently blue sheep ( Pseduois nayaur) move to forage at lower elevations where they encounter and raid human crops. The movement of blue sheep attracts snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) from their higher-elevation habitats to lower sites, where they encounter and depredate livestock. Increased crop raiding by blue sheep and depredations of livestock by snow leopard have impacted adversely on the livelihoods of local people.

  15. Sarilumab improves patient-reported outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response/intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Vibeke; Reaney, Matthew; Chen, Chieh-I; Proudfoot, Clare W J; Guillonneau, Sophie; Bauer, Deborah; Mangan, Erin; Graham, Neil M H; van Hoogstraten, Hubert; Lin, Yong; Pacheco-Tena, César; Fleischmann, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effects of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody sarilumab administered with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the TARGET trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate response or intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF-IR). Methods 546 patients (81.9% female, mean age 52.9 years) were randomised to placebo, sarilumab 150 or 200 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks + csDMARDs. PROs included patient global assessment (PtGA); pain and morning stiffness visual analogue scales; Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI); Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36); FACIT-Fatigue (FACIT-F); Work Productivity Survey-Rheumatoid Arthritis (WPS-RA) and Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID). Changes from baseline at weeks 12 and 24 were analysed using a mixed model for repeated measures; post hoc analyses included percentages of patients reporting improvements ≥ minimum clinically important differences (MCID) and scores ≥ normative values. Results Sarilumab + csDMARDs doses resulted in improvements from baseline at week 12 vs placebo + csDMARDs in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, SF-36 and FACIT-F that were maintained at week 24. Sarilumab improved morning stiffness and reduced the impact of RA on work, family, social/leisure activities participation (WPS-RA) and on patients' lives (RAID). Percentages of patients reporting improvements ≥MCID and ≥ normative scores were greater with sarilumab than placebo. Conclusions In patients with TNF-IR RA, 150 and 200 mg sarilumab + csDMARDs resulted in clinically meaningful patient-reported benefits on pain, fatigue, function, participation and health status at 12 and 24 weeks that exceeded placebo + csDMARDs, and were consistent with the clinical profile previously reported. Trial registration number NCT01709578; Results. PMID:28326189

  16. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  17. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  18. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  19. Digital image archiving: challenges and choices.

    PubMed

    Dumery, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, imaging exam volume has grown rapidly. In addition to increased image acquisition, there is more patient information per study. RIS-PACS integration and information-rich DICOM headers now provide us with more patient information relative to each study. The volume of archived digital images is increasing and will continue to rise at a steeper incline than film-based storage of the past. Many filmless facilities have been caught off guard by this increase, which has been stimulated by many factors. The most significant factor is investment in new digital and DICOM-compliant modalities. A huge volume driver is the increase in images per study from multi-slice technology. Storage requirements also are affected by disaster recovery initiatives and state retention mandates. This burgeoning rate of imaging data volume presents many challenges: cost of ownership, data accessibility, storage media obsolescence, database considerations, physical limitations, reliability and redundancy. There are two basic approaches to archiving--single tier and multi-tier. Each has benefits. With a single-tier approach, all the data is stored on a single media that can be accessed very quickly. A redundant copy of the data is then stored onto another less expensive media. This is usually a removable media. In this approach, the on-line storage is increased incrementally as volume grows. In a multi-tier approach, storage levels are set up based on access speed and cost. In other words, all images are stored at the deepest archiving level, which is also the least expensive. Images are stored on or moved back to the intermediate and on-line levels if they will need to be accessed more quickly. It can be difficult to decide what the best approach is for your organization. The options include RAIDs (redundant array of independent disks), direct attached RAID storage (DAS), network storage using RAIDs (NAS and SAN), removable media such as different types of tape, compact

  20. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    with a series of inexpensive high-capacity (1.6 Tbyte) magnetic-disk RAIDs. These systems are built with PC-technology components, using 16 120-Gbyte IDE disks, hot-swappable disk trays, two RAID controllers, dual redundant power supplies and a Linux operating system. The system is configured over a private gigabit network that connects to the two Data Center servers and spans between the Seismological Lab and the USGS. To ensure data integrity, each RAID disk system constantly checks itself against its twin and verifies file integrity using 128-bit MD5 file checksums that are stored separate from the system. The final level of data protection is a Sony AIT-3 tape backup of the files. The primary advantage of the magnetic-disk approach is faster data access because magnetic disk drives have almost no latency. This means that the SCEDC can provide better "on-demand" interactive delivery of the seismograms in the archive.

  1. MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2006-03-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the

  2. First Observation of the Altitude Distribution of Atomic Potassium Dayglow in the MLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. F.; Budzein, S.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Cosmic dust enters the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and ablates into a hot gas which later condenses into meteoritic smoke, leaving behind some atomic potassium in the gas phase. In this paper we report the observation of day airglow from atomic K from the RAIDS on ISS and OSIRIS on ODIN satellite instruments. This atomic potassium has also been measured extensively with potassium lidars at several sites. The atomic potassium reacts with ozone to form potassium oxide, KO. The KO reacts with atomic oxygen to recycle the atomic K. This balance between production and loss leads to a dominant concentration of K. The resonance scattering of sunlight by K leads to a chemi-luminescent airglow emission which has been previously noted by the authors, Llewellyn and Evans, from their OSIRIS spectrograph on the ODIN satellite. The intensity of this airglow emission from K is proportional to the product of the atomic K concentration and the resonance scattering coefficient (g-factor). Since the rate of reaction for the reaction of KO with atomic oxygen is also in equilibrium with rate of reaction of K with ozone, the day airglow intensity can be used to derive the ground state K density if the atomic oxygen concentrations are available. The atomic oxygen can be derived from other airglow emissions, particularly the A band of O2 which is also observed simultaneously by the OSIRIS instrument. The concentration profile of K is derived from the altitude profile of the dayglow emission of potassium at 766.5 nm. The observed volume emission dayglow altitude profile will be compared with model calculations by the authors. The RAIDS ISS profile is peaked at 100 km level and extends up to 160 km. The profile has been simultaneously observed in the 766.5 and the 769.9 nm lines. Since this is the first measurement of the altitude profile of dayglow K emission, it can be compared with extensive historic ground based measurements of K twilight emission taken at Saskatoon in the 60s by

  3. Thermal ecology of the neotropical army ant Eciton burchellii.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Joe E

    2006-06-01

    I explored the thermal ecology of Eciton burchellii, a New World army ant, in primary forest and forest fragments in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica in 2002 and 2003. My primary objective was to determine whether high surface temperatures in pastures surrounding forest fragments posed a thermal barrier to ant colonies within those fragments; secondarily, I assessed whether thermal gradients within continuous moist forest were sufficient to elicit avoidance reactions from foraging colonies. E. burchellii colonies in forest fragments avoided entering open pasture in full sun (51.3 degrees C) on 100% of all edge interactions; however, edges were readily crossed where artificial shaded areas had previously been installed. Ant raids in primary forest avoided artificially established temperatures >43 degrees C but tolerated 45.5 degrees C in the presence of prey baits. Captive ants held at 43 degrees C survived 18.5 min; at temperatures of 51.3 degrees C survival time was only 2.8 min. Ants running on established foraging trails increased running velocity by 18% when substrate temperature was raised from 28.4 degrees to 38.0 degrees C, and they abandoned trails at temperatures >43 degrees C. The standard deviation (s) of temperatures on active raid trails in continuous forest was 2.13 degrees C, while nearby systematic sampling revealed a greater background standard deviation of 4.13 degrees C. E. burchellii colonies in this region appear to be living surprisingly near their upper limits of thermal tolerance. The heat of open pastures alone is sufficient to prevent their exiting forest fragments, or entering similarly hot areas within continuous forest. Shaded vegetative corridors are sufficient to permit mobility between isolated fragments, and their preservation should be encouraged. Despite views that tropical lowland moist forests have an essentially homogenous microclimate, army ants appear to avoid local hot spots on the forest floor, steering daily foraging

  4. High-Rate Data-Capture for an Airborne Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Susan; Hicks, Edward; Dabney, Philip; Harding, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-rate data system was required to capture the data for an airborne lidar system. A data system was developed that achieved up to 22 million (64-bit) events per second sustained data rate (1408 million bits per second), as well as short bursts (less than 4 s) at higher rates. All hardware used for the system was off the shelf, but carefully selected to achieve these rates. The system was used to capture laser fire, single-photon detection, and GPS data for the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photo-counting Lidar (SIMPL). However, the system has applications for other laser altimeter systems (waveform-recording), mass spectroscopy, xray radiometry imaging, high-background- rate ranging lidar, and other similar areas where very high-speed data capture is needed. The data capture software was used for the SIMPL instrument that employs a micropulse, single-photon ranging measurement approach and has 16 data channels. The detected single photons are from two sources those reflected from the target and solar background photons. The instrument is non-gated, so background photons are acquired for a range window of 13 km and can comprise many times the number of target photons. The highest background rate occurs when the atmosphere is clear, the Sun is high, and the target is a highly reflective surface such as snow. Under these conditions, the total data rate for the 16 channels combined is expected to be approximately 22 million events per second. For each photon detection event, the data capture software reads the relative time of receipt, with respect to a one-per-second absolute time pulse from a GPS receiver, from an event timer card with 0.1-ns precision, and records that information to a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage device. The relative time of laser pulse firings must also be read and recorded with the same precision. Each of the four event timer cards handles the throughput from four of the channels. For each detection event, a flag is

  5. "Final solution" in Myanmar?

    PubMed

    Lintner, B

    1992-07-01

    The conditions of Burmese prostitutes in Thailand's border communities are described to show how they are mistreated and denied health information on AIDS prevention. The police had been returning prostitutes to Myanmar, until it was brought to their attention that 25 female prostitutes had been fatally injected with cyanide by Burmese authorities to stop the spread of HIV. Myanmar's military rulers have concentrated AIDS education on the military. They do not want the soldiers, who keep the military regime in power to become infected with AIDS. The reports of Burmese murders of prostitutes have come from all quarters. In the group of 25 prostitutes were two cousins of a Burmese citizen who reported the disappearance of his relatives after they left for a shopping trip in the southern Thai city of Ranong, opposite Kawthaung in Myanmar. Thai police found that the two cousins had been kidnapped and sold into prostitution in a brothel in Ranong, which had been raided by police. In the northern city of Chiang Mai, it is estimated that 10,000 of the prostitutes are Burmese girls and women. UNICEF has reported that as many as 40,000 Burmese girls are sold into prostitution in Bangkok and border towns such as Ranong and Chiang Mai. Anti-Slavery International estimated that more than 1500 of the prostitutes in Ranong are Burmese girls and women who have been forced into this work. Their condition is very similar to slavery. Girls are forced to work long hours and may be fed only a bowl of rice with watery soup. Prostitution flourished because 20,000 Burmese fisherman, who are at sea for prolonged periods, frequent the brothels on their return. There is a growing prevalence of HIV infection in Ranong in part due to the fishermen's widespread heroin use aboard ship. In Ranong, 1 in 5 prostitutes were found to be HIV positive including 1 in 3 of the Burmese women. Those locked in brothels are not included in the figures. Unfortunately the Burmese captives know no or very

  6. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  7. RFI Risk Reduction Activities Using New Goddard Digital Radiometry Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Damon; Kim, Ed; Young, Peter; Miles, Lynn; Wong, Mark; Morris, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The Goddard Radio-Frequency Explorer (GREX) is the latest fast-sampling radiometer digital back-end processor that will be used for radiometry and radio-frequency interference (RFI) surveying at Goddard Space Flight Center. The system is compact and deployable, with a mass of about 40 kilograms. It is intended to be flown on aircraft. GREX is compatible with almost any aircraft, including P-3, twin otter, C-23, C-130, G3, and G5 types. At a minimum, the system can function as a clone of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) ground-based development unit [1], or can be a completely independent system that is interfaced to any radiometer, provided that frequency shifting to GREX's intermediate frequency is performed prior to sampling. If the radiometer RF is less than 200MHz, then the band can be sampled and acquired directly by the system. A key feature of GREX is its ability to simultaneously sample two polarization channels simultaneously at up to 400MSPS, 14-bit resolution each. The sampled signals can be recorded continuously to a 23 TB solid-state RAID storage array. Data captures can be analyzed offline using the supercomputing facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition, various Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) - amenable radiometer signal processing and RFI detection algorithms can be implemented directly on the GREX system because it includes a high-capacity Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA prototyping system that is user customizable.

  8. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  9. Current Status of the Ceph Based Storage Systems at the RACF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, A.; Ito, H.; Hollowell, C.; Wong, T.; Rao, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ceph based storage solutions are becoming increasingly popular within the HEP/NP community over the last few years. With the current status of Ceph project, both object storage and block storage (RBD) layers are production ready on a large scale, and the Ceph file system storage layer (CephFS) is rapidly getting to that state as well. This contribution contains a thorough review of various functionality, performance and stability tests performed with all three (object storage, block storage and file system) levels of Ceph by using the RACF computing resources in 2012-2014 on various hardware platforms and with different networking solutions (10/40 GbE and IPoIB/4X FDR Infiniband based). We also report the status of commissioning a large scale (1 PB of usable capacity, 4k HDDs behind the RAID arrays by design) Ceph based object storage system provided with Amazon S3 complaint RadosGW interfaces deployed in RACF, as well as performance results obtained while testing the RBD and CephFS storage layers of our Ceph clusters.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    PubMed

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  11. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan.

  12. Initial results on computational performance of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture: implementation of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) Purdue-Lin microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Purdue-Lin scheme is a relatively sophisticated microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme includes six classes of hydro meteors: water vapor, cloud water, raid, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. In this paper, we accelerate the Purdue Lin scheme using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi is a high performance coprocessor consists of up to 61 cores. The Xeon Phi is connected to a CPU via the PCI Express (PICe) bus. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the code optimization issues encountered while tuning the Purdue-Lin microphysics Fortran code for Xeon Phi. In particularly, getting a good performance required utilizing multiple cores, the wide vector operations and make efficient use of memory. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 4.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 CPU by a factor of 1.2x compared to the original code.

  13. Detecting warning signs of trouble within population fluctuations: using capture-recapture modeling to uncover changes in population dynamics leading to declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2004-01-01

    An intensive mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, since the late 1980s as part of a regional study of the metapopulation dynamics and ecology of the endangered Northwest Atlantic breeding population of this species. Substantial losses of tern eggs and chicks to predation at this colony site began in 1996 when at least five Black-crowned Night-Herons started nocturnal raids. This depredation has been a major factor in the reduction of productivity from an average of about 1.0 chicks/pair for the 10 years before night-heron predation began to as low as about 0.2 chicks/pair in 2002. Recent capture-recapture modelling analyses have detected other important impacts on the population dynamics of the Roseate Terns at this site including a reduction by about half in the 'development-of-residency' rates of first-time breeders, and a substantial decline in the local 'survival-and-fidelity' rates of experienced breeders believed due mostly to increased immigration rates to other colony sites.

  14. The First Ant-Termite Syninclusion in Amber with CT-Scan Analysis of Taphonomy

    PubMed Central

    Coty, David; Aria, Cédric; Garrouste, Romain; Wils, Patricia; Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion) of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas), whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions. PMID:25140873

  15. Prudent Protomognathus and despotic Leptothorax duloticus: differential costs of ant slavery.

    PubMed

    Hare, J F; Alloway, T M

    2001-10-09

    The concept of ant slavery rests on the untested assumption that slave-making ants impose fitness costs on colonies of the species they raid. We tested that assumption by comparing the summertime seasonal productivity of Leptothorax spp. colonies in field exclosures without slavemakers, with a colony of the obligatory slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus, or with a colony of the obligatory slavemaker Leptothorax duloticus. Leptothorax longispinosus colonies placed in exclosures with P. americanus colonies did not differ significantly in any demographic attribute from colonies in exclosures without slavemakers. By contrast, Leptothorax curvispinosus colonies exposed to L. duloticus experienced significant reductions in dealate queens, workers, and larvae relative to control colonies exclosed without slavemakers. The pronounced difference in the impact of these slavemakers on their host-species populations correlates with differences in the behavior of the slavemakers observed in the laboratory and likely explains why P. americanus is more abundant than L. duloticus in nature. It seems that more advanced social parasites, like anatomical parasites, evolve to minimize their impact on their hosts, and thus can be regarded as "prudent social parasites."

  16. New super-computing facility in RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1994-12-31

    A new superconductor, Fujitsu VPP500/28, was installed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) at the end of March, 1994. It consists of 28 processing elements (PE`s) connected by a high-speed crossbar switch. The switch is a combination of GaAs and ECL circuitry with peak band width of 800 Mbyte per second. Each PE consists of a GaAs/ECL vector processor with 1.6 Gflops peak speed and 256 Mbyte SRAM local memory. In addition, there are 8 GByte DRAM space, two 100 Gbyte RAID disks and a 10 TByte archive based on SONY File Bank system. The author ran three major benchmarks on this machine: modified LINPACK, lattice QCD and FFT. In the modified LINPACK benchmark, a sustained speed of about 28 Gflops is achieved, by removing the restriction on the size of the matrices. In the lattice QCD benchmark, a sustained speed of about 30 Gflops is achieved for inverting staggered fermion propagation matrix on a 32{sup 4} lattice. In the FFT benchmark, real data of 32, 128, 512, and 2048 MByte are Fourier-transformed. The sustained speed for each is respectively 21, 21, 20, and 19 Gflops. The numbers are obtained after only a few weeks of coding efforts and can be improved further.

  17. Managing 'civilian deaths due to war operations': Yorkshire experiences during world war II.

    PubMed

    Rugg, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Air raid precautions prior to and during the Second World War included guidance on the burial of civilians who had been killed by enemy bombardment. The Ministry of Health Circular 1779 was published before the start of the war, on the understanding that 'scheme-making' authorities would need time to prepare for the interment of mass fatalities. As the Blitz got underway, tensions emerged between the state's pragmatic concerns to restrict the cost and resources afforded to burial, and the wish of many local authorities to secure decent burial for their citizens. Key issues on which there was disagreement included the state-proposed use of shrouds instead of coffins, and mass interment. These practices carried overtones of the much-hated pauper funeral and ran counter to the political imperative to present civilian death as 'heroic'. This local study is placed in the wider context of the history of death and burial, and provides an indicator of the strength of attachment to customary funerary ritual during the middle of the twentieth century.

