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  1. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  2. The Betrayal of Judas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    When Marvin Meyer was asked by the National Geographic Society to translate the most-sought after religious texts in recent history, the Gospel of Judas, he discovered a startling portrait of Judas Iscariot. Judas was not the reviled traitor who betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Judas was the trusted disciple, the close confidant, the friend. When his…

  3. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... backdrops for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for ... western edge of the Rocky Mountains and eastern rim of the Great Basin. This early-winter image pair was acquired by the Multi-angle ...

  4. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  5. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  6. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  7. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  9. Great Salt Lake sets record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The level of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, broke its 1873 record on May 12, 1986, rising to 1283.7 m above mean sea level, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Heavy snowpack remains in the lake's drainage basin, and the lake is likely to continue rising into June. “It could well go up another foot [i.e., ˜0.3 m],” this season, according to Ted Arnow, USGS district chief in Utah.The Utah state legislature convened a special session on May 13 to discuss measures to control the flooding. Last year, the legislature began to consider funding a plan to pump water from the Great Salt Lake to form a large, shallow pond in the desert 48 km to the west. Because the lake's level was predicted to drop this year, however, the lawmakers postponed action on the issue (Eos, September 10, 1985, p. 641). The Rose Park area of Salt Lake City, which lies below the lake's current level, has been diked, but groundwater is backing up into Rose Park and has to be pumped out over the dikes, Arnow said. Also, trains that use the Southern Pacific railroad causeway, which crosses the lake, have had to be temporarily rerouted south of the lake during storms. The causeway has been progressively raised since 1983, but engineers now say that they can raise it no further because the added weight will make it sink into the lake, Arnow said. If the lake rises much higher, the interstate highway that runs by it might also have to shut down temporarily during storms, he added.

  10. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  12. Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    As seen from space, the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA (41.5N, 112.5W) appears as two separate bodies of water with a narrow divider in the middle. At the turn of the century, a railroad bridge without culverts, was built across the lake and ever since, the water and salinity levels have been uneqal on either side. Fed by snowmelt from the nearby Wasatch Mountains, the lake in recent years has had record high water levels, threatening to flood the local areas.

  13. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  14. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  15. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  16. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  17. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  18. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER AND BURNER. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  19. SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18996, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  2. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  3. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  4. Salt Lake Community College Report Card, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This report provides an overview of Salt Lake Community College and assesses institutional performance on several indicators. The following indicators are included: (1) participation rate by ethnicity; (2) participation rate by disability; (3) new student assessment of programs and services; (4) success rates of developmental education students;…

  5. Salt Lake Community College 1999 Report Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This document is an institutional self-assessment report by Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) for 1999. Performance indicators chosen to gauge the relative success of SLCC in achieving its mission, values and goals include: (1) participation rate by students who are minorities; (2) participation rate by students with disabilities; (3) new student…

  6. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  7. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars

  8. Presidential Symposia and Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walworth, Frank

    2009-03-01

    During 2009 ACS President Thomas H. Lane is committed to promoting education, building new and productive relationships that support the ACS strategic plan, and developing outcome-based metrics to guide the Society. At the 237th ACS national meeting in Salt Lake City, Lane is supporting six presidential symposia and events. Please consult the online technical program (accessed Jan 2009) for up-to-date information.

  9. 330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8E1684E, SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8-E-16-8-4E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST OVER THE CEMETERY. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER, BURNER & CHINESE GRAVES. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. Proposed Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The dynamic physiography and population growth within the Great Salt Lake Basin provide the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes affecting water availability, water quality, and water use, thereby making the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm of contemporary water resource issues and an excellent site to pursue interdisciplinary and integrated hydrologic science. Important societal concerns center on: How do climate variability and human-induced landscape changes affect hydrologic processes, water quality and availability, and aquatic ecosystems over a range of scales? What are the resource, social, and economic consequences of these changes? The steep topography and large climatic gradients of the Great Salt Lake Basin yield hydrologic systems that are dominated by non-linear interactions between snow deposition and snow melt in the mountains, stream flow and groundwater recharge in the mid-elevations, and evaporative losses from the desert floor at lower elevations. Because the Great Salt Lake Basin terminates in a closed basin lake, it is uniquely suited to closing the water, solute, and sediment balances in a way that is rarely possible in a watershed of a size sufficient for coupling to investigations of atmospheric processes. Proposed infrastructure will include representative densely instrumented focus areas that will be nested within a basin-wide network, thereby quantifying fluxes, residence times, pathways, and storage volumes over a range of scales and land uses. The significant and rapid ongoing urbanization presents the opportunity for observations that quantify the interactions among hydrologic processes, human induced changes and social and economic dynamics. One proposed focus area will be a unique, highly instrumented mountain-to-basin transect that will quantify hydrologic processes extending from the mountain ridge top to the Great Salt Lake. The transect will range in elevation from about 1200 m to 3200 m, with a

  12. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

  13. Salt Lake Community College Strategic Vision, September 2001-June 2006.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake Community Coll., UT.