  18. Living with Wildlife and Mitigating Conflicts Around Three Indian Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; DeFries, Ruth; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop and livestock losses to wildlife are a concern for people neighboring many protected areas (PAs) and can generate opposition to conservation. Examining patterns of conflict and associated tolerance is important to devise policies to reduce conflict impacts on people and wildlife. We surveyed 398 households from 178 villages within 10 km of Ranthambore, Kanha, and Nagarahole parks in India. We compared different attitudes toward wildlife, and presented hypothetical response scenarios, including killing the problem animal(s). Eighty percent of households reported crop losses to wildlife and 13 % livestock losses. Higher crop loss was associated with more cropping months per year, greater crop variety, and more harvest seasons per year but did not vary with proximity to the PA, suggesting that PAs are not necessarily "sources" for crop raiders. By contrast, complaints of "depredating carnivores" were associated with people-grazing animals and collecting resources from PAs. Many households (83 %) engaged in mitigation efforts. We found that only fencing and guard animals reduce crop losses, and no efforts to lower livestock losses. Contrary to our expectations, carnivores were not viewed with more hostility than crop-raiding wildlife. Households reported greater inclination to kill herbivores destroying crops or carnivores harming people, but not carnivores preying on livestock. Our model estimated crop loss was 82 % across surveyed households (highest in Kanha), while the livestock loss experienced was 27 % (highest in Ranthambore). Our comparative study provides insights into factors associated with conflict loss and tolerance, and aids in improving ongoing conservation and compensation efforts.

  19. Maintenance and Upgrading of the Richmond Physics Supercomputing Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davda, Vikash

    2003-10-01

    The supercomputing cluster in Physics has been upgraded. It supports nuclear physics research at Jefferson Lab, which focuses on probing the quark-gluon structure of atomic nuclei. We added new slave nodes, increased storage, raised a firewall, and documented the e-mail archive relating to the cluster. The three new slave nodes were physically mounted and configured to join the cluster. A RAID for extra storage was moved from a prototype cluster and configured for this cluster. A firewall was implemented to enhance security using a separate node from the prototype cluster. The software Firewall Builder was used to set communication rules. Documentation consists primarily of e-mails exchanged with the vendor. We wanted web-based, searchable documentation. We used SWISH-E, non-proprietary indexing software designed to search through file collections such as e-mails. SWISH-E works by first creating an index. A built-in module then sets up a Perl interface for the user to define the search; the files in the index are then sorted.

  20. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef.

    PubMed

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas (Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  1. Flawed Nuclear Physics and Atomic Intelligence in the Campaign to deny Norwegian Heavy Water to Germany, 1942-1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Børresen, Hans Christofer

    2012-12-01

    The military campaign to deny Norwegian heavy water to Germany in World War II did not diminish as the threat posed by heavy water in German hands dwindled, mainly because of excessive security among the Allies. Signs that Albert Speer (1905-1981) had decided in 1942 to stop the German atomic-bomb project were kept secret and ignored. Prominent Allied advisers like Leif Tronstad (1903-1945) and even Niels Bohr (1885-1962) were not told about the plutonium path to a German atomic bomb. Physicists did not brief advisers, decision makers, and Allied officers on how many years Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) would need to accumulate enough heavy water (deuterium oxide, D2O) for an Uranmachine and then to extract and process plutonium for an atomic bomb. Had the flow of information been better, the military raids on the Norwegian heavy-water plant at Vemork could have been timed better, and the more costly of them could have been averted altogether.

  2. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2012-02-01

    Genetic tools are increasingly valuable for understanding the behaviour, evolution, and conservation of social species. In African elephants, for instance, genetic data provide basic information on the population genetic causes and consequences of social behaviour, and how human activities alter elephants' social and genetic structures. As such, African elephants provide a useful case study to understand the relationships between social behaviour and population genetic structure in a conservation framework. Here, we review three areas where genetic methods have made important contributions to elephant behavioural ecology and conservation: (1) understanding kin-based relationships in females and the effects of poaching on the adaptive value of elephant relationships, (2) understanding patterns of paternity in elephants and how poaching can alter these patterns, and (3) conservation genetic tools to census elusive populations, track ivory, and understand the behavioural ecology of crop-raiding. By comparing studies from populations that have experienced a range of poaching intensities, we find that human activities have a large effect on elephant behaviour and genetic structure. Poaching disrupts kin-based association patterns, decreases the quality of elephant social relationships, and increases male reproductive skew, with important consequences for population health and the maintenance of genetic diversity. In addition, we find that genetic tools to census populations or gather forensic information are almost always more accurate than non-genetic alternatives. These results contribute to a growing understanding of poaching on animal behaviour, and how genetic tools can be used to understand and conserve social species.

  3. Public health through a different lens.

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa; McDougall, Christopher; Wilson, Kumanan

    2007-01-01

    Although public health in Canada faces concerns similar to those noted by Tilson and Berkowitz in the US, a review we conducted of how public health is financed and delivered in Canada also highlights some key differences. In both systems, public health labours under similar disadvantages: it is invisible when it succeeds; it has overtones of a "nanny state" and it focuses on often unpopular vulnerable populations. Prevention is always at risk of being raided to finance treatment. Yet, Canada, because there are fewer financial barriers to receiving medically necessary personal services, can focus more attention on what Tilson and Berkowitz term "the ecology of health." We highlight some of the strengths and ongoing challenges of the Canadian public health system. We conclude that the issue appears less the need to measure performance, than the recognition that one size does not fit all. In particular, for threats to public health that transcend borders, local failure can affect wider populations and suggests a need to look beyond local, provincial or national sovereignty. Public health is heterogeneous, and many roads may lead us to the promised land.

  4. The UCL NASA 3D-RPIF Imaging Centre - a status report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J.-P.; Grindrod, P.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA RPIF (Regional Planetary Imaging Facility) network of 9 US and 8 international centres were originally set-up in 1977 to "maintain photographic and digital data as well as mission documentation and cartographic data. Each facility's general holding contains images and maps of planets and their satellites taken by solar system exploration spacecraft. These planetary image facilities are open to the public. The facilities are primarily reference centers for browsing, studying, and selecting lunar and planetary photographic and cartographic materials. Experienced staff can assist scientists, educators, students, media, and the public in ordering materials for their own use." In parallel, the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA Planetary Science Archive (PSA) were set-up to distribute digital data initially on media such as CDROM and DVD but now entirely online. The UK NASA RPIF was the first RPIF to be established outside of the US, in 1980. In [1], the 3D-RPIF is described. Some example products derived using this equipment are illustrated here. In parallel, at MSSL a large linux cluster and associated RAID_based system has been created to act as a mirror PDS Imaging node so that huge numbers of rover imagery (from MER & MSL to begin with) and very high resolution (large size) data is available to users of the RPIF and a variety of EU-FP7 projects based at UCL.

  5. Did Secret, Sacred Science: ``Kokopelli/Pamola,'' Motivate the Tarratines' Assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba ca 1615, and Does ``Orono'' Yield Direct Physics Insights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataide, Italani; de Souza, Beatriz; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2007-04-01

    ``Tarratine'' may share cognate phonetics with Tatoosh, (Makah, Pacific NE), Tuitan, Totonac, (coastal ``neighbors'' of the Aztec), Teedyuscung/Tatiuskundt, (Penn.), Teotihuacan, Tomtomhegan, (``ME'' ca 1781-2), Titikaka/Titicaca, and Tantaquidgeon, (Conn.); the military action that led to the assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba has explanatory roots tying it to the last raid involving `Indian' military action of the Revolutionary War. ``Turf'' rights influenced conflict imperatives. Preserved linguistic roots have it best: Ñari Huallac, coupled with Arizona, Allagash, Allahpatah, and Orono/Orinoco, indicate traditionalists' information, by recognizing Kokopelli/Pamola/Pele/electromagnetics/EMF, says how nature behaves. Penobscots and modern Peruvian descendants of the Incas have it right: the concealed ``Serpent God'' of their EMF alter ego(s), says their science, (applied physics) is sacred because it ``predicts'' nature, even tinnitus, via ``Rawandagon''! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.8

  6. Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Abhijeet; Tiwade, Dilip; Dongre, Ashok; Dongre, Aravind P.; Phatak, Rasika; Watve, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Crop raiding by wild herbivores close to an area of protected wildlife is a serious problem that can potentially undermine conservation efforts. Since there is orders of magnitude difference between farmers’ perception of damage and the compensation given by the government, an objective and realistic estimate of damage was found essential. We employed four different approaches to estimate the extent of and patterns in crop damage by wild herbivores along the western boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the state of Maharashtra, central India. These approaches highlight different aspects of the problem but converge on an estimated damage of over 50% for the fields adjacent to the forest, gradually reducing in intensity with distance. We found that the visual damage assessment method currently employed by the government for paying compensation to farmers was uncorrelated to and grossly underestimated actual damage. The findings necessitate a radical rethinking of policies to assess, mitigate as well as compensate for crop damage caused by protected wildlife species. PMID:27093293

  7. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  8. An ethnoprimatological approach to assessing levels of tolerance between human and commensal non-human primates in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nekaris, Anne-Isola; Boulton, Alex; Nijman, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Human and non-human primates increasingly are forced to live commensally, and understanding the human-nonhuman interconnections are paramount in understanding tolerance and conflict. In our study area, the heavily deforested parts of southern Sri Lanka humans and primates live side by side and prevalent religious tenets encourage a peaceful co-existence. We quantify the attitudes of rural communities towards three resident primate species (red slender loris, purple-faced langur, toque macaque) and wildlife conservation through semi-structured interviews with 301 people. Presence of the three primates on people' s land or farms was not related to the distance to the nearest forest but for langurs the incidence of crop-raiding was negatively related to distance to the forest. Despite Buddhist' s beliefs about 10% of interviewees indicated having killed primates (in the past) but levels of killing was not related to awareness of protective status of the primates. Overall however positive attitudes towards primates prevailed, without noticeable influence of sex, education or employment type. There was overwhelming support for forest protection measures - not because of the primates but mainly for water preservation and for ensuring a steady timber supply. We found that despite high levels of deforestation, and an increase of encroachment of humans into primate habitats, attitudes has led only to a limited increased level of tension between humans and primates.

  9. The Effect of Social Parasitism by Polyergus breviceps on the Nestmate Recognition System of Its Host, Formica altipetens

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Candice W.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Highly social ants, bees and wasps employ sophisticated recognition systems to identify colony members and deny foreign individuals access to their nest. For ants, cuticular hydrocarbons serve as the labels used to ascertain nest membership. Social parasites, however, are capable of breaking the recognition code so that they can thrive unopposed within the colonies of their hosts. Here we examine the influence of the socially parasitic slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps on the nestmate recognition system of its slaves, Formica altipetens. We compared the chemical, genetic, and behavioral characteristics of colonies of enslaved and free-living F. altipetens. We found that enslaved Formica colonies were more genetically and chemically diverse than their free-living counterparts. These differences are likely caused by the hallmark of slave-making ant ecology: seasonal raids in which pupa are stolen from several adjacent host colonies. The different social environments of enslaved and free-living Formica appear to affect their recognition behaviors: enslaved Formica workers were less aggressive towards non-nestmates than were free-living Formica. Our findings indicate that parasitism by P. breviceps dramatically alters both the chemical and genetic context in which their kidnapped hosts develop, leading to changes in how they recognize nestmates. PMID:26840394

  10. The dissemination of multiple sclerosis: a Viking saga? A historical essay.

    PubMed

    Poser, C M

    1994-12-01

    The highest prevalence rates for multiple sclerosis are found in Iceland, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, that is, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating the genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided in most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus and to the Black and Caspian Seas and penetrated into Persia, India, and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all of the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin, also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  11. Viking voyages: the origin of multiple sclerosis? An essay in medical history.

    PubMed

    Poser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is most frequently found in Scandinavia, Iceland, the British Isles and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, i.e. the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas, as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus, to the Black and Caspian Seas, and penetrated Persia, India and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that Empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  12. Local-time Variation of Nitric Oxide: Modeling and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y. T.; Bailey, S. M.; Yonker, J. D.; Venkataramani, K.; Deng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    NO, a minor species in the thermosphere, is an important indicator of energy balance. It also has the lowest ionization threshold so is the terminal ion in the ionospheric E-region. Solar soft X-ray energy between 0.1 and 7 nm is absorbed mostly in the lower thermosphere between 100 and 150 km. Photoelectrons are created and initiate chains of photochemical reactions which leads to the production of nitric oxide (NO). On the other hand, solar irradiance longer than 150 nm destroys NO. In this study, observation of the local-time variation of NO abundance in the lower thermosphere is derived from the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) measurements in summer 2010. Soft X-ray and EUV irradiance from the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) is used to drive the NOx1D model during the same period of time. By comparing variation of NO abundance at local sunlit hours, the effects of solar irradiance on thermospheric NO photochemistry in the model are examined.

  13. Advances in remote sensing of the daytime ionosphere with EUV airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Andrew W.

    2016-09-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress in developing a method for characterizing the daytime ionosphere from limb profile measurements of the OII 83.4 nm emission. This extreme ultraviolet emission is created by solar photoionization of atomic oxygen in the lower thermosphere and is resonantly scattered by O+ in the ionosphere. The brightness and shape of the measured altitude profile thus depend on both the photoionization source in the lower thermosphere and the ionospheric densities that determine the resonant scattering contribution. This technique has greatly matured over the past decade due to measurements by the series of Naval Research Laboratory Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) instruments flown on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) missions and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) on the International Space Station. The volume of data from these missions has enabled a better approach to handling specific biases and uncertainties in both the measurement and retrieval process that affect the accuracy of the result. This paper identifies the key measurement and data quality factors that will enable the continued evolution of this technique into an advanced method for characterization of the daytime ionosphere.

  14. Comparison of phonological and whole-word treatments for two contrasting cases of developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Helen J; Wilshire, Carolyn E

    2007-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two reading treatment programmes for two contrasting developmental dyslexics. W.B. demonstrated "pure" phonological dyslexia (deficient nonword reading but normal irregular-word reading) and N.S. "pure" surface dyslexia (the converse pattern). Both participants completed: (a) a phonological programme, which targeted the sublexical reading procedure through repeated exposure to word "families" with the same grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC; e.g., frail, raid, bait); and (b) a whole-word programme, which targeted the lexical reading procedure through tasks that emphasize whole-word visual analysis (e.g., speeded identification of visually degraded words). Both participants improved after training on the targeted words and/or GPCs. However, W.B. demonstrated reliable generalization only following the phonological programme and only in his reading of nonwords. In contrast, N.S. showed generalization across all types of word materials following both programmes. Although the whole-word programme (in particular the degraded-images technique) resulted in numerically greater improvement for N.S., this difference was not significant. Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

    2008-04-01

    Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

  16. The segmentation clock in mice: interaction between the Wnt and Notch signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, J G; Santillán, M; Fowler, A C; Mackey, Michael C

    2007-09-07

    In the last few years, the efforts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the segmentation clock in various vertebrate species have multiplied. Early evidence suggested that oscillations are caused by one of the genes under the Notch signalling pathway (like those of the her or Hes families). Recently, Aulehla et al. [Wnt3a plays a major role in the segmentation clock controlling somitogenesis. Dev. Cell 4, 395-406] discovered that Axin2 (a gene under the Wnt3a signalling pathway) also oscillates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) of mice embryos and proposed some mechanisms through which the Notch and Wnt3a pathways may interact. They further suggested that a decreasing concentration of Wnt3a along the PSM may be the gradient the segmentation clock interacts with to form somites. These results were reviewed by Rida et al. [A notch feeling of somite segmentation and beyond. Dev. Biol. 265, 2-22], who introduced a complex clockwork comprising genes Hes1, Lfng (under the Notch pathway), and Axin2, as well as their multiple interactions. In the present work we develop a mathematical model based on the Rida et al. review and use it to tackle some of the questions raided by the Aulehla et al. paper: can the Axin2 feedback loop constitute a clock? Could a decreasing Wnt3a signaling constitute the wavefront, where phase is recorded and the spatial pattern laid down? What is the master oscillator?

  17. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-02-28

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids.

  18. A hierarchical storage management (HSM) scheme for cost-effective on-line archival using lossy compression.

    PubMed

    Avrin, D E; Andriole, K P; Yin, L; Gould, R G; Arenson, R L

    2001-03-01

    A hierarchical storage management (HSM) scheme for cost-effective on-line archival of image data using lossy compression is described. This HSM scheme also provides an off-site tape backup mechanism and disaster recovery. The full-resolution image data are viewed originally for primary diagnosis, then losslessly compressed and sent off site to a tape backup archive. In addition, the original data are wavelet lossy compressed (at approximately 25:1 for computed radiography, 10:1 for computed tomography, and 5:1 for magnetic resonance) and stored on a large RAID device for maximum cost-effective, on-line storage and immediate retrieval of images for review and comparison. This HSM scheme provides a solution to 4 problems in image archiving, namely cost-effective on-line storage, disaster recovery of data, off-site tape backup for the legal record, and maximum intermediate storage and retrieval through the use of on-site lossy compression.

  19. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia

    DOE PAGES

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; ...

    2014-04-13

    In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled “Gamma Source” and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive rangemore » of parameters were measured, the key ‘nuclear forensic signatures’ used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.« less

  20. [Conviction, pragmatism, research enthusiasm--mechanisms of conformity. The Medical Faculty of Giessen during National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Oehler-Klein, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    In the course of its history the University of Giessen was threatened several times by closure, due to the University's geographical location, size, or a relative lack of reputation. This paper deals with the policy of the University's Medical Faculty during the Nazi period, when it faced specific demands and opportunities. While the University's restructuring had been initiated by some active National Socialists, this process was pragmatically supported by the Medical Faculty as a whole in order to gain advantages from its location. In particular, the Faculty (1.) institutionalized racial hygiene--a chair for one of the most radical representatives of this subject in Germany was requested--and (2.) established collaboration with the "Wehrmacht". The newly opened up perspectives for research were seen as an opportunity. In fact, from 1940 the University of Giessen was frequented again by many medical students; in 1943, the Berlin Academy for Military Medicine relocated some institutes and scientists to the University of Giessen, as the capital had become too unsafe for them because of increasing air raids.

  1. Performance and prospects of payments for ecosystem services programs: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Liu, Wei; Viña, Andrés; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-09-30

    Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental effects of the NFCP were evaluated through a historical trend (1965-2001) analysis of forest cover to estimate a counter-factual (i.e., without-PES) forest cover baseline for 2007. The socioeconomic effects of the NFCP were evaluated using data collected through household interviews carried out before and after NFCP implementation in 2001. Our results suggest that the NFCP was not only significantly associated with increases in forest cover, but also had both positive (e.g., labor reduction for fuelwood collection) and negative (e.g., economic losses due to crop raiding by wildlife) effects on local households. Results from this study emphasize the importance of integrating local conditions and understanding underlying mechanisms to enhance the performance of PES programs. Our findings are useful for the design and implementation of successful conservation policies not only in our study area but also in similar places around the world.