    This document reviews July 2001 findings from a team of Salt Lake Community College administrators, faculty, and staff who were appointed by the college President to prepare a strategic plan that defines the strategic vision of Salt Lake Community College. The team utilized a planning process that began with an evaluation of the external and…

  14. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  15. Movement of road salt to a small New Hampshire lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Bukaveckas, P.A.; Buso, D.C.; Likens, G.E.; Shapiro, A.M.; Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Runoff of road salt from an interstate highway in New Hampshire has led to contamination of a lake and a stream that flows into the lake, in spite of the construction of a diversion berm to divert road salt runoff out of the lake drainage basin. Chloride concentration in the stream has increased by over an order of magnitude during the 23 yr since the highway was opened, and chloride concentration in the lake has tripled. Road salt moves to the lake primarily via the contaminated stream, which provides 53% of all the chloride to the lake and only 3% of the total streamflow to the lake. The stream receives discharge of salty water froth leakage through the diversion berm. Uncontaminated ground water dilutes the stream downstream of the berm. However, reversals of gradient during summer months, likely caused by transpiration from deciduous trees, result in flow of contaminated stream water into the adjacent ground water along the lowest 40-m reach of the stream. This contaminated ground water then discharges into the lake along a 70-m-wide segment of lake shore. Road salt is pervasive in the bedrock between the highway and the lake, but was not detected at all of the wells in the glacial overburden. Of the 500 m of shoreline that could receive discharge of saly ground water directly from the highway, only a 50-m-long segment appears to be contaminated.

  16. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.

  17. Draft Mercury Aquatic Wildlife Benchmarks for Great Salt Lake Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the EPA Region 8's rationale for selecting aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue mercury benchmarks for use in interpreting available data collected from the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands.

  18. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  19. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  20. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Held, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Thus, the ground-water level rose and brought dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. Nowadays, Western Australia is known for a great plenty of salt lakes with pH levels reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The land is mainly used for wheat farming and livestock and becomes drier due to the lack of rain periods. One possible reason could be the formation of ultrafine particles from salt lakes, which increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei and thus potentially suppresses precipitation. Several field campaigns have been conducted between 2006 and 2011 with car-based and airborne measurements, where new particle formation has been observed and has been related to the Western Australian salt lakes (Junkermann et al., 2009). To identify particle formation directly above the salt lakes, a 1.5 m³ Teflon chamber was set up above several lakes in 2012. Inside the chamber, photochemistry may take place whereas mixing through wind or advection of already existing particles is prevented. Salt lakes with a low pH level lead to strongly increased aerosol formation. As salt lakes have been identified as a source for reactive halogen species (RHS; Buxmann et al., 2012) and RHS seem to interact with precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), they could be producers of halogen induced secondary organic aerosol (XOA) (Ofner et al., 2012). As reference experiments, laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber runs were performed to examine XOA formation under atmospheric conditions using simulated sunlight and the chemical composition of a chosen salt lake. After adding α-pinene to the simulated salt lake, a strong nucleation event began in the absence of ozone comparable to the observed events in Western Australia. First results from the laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber experiments indicate a halogen-induced aerosol

  1. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east.

    Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales.

    In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned.