  2. Virtualizing observation computing infrastructure at Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric; Inagaki, Takeshi; Kackley, Russell; Schubert, Kiaina; Tait, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Subaru Telescope, an 8-meter class optical telescope located in Hawaii, has been using a high-availability commodity cluster as a platform for our Observation Control System (OCS). Until recently, we have followed a tried-and-tested practice of running the system under a native (Linux) OS installation with dedicated attached RAID systems and following a strict cluster deployment model to facilitate failover handling of hardware problems,1.2 Following the apparent benefits of virtualizing (i.e. running in Virtual Machines (VMs)) many of the non- observation critical systems at the base facility, we recently began to explore the idea of migrating other parts of the observatory's computing infrastructure to virtualized systems, including the summit OCS, data analysis systems and even the front ends of various Instrument Control Systems. In this paper we describe our experience with the initial migration of the Observation Control System to virtual machines running on the cluster and using a new generation tool - ansible - to automate installation and deployment. This change has significant impacts for ease of cluster maintenance, upgrades, snapshots/backups, risk-management, availability, performance, cost-savings and energy use. In this paper we discuss some of the trade-offs involved in this virtualization and some of the impacts for the above-mentioned areas, as well as the specific techniques we are using to accomplish the changeover, simplify installation and reduce management complexity.

  3. Fitness costs of worker specialization for ant societies.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-13

    Division of labour is of fundamental importance for the success of societies, yet little is known about how individual specialization affects the fitness of the group as a whole. While specialized workers may be more efficient in the tasks they perform than generalists, they may also lack the flexibility to respond to rapid shifts in task needs. Such rigidity could impose fitness costs when societies face dynamic and unpredictable events, such as an attack by socially parasitic slavemakers. Here, we experimentally assess the colony-level fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in Temnothorax longispinosus ants that are attacked by the slavemaker ant T. americanus. We manipulated the social organization of 102 T. longispinosus colonies, based on the behavioural responses of all 3842 workers. We find that strict specialization is disadvantageous for a colony's annual reproduction and growth during slave raids. These fitness costs may favour generalist strategies in dynamic environments, as we also demonstrate that societies exposed to slavemakers in the field show a lower degree of specialization than those originating from slavemaker-free populations. Our findings provide an explanation for the ubiquity of generalists and highlight their importance for the flexibility and functional robustness of entire societies.

  4. Local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana; Vicente, Luís; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Casanova, Catarina; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-02-01

    Our study concerns local knowledge and perceptions of chimpanzees among farming communities within Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. We submitted a survey questionnaire to 100 people living in four villages in the Park to enquire about their knowledge of chimpanzee ecology and human-chimpanzee interactions. Local farmers live in close contact with chimpanzees, consider them to be more similar to humans than any other species, and attribute special importance to them primarily due to expectations of tourism revenue. Interviewees' responses, as a function of gender, village, and age, were analyzed statistically using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis). Age influenced responses significantly, while gender and village had no significant effect. Youngsters emphasized morphological aspects of human-chimpanzee similarities, while adults emphasized chimpanzee behavior and narratives about the shared history of humans and chimpanzees. Tourism, conservation, and crop raiding feature prominently in people's reports about chimpanzees. Local people's engagement with conservation and tourism-related activities is likely to allow them to manage not only the costs but also the benefits of conservation, and can in turn inform the expectations built upon tourism.

  5. Fitness costs of worker specialization for ant societies

    PubMed Central

    Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Division of labour is of fundamental importance for the success of societies, yet little is known about how individual specialization affects the fitness of the group as a whole. While specialized workers may be more efficient in the tasks they perform than generalists, they may also lack the flexibility to respond to rapid shifts in task needs. Such rigidity could impose fitness costs when societies face dynamic and unpredictable events, such as an attack by socially parasitic slavemakers. Here, we experimentally assess the colony-level fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in Temnothorax longispinosus ants that are attacked by the slavemaker ant T. americanus. We manipulated the social organization of 102 T. longispinosus colonies, based on the behavioural responses of all 3842 workers. We find that strict specialization is disadvantageous for a colony's annual reproduction and growth during slave raids. These fitness costs may favour generalist strategies in dynamic environments, as we also demonstrate that societies exposed to slavemakers in the field show a lower degree of specialization than those originating from slavemaker-free populations. Our findings provide an explanation for the ubiquity of generalists and highlight their importance for the flexibility and functional robustness of entire societies. PMID:26763706

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    PubMed Central

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. PMID:25487335

  7. Ceramic Production and Craft Specialization in the Prehispanic Philippines, A.D. 500 to 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolek, Lisa Christine

    In the millennium prior to Spanish contact, the political economies of lowland societies in the Philippines, such as Tanjay (A.D. 500-1600) on southeastern Negros Island in the central Philippines, underwent significant social, political, and economic changes. Foreign trade with China increased, the circulation of wealth through events such as ritual feasting and bridewealth exchanges expanded, inter-polity competition through slave-raiding and warfare heightened, and agriculture intensified. It also has been hypothesized that the production of craft goods such as pottery and metal implements became increasingly specialized and centralized at polity centers. Tanjay, a historically-known chiefdom, was among them. This dissertation examines changes in the organization of ceramic production using the results of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of close to 300 ceramic samples. In addition to geochemical analysis, this research draws on Chinese accounts of trade from the late first millennium and early second millennium A.D.; Spanish colonial accounts of exploration and conquest from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; ethnographic research on traditional Philippine societies and ceramic production; ethnoarchaeological investigations of pottery production, exchange, and use; and archaeological work that has taken place in the Bais-Tanjay region of Negros Island for more than 30 years. Rather than finding clear evidence that ceramics became more compositionally standardized or homogeneous over time, this analysis reveals that a dynamic and complex pattern of local, dispersed pottery production existed alongside increasingly centralized and specialized production of ceramic materials.

  8. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Estoff, Elizabeth L.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

  9. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J.; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-04-13

    In early 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. While searching the laboratory, they discovered a small glass jar labelled “Gamma Source” and containing a green powder. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterize and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key ‘nuclear forensic signatures’ used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.

  10. Big Data Archives: Replication and synchronizing on a large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern data archives provide unique challenges to replication and synchronization because of their large size. We collect more digital information today than any time before and the volume of data collected is continuously increasing. Some of these data are from unique observations, like those from planetary missions that should be preserved for use by future generations. In addition data from NASA missions are considered federal records and must be retained. While the data may be stored on resilient hardware (i.e. RAID systems) they also must be protected from local or regional disasters. Meeting this challenge requires creating multiple copies. This task is complicated by the fact that new data are constantly being added creating what are called "active archives". Having reliable, high performance tools for replicating and synchronizing active archives in a timely fashion is critical to preservation of the data. When archives were smaller using tools like bbcp, rsync and rcp worked fairly well. While these tools are affective they are not optimized for synchronizing big data archives and their poor performance at scale lead us to develop a new tool designed specifically for big data archives. It combines the best features of git, bbcp, rsync and rcp. We call this tool "Mimic" and we discuss the design of the tool, performance comparisons and its use at NASA's Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  11. Evolution of coalitionary killing.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W

    1999-01-01

    Warfare has traditionally been considered unique to humans. It has, therefore, often been explained as deriving from features that are unique to humans, such as the possession of weapons or the adoption of a patriarchal ideology. Mounting evidence suggests, however, that coalitional killing of adults in neighboring groups also occurs regularly in other species, including wolves and chimpanzees. This implies that selection can favor components of intergroup aggression important to human warfare, including lethal raiding. Here I present the principal adaptive hypothesis for explaining the species distribution of intergroup coalitional killing. This is the "imbalance-of-power hypothesis," which suggests that coalitional killing is the expression of a drive for dominance over neighbors. Two conditions are proposed to be both necessary and sufficient to account for coalitional killing of neighbors: (1) a state of intergroup hostility; (2) sufficient imbalances of power between parties that one party can attack the other with impunity. Under these conditions, it is suggested, selection favors the tendency to hunt and kill rivals when the costs are sufficiently low. The imbalance-of-power hypothesis has been criticized on a variety of empirical and theoretical grounds which are discussed. To be further tested, studies of the proximate determinants of aggression are needed. However, current evidence supports the hypothesis that selection has favored a hunt-and-kill propensity in chimpanzees and humans, and that coalitional killing has a long history in the evolution of both species.

  12. Network issues for large mass storage requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, James

    1992-01-01

    File Servers and Supercomputing environments need high performance networks to balance the I/O requirements seen in today's demanding computing scenarios. UltraNet is one solution which permits both high aggregate transfer rates and high task-to-task transfer rates as demonstrated in actual tests. UltraNet provides this capability as both a Server-to-Server and Server-to-Client access network giving the supercomputing center the following advantages highest performance Transport Level connections (to 40 MBytes/sec effective rates); matches the throughput of the emerging high performance disk technologies, such as RAID, parallel head transfer devices and software striping; supports standard network and file system applications using SOCKET's based application program interface such as FTP, rcp, rdump, etc.; supports access to the Network File System (NFS) and LARGE aggregate bandwidth for large NFS usage; provides access to a distributed, hierarchical data server capability using DISCOS UniTree product; supports file server solutions available from multiple vendors, including Cray, Convex, Alliant, FPS, IBM, and others.

  13. Inverse scattering and refraction corrected reflection for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiskin, J.; Borup, D.; Johnson, S.; Berggren, M.; Robinson, D.; Smith, J.; Chen, J.; Parisky, Y.; Klock, John

    2010-03-01

    Reflection ultrasound (US) has been utilized as an adjunct imaging modality for over 30 years. TechniScan, Inc. has developed unique, transmission and concomitant reflection algorithms which are used to reconstruct images from data gathered during a tomographic breast scanning process called Warm Bath Ultrasound (WBU™). The transmission algorithm yields high resolution, 3D, attenuation and speed of sound (SOS) images. The reflection algorithm is based on canonical ray tracing utilizing refraction correction via the SOS and attenuation reconstructions. The refraction correction reflection algorithm allows 360 degree compounding resulting in the reflection image. The requisite data are collected when scanning the entire breast in a 33° C water bath, on average in 8 minutes. This presentation explains how the data are collected and processed by the 3D transmission and reflection imaging mode algorithms. The processing is carried out using two NVIDIA® Tesla™ GPU processors, accessing data on a 4-TeraByte RAID. The WBU™ images are displayed in a DICOM viewer that allows registration of all three modalities. Several representative cases are presented to demonstrate potential diagnostic capability including: a cyst, fibroadenoma, and a carcinoma. WBU™ images (SOS, attenuation, and reflection modalities) are shown along with their respective mammograms and standard ultrasound images. In addition, anatomical studies are shown comparing WBU™ images and MRI images of a cadaver breast. This innovative technology is designed to provide additional tools in the armamentarium for diagnosis of breast disease.

  14. Development of techniques for tagging precursor and essential chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, W.A.; Shepodd, T.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to identify the manufacturers and distributors of chemicals seized in raids of illicit drug labs would be of great value in controlling the diversion of these chemicals. We developed a tagging scheme based on the addition of sub-ppM concentrations of various combinations of rare-earth elements to the target chemicals and evaluated a number of techniques for detecting the tags. We developed soluble tags for tagging liquids and selected Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the preferred detection technique. We developed insoluble tags for tagging solids and developed methods to analyze them and mix them into solid precursors. We have successfully demonstrated the tagging of several solvents and two of the precursor chemicals used in one of the most popular clandestine methamphetamine syntheses (ephedrine reacting with hydriodic acid/red phosphorus). The tagging scheme is capable of yielding tens of thousands of signatures (using holmium as an internal standard and up to 9 rare-earths at up to 3 concentrations yields 3{sup 9} {minus} 1 = 19,682 signatures) and is applicable to most of the chemicals on the precursor and essential chemicals list. In the concentrations employed, the tags are safe enough to be added to pharmaceuticals and cheap enough to tag tanker loads of chemicals.

  15. Honolulu and Waikiki

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Honolulu is one of the most exotic resort destinations in the United States. Honolulu is located on Oahu, the most populated of the Hawaiian Islands. Just to the East of Honolulu is Waikiki Beach, with throngs of tourists and dozens of high-rise hotels. Overlooking Waikiki is Diamond Head, a volcanic crater formed from 70,000 to 500,000 years ago, long after Oahu's principle volcanoes-Ko'olau and Wai'anae-stopped erupting. North of Diamond Head are the eroded remains of Ko'olau. The clouds in the upper right hand corner of this image are an almost permanent feature of Oahu. Trade winds blowing from the northeast are stopped by the 3,000 foot (960 meter) high mountain range, where they rain out most of their moisture. As a result, the windward side of Oahu is usually cloudy, and the leeward side is relatively clear and dry. On the lefthand side of the image is Pearl Harbor, site of the Japanese air raid which drew America into World War II. The harbor still serves as a U.S. Navy base. The image was captured by the Landsat 7 satellite's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on March 18, 2001. Image courtesy Landsat 7 Science Team

  16. Super-resolution of multi-pixel and sub-pixel images for the SDI. Final report. [SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-08

    The recent profound shift in the global balance of power in favor of the United States of America has had major repercussions on Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) planning. In particular, the focus has shifted from the provision of protection for the United States against a massive raid, involving possibly thousands of reentry vehicles, to defense against a much more limited attack which could now, however, be launched from any part of the world. Additionally, the United States is seeking to protect its forces and allies overseas, and in the task of missile detection and tracking, allowance must now be made for trajectories which can begin and end in almost any inhabited area of the globe. Thus SDI demands on surveillance technology have been significantly expanded. Space-based imaging systems will play a vital role in the surveillance task. In this report a description is first given of a typical scenario. The potential imaging problems are then examined, the mathematical background is discussed, and the innovative algorithms which have been developed for correcting and enhancing the performance of the imaging sensor are described.

  17. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  18. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  19. Data Processing Pipeline and Data Archiving for the Palomar-QUEST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Andrews, P.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Lauer, R.; Morgan, N.; Rabinowitz, D.; Snyder, J.; Bogosavljevic, M.; Djorgovski, G.; Graham, M.; Mahabal, A.; Williams, R.; Gebhard, M.; Musser, J.; Mufson, S.; Brunner, R.; Rengstorf, A. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Palomar-QUEST Variability Survey is now in routine data taking mode using the 1.3m Oschin Schmidt Telescope at Palomar Observatory with the 112 CCD Large Area QUEST Camera. Data are taken in the drift scan mode 10 to 12 nights each month, producing of the order of 50 gigabytes of data during a clear night, covering about 500 square degrees of sky in four colors essentially simultaneously. We have written a data processing pipeline to process this large volume of data, with the capability of processing each night's data during the following day. The pipeline does astrometry and photometry using both aperture and point spread function (PSF) fitting in four colors. Each night's data are transferred automatically via a microwave link and internet to CalTech and Yale during the next day. We are establishing online data archives both at Yale and CalTech to store this raw data and make it readily available to users. The archives will be of the order of 10 terabytes each, consisting of RAID arrays of magnetic discs. The two archives will both contain the identical full data set to serve as backup to each other in case of equipment failure.

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  1. From Easter Island to coated coronary stents: a remarkable saga.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John D

    2008-01-01

    Easter Island, even though it's in the middle of nowhere, is indeed a piece of the continent, as John Donne alluded to. In addition to contributing rapamycin to the medical field, the island is an example to the whole world of the consequences of affluent lifestyles, tribal wars, and ignorance of ecology. Jared Diamond expressed these thoughts best in his book, "Collapse:" The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern world are chillingly obvious... All countries on earth today share resources and affect each other just as did Easter's dozen clans. Polynesian Easter Island was as isolated in the Pacific Ocean as the Earth is today in space. People see the collapse of Easter Island 's society as a metaphor; a worst-case scenario, for what may lie ahead for us in our own future. Some veteran Easter Island archaeologists like Claudio Cristina feel that Diamond's views are overly simplistic, commenting that he only spent a week on the island (versus 30 years for Cristina). Predatory Polynesian rats, earthquakes, tsunamis, variations in rainfall, diseases introduced by European sailing ships, could all have contributed to the near-demise of Easter Island. Tribal wars certainly didn't help, nor did slave-raiding parties from Peru. Only the eyes of the moai (Fig. 5) have seen it all, but the statues remain silent, as they have for over 1,000 years.

  2. A Zostera marina manganese superoxide dismutase gene involved in the responses to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You; Zang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-10

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an essential enzyme playing a pivotal role in the protection mechanism against oxidative stress by reducing superoxide radicals. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase was identified from Zostera marina (ZmMnSOD) via raid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) encoded a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues, which shared 69%-77% similarity with previous identified SODs. Analysis of the deduced amino acid revealed conserved features, including functional domains, signature motifs and metal binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmMnSOD was closer to the SODs from angiosperm than those from other organisms. The mRNA expression level of ZmMnSOD at different temperatures was investigated using real-time PCR and it was significantly up-regulated from 5°C to 15°C, and then dramatically down-regulated. The recombinant ZmMnSOD protein was purified and exhibited Mn(2+) ions dependency specific enzymatic activity and strong antioxidant activity over a wide temperature range. All these results indicate that ZmMnSOD is an authentic member of the plant SOD family and may play important roles in minimizing the effect of oxidative damage in Z. marina against temperature stress and affect the adaptability of Z. marina to global warming.

  3. High-Speed Optical Library System Using Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takaya; Ura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2000-02-01

    A high-data-transfer-rate optical storage system using a redundant array of inexpensive libraries (RAIL) has been developed and tested. It incorporates multiple libraries, where each library consists of dual digital versatile disk (DVD) random access memory (RAM) drives and a single robotic hand and holds 2.6 GB DVD disks. To increase the reliability of data storage and at the same time to eliminate the need for read-after-write verification, which doubles the recording time, a redundant array of inexpensive drives (RAID) 4 algorithm is implemented in the control unit of the storage system. Data sent by the host is transferred to a control unit, which stripes the data into five data groups plus one parity unit. The striped and parity data is sent to individual libraries and written to the DVD disks. This system writes and retrieves data with a transfer rate of approximately 6 MB/s, using write and read control methods that minimize the data striping overhead. This reliable library system can be used for networked multimedia applications.

  4. Design and reliability analysis of high-speed and continuous data recording system based on disk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changlong; Ma, Cheng; He, Ning; Zhang, Xugang; Wang, Chongyang; Jia, Huibo

    2002-12-01

    In many real-time fields the sustained high-speed data recording system is required. This paper proposes a high-speed and sustained data recording system based on the complex-RAID 3+0. The system consists of Array Controller Module (ACM), String Controller Module (SCM) and Main Controller Module (MCM). ACM implemented by an FPGA chip is used to split the high-speed incoming data stream into several lower-speed streams and generate one parity code stream synchronously. It also can inversely recover the original data stream while reading. SCMs record lower-speed streams from the ACM into the SCSI disk drivers. In the SCM, the dual-page buffer technology is adopted to implement speed-matching function and satisfy the need of sustainable recording. MCM monitors the whole system, controls ACM and SCMs to realize the data stripping, reconstruction, and recovery functions. The method of how to determine the system scale is presented. At the end, two new ways Floating Parity Group (FPG) and full 2D-Parity Group (full 2D-PG) are proposed to improve the system reliability and compared with the Traditional Parity Group (TPG). This recording system can be used conveniently in many areas of data recording, storing, playback and remote backup with its high-reliability.

  5. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas ( Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  6. Ethanol-induced analgesia

    SciTech Connect

    Pohorecky, L.A.; Shah, P.

    1987-09-07

    The effect of ethanol (ET) on nociceptive sensitivity was evaluated using a new tail deflection response (TDR) method. The IP injection of ET (0.5 - 1.5 g/kg) produced raid dose-dependent analgesia. Near maximal effect (97% decrease in TDR) was produced with the 1.5 g/kg dose of ET ten minutes after injection. At ninety minutes post-injection there was still significant analgesia. Depression of ET-induced nociceptive sensitivity was partially reversed by a 1 mg/kg dose of naloxone. On the other hand, morphine (0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP) did not modify ET-induced analgesia, while 3.0 minutes of cold water swim (known to produce non-opioid mediated analgesia) potentiated ET-induced analgesic effect. The 0.5 g/kg dose of ET by itself did not depress motor activity in an open field test, but prevented partially the depression in motor activity produced by cold water swim (CWS). Thus, the potentiation by ET of the depression of the TDR produced by CWS cannot be ascribed to the depressant effects of ET on motor activity. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Abhijeet; Tiwade, Dilip; Dongre, Ashok; Dongre, Aravind P; Phatak, Rasika; Watve, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Crop raiding by wild herbivores close to an area of protected wildlife is a serious problem that can potentially undermine conservation efforts. Since there is orders of magnitude difference between farmers' perception of damage and the compensation given by the government, an objective and realistic estimate of damage was found essential. We employed four different approaches to estimate the extent of and patterns in crop damage by wild herbivores along the western boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the state of Maharashtra, central India. These approaches highlight different aspects of the problem but converge on an estimated damage of over 50% for the fields adjacent to the forest, gradually reducing in intensity with distance. We found that the visual damage assessment method currently employed by the government for paying compensation to farmers was uncorrelated to and grossly underestimated actual damage. The findings necessitate a radical rethinking of policies to assess, mitigate as well as compensate for crop damage caused by protected wildlife species.

  8. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself.

  9. HIV, sex work, and civil society in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Harm reduction programs for sex workers have been hampered by the prioritization of law enforcement over AIDS prevention. For example, the April 2010 "strike-hard" campaign against prostitution in Beijing, during which bars, nightclubs, saunas, and karaoke bars were raided, created an atmosphere that critically impeded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outreach activities for sex workers. In China, criminalization has limited the growth of a coherent and cohesive set of nongovernmental organization (NGO) actors working with sex workers to prevent HIV infection. Compared with other risk groups for HIV sexual transmission, such as men who have sex with men, the NGO community for sex workers is fragmented and poorly coordinated with government efforts, and basic rights for sex workers are often violated. This article examines civil society groups working on AIDS prevention and care for female sex workers in China and reviews constraints to their operations. China's HIV prevention programs for sex workers are compared with sex worker HIV prevention in other Asian states where more well-developed NGOs exist and criminalization has been better balanced with harm reduction approaches, and recommendations are offered on improving China's policies and programs.

  10. Emerging Technologies and MOUT

    SciTech Connect

    YONAS,GEROLD; MOY,TIMOTHY DAVID

    2000-11-15

    Operating in a potentially hostile city is every soldier's nightmare. The staggering complexity of the urban environment means that deadly threats--or non-combatants-may lurk behind every corner, doorway, or window. Urban operations present an almost unparalleled challenge to the modern professional military. The complexity of urban operations is further amplified by the diversity of missions that the military will be called upon to conduct in urban terrain. Peace-making and peace-keeping missions, urban raids to seize airports or WMD sites or to rescue hostages, and extended urban combat operations all present different sorts of challenges for planners and troops on the ground. Technology almost never serves as a magic bullet, and past predictions of technological miracles pile high on the ash heap of history. At the same time, it is a vital element of planning in the modern age to consider and, if possible, take advantage of emerging technologies. We believe that technologies can assist military operations in urbanized terrain (MOUT) in three primary areas, which are discussed.

  11. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gunasekaran, Raghul; Shipman, Galen M; Dillow, David A; Zhang, Zhe; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  12. Methodology for assessment of structural vibrations by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Simon S.; Raphael, Patrick; Xia, Anping; Park, Jesung; Carbajal, Esteban; Applegate, Brian E.; Oghalai, John S.

    2012-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of cochlear dysfunction typically remains incomplete due to a lack of proper diagnostic methods. Medical imaging modalities can only detect gross changes in the cochlea, and non-invasive in vivo cochlear measurements are scarce. As a result, extensive efforts have been made to adapt optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques to analyze and study the cochlea. Herein, we detail the methods for measuring vibration using OCT. We used spectral domain OCT with ~950 nm as the center wavelength and a bandwidth of ~80 nm. The custom spectrometer used was based on a high speed line scan camera which is capable of line rates up to 28 kHz. The signal-to- noise ratio of the system was ~90 dB. The data collection and processing software was written in LabVIEW and MATLAB. We tested whether streaming directly from the camera, writing the data to multiple hard drives in the RAID- 0 configuration, and processing using the GPU shortened experiment times. We then analyzed the A-line phase noise over several hundred milliseconds and growth curves from a piezoelectric element. We believe this is the first step towards a diagnostic device which generates vibration information of cochlear structures.

  13. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  14. Outdoor brothel culture: the un/making of a transsexual stroll in Vancouver's West End, 1975–1984.

    PubMed

    Ross, Becki

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, following a series of police raids on prostitution inside downtown nightclubs, a community of approximately 200 sex workers moved into Vancouver's West End neighborhood, where a small stroll had operated since the early 1970s. This paper examines the contributions made by three male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals of color to the culture of on-street prostitution in the West End. The trans women's stories address themes of fashion, working conditions, money, community formation, violence, and resistance to well-organized anti-prostitution forces. These recollections enable me to bridge and enrich trans history and prostitution history – two fields of inquiry that have under-represented the participation of trans women in the sex industry across the urban West. Acutely familiar with the hazards inherent in a criminalized, stigmatized trade, trans sex workers in the West End manufactured efficacious strategies of harm reduction, income generation, safety planning, and community building. Eschewing the label of “victim”, they leveraged their physical size and style, charisma, contempt towards pimps, earning capacity, and seniority as the first workers on the stroll to assume leadership within the broader constituency of “hookers on Davie Street”. I discover that their short-lived outdoor brothel culture offered only a temporary bulwark against the inevitability of eviction via legal injunction in July 1984, and the subsequent rise in lethal violence against all prostitutes in Vancouver, including MTF transsexuals.

  15. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action.

  16. Visual issues associated with the use of the integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) in the Apache helicopter: three decades in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Heinecke, Kevin

    2008-04-01

    In the late 1970s the U.S. Army developed the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS), which is a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for use in the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The helicopter and the system were designed with the Cold War in mind such that the Apache would be able to stand off far from the frontlines and attack deep target-primarily tanks-before they could engage our ground forces. The design used a right-sided monocular display optical system that was intended to reduce head-supported weight. This novel monocular design introduced a number of issues that had the potential of causing visual perception problems for pilots. Since the initial fielding of the Apache in the early 1980s, numerous reports have appeared in the literature that evaluated realized visual complaints voiced by Apache aircrew. In this review, the authors provide a summary of seminal reports, surveys, and experiments conducted over the past three decades. The extant literature described investigated these visual issues as the Apache's mission has evolved from the stand-off engagement tactics of the Cold War to the new Apache missions of close air support, deep attack, and raids currently occurring in the Global War on Terrorism.

  17. Fault-tolerant PACS server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Zhou, Michael Z.; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, X. C.; Mogel, Greg T.

    2002-05-01

    Failure of a PACS archive server could cripple an entire PACS operation. Last year we demonstrated that it was possible to design a fault-tolerant (FT) server with 99.999% uptime. The FT design was based on a triple modular redundancy with a simple majority vote to automatically detect and mask a faulty module. The purpose of this presentation is to report on its continuous developments in integrating with external mass storage devices, and to delineate laboratory failover experiments. An FT PACS Simulator with generic PACS software has been used in the experiment. To simulate a PACS clinical operation, image examinations are transmitted continuously from the modality simulator to the DICOM gateway and then to the FT PACS server and workstations. The hardware failures in network, FT server module, disk, RAID, and DLT are manually induced to observe the failover recovery of the FT PACS to resume its normal data flow. We then test and evaluate the FT PACS server in its reliability, functionality, and performance.

  18. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  19. Visualization in aerospace research with a large wall display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yuichi

    2002-05-01

    National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan has built a large- scale visualization system with a large wall-type display. The system has been operational since April 2001 and comprises a 4.6x1.5-meter (15x5-foot) rear projection screen with 3 BARCO 812 high-resolution CRT projectors. The reason we adopted the 3-gun CRT projectors is support for stereoscopic viewing, ease with color/luminosity matching and accuracy of edge-blending. The system is driven by a new SGI Onyx 3400 server of distributed shared-memory architecture with 32 CPUs, 64Gbytes memory, 1.5TBytes FC RAID disk and 6 IR3 graphics pipelines. Software is another important issue for us to make full use of the system. We have introduced some applications available in a multi- projector environment such as AVS/MPE, EnSight Gold and COVISE, and been developing some software tools that create volumetric images with using SGI graphics libraries. The system is mainly used for visualization fo computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation sin aerospace research. Visualized CFD results are of our help for designing an improved configuration of aerospace vehicles and analyzing their aerodynamic performances. These days we also use it for various collaborations among researchers.

  20. Real-time, mixed-mode computing architecture for waveform-resolved lidar systems with total propagated uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortman, Robert L.; Carr, Domenic A.; James, Ryan; Long, Daniel; O'Shaughnessy, Matthew R.; Valenta, Christopher R.; Tuell, Grady H.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a prototype real-time computer for a bathymetric lidar capable of producing point clouds attributed with total propagated uncertainty (TPU). This real-time computer employs a "mixed-mode" architecture comprised of an FPGA, CPU, and GPU. Noise reduction and ranging are performed in the digitizer's user-programmable FPGA, and coordinates and TPU are calculated on the GPU. A Keysight M9703A digitizer with user-programmable Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGAs digitizes as many as eight channels of lidar data, performs ranging, and delivers the data to the CPU via PCIe. The floating-point-intensive coordinate and TPU calculations are performed on an NVIDIA Tesla K20 GPU. Raw data and computed products are written to an SSD RAID, and an attributed point cloud is displayed to the user. This prototype computer has been tested using 7m-deep waveforms measured at a water tank on the Georgia Tech campus, and with simulated waveforms to a depth of 20m. Preliminary results show the system can compute, store, and display about 20 million points per second.

  1. Alkaloid venom weaponry of three Megalomyrmex thief ants and the behavioral response of Cyphomyrmex costatus host ants.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Jones, Tappey H; Longino, John T; Weatherford, Robert G; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2015-04-01

    Social parasites exploit other societies by invading and stealing resources. Some enter protected nests using offensive chemical weaponry made from alkaloid-based venom. We characterized the venoms of three Megalomyrmex thief ant species (M. mondabora, M. mondaboroides, and M. silvestrii) that parasitize the fungus-growing ants, and developed an ethogram to describe host ant reactions to raiding M. mondaboroides and M. silvestrii parasites. We compared piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrolizidine venom alkaloid structures with synthetic samples from previous studies, and describe the novel stereochemistry of trans 2-hexyl-5-[8-oxononyl]-pyrrolidine (3) from M. mondabora. We showed that workers of Cyphomyrmex costatus, the host of M. mondaboroides and M. silvestrii, react to a sting by Megalomyrmex parasites mainly with submissive behavior, playing dead or retreating. Host submission also followed brief antennal contact. The behavior of C. costatus ants observed in this study was similar to that of Cyphomyrmex cornutus, host of M. mondabora, suggesting that the alkaloidal venoms with pyrrolidines from M. mondabora, piperidines from M. mondaboroides, and pyrolizidines from M. silvestrii may function similarly as appeasement and repellent allomones against host ants, despite their different chemical structure. With the use of these chemical weapons, the Megalomyrmex thief ants are met with little host resistance and easily exploit host colony resources.

  2. Tier-2 Optimisation for Computational Density/Diversity and Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R. B.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    As the number of cores on chip continues to trend upwards and new CPU architectures emerge, increasing CPU density and diversity presents multiple challenges to site administrators. These include scheduling for massively multi-core systems (potentially including Graphical Processing Units (GPU), integrated and dedicated) and Many Integrated Core (MIC)) to ensure a balanced throughput of jobs while preserving overall cluster throughput, as well as the increasing complexity of developing for these heterogeneous platforms, and the challenge in managing this more complex mix of resources. In addition, meeting data demands as both dataset sizes increase and as the rate of demand scales with increased computational power requires additional performance from the associated storage elements. In this report, we evaluate one emerging technology, Solid State Drive (SSD) caching for RAID controllers, with consideration to its potential to assist in meeting evolving demand. We also briefly consider the broader developing trends outlined above in order to identify issues that may develop and assess what actions should be taken in the immediate term to address those.

  3. A simple extraction method for the simultaneous detection of tetramisole and diethylcarbamazine in milk, eggs, and porcine muscle using gradient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Dong-Soon; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Shin, Soo-Jean; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Suk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of residual quantities of contaminants in foods of animal origin is crucial for quality control of consumer products. This study was aimed to develop a simple and raid analytical method for detection of tetramisole and diethylcarbamazine using gradient liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Tetramisole, diethylcarbamazine, and guaifenesin (as an internal standard) were extracted from milk, eggs, and porcine muscle using acetonitrile followed by partitioning at -20 °C for 1h. No extract purification was deemed necessary. The analytes were separated on C18 column using ammonium formate both in water and methanol. Good linearity was achieved over the tested concentration range with R(2) ⩾ 0.974. Recovery at two fortification levels ranged between 67.47% and 97.38%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <20%. The limit of quantification was 0.2 and 2 ng/g for tetramisole and diethylcarbamazine, respectively. An analytical survey of samples purchased from large markets showed that none of the samples contained any of the target analytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative determination of tetramisole and diethylcarbamazine in animal food products.

  4. Manufacturing by-products from, and stereochemical outcomes of the biotransformation of benzaldehyde used in the synthesis of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Cox, Matthew; Klass, Gunter; Koo, Christina Wei Min

    2009-08-10

    Clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine in Australia has predominantly started from pseudoephedrine extracted from over the counter cold and flu medications. However, recently introduced restrictions on the sale of these products have made pseudoephedrine much more difficult to obtain. As a result clandestine chemists have had to resort to other means of obtaining the necessary chemical precursors. A recent drug raid (Adelaide, January 2008) resulted in the seizure of an unusual reaction mixture that indicated a novel approach involving the fermentation of glucose by yeast in the presence of benzaldehyde to give 1-hydroxy-1-phenylpropanone, also known as l-phenylacetylcarbinol (l-PAC), a known precursor to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine and hence methamphetamine. A study was undertaken into this process with the aim of determining the characteristic reaction by-products associated with methamphetamine made in this way. The study also looked at the stereochemical selectivity of the fermentation reaction and the stereochemistry of the subsequent reaction products, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, and the final methamphetamine.

  5. Forced prostitution of women and girls in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In Para and Maranhao States in Brazil, women and young girls are enticed from their towns by the promise of jobs in mining encampments and near large civil construction sites only to be sold into servitude in brothels. The women are virtually slaves who are told they must work as prostitutes to pay their transportation costs and other debts incurred (such as the purchase of medicine to treat malaria). Once this is done, the women must reimburse the brothel owners for the price paid for them. Since the brothel owners collect the client's money directly and transportation costs out of the area are high, few women can leave. Those who try to escape are beaten, tortured, or even killed. The local police are allegedly party to this situation. After publication of this situation in 1992, federal police raided a number of brothels, released more than 70 prostitutes, including many minors, and arrested 10 brothel owners. There is evidence that this problem is widespread in Amazonia, despite the fact that Brazil has ratified several international conventions designed to outlaw slavery and forced prostitution and to protect children.

  6. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine.

  7. Investigation of the effect of physical parameters on the design of tumour targeting agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Joanne Lois

    Tumour targeting using radiolabelled antibodies for radioimmunodetection (RAID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been studied for many years. The main factors that have limited clinical success are low tumour uptake, immunogenicity and poor therapeutic ratios. This thesis has applied current technology to make advances in this area of research. The effect of physical parameters (antibody size, valency, affinity and charge) on the design of tumour targeting agents was studied by constructing divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) forms of the murine anti-CEA antibody A5B7 Fab' by chemical cross-linking. This involves partial reduction of the hinge disulphides to expose thiol (-SH) groups and subsequent reaction with a maleimide cross-linker to form a thioether bond at the hinge region. Previous studies have suggested that the stability of thioether bonds is superior to naturally occurring disulphide bonds present at the hinge region of IgG and F(ab')2. The aim was to compare the functional affinities and in vivo tumour targeting in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts of DFM and TFM to similar sized parent IgG and F(ab')2. Radiolabelling with 131I and 90Y was also compared with a view to determine which combination would be optimal for RIT. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly faster on-rate of DFM compared to all other antibody forms and estimated dosimetry analysis suggested that DFM would be the most suitable antibody form radiolabelled with 131I for RIT. Both F(ab')2 and DFM showed high kidney uptake levels on labelling with which is unacceptable for RIT. Despite the improved tumour: blood ratios for TFM, the increased estimated dose to normal tissues and lower therapeutic effect in RIT studies suggests that the most promising combination with the radionuclide appears to be IgG. A humanised version of A5B7 hFab' has been constructed previously in order to reduce its immunogenicity in man. The in vivo stability of hDFM proved to be superior to hF(ab')2

  8. DSN Beowulf Cluster-Based VLBI Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogstad, Stephen P.; Jongeling, Andre P.; Finley, Susan G.; White, Leslie A.; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Clark, John E.; Goodhart, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires a broadband VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) correlator to process data routinely taken as part of the VLBI source Catalogue Maintenance and Enhancement task (CAT M&E) and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations task (TEMPO). The data provided by these measurements are a crucial ingredient in the formation of precision deep-space navigation models. In addition, a VLBI correlator is needed to provide support for other VLBI related activities for both internal and external customers. The JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) was designed, developed, and delivered to the DSN as a successor to the legacy Block II Correlator. The JVC is a full-capability VLBI correlator that uses software processes running on multiple computers to cross-correlate two-antenna broadband noise data. Components of this new system (see Figure 1) consist of Linux PCs integrated into a Beowulf Cluster, an existing Mark5 data storage system, a RAID array, an existing software correlator package (SoftC) originally developed for Delta DOR Navigation processing, and various custom- developed software processes and scripts. Parallel processing on the JVC is achieved by assigning slave nodes of the Beowulf cluster to process separate scans in parallel until all scans have been processed. Due to the single stream sequential playback of the Mark5 data, some ramp-up time is required before all nodes can have access to required scan data. Core functions of each processing step are accomplished using optimized C programs. The coordination and execution of these programs across the cluster is accomplished using Pearl scripts, PostgreSQL commands, and a handful of miscellaneous system utilities. Mark5 data modules are loaded on Mark5 Data systems playback units, one per station. Data processing is started when the operator scans the Mark5 systems and runs a script that reads various configuration files and then creates an experiment-dependent status database

  9. Data storage and retrieval system abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheson, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Krueger, I.; Schofield, O.; Glenn, S.; Peach, C.; Nayak, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Internet today is vastly different than the Internet that we knew even five years ago and the changes that will be evident five years from now, when the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) prototype has been installed, are nearly unpredictable. Much of this progress is based on the exponential growth in capabilities of consumer electronics and information technology; the reality of this exponential behavior is rarely appreciated. For example, the number of transistors on a square cm of silicon will continue to double every 18 months, the density of disk storage will double every year, and network bandwidth will double every eight months. Today's desktop 2TB RAID will be 64TB and the 10Gbps Regional Scale Network fiber optical connection will be running at 1.8Tbps. The same exponential behavior characterizes the future of genome sequencing. The first two sequences of composites of individuals' genes cost tens of millions of dollars in 2001. Dr. Craig Venter just published a more accurate complete human genome (his own) at a cost on the order of 100,000. The J. Craig Venter Institute has provided support for the X Prize for Genomics offering 10M to the first successful sequencing of a human genome for $1,000. It's anticipated that the prize will be won within five years. Major advances in technology that are broadly viewed as disruptive or revolutionary rather than evolutionary will often depend upon the exploitation of exponential expansions in capability. Applications of these ideas to the OOI will be discussed. Specifically, the agile ability to scale cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the exponential growth of sensors, networks and computational capability and demand will be described.

  11. Petabyte Class Storage at Jefferson Lab (CEBAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Rita; Davis, Mark

    1996-01-01

    By 1997, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will collect over one Terabyte of raw information per day of Accelerator operation from three concurrently operating Experimental Halls. When post-processing is included, roughly 250 TB of raw and formatted experimental data will be generated each year. By the year 2000, a total of one Petabyte will be stored on-line. Critical to the experimental program at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is the networking and computational capability to collect, store, retrieve, and reconstruct data on this scale. The design criteria include support of a raw data stream of 10-12 MB/second from Experimental Hall B, which will operate the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Keeping up with this data stream implies design strategies that provide storage guarantees during accelerator operation, minimize the number of times data is buffered allow seamless access to specific data sets for the researcher, synchronize data retrievals with the scheduling of postprocessing calculations on the data reconstruction CPU farms, as well as support the site capability to perform data reconstruction and reduction at the same overall rate at which new data is being collected. The current implementation employs state-of-the-art StorageTek Redwood tape drives and robotics library integrated with the Open Storage Manager (OSM) Hierarchical Storage Management software (Computer Associates, International), the use of Fibre Channel RAID disks dual-ported between Sun Microsystems SMP servers, and a network-based interface to a 10,000 SPECint92 data processing CPU farm. Issues of efficiency, scalability, and manageability will become critical to meet the year 2000 requirements for a Petabyte of near-line storage interfaced to over 30,000 SPECint92 of data processing power.

  12. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  13. Long-term exposure to political violence: The particular injury of persistent humiliation.

    PubMed

    Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea; Olsen, Joseph A; Belli, Robert F; Doty, Samuel Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the association between exposure to political violence over a 25-year period and adult functioning among a population that has experienced protracted and severe political conflict. Instead of aggregating exposure to political violence across time and type of exposure, as is commonly done, the event history calendar pioneered in this study assessed exposure to five forms of political violence annually from 1987 to 2011 in a representative sample of 1788 adults, aged 37 on average, in the occupied Palestinian territories (West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip). This method allowed for the identification of trajectories of exposure to political violence from childhood to adulthood using latent profile analysis. We then correlated the trajectories of exposure to measures of economic, political, community, family, psychological, and health functioning. As expected, being shot at, having one's home raided, being hit or kicked, being verbally abused, and witnessing someone close being humiliated were all elevated during periods of heightened political conflict (the first intifada (1987-1993) and, less so, the second intifada (2000-2005)). In addition, 12% of women and men reported high and persistent levels of exposure to humiliation (being verbally abused and/or witnessing someone close being humiliated) across the entire 25-year period. These individuals lived predominantly in neighborhoods with a high Israeli military presence. Compared to those who experienced periodic exposure to political violence, persistently humiliated men and women reported significantly lower health, economic, political, and psychological functioning, as well as higher social cohesion and political expression. Relevant literatures are reviewed when concluding that persistent humiliation is a neglected form of political violence that is best represented as a direct (versus structural), acute (versus chronic), macro (versus micro), and high-grade (versus low

  14. Energy balance and body composition during US Army special forces training.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine; Young, Andrew J; Castellani, John W

    2013-04-01

    Small Unit Tactics (SUT) is a 64-day phase of the Special Forces Qualification Course designed to simulate real-world combat operations. Assessing the metabolic and physiological responses of such intense training allows greater insights into nutritional requirements of soldiers during combat. The purpose of this study was to examine energy balance around specific training events, as well as changes in body mass and composition. Data were collected from 4 groups of soldiers (n = 36) across 10-day periods. Participants were 28 ± 5 years old, 177 ± 6 cm tall, and weighed 83 ± 7 kg. Doubly labeled water (D2(18)O) was used to assess energy expenditure. Energy intake was calculated by subtracting energy in uneaten foods from known energy in distributed foods in individually packaged combat rations or in the dining facility. Body composition was estimated from skinfold thickness measurements on days 0 and 64 of the course. Simulated urban combat elicited that largest energy deficit (11.3 ± 2.3 MJ·day(-1) (2700 ± 550 kcal·day(-1)); p < 0.05), and reduction in body mass (3.3 ± 1.9 kg; p < 0.05), during SUT, while energy balance was maintained during weapons familiarization training and platoon size raids. Over the entire course body mass decreased by 4.2 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.01), with fat mass decreasing by 2.8 ± 2.0 kg (p < 0.01) and fat-free mass decreasing by 1.4 ± 2.8 kg (p < 0.05). The overall reduction in body mass suggests that soldiers were in a negative energy balance during SUT, with high energy deficit being observed during strenuous field training.

  15. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Estes, Jason G; Othman, Nurzhafarina; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius N; Estes, Anna B; Palmiotto, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581) elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2), our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2)). During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2). As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2) (95% CI: 2.46-9.41), among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland) are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce human

  16. Tool-use to obtain honey by chimpanzees at Bulindi: new record from Uganda.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2011-10-01

    Honey-gathering from bee nests has been recorded at chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) study sites across tropical Africa. Different populations employ different strategies, ranging from simple 'smash-and grab' raids to use of sophisticated tool-sets, i.e., two or more types of tool used sequentially in a single task. In this paper I present evidence of tool-use, and the probable use of a tool-set, for honey-gathering by unhabituated chimpanzees at Bulindi, a forest-farm mosaic south of the Budongo Forest in Uganda. Between June and December 2007, 44 stick tools were found in association with 16 holes dug in the ground, corresponding to the period when stingless bees (Meliponula sp.) appeared in chimpanzee dung. In 11 cases the confirmed target was a Meliponula ground nest. Two potential tool types were distinguished: digging sticks encrusted with soil, and more slender and/or flexible sticks largely devoid of soil that may have functioned to probe the bees' narrow entry tubes. Reports of chimpanzees using tools to dig for honey have been largely confined to Central Africa. Honey-digging has not previously been reported for Ugandan chimpanzees. Similarly, use of a tool-set to obtain honey has thus far been described for wild chimpanzee populations only in Central Africa. Evidence strongly suggests that Bulindi chimpanzees also use sticks in predation on carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.) nests, perhaps as probes to locate honey or to disable adult bees. These preliminary findings from Bulindi add to our understanding of chimpanzee technological and cultural variation. However, unprotected forests at Bulindi and elsewhere in the region are currently severely threatened by commercial logging and clearance for farming. Populations with potentially unique behavioral and technological repertoires are being lost.

  17. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Dose Escalation to Biological Tumor Volumes of Prostate Cancer Patients Using Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W; Sajo, E; Houari, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies have shown that radiation boosting could help reduce prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence. Biological tumor volumes (BTV) are a high priority for such radiation boosting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of radiation boosting of real patient BTVs using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from gold-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS) during brachytherapy. Methods: The BTVs of 12 patients having prostate adenocarcinoma identified with positron emission tomography (PET) and CT scanner using C-11 labeled tracer [11C]acetate were investigated. The initial GNP concentration and time to achieve a dose enhancement effect (DEF) of 2 was simulated using the freely downloadable software RAID APP. The investigations were carried out for low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources (BTS) described in AAPM Task Group report 43: Cs-131, I-125, and Pd-103. In first case, we used 7 mg/g and 18 mg/g of GNP initial concentrations to estimate the time needed for released GNP to achieve a DEF of 2 for the different BTS, and compare with clinically relevant treatment times. In second case, we calculated the initial concentration of GNPs needed to achieve a DEF of 2 during the time the BTS would typically deliver 50%, 70% and 90% of the total dose. Results: For an initial concentration of 18 mg/g, when using Cs-131, and Pd-103, a DEF of 2 could only be achieved for BTV of 3.3 cm3 and 1 cm3 respectively. Meanwhile a DEF of 2 could be achieved for all 12 BTVs when using I-125. To achieve a DEF of 2 for all patients using Cs-131 and Pd-103, much higher initial concentrations would have to be used than have been typically employed in pre-clinical studies. Conclusion: The I-125 is the most viable BTS that can be employed with GBS to guide dose painting treatment planning for localized PCa.

  18. The Maria Mitchell Observatory and its Digitized Plate Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnitski, V.

    2009-08-01

    The Maria Mitchell Observatory (MMO), located on Nantucket Island, possesses a collection of over 8,000 wide-field (13° x 16°) photographic plates obtained with the MMO 7.5-inch (19-cm) Cooke/Clark camera, from 1913 to 1995. The collection is relatively rich for three areas of the sky in Scutum, Cygnus and Sagittarius. The catalog of the plates is available online. In 2000-2002, all the plates were digitized with an AgfaScan T5000 commercial scanner, using both low (840 dpi) and high (2,500 dpi) resolution and the 8 bit gray scale resolution. The image files are stored on CDs and on hard drive RAID-protected storage devices, and copies (on CDs or DVDs) are available on order. Comparison of the images scanned with the AgfaScan T5000 and those scanned with the STScI high-precision GAMMA laser densitometer reveals a characteristic additional noise of up to ≈0.05 mag on the AgfaScan T5000 scans. It is considerably lower than the typical uncertainty of ±0.1-0.2 mag for stellar photometry on the original MMO plates. Several successful projects using the scanned copies of the plates confirm the adequacy of the copies for stellar photometry. Considering that the high-resolution scanning on AgfaScan T5000 was eight times faster than that with the GAMMA, we conclude that scanning the plates of this quality with a commercial scanner of the AgfaScan T5000 class is a reasonable compromise between the quality and the time and cost of scanning.

  19. Simulation of ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence LIDAR for detecting bioaerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Yuzhao; Qiu, Zongjia; Kong, Weiguo; Ni, Guoqiang

    2009-11-01

    The biological warfare agent (BWA) is a kind of terrible threat during the war or raid from the terrorist. Last decade, the interest in utilizing ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) LIDAR to detect the bioaerosol cloud has risen in order to measure the distribution of the bioaerosol particle. The UV-LIF LIDAR system can remotely detect and classify the bioaerosol agents and it is an active detecting system. As the infrared absorbing in the atmosphere is less, the range of infrared remote sensing is very far. The infrared laser at 1064 nm wavelength firstly begins to work in the UV-LIF LIDAR system and the aerosol cloud can be detected at very long range through the elastic backscattering signal from aerosol irradiated by infrared laser. But the category of aerosol can't be identified yet. If the infrared elastic backscattering level exceeds a threshold, UV laser at 355 nm wavelength will be triggered and induce the fluorescence. The excitated spectra of fluorescence can be used for discrimination of different aerosol species and particle concentration. This paper put forward for a UV-LIF LIDAR system model and the principle of the model is described summarily. Then the system parameters are presented and the simulation and analysis of the infrared elastic backscattering and laser-induced fluorescence are made, which is based on these parameters. Raman backscattering signal of Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere generally is taken to reduce measuring error, so the article also simulates this Raman backscatter signal at 387 nm wavelength. The studies above may provide some valuable instructions to the design of a real UV-LIF LIDAR system.

  20. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  1. A sour note on Roe vs. Wade.

    PubMed

    Roth, J A

    1991-01-01

    While many have praised Roe v. Wade, and pro-choice groups have tried to protect it, the decision may be overpraised since it places the abortion decision in the hands of the medical profession, rather than the woman's making abortion availability dependent upon a physician's willingness to perform and abortion. This has meant that in many parts of the country a pregnant woman seeking an abortion must travel some distance and deal with strangers in her quest for an abortion. To become independent of the law and of the medical profession, feminist organizations should regenerate the pre-Roe network for nonphysician abortions. The abortifacient medication, RU-486, is manufactured by pharmaceutical companies and prescribed by physicians. It will suffer the same limitations as Roe: controls by the laws, antifeminist institutions, and by the medical profession. Feminist organizations should begin examining how they can gain control over the medication. Beyond the short-term goals of battling restrictions on the Supreme Court decision, on Medicaid cutbacks, and on parental consent laws, organizers should focus more on placing complete control over fertility directly in the hands of pregnant women. This does not necessarily mean an "ongoing war between women's organizations which try to maintain control of their fertility and police agencies engaged in crack downs including raids, confiscation of equipment and written materials, arrest, harsh punishments[.]" Examples exist of successful underground organizations providing information and referrals for abortions, and even for the successful production and distribution of illegal drugs as a model for RU-486. The AIDS organizations, Poland's Solidarity movement, and the US's Sanctuary movement offer other models. It remains to be seen whether feminists and women's rights organizations can generate enough solidarity, fervor, and willingness to take risks to allow them to carry on an open conspiracy against authoritative

  2. Global population collapse in a superabundant migratory bird and illegal trapping in China.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Johannes; Oppel, Steffen; Ananin, Alexandr A; Durnev, Yurii A; Gashev, Sergey N; Hölzel, Norbert; Mishchenko, Alexandr L; Pessa, Jorma; Smirenski, Sergey M; Strelnikov, Evgenii G; Timonen, Sami; Wolanska, Kolja; Chan, Simba

    2015-12-01

    Persecution and overexploitation by humans are major causes of species extinctions. Rare species, often confined to small geographic ranges, are usually at highest risk, whereas extinctions of superabundant species with very large ranges are rare. The Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) used to be one of the most abundant songbirds of the Palearctic, with a very large breeding range stretching from Scandinavia to the Russian Far East. Anecdotal information about rapid population declines across the range caused concern about unsustainable trapping along the species' migration routes. We conducted a literature review and used long-term monitoring data from across the species' range to model population trend and geographical patterns of extinction. The population declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013, and the species' range contracted by 5000 km. Quantitative evidence from police raids suggested rampant illegal trapping of the species along its East Asian flyway in China. A population model simulating an initial harvest level of 2% of the population, and an annual increase of 0.2% during the monitoring period produced a population trajectory that matched the observed decline. We suggest that trapping strongly contributed to the decline because the consumption of Yellow-breasted Bunting and other songbirds has increased as a result of economic growth and prosperity in East Asia. The magnitude and speed of the decline is unprecedented among birds with a comparable range size, with the exception of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct in 1914 due to industrial-scale hunting. Our results demonstrate the urgent need for an improved monitoring of common and widespread species' populations, and consumption levels throughout East Asia.

  3. PCIE interface design for high-speed image storage system based on SSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiming

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes and implements a standard interface of miniaturized high-speed image storage system, which combines PowerPC with FPGA and utilizes PCIE bus as the high speed switching channel. Attached to the PowerPC, mSATA interface SSD(Solid State Drive) realizes RAID3 array storage. At the same time, a high-speed real-time image compression patent IP core also can be embedded in FPGA, which is in the leading domestic level with compression rate and image quality, making that the system can record higher image data rate or achieve longer recording time. The notebook memory card buckle type design is used in the mSATA interface SSD, which make it possible to complete the replacement in 5 seconds just using single hand, thus the total length of repeated recordings is increased. MSI (Message Signaled Interrupts) interruption guarantees the stability and reliability of continuous DMA transmission. Furthermore, only through the gigabit network, the remote display, control and upload to backup function can be realized. According to an optional 25 frame/s or 30 frame/s, upload speeds can be up to more than 84 MB/s. Compared with the existing FLASH array high-speed memory systems, it has higher degree of modularity, better stability and higher efficiency on development, maintenance and upgrading. Its data access rate is up to 300MB/s, realizing the high speed image storage system miniaturization, standardization and modularization, thus it is fit for image acquisition, storage and real-time transmission to server on mobile equipment.

  4. Infections and risk factors for livestock with species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella under semi-nomadic rearing in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Chiara; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Strona, Paolo; Lappo, Pier Giorgio; Etiang, Patrick; Diverio, Silvana

    2016-03-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma, Babesia and Brucella spp. infections in cattle, goats and sheep in the Karamoja Region of Uganda and to identify possible risk factors existing in this semi-nomadic and pastoral area. Low cost laboratory tests were used to diagnose infections (Rose Bengal test for Brucella spp. antibodies and direct microscopic examination for Anaplasma and Babesia spp.). Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to identify possible risk factors linked to gender, animal species, age (only for cattle) and districts. A total of 3935 cattle, 729 goats and 306 sheep of five districts of the Karamoja Region were tested. Seroprevalence for Brucella was 9.2 % (CI, 95 %: 8.4-10), for Anaplasma 19.5 % (CI 95 %: 18.4-20.6) and for Babesia 16 % (CI 95 %: 15-17.1). Significant differences in infections prevalence were observed against risk factors associated with districts and species. Cattle were the species with higher risk of the infections. Female gender was identified as at risk only for Brucella spp. infection. Cattle more than one year old had greater likelihood to be Brucella seropositive. Co-infections of Anaplasma and Babesia spp. were statistically associated, especially in goats and sheep. Further studies to identify risk factors related to host species and geographical districts are needed. The influence on the semi-nomadic agro-pastoral system in Karamoja of animal raids and animal mixing should be further investigated. Findings were important to sensitize Karamojong undertaking measures on infection control, especially on cattle, which are their main source of food.

  5. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ford, Nathan; Kam, Saskia van de; Lokuge, Kamalini; Fromm, Silke; van Galen, Renate; Reilley, Brigg; Kleber, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages) of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months) and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%), round up raids (82.7%), the witnessing of torture (66.9%), rape (13.3%), and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%), arrests/kidnapping (16.9%), torture (12.9%), and sexual violence (11.6%). Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7), violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8) and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7). Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5). Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities. PMID:18854026

  6. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries. PMID:24808857

  7. Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions.

    PubMed

    Fedigan, Linda Marie

    2010-09-01

    Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's" for humane treatment of captive experimental subjects (replacement, reduction and refinement), which are only debatably relevant to field research. Scientists who study wild, free-ranging primates in host countries experience many ethical dilemmas seldom dealt with in animal care forms. This paper reviews the ethical issues many field primatologists say they face and how these might be better addressed by animal care forms. The ethical issues arising for field researchers are divided into three categories: "Presence, Protocols and People" and for each the most frequent issues are described. The most commonly mentioned ethical concern arising from our presence in the field is the possibility of disease transmission. Although most primate field studies employ only observational protocols, the practice of habituating our study animals to close human presence is an ethical concern for many since it can lessen the animals' fear of all humans, thereby facilitating undesirable behaviors (e.g., crop-raiding) and rendering them vulnerable to harm. Field primatologists who work in host countries must observe national laws and local traditions. As conservationists, primatologists must often negotiate between the resource needs and cultural practices of local people and the interests of the nonhuman primates. Many say they face more ethical dilemmas arising from human interactions than from research on the animals per se. This review concludes with suggestions for relevant questions to ask on animal care forms, and actions that field primatologists can take to better inform animal care committees about the common ethical issues we experience as well as how to develop guidelines for

  8. Solomon Islands Largest Hawksbill Turtle Rookery Shows Signs of Recovery after 150 Years of Excessive Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Richard J.; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C.; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands’ future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  9. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Richard J; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  10. Tales of the Earth - Paroxysms and Perturbations of the Blue Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Officer, Charles; Page, Jake

    1994-05-01

    In Maryland, late in the Spring of 1816, the snow fell brown, and blue, and even red. Brown snow fell in Hungary that year, and in the village of Taranto in southern Italy, where any snow is rare, the red and yellow snow caused great alarm. In New England, 1816 was called the Year Without a Summer. Crops failed throughout America, the price of corn and wheat soared, and farmers (lacking feed) sold off livestock, bringing about a collapse in beef and pork prices. In western Europe it was even worse, with food riots and armed mobs raiding bakeries and grain markets. This turmoil followed a catastrophic volcanic eruption a year earlier on the other side of the world--the April 1815 explosion of the volcano Tambora, on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa--a blast heard almost a thousand miles away in Sumatra. In Tales of the Earth , Charles Officer and Jake Page describe--often through eye-witness accounts and through the commentary of prominent figures--some of the great events of environmental history. From natural catastrophes such as the Tambora eruption, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, and the ice ages, to manmade disasters such as the nuclear fallout from Chernobyl, the killer smog of 1952 in London which killed some four thousand people, acid rain, and the progressive depletion of the ozone layer, Officer and Page provide phenomenal accounts of the earthshattering events that have changed the course of history. A fascinating discussion of natures power over humanity, as well as the trouble humanity makes for nature, Tales of the Earth will interest anyone concerned with the environmental and the natural world.

  11. Comparative performance of AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR amplification kit and QIAGEN® Investigator® IDplex Plus kit.

    PubMed

    Mattayat, Dalad; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Asawutmangkul, Watee; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2016-12-01

    Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids. We statistically compared the performance of the two kits in terms of peak height, number of allele detected (allelic drop-out), intra-locus balance, inter-locus balance, inhibitor tolerance, stutter ratio, concordance, and allelic drop-in. The results demonstrate that both kits are statistically similar in performance. IDplex Plus gave higher peak heights in sensitivity test and tolerated inhibitors better, but had slightly worse inter-locus balances and stutter ratios. However, these differences were not practically significant, as seen by the resulting profiles of the casework samples (p=0.601). The performance on low-template samples also was not different. In conclusion, laboratories looking to replace the aging Identifiler® Plus might consider the IDplex Plus as a faster, more robust alternative that fits right into their existing structure without further investment in instrument and DNA database. Having more kits available worldwide by different companies could help bring the technology to different forensic laboratories and the justice system as a whole.

  12. The mass storage testing laboratory at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Ravi; Williams, Joel; Michaud, David; Gu, Heng; Kalluri, Atri; Hariharan, P. C.; Kobler, Ben; Behnke, Jeanne; Peavey, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Industry-wide benchmarks exist for measuring the performance of processors (SPECmarks), and of database systems (Transaction Processing Council). Despite storage having become the dominant item in computing and IT (Information Technology) budgets, no such common benchmark is available in the mass storage field. Vendors and consultants provide services and tools for capacity planning and sizing, but these do not account for the complete set of metrics needed in today's archives. The availability of automated tape libraries, high-capacity RAID systems, and high- bandwidth interconnectivity between processor and peripherals has led to demands for services which traditional file systems cannot provide. File Storage and Management Systems (FSMS), which began to be marketed in the late 80's, have helped to some extent with large tape libraries, but their use has introduced additional parameters affecting performance. The aim of the Mass Storage Test Laboratory (MSTL) at Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop a test suite that includes not only a comprehensive check list to document a mass storage environment but also benchmark code. Benchmark code is being tested which will provide measurements for both baseline systems, i.e. applications interacting with peripherals through the operating system services, and for combinations involving an FSMS. The benchmarks are written in C, and are easily portable. They are initially being aimed at the UNIX Open Systems world. Measurements are being made using a Sun Ultra 170 Sparc with 256MB memory running Solaris 2.5.1 with the following configuration: 4mm tape stacker on SCSI 2 Fast/Wide; 4GB disk device on SCSI 2 Fast/Wide; and Sony Petaserve on Fast/Wide differential SCSI 2.

  13. Walter Thiel—Short life of a rocket scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Karen; Przybilski, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    In 2012 we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the first successful rocket launch that reached a height of 84.5 km and had a speed of 4.824 km/h (5x sonic speed). This rocket flew 190 km to the target location. One of the masterminds of this launch was Walter Thiel, a German chemist and rocket engineer. Thiel was highly talented, during his education from primary school until diploma exams he always received a grade of A in his exams. He was called "the student with the 7 A grades". In 1934 Thiel became Dr.-Ing. (chem.), with the highest possible honor (summa cum laude), when he was only 24 years old. He started to work for the rocket development department at Humboldt University, Berlin. Walter Dornberger asked him to leave the university research department and become head of rocket propulsion development in his team in Kummersdorf, near Berlin. Thiel's groundbreaking ideas for the rocket engine would lead to a significant reduction in material, weight and work processes, as well as a shortening in the length of the engine itself. Thiel and his team also defined the fuel itself and the best ratio of mixture between ethanol and liquid oxygen for the engine. In 1940 the propulsion team moved from Kummersdorf to Peenemünde after the launch sites were completed there. Thiel became deputy of Wernher von Braun at the R&D units. One of Thiel's team members was Konrad Dannenberg, who later became famous in the development of the Saturn program. On the night from August 17 to August 18, 1943, Thiel and his family (wife and two children) were killed during a Royal Air Force bombing raid (Operation Hydra). The Moon crater "Thiel" on the far side of the Moon is named after Walter Thiel. The research results of Walter Thiel had a strong impact on the United States' rocket program as well as the Russian rocket development program.

  14. Responses to alternative rainfall regimes and antipoaching in a migratory system.

    PubMed

    Holdo, Ricardo M; Galvin, Kathleen A; Knapp, Eli; Polasky, Stephen; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Robert D

    2010-03-01

    Migratory ungulates may be particularly vulnerable to the challenges imposed by growing human populations and climate change. These species depend on vast areas to sustain their migratory behavior, and in many cases come into frequent contact with human populations outside protected areas. They may also act as spatial coupling agents allowing feedbacks between ecological systems and local economies, particularly in the agropastoral subsistence economies found in the African savanna biome. We used HUMENTS, a spatially realistic socioecological model of the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in East Africa, to explore the potential impacts of changing climate and poaching on the migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) population, the fire regime, and habitat structure in the ecosystem, as well as changes in the size and economic activities of the human population outside the protected area. Unlike earlier models, the HUMENTS model predicted only moderate declines in the wildebeest population associated with an increasing human population over the next century, with a gradual expansion of agriculture, more poaching, and increases in fire frequency and reduced tree density. Changes in rainfall were predicted to have strong asymmetric effects on the size and economic activity of the human population and on livestock, and more moderate effects on wildlife and other ecological indicators. Conversely, antipoaching had a stronger effect on the ecological portion of the system because of its effect on wildebeest (and therefore on fire and habitat structure), and a weaker effect on the socioeconomic component, except in areas directly adjacent to the protected-area boundary, which were affected by crop-raiding and the availability of wildlife as a source of income. The results highlight the strong direct and indirect effects of rainfall on the various components of socioecological systems in semiarid environments, and the key role of mobile wildlife populations as agents of

  15. The ancient story of Bora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Lomabrdi, R.

    2010-09-01

    Every part of the world is characterized by his own climatological peculiarities, and sometimes some restricted areas can be influenced by local, singular, characteristical metereological phenomena. Trieste, capital of the region Friuli Venezia Giulia, and the Karst ( northeastern Italy) are included in this category. Since the old age it has been narrated the "raids" caused by the Bora, strong dry and cold north eastern wind that, with one of his most northern branch, which born in the karstic inland near Postumia (Slovenia), affects the Karst plateau and the Gulf of Trieste. In literature we can find how on September 5th, 394 a.C. the "miraculous wind" Bora has been decisive for the defeat of Arbogaste (West Roman Empire) in the Vipavska valley; he was with his army against the wind in the battle whereas the troops of the Catholic Emperor Teodosio (East Roman Empire) has been able to through their darts further thank to the wind. The fairy tales about "Bora" and "Borino" are part of the local literature since many centuries, whereas in the XX Century we can find images, postcards and books concerning the tempestuous wind of Trieste. When television born, developed a new way to communicate the deeds of Bora thanks to some extreme events occurred among 30s and 50s which contributes to increase his mith. The goal of this work is to retrace the history of Bora in the words of the common people rather than the science in order to understand how his legend has grown during the ages. Now, in the age of internet, a new way of telling the Bora adventures is born.

  16. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python.

    PubMed

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  17. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Methods Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Results Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and

  18. Do host species evolve a specific response to slave-making ants?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social parasitism is an important selective pressure for social insect species. It is particularly the case for the hosts of dulotic (so called slave-making) ants, which pillage the brood of host colonies to increase the worker force of their own colony. Such raids can have an important impact on the fitness of the host nest. An arms race which can lead to geographic variation in host defenses is thus expected between hosts and parasites. In this study we tested whether the presence of a social parasite (the dulotic ant Myrmoxenus ravouxi) within an ant community correlated with a specific behavioral defense strategy of local host or non-host populations of Temnothorax ants. Social recognition often leads to more or less pronounced agonistic interactions between non-nestmates ants. Here, we monitored agonistic behaviors to assess whether ants discriminate social parasites from other ants. It is now well-known that ants essentially rely on cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate nestmates from aliens. If host species have evolved a specific recognition mechanism for their parasite, we hypothesize that the differences in behavioral responses would not be fully explained simply by quantitative dissimilarity in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, but should also involve a qualitative response due to the detection of particular compounds. We scaled the behavioral results according to the quantitative chemical distance between host and parasite colonies to test this hypothesis. Results Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles were distinct between species, but host species did not show a clearly higher aggression rate towards the parasite than toward non-parasite intruders, unless the degree of response was scaled by the chemical distance between intruders and recipient colonies. By doing so, we show that workers of the host and of a non-host species in the parasitized site displayed more agonistic behaviors (bites and ejections) towards parasite than toward non

  19. SAN/CXFS test report to LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwart, T M; Eldel, A

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance of the SGI CXFS File System in a Storage Area Network (SAN) and compare/contrast it to the performance of a locally attached XFS file system on the same computer and storage subsystems. The University of Minnesota participants were asked to verify that the performance of the SAN/CXFS configuration did not fall below 85% of the performance of the XFS local configuration. There were two basic hardware test configurations constructed from the following equipment: Two Onyx 2 computer systems each with two Qlogic-based Fibre Channel/XIO Host Bus Adapter (HBA); One 8-Port Brocade Silkworm 2400 Fibre Channel Switch; and Four Ciprico RF7000 RAID Disk Arrays populated Seagate Barracuda 50GB disk drives. The Operating System on each of the ONYX 2 computer systems was IRIX 6.5.6. The first hardware configuration consisted of directly connecting the Ciprico arrays to the Qlogic controllers without the Brocade switch. The purpose for this configuration was to establish baseline performance data on the Qlogic controllers / Ciprico disk raw subsystem. This baseline performance data would then be used to demonstrate any performance differences arising from the addition of the Brocade Fibre Channel Switch. Furthermore, the performance of the Qlogic controllers could be compared to that of the older, Adaptec-based XIO dual-channel Fibre Channel adapters previously used on these systems. It should be noted that only raw device tests were performed on this configuration. No file system testing was performed on this configuration. The second hardware configuration introduced the Brocade Fibre Channel Switch. Two FC ports from each of the ONYX2 computer systems were attached to four ports of the switch and the four Ciprico arrays were attached to the remaining four. Raw disk subsystem tests were performed on the SAN configuration in order to demonstrate the performance differences between the direct-connect and the

  20. Quantity and Configuration of Available Elephant Habitat and Related Conservation Concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan Floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Jason G.; Othman, Nurzhafarina; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius N.; Estes, Anna B.; Palmiotto, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152–581) elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184–3,652). Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km2, our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km2). During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km2. As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km−2 (95% CI: 2.46–9.41), among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland) are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce human

  1. Cosmic origins: experiences making a stereoscopic 3D movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, Nick

    2010-02-01

    Context: Stereoscopic 3D movies are gaining rapid acceptance commercially. In addition our previous experience with the short 3D movie "Cosmic Cookery" showed that there is great public interest in the presentation of cosmology research using this medium. Objective: The objective of the work reported in this paper was to create a three-dimensional stereoscopic movie describing the life of the Milky way galaxy. This was a technical and artistic exercise to take observed and simulated data from leading scientists and produce a short (six minute) movie that describes how the Milky Way was created and what happens in its future. The initial target audience was the visitors to the Royal Society's 2009 Summer Science Exhibition in central London, UK. The movie is also intended to become a presentation tool for scientists and educators following the exhibition. Apparatus: The presentation and playback systems used consisted of off-the shelf devices and software. The display platform for the Royal Society presentation was a RealD LP Pro switch used with a DLP projector to rear project a 4 metre diagonal image. The LP Pro enables the use of cheap disposable linearly polarising glasses so that the high turnover rate of the audience (every ten minutes at peak times) could be sustained without needing delays to clean the glasses. The playback system was a high speed PC with an external 8Tb RAID driving the projectors at 30Hz per eye, the Lightspeed DepthQ software was used to decode and generate the video stream. Results: A wide range of tools were used to render the image sequences, ranging from commercial to custom software. Each tool was able to produce a stream of 1080p images in stereo at 30fps. None of the rendering tools used allowed precise calibration of the stereo effect at render time and therefore all sequences were tuned extensively in a trial and error process until the stereo effect was acceptable and supported a comfortable viewing experience. Conclusion: We

  2. [Antidepressant and tolerance: Determinants and management of major side effects].

    PubMed

    David, D J; Gourion, D

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes and sleep disruption. If the activation of dopamine D1/2 or norepinephrine receptors through the autonomic nervous system controls and facilitates sexual desire, increasing serotoninergic transmission through 5-HT1B/2A/2C receptors activation inhibits this process. The pharmacological properties of drugs inducing nausea/vomiting activate opiate receptors μ, increase dopaminergic and serotoninergic transmission activating the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, respectively. Among the causes responsible for weight gain under antidepressant therapy, monoamine neurotransmission still plays an important role. The blockade of serotonin 5-HT2C or histamine H1 receptors is directly responsible for weight gain. Finally, the activation of 5-HT1A/1B/3/7 serotoninergique receptors modulates wakefulness, raid eyes movement or sleep duration. In conclusion, if antidepressant activity of SERT or MAO inhibitors is an indirect consequence of postsynaptic 5-HT, DA, NA receptor activation, it is also responsible for side effects, causes of poor compliance and hence therapeutic failures. Finally, we need to

  3. [Incidence of avian flu worldwide and in the Russian Federation. Improvement of surveillance and control of influenza during preparation for potential pandemic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2006-01-01

    necessary to organize medical monitoring of sea ships, aircraft and train crews, arriving from the countries where influenza H5N1 cases were detected, in case of need to arrange raids to outlets and markets to detect poultry and poultry products brought from these countries. In Russia it is necessary to prepare a reserve of vaccine strains of viruses--potential causative agent of pandemic, including H5N1 and H7N7, that can start to vaccine reproduction immediately in case of pandemic.

  4. Fault-tolerant back-up archive using an ASP model for disaster recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Documet, Luis; Sarti, Dennis A.

    2002-05-01

    A single point of failure in PACS during a disaster scenario is the main archive storage and server. When a major disaster occurs, it is possible to lose an entire hospital's PACS data. Few current PACS archives feature disaster recovery, but the design is limited at best. These drawbacks include the frequency with which the back-up is physically removed to an offsite facility, the operational costs associated to maintain the back-up, the ease-of-use to perform the backup consistently and efficiently, and the ease-of-use to perform the PACS image data recovery. This paper describes a novel approach towards a fault-tolerant solution for disaster recovery of short-term PACS image data using an Application Service Provider model for service. The ASP back-up archive provides instantaneous, automatic backup of acquired PACS image data and instantaneous recovery of stored PACS image data all at a low operational cost. A back-up archive server and RAID storage device is implemented offsite from the main PACS archive location. In the example of this particular hospital, it was determined that at least 2 months worth of PACS image exams were needed for back-up. Clinical data from a hospital PACS is sent to this ASP storage server in parallel to the exams being archived in the main server. A disaster scenario was simulated and the PACS exams were sent from the offsite ASP storage server back to the hospital PACS. Initially, connectivity between the main archive and the ASP storage server is established via a T-1 connection. In the future, other more cost-effective means of connectivity will be researched such as the Internet 2. A disaster scenario was initiated and the disaster recovery process using the ASP back-up archive server was success in repopulating the clinical PACS within a short period of time. The ASP back-up archive was able to recover two months of PACS image data for comparison studies with no complex operational procedures. Furthermore, no image data loss

  5. Status of the Synoptic Optical Long-Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; SOLIS Team

    2003-05-01

    SOLIS is a suite of three instruments and a data handling system designed to provide synoptic solar observations for at least two decades. The facility is now commencing initial operations at a temporary observing site in Tucson. After a period of simultaneous observations with the NSO/NASA Kitt Peak spectromagnetograph, SOLIS will be moved to Kitt Peak where it will replace that instrument and the 30-year-old Vacuum Telescope. The SOLIS Vector SpectroMagnetograph (VSM) is a compact, helium-filled, high-throughput, 50-cm aperture telescope and spectrograph that nominally scans the entire solar disk in 15 minutes. It provides the first full-disk photospheric vector magnetograms, high-sensitivity photospheric and chromospheric longitudinal magnetograms, and 1083 nm He I chromospheric spectral maps. The VSM is initially operating with interim cameras that are noisier and slower than originally planned. A 15 cm Full Disk Patrol (FDP) instrument provides full-disk filtergrams captured by 2k x 2k CCD cameras using either a 1083 nm or a tunable (380-660 nm) narrow-band filter. Until it is finished, the tunable filter is temporarily replaced by an H-alpha filter. The VSM and FDP are mounted on separate declination axes attached to a right ascension drive. This allows the FDP to be pointed at the sun center while the VSM scans the solar disk in the declination direction. The final instrument is an Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS). The ISS is a double-pass spectrograph that produces high-quality spectra for sun-as-a-star studies. It is located in a temperature-controlled room and fed by a fiber-optic image-scrambling system that is mounted on the FDP. Data from all of the instruments is collected by an on-site storage area network and preliminary reduction done by a collection of 14 Linux computers. Archival storage of the data is on LTO tapes and the data products are transmitted to Tucson via a 45 Mbs link where they are kept on line and web-available using a RAID 5

  6. The quandary of local people—Park relations in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Sanjay K.; Weber, Karl E.

    1995-11-01

    This paper analyzes five major causes of park-people conflicts that have occurred in Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park. The causes include illegal transactions of forest products from the park, livestock grazing in the park, illegal hunting and fishing, crop damage, and threats to human and animal life caused by wild animals from the park. The conflicts indicate a reciprocal relationship between the park and local people. They reflect the attitudes of local people and representatives of the park authority whose priorities and objectives largely diverge. The results show that people settled adjacent to the park are heavily dependent on its resources. Even in places where some, albeit few alternative sources exist, local people continue to trespass the park boundary as these sources are inadequate to ensure the fulfillment of local people's resource needs. Illegal transactions of resources continue throughout the year; however, they are less intense during summer due to flooding caused by the Rapti River, which forms the park boundary towards the northern section where this study is conducted. The frequency of local people's visits to the park is mainly determined by their age, distance between homesteads and park, and volume of crop loss caused by wild animals. Crop damage is the function of size of landholding, distance, and frequency of crop raid. Local people claim that they have no intention of letting their livestock graze in the park; however, the dense vegetation of the park attracts livestock grazing on riverbanks just outside the open park boundary. Many head of livestock are killed by carnivores of the park. Human casualties are mainly caused by sloth bear ( Melursus ursinus), tiger ( Panthera tigris), wild pig ( Sug scrofa), and rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis). There had been some earlier attempts to reconcile the conflicts by offering local people different kinds of compensations; however, these were unsuccessful measures. An integrated approach is

  7. Seven day Lanzarote adventure: seven innovations in university learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavey, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    An annual residential field course in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, gives university students of Environmental Science, Adventure Education, and Primary Science Education diverse opportunities for deep learning that challenges and motivates. Comments from students range from 'the best chemistry lesson ever' to 'life-changing'. Here I reflect on seven strengths from the student experience: (1) Our goal is for students to learn to ask scientific questions. Anyone can answer questions, but only the best scientists can ask questions that matter. (2) Field work fits the diverse learning styles of our diverse students. For example, students model bathymetry using sand and pebbles on a beach; students start to explore social issues around waste disposal on Lanzarote by taking part in a commando raid on a municipal rubbish tip! (3) Students learn from local experts but then learn from each other. For example, half the group explores agricultural practices while the other half explores traditional uses of plants; a student from one group is then paired with a student from the other group for them to teach each other what they have learned. (4) An overview of current research on the island (volcanic origins, indigenous species, trace elements in the wines!) comes from students reflecting on abstracts of 25 recent papers from mainstream journals and sharing their understanding with each other. (5) We replicate a real world experience. One part of the student assessment requires them to write a grant application for a scientific research project using the real-world pro forma and meeting the criteria set out by the real-world funding agency. (6) Students work as teams to write these grant applications (as they would do in the real world). They receive a single mark for their work, but the students then divide the mark among themselves according to the quality of the contributions they have made. In this way the university teachers assess the product, and the students assess the

  8. Problem Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  9. Tutorial: Performance and reliability in redundant disk arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Garth A.

    1993-01-01

    A disk array is a collection of physically small magnetic disks that is packaged as a single unit but operates in parallel. Disk arrays capitalize on the availability of small-diameter disks from a price-competitive market to provide the cost, volume, and capacity of current disk systems but many times their performance. Unfortunately, relative to current disk systems, the larger number of components in disk arrays leads to higher rates of failure. To tolerate failures, redundant disk arrays devote a fraction of their capacity to an encoding of their information. This redundant information enables the contents of a failed disk to be recovered from the contents of non-failed disks. The simplest and least expensive encoding for this redundancy, known as N+1 parity is highlighted. In addition to compensating for the higher failure rates of disk arrays, redundancy allows highly reliable secondary storage systems to be built much more cost-effectively than is now achieved in conventional duplicated disks. Disk arrays that combine redundancy with the parallelism of many small-diameter disks are often called Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID). This combination promises improvements to both the performance and the reliability of secondary storage. For example, IBM's premier disk product, the IBM 3390, is compared to a redundant disk array constructed of 84 IBM 0661 3 1/2-inch disks. The redundant disk array has comparable or superior values for each of the metrics given and appears likely to cost less. In the first section of this tutorial, I explain how disk arrays exploit the emergence of high performance, small magnetic disks to provide cost-effective disk parallelism that combats the access and transfer gap problems. The flexibility of disk-array configurations benefits manufacturer and consumer alike. In contrast, I describe in this tutorial's second half how parallelism, achieved through increasing numbers of components, causes overall failure rates to rise

  10. a Borehole Seismic System for Active and Passive Seimsic Studies to 3 KM at Ptrc's Aquistore Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; White, D. J.; Worth, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a downhole seismic recording system for application to depths of nearly 3 km and temperatures up to 135 °C at Aquistore, an independent research and monitoring project in which liquid CO2 is being stored in a brine and sandstone water formation. The key component to this system is a set of commercially available slim-hole 3-C sondes carrying 15 Hz geophones deployable in open and cased boreholes with diameters as small as 57 mm. The system is currently hosted on a 4-conductor wireline with digital information streamed to the surface recording unit. We have further incorporated these sondes into a mobile passive monitoring unit that includes a number of redundancies such as a multiple Tbyte network accessible RAID hard-drive system (NAS) and a self-designed uninterruptible power supply. The system can be remotely controlled via the internet. The system is currently deployed covering a range of depths from 2850 m to 2910 m. Ambient temperatures at this depth are approximately 110 °C with onboard tool temperatures running at 115 °C. Data is continuously streamed to the NAS for archiving, approximately 11 GBytes of data is recorded per day at the sampling period of 0.5 ms. The lack of noise at this depth allows short data snippets to be flagged with a simple amplitude threshold criteria. The greatly reduced data volume of the snippets allows for ready access via the internet to the system for ongoing quality control. Spurious events, mostly small amplitude tube waves originating at or near the surface, are readily discounted. Active seismic measurements are carried out simultaneously but these require that an appropriately accurate independent GPS based time synchronization be used. Various experiences with event detection, orientation of sondes using both explosives and seismic vibrator, potential overheating of the surface electronics, and issues related to loss of shore power provide for a detailed case study. Aquistore, managed by the

  11. Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants.

    PubMed

    King, Lucy E; Lala, Fredrick; Nzumu, Hesron; Mwambingu, Emmanuel; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2017-02-21

    Increasing habitat fragmentation and human population growth in Africa has resulted in an escalation in human-elephant conflict between small-scale farmers and free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta Africana). In 2012 Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) implemented the national 10-year Conservation and Management Strategy for the Elephant in Kenya, which includes an action aimed at testing whether beehive fences can be used to mitigate human-elephant conflict. From 2012 to 2015, we field-tested the efficacy of beehive fences to protect 10 0.4-ha farms next to Tsavo East National Park from elephants. We hung a series of beehives every 10 m around the boundary of each farm plot. The hives were linked with strong wire. After an initial pilot test with 2 farms, the remaining 8 of 10 beehive fences also contained 2-dimensional dummy hives between real beehives to help reduce the cost of the fence. Each trial plot had a neighboring control plot of the same size within the same farm. Of the 131 beehives deployed 88% were occupied at least once during the 3.5-year trial. Two hundred and fifty-three elephants, predominantly 20-45 years old entered the community farming area, typically during the crop- ripening season. Eighty percent of the elephants that approached the trial farms were kept out of the areas protected by the beehive fences, and elephants that broke a fence were in smaller than average groups. Beehive fences not only kept large groups of elephants from invading the farmland plots but the farmers also benefited socially and financially from the sale of 228 kg of elephant-friendly honey. As news of the success of the trial spread, a further 12 farmers requested to join the project, bringing the number of beehive fence protected farms to 22 and beehives to 297. This demonstrates positive adoption of beehive fences as a community mitigation tool. Understanding the response of elephants to the beehive fences, the seasonality of crop raiding and fence breaking, and the

  12. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to interglacial sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, T.; Mckay, R. M.; Barrett, P. J.; Levy, R. H.; Golledge, N. R.; Deconto, R. M.; Horgan, H. J.; Dunbar, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1- 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  13. Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in

  14. Life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Speirs, Michaela L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Holland, Timothy; Austad, Kiersten M

    2006-04-01

    Humans are responsible for massive changes to primate habitats, and one unanticipated consequence of these alterations may be changes in host-parasite interactions. Edges are a ubiquitous aspect of human disturbance to forest landscapes. Here we examine how changes associated with the creation of edges in Kibale National Park, Uganda, alter the parasite community that is supported by two species of African colobines: the endangered red colobus (Piliocolobus tephrosceles) and the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza). An analysis of 822 fecal samples from edge and forest interior groups revealed no difference in the richness of parasite communities (i.e., the number of parasite species recovered from the host's fecal sample). However, for both species the proportion of individuals with multiple infections was greater in edge than forest interior groups. The prevalence of specific parasites also varied between edge and forest interior groups. Oesophagostomum sp., a potentially deleterious parasite, was 7.4 times more prevalent in red colobus on the edge than in those in the forest interior, and Entamoeba coli was four times more prevalent in red colobus on the edge than in animals from the forest interior. Environmental contamination with parasites (measured as parasite eggs/gm feces) by red colobus from the edge and forest interior differed in a similar fashion to prevalence for red colobus, but it did not differ for black-and-white colobus. For example, egg counts of Oesophagostomum sp. were 10 times higher in red colobus from the edge than in those from the interior. The less severe infections in the black-and-white colobus relative to the red colobus may reflect the fact that black-and-white colobus raid agricultural crops while red colobus do not. This nutritional gain may facilitate a more effective immune response to parasites by the black-and-white colobus. The fact that animals on the edge are likely not nutritionally stressed raises an intriguing

  15. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to global sea-level change: ANDRILL and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1 to 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  16. Brown bear-human interactions associated with deer hunting on Kodiak Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    I compared distribution and range of brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with temporal and spatial distribution of Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) hunting activity on westside Kodiak Island, Alaska, to examine impacts of deer hunting on bears. Mean number of bears that annually ranged ≤5 km from the coast, >5 km inland from the coast, or in both areas was 10, 8, and 11, respectively. Bears that exclusively or seasonally occupied the coast zone were usually classed as having moderate or high potential to interact with hunters because most hunter access and effort (>95%) was via the coast. Bears that ranged exclusively inland were considered unlikely to encounter hunters. Animals that ranged in both zones often (39%) moved inland during fall (Oct-Dec) and most bears (70%) denned in the inland zone. Females that denned near the coast entered dens later (x̄ = 22 Nov) than females that denned inland (x̄ = 12 Nov). Two radio-collared bears were known to raid deer-hunting camps and 9 other marked bears were observed by hunters or were located <200 m from hunting camps. Deer-hunter surveys revealed that more than two-thirds of the deer harvest occurred during October-November. About half of the hunters observed at least 1 bear during their hunt. Seven to 21% of the respondents reported having a threatening encounter with a bear and 5-26% reported losing deer meat to bears. Human-induced mortality to radio-collared bears occurred more often near the coast (5) than inland (3); 7 bears were harvested by sport hunters and 1 was killed (nonsport) in a Native village. Deer hunters killed 2 unmarked females in defense of life or property situations in the study area. High bear densities and concentrated deer-hunting activity combine to make conflicts unavoidable. Adverse impacts to bears can be minimized by maintaining low levels of human activity in inland areas and improving hunter awareness of bear ecology and behavior.

  17. Structural Determinants of Health among Im/Migrants in the Indoor Sex Industry: Experiences of Workers and Managers/Owners in Metropolitan Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Krüsi, Andrea; Zhang, Emma; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, im/migrant women are overrepresented in the sex industry and experience disproportionate health inequities. Despite evidence that the health impacts of migration may vary according to the timing and stage of migration (e.g., early arrival vs. long-term migration), limited evidence exists regarding social and structural determinants of health across different stages of migration, especially among im/migrants engaged in sex work. Our aim was to describe and analyze the evolving social and structural determinants of health and safety across the arrival and settlement process for im/migrants in the indoor sex industry. Methods We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with 44 im/migrant sex workers and managers/owners working in indoor sex establishments (e.g., massage parlours, micro-brothels) in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada in 2011; quantitative data from AESHA, a larger community-based cohort, were used to describe socio-demographic and social and structural characteristics of im/migrant sex workers. Results Based on quantitative data among 198 im/migrant workers in AESHA, 78.3% were Chinese-born, the median duration in Canada was 6 years, and most (86.4%) serviced clients in formal indoor establishments. Qualitative narratives revealed diverse pathways into sex work upon arrival to Canada, including language barriers to conventional labour markets and the higher pay and relative flexibility of sex work. Once engaged in sex work, fear associated with police raids (e.g., immigration concerns, sex work disclosure) and language barriers to sexual negotiation and health, social and legal supports posed pervasive challenges to health, safety and human rights during long-term settlement in Canada. Conclusions Findings highlight the critical influences of criminalization, language barriers, and stigma and discrimination related to sex work and im/migrant status in shaping occupational health and safety for im/migrants engaged in sex work

  18. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae).

    PubMed

    Baudier, Kaitlin M; Mudd, Abigail E; Erickson, Shayna C; O'Donnell, Sean

    2015-09-01

    was a stronger predictor of CTmax than body size for species that overlapped in size. Compared to the soil surface, 10-cm subsoil was a significantly moderated thermal environment for below-ground army ants, while maximum surface raid temperatures sometimes exceeded CTmax for the most thermally sensitive army ant castes. 5. We conclude sympatric species differences in thermal physiology correspond to microhabitat use. These patterns should be accounted for in models of species and community responses to thermal variation and climate change.

  19. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  20. [Fragments of information of Naoe Okamoto - the life of one of Japan's first female pharmacists.].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    It has generally been believed that Naoe Okamoto of Fukui Prefecture, who was licensed to open a pharmacy in December 1885, was Japan's first female pharmacist. However, there has been no way to confirm this because the pharmacists' registry held by the Ministry of Internal Affairs was destroyed by the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. This paper describes a hazy picture of her life, which we traced based on fragments of information from the Tokyo University Pharmacy and Life Science (TUPLS), pharmaceutical journals of her time, and two residents of Fukui City who met her when they were children. Naoe Okamoto was born in Asuwakamicho, Fukui City, in 1870, as the eldest daughter of a druggist operating since the Edo Era. Born in a socially and economically privileged family, Naoe went to Tokyo and entered Tokyo Pharmacists School (currently TUPLS) in 1883 or 1884. After two-years' study, she passed the pharmacist certification examination held by the Tokyo Prefecture Government in the autumn of 1885 and received a license to open a pharmacy from the Minister of Internal Affairs. In 1886 or 1887, she overtook the family business and married a doctor. She got divorced shortly thereafter, but continued to manage the family business although she had a younger brother. She died in 1941 at the age of 71. Her house and all articles left by her were burned to ashes after an air raid by the US Army Air Corps in July 1945 during the Second World War. Naoe left her small native city in Fukui Prefecture to study pharmacy in the capital at the beginning of the Meiji Era, when it was extremely difficult for women to pursue a professional career. She obtained the license to operate a pharmacy and pursued her career as a pharmacist through the Meiji, Taisho and Showa Eras. Her life offers great courage and lessons to today's 139,000 female pharmacists in Japan. Naoe Okamoto should be remembered as a pioneer of female pharmacists at this turning point when the 6-year pharmacy

  1. SIOExplorer: Overview, Initial Results and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J. J.; Africa, M.; Peckman, U.; Day, D.; Clark, D.

    2002-12-01

    Object Browser and Editor (MOBE) expands or hides the complexity for each domain, as needed. A prototype interactive CruiseViewer with both Java and html approaches will be demonstrated. As the second year of the project begins, greater emphasis will be placed on search and display tools. At-risk data on shipboard magnetic tapes will be migrated to RAID systems and tape silos. Public outreach will begin at the Birch Aquarium and other locations. A workshop will be held at Scripps in September 2003, coinciding with the hosting of the Oceans 2003 meeting and the 100th Anniversary of SIO. These efforts are supported by the NSF NSDL and ITR programs and by SIO institutional funds.

  2. Comprehensive Waveform Cross-correlation of Southern California Seismograms: Part 1. Refined Hypocenters Obtained Using the Double-difference Method and Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Chi, W.; Shearer, P.

    2003-12-01

    We present preliminary results applying waveform cross-correlation to southern California seismograms for over 380,000 events between 1984 and 2002. Waveforms recorded by the SCSN are first extracted from the SCEDC data center in 50 s windows that include both P and S waves. The resulting online waveform archive uses about 0.5 TB on a RAID system. The traces are then re-sampled to a uniform 100 Hz sample rate and band-pass filtered to between 1 and 10 Hz. Next, we apply time domain waveform cross-correlation for P and S waves between each event and 100 neighboring events (identified from the catalog based on a 3-D velocity model of Hauksson (2000). We identify and save differential times from the peaks in the cross-correlation functions and use a spline interpolation method to achieve a nominal timing precision of 0.001 s. These differential times, together with existing P and S phase picks, are input to the double-difference program of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). We define a grid across southern California and locate hypocenters near each grid node. Because some events may be located many times as hypocenters are calculated near successive grid-points, we assign a weight to each hypocenter and calculate a weighted average hypo-center for each earthquake. The new HypoDD hypocenters show improved clustering both horizontally and vertically, creating a more focused picture of the previously identified, spatially complex distributions of seismicity. In many cases, the late Quaternary faults, such as the Elsinore and Hollywood-Santa Monica faults appear to bracket the seismicity distributions; in other cases, the faults trace the median within a symmetric distribution of hypocenters. The depth distribution of the seismicity shows sudden changes across some of the major strike-slip faults, while regions of dip-slip faulting are often bound by dipping surfaces that are clearly defined by the deepest hypocenters. The seismicity around the southern San Andreas fault

  3. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  4. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  5. Development of the Large-Scale Statistical Analysis System of Satellites Observations Data with Grid Datafarm Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Murata, K.; Kimura, E.; Honda, R.

    2006-12-01

    number of files and the elapsed time, parallel and distributed processing shorten the elapsed time to 1/5 than sequential processing. On the other hand, sequential processing times were shortened in another experiment, whose file size is smaller than 100KB. In this case, the elapsed time to scan one file is within one second. It implies that disk swap took place in case of parallel processing by each node. We note that the operation became unstable when the number of the files exceeded 1000. To overcome the problem (iii), we developed an original data class. This class supports our reading of data files with various data formats since it converts them into an original data format since it defines schemata for every type of data and encapsulates the structure of data files. In addition, since this class provides a function of time re-sampling, users can easily convert multiple data (array) with different time resolution into the same time resolution array. Finally, using the Gfarm, we achieved a high performance environment for large-scale statistical data analyses. It should be noted that the present method is effective only when one data file size is large enough. At present, we are restructuring the new Gfarm environment with 8 nodes: CPU is Athlon 64 x2 Dual Core 2GHz, 2GB memory and 1.2TB disk (using RAID0) for each node. Our original class is to be implemented on the new Gfarm environment. In the present talk, we show the latest results with applying the present system for data analyses with huge number of satellite observation data files.

  6. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    PubMed

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range < 0.2-129 mg/m3) at the Stage II service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean refueling times were 57 seconds (range 23-207) at the Stage I and 66 seconds (range 18-120) at the Stage II station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged

  7. The IRIS Data Management Center: Enabling Access to Observational Time Series Spanning Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Benson, R.; Trabant, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to operate the facilities to generate, archive, and distribute seismological data to research communities in the United States and internationally. The IRIS Data Management System (DMS) is responsible for the ingestion, archiving, curation and distribution of these data. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) manages data from more than 100 permanent seismic networks, hundreds of temporary seismic deployments as well as data from other geophysical observing networks such as magnetotelluric sensors, ocean bottom sensors, superconducting gravimeters, strainmeters, surface meteorological measurements, and in-situ atmospheric pressure measurements. The IRIS DMC has data from more than 20 different types of sensors. The IRIS DMC manages approximately 100 terabytes of primary observational data. These data are archived in multiple distributed storage systems that insure data availability independent of any single catastrophic failure. Storage systems include both RAID systems of greater than 100 terabytes as well as robotic tape robots of petabyte capacity. IRIS performs routine transcription of the data to new media and storage systems to insure the long-term viability of the scientific data. IRIS adheres to the OAIS Data Preservation Model in most cases. The IRIS data model requires the availability of metadata describing the characteristics and geographic location of sensors before data can be fully archived. IRIS works with the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN) in the definition and evolution of the metadata. The metadata insures that the data remain useful to both current and future generations of earth scientists. Curation of the metadata and time series is one of the most important activities at the IRIS DMC. Data analysts and an automated quality assurance system monitor the quality of the incoming data. This insures data

  8. Inversion and Application of Muon Tomography Data for Cave Exploration in Budapest, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Gábor; Surányi, Gergely; Gábor Barnaföldi, Gergely; Oláh, László; Hamar, Gergö; Varga, Dezsö

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present a prospecting muon-tomograph and its application for cave exploration in Budapest, Hungary. The more than 50 years old basic idea behind muon tomography is the ability of muon particles, generated in the upper atmosphere to penetrate tens of meters into rocks with continuous attenuation before decay. This enables us placing a detector in a tunnel and measure muon fluxes from different directions and convert these fluxes to rock density data. The lightweight, 51x46x32 cm3 size, muon tomograph containing 5 detector layers was developed by Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary. A muon passing at least 4 of the 5 detector layers along one line are classified as unique muon detection. Its angular resolution is approximately 1 degree and it is effective up to 50 degrees off zenith. During the measurement campaign we installed the muon detector at seventeen locations along an abandoned, likely Cold War air raid shelter tunnel for 10-15 days at each location, collecting large set of events. The measured fluxes are converted to apparent density lengths (multiplication of rock densities by along path lengths) using an empirically tested relationship. For inverting measurements, a 3D block model of the subsurface was developed. It consisted of cuboids, with equal horizontal size, equal number in every line and in every row of the model. Additionally it consisted of blocks with different heights, equal number of blocks in every column. (Block height was constant in a column, but varied from column to column.) The heights of the blocks in a column were chosen, that top face of the uppermost blocks has an elevation defined by a Digital Elevation Model. Initially the density of every model blocks was set to a realistic value. We calculated the theoretical density length for every detector location and for a subset of flux measurement directions. We also calculated the partial derivatives of these theoretical density length values

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Die Universitäts-Sternwarte München im Wandel ihrer Geschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Haefner, R.

    2003-01-01

    enmities. Unfortunately the book does not tell anything about the notorious lunar observer Franz von Paula Gruithuisen, who was appointed professor of astronomy at Munich University in 1826. Soldner died in 1833, and his position was taken by Johann von Lamont, who did pioneering astrometric measurements of Halley's comet, took up again Fraunhofer's and Soldners studies of stellar spectra, but then felt that he should concentrate on only a few studies (stellar positions, magnetic and meteorological measurements). In addition he installed a mechanical workshop in the observatory, where many of the instruments were built, and which exists till the present day. After his death, a three-year vacancy of the director's chair was filled by the mathematician Ludwig Seidel. This was followed by the long reign of Hugo von Seeliger, beginning in 1882 and only ending in 1924. He is most famous for his studies in stellar statistics and other theoretical fields, but he was also active in observational work, including the timeservice. The following 25 years saw two less known directors, Alexander Wilkens and Wilhelm Rabe. After the latter's dismissal, Erich Schoenberg, a theoretician from Breslau, took over in 1949. Numerous changes had happened since Seeliger's time: the integration of a private solar observatory in Herrsching in 1932, which was dissolved in 1946, the transformation into a ``University Observatory'' in 1937/8, major damages through air raids in 1944, and finally, in 1949, the integration of the Wendelstein Solar Observatory, founded by the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt in 1941, as one of a series of stations to monitor solar activity. Schoenberg's retirement in 1955 was followed by an interim time of six years. In the following 21 years, Peter Wellmann re-shaped the observatory by building a research group on stellar atmospheres, one of the fields in which the observatory still excels. In the era of Rolf Kudritzki (1982 - 1998), these studies were further

  10. DHS Research Experience Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V

    2008-10-24

    represent four common classes of pesticides that are currently used in the US. Permethrin (a pyrethrin insecticide), dichlorvos and malathion (organophosphates), imidacloprid (a chloronicotinyl pesticide), and carbaryl (a carbamate) were selected for analysis. Samples were aerosolized either in water (using a plastic nebulizer) or in ethanol (using a glass nebulizer), and the particles entered the SPAMS instrument through a focusing lens stack. The particles then passed through a stage with three tracking lasers that were used to determine each particle's velocity. This velocity was used to calculate when to fire a desorption/ionization (D/I) laser in order to fragment the particle for analysis in a dual polarity time of flight mass spectrometer. Signals were digitized, and then analyzed using LLNL-developed software. We obtained chemical mass spectral signatures for each pesticide, and assigned peaks to the mass spectra based on our knowledge of the pesticides chemical structures. We then proved the robustness of our detection method by identifying the presence of pesticides in two real-world matrices: Raid{trademark} Ant Spray and a flea collar. To sample these, we simply needed to direct aerosolized particles into the SPAMS instrument. The minimal sample preparation required makes SPAMS very attractive as a detector. Essentially, we were able to show that SPAMS is a reliable and effective method for detecting pesticides at extremely low concentrations in a variety of matrices and physical states. The other project that I had the opportunity to be a part of did not involve data collection in the lab; it consisted of analyzing a large amount of data that had already been collected. We got to look at data collected over the course of about two months, when the SPAMS instrument was deployed to a public place. The machine sampled the air and collected spectra for over two months, storing all the spectra and associated data; we then looked at an approximately two-month subset

  11. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    izmēru objektus. Debess apgabalaapstarošanai tiek izmantots jaudīgs raidītājs, un tiek analizēts atbalss signāls, kasatstarojas no zināmiem vai nezināmiem objektiem un tiek uztverts ar vienu vaivairākiem teleskopiem uz Zemes, tādējādi realizējot vienas antenas vai interferometrisku signāla detektēšanu. DBBC sistēma ar radara VLBI programmatūruspēj realizēt augstas izšķirtspējas spektra analīzi, saglabājot atbalss signālu arsagaidāmo frekvenci centrālajā zonā un ieskaitot nepieciešamās Doplera frekvencesnobīdes korekcijas. Tālāk, izmantojot dažādus ievadparametrus, iespējamspielietot ļoti ilgu integrācijas laiku ārkārtīgi vāju signālu detektēšanai. Izmantojotreālā laika informāciju, turpmāk ir iespējams viegli analizēt nepieciešamo apgabaluun detektēt nezināmus objektus vai objektus ar neprecīzi zināmiem orbītu parametriem.Rakstā izklāstītas paredzamās minētās programmatūras funkcijas un tāsizmantošanas plāni pirmajos novērojumos.

  12. NEWS: GIREP in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-11-01

    many people across the world were working hard and intelligently to improve physics teaching - all for the benefit of learners. It occurred to me too how lucky we are in UK to be at the forefront of so much of this, and usually in a practical and pragmatic way that emphasizes the importance - the absolute necessity - of teachers being fully involved in any development that has a strong likelihood of success. Other countries, especially in Italy and France, seem to be just cottoning on to the need for more thoughtful practical work, the need for smart use of ICT, investigations etc. The UK does well here, partly because of and partly in spite of a strong and increasingly centrally determined curriculum and pedagogy. Some highlights: Ed Taylor (MIT, his website is www.eftaylor.com) made a lightning 20 minute raid on conventional physics teaching, i.e. Newton etc, cutting out the concept of force, F = ma, and replacing this with relativity and the Feynman Many Paths model of quantum physics as introductory topics. All the rest of physics follows naturally and coherently. This radical attack was closely followed by our own Ian Lawrence (now at Birmingham University) giving a concise and cogent demonstration of how Many Paths is taught in Advancing Physics (see the article on pages 400-405 of this issue). Brian Woolnough (Oxford University Department of Education) came down to earth with a nice talk about how teachers and ordinary PGCE students benefited from small educational research projects. Richard Gunstone (Monash University) gave a funny but fundamentally serious account of how bad things were in Australia, blaming Physics lecturers mostly, but making good points too about how other beginning professionals have different expectations and support systems from beginning teachers. I shall leave out the lowlights. I could go on. I could have chosen other talks to go to and been better or worse off. But the weather was hot and sunny, my pocket wasn't picked, transport

  13. Lattice models and integrability: a special issue in honour of F Y Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttmann, A. J.; Jacobsen, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Fa Yueh (Fred) Wu was born on 5 January 1932 in Nanking (now known as Nanjing), China, the capital of the Nationalist government. Wu began kindergarten in 1937 in a comfortable setting, as his father held a relatively high government position. But the Sino-Japanese war broke out in July 1937, and Nanking fell to Japanese hands in November. Fleeing the Japanese, his parents brought Wu to their hometown in Hunan, and then to the war capital Chungking (now Chongqing) in 1938, where they lived for eight years until the end of the war. Around that time the Japanese began bombing Chungking, and Wu's childhood memories were dominated by air raids, bombings and burning not dissimilar to those experienced by Londoners during the war. At times the air raids lasted for days disrupting everyday lives in Chungking, including Wu's schooling. One day during a fierce bombing raid, a bomb fell in their garden reducing a pavilion and the surrounding pond to a huge crater; another bomb fell just a few metres from the tunnel where his family took shelter, almost sealing the only entrance. The family moved the very next day to the countryside. As a result of the war, Wu attended seven schools before finishing his primary education. Fortunately, by the time he entered junior high school in 1943, the Japanese forces were on the wane and Wu entered the elite middle school, Nankai. His early academic performance in Nankai seemed to him mediocre, but he nevertheless impressed his geometry teacher by showing bursts of talent. With hindsight, this early interest in geometry may have led to his later insights in graphical analyses of statistical systems. The family returned to Nanking in 1946 after the Victory over Japan Day. By this time his father had become elected to the Legislative Yuan, the equivalent of the US Senate. Wu entered high school in Nanking in 1946. Since he came from an elite school in Chungking, he excelled in most of his classes, especially mathematics. Notwithstanding his

  14. Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Fay; Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    John Stuart Dowker was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire, on 18 March 1937. His life, therefore, was very much influenced by the Second World War. This is evident as his father died on active service in 1945, after being called up in 1941. His grandfather also died shortly afterwards, so he did not know either of them very well. Nevertheless, it seems that he picked up a positive attitude towards natural sciences as both were technically minded. His mother later provided, often from borrowed money, all the necessary intellectual food in forms of chemistry sets, slide rules and other things that a boy needed to develop his interests. Stuart scored excellently in the 11-plus exam, which was used to decide the type of school a pupil should attend after primary school. Although Stuart was generally allowed to do what he wanted, his mother insisted that he chose King Edward VII Grammar School (KES), the top school in Sheffield at the time. KES allowed Stuart to fully develop his intellectual abilities, and after the S-level exam he received a prestigious state scholarship which allowed him to study at any university in the country. He picked Nottingham over other possibilities, mainly because of his interest in electronics and because of the relative proximity to his family. In Nottingham, where he stayed from 1955 to 1958, his research concentration turned out to be mostly solid state physics. But with time on his hands, Stuart raided the library and taught himself things like complex analysis and quantum mechanics, with de Broglie's La mécanique ondulatoire [1] as one of his favorites. Remarkably, this book already contains a discussion of quantization on curved configuration spaces, a setting so relevant in Stuart's later career. Stuart wanted to investigate quantum field theory for his doctoral thesis. So he wrote, among others, to Rudolph Peierls in Birmingham, and, after being interviewed by Peierls himself and J G Valatin, he received an offer of a PhD position. He

  15. FOREWORD: Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography Peter Clay Eklund: a scientific biography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Milton W.; Crespi, Vincent H.; Dresselhaus, Gene F.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2010-08-01

    blamed the student, because he believed it is part of training to allow students to make mistakes. I once designed a mask adapter to connect our existing three-inch photomasks to Srinivas's four-inch mask aligner. The design looked beautiful and the machine shop did a perfect job to machine and polish the piece. Unfortunately, I made a stupid mistake. The central opening was slightly larger than the square vacuum groves behind the mask holder and as a result, it leaked! I was very disappointed in myself, as I not only wasted grant money but also delayed our experiment. Peter patted my shoulder, picked up a sharpie and wrote on the mask adapter, 'even great people make mistakes, but they learn.' So we machined another one, and it worked well. This failure piece still stands on my bookshelf. I keep it as a motto: it warns me not to make any mistakes like that, but more importantly it encourages me to be a supervisor like Peter.' Joe Brill (University of Kentucky, USA): 'Peter's occasional impetuousness and his love of physics are illustrated by the following anecdote. In December, 1979, I had just joined the faculty at the University of Kentucky, excited about the prospect of collaborating with Peter, who had arrived two years before. I was, therefore, dumbfounded when Peter abruptly announced his resignation to join IBM to do research on printer ink. After less than two days at IBM, however, he sheepishly asked to come back to the UK, explaining that he couldn't enjoy doing research that didn't involve 'h-bar'. His UK colleagues, who had not even had the chance to raid his lab, of course agreed with great amusement and relief. His joy and enthusiasm for physics remained contagious and unforgettable.' Milton Cole (Penn State University, USA): 'Somehow my very last conversation with Peter, two days before his death, typified the hundreds of conversations we had about science, or even philosophy. His first words after greeting me consisted of a hypothetical explanation of