    These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, during Terra orbits 6093 and 7957, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth

  2. Geochemical evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Naftz, D.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Oviatt, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah, USA, is the largest saline lake in North America, and its brines are some of the most concentrated anywhere in the world. The lake occupies a closed basin system whose chemistry reflects solute inputs from the weathering of a diverse suite of rocks in its drainage basin. GSL is the remnant of a much larger lacustrine body, Lake Bonneville, and it has a long history of carbonate deposition. Inflow to the lake is from three major rivers that drain mountain ranges to the east and empty into the southern arm of the lake, from precipitation directly on the lake, and from minor groundwater inflow. Outflow is by evaporation. The greatest solute inputs are from calcium bicarbonate river waters mixed with sodium chloride-type springs and groundwaters. Prior to 1930 the lake concentration inversely tracked lake volume, which reflected climatic variation in the drainage, but since then salt precipitation and re-solution, primarily halite and mirabilite, have periodically modified lake-brine chemistry through density stratification and compositional differentiation. In addition, construction of a railway causeway has restricted circulation, nearly isolating the northern from the southern part of the lake, leading to halite precipitation in the north. These and other conditions have created brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional precipitation of salts as major factors in solute evolution. Pore fluids and diagenetic reactions have been identified as important sources and especially sinks for CaCO3, Mg, and K in the lake, depending on the concentration gradient and clays. ?? U.S. Geological Survey 2008.

  3. Salt Migration to the Northwest Body of Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Adams, T C

    1964-03-01

    Interchange of saline lake water between the northwest body of Great Salt Lake, Utah, comprising about one-third of the lake area, and the main body of the lake, has been severely restricted by the completion of a railroad embankment across the lake in 1959. The northwest body has a relatively small volume of inflow and a somewhat greater rate of evaporation than the main body. As a result, there has been a net flow of saline water northward and accompanying deposition of a thick layer of salt over the bottom and shore of the northwest body. A unique set of hydrologic and physical-chemical influences are in action, and further important effects on the entire lake are expected. PMID:17733066

  4. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  6. OMI observations of bromine monoxide emissions from salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over various salt lakes. We used OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from salt lakes. The salt lakes regions we cover include Dead Sea; Salt Lake City, US; Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; and Namtso, Tibet. Elevated signatures of BrO was found in July and August BrO monthly averages over the Dead Sea. Similar results were found in the BrO monthly averages for August 2006 for the Bolivian Salt Flats. We present a detailed description of the retrieval algorithm for the OMI operational bromine monoxide (BrO) product. The algorithm is based on direct fitting of radiances from 319.0-347.5 nm, within the UV-2 channel of OMI. Radiances are modeled from the solar irradiance, attenuated by contributions from the target gas and interfering gases, rotational Raman scattering, additive and multiplicative closure polynomials and a common mode spectrum. The common mode spectra (one per cross-track position, computed on-line) are the average of several hundred fitting residuals. They include any instrument effects that are unrelated to molecular scattering and absorption cross sections. The BrO retrieval uses albedo- and wavelength-dependent air mass factors (AMFs), which have been pre-computed using climatological BrO profiles. The wavelength-dependent AMF is applied pre-fit to the BrO cross-sections so that vertical column densities are retrieved directly. We validate OMI BrO with ground-based measurements from three stations (Harestua, Lauder, and Barrow) and with chemical transport model simulations. We analyze the global distribution and seasonal variation of BrO and investigate BrO emissions from volcanoes and salt lakes.

  7. Radionuclides and mercury in the salt lakes of the Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyeva, Natalya; Gulina, Larisa; Gulin, Sergey; Plotitsina, Olga; Stetsuk, Alexandra; Arkhipova, Svetlana; Korkishko, Nina; Eremin, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    90Sr concentrations, resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident, were determined in the salt lakes of the Crimea (Lakes Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe and Donuzlav), together with the redistribution between the components of the ecosystems. The content of mercury in the waters of the studied reservoirs was also established. Vertical distributions of natural radionuclide activities (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 40K) and anthropogenic 137Cs concentrations (as radiotracers) were determined in the bottom sediments of the Koyashskoe salt lake (located in the south-eastern Crimea) to evaluate the longterm dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Radiochemical and chemical analysis was undertaken and radiotracer and statistical methods were applied to the analytical data. The highest concentrations of 90Sr in the water of Lake Kiyatskoe (350.5 and 98.0 Bq/m3) and Lake Kirleutskoe (121.3 Bq/m3) were due to the discharge of the Dnieper water from the North-Crimean Canal. The high content of mercury in Lake Kiyatskoe (363.2 ng/L) and in seawater near Lake Kizil-Yar (364 ng/L) exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (3.5 times the maximum). Natural radionuclides provide the main contribution to the total radioactivity (artificial and natural combined) in the bottom sediments of Lake Koyashskoe. The significant concentration of 210Pb in the upper layer of bottom sediments of the lake indicates an active inflow of its parent radionuclide—gaseous 222Rn from the lower layers of the bottom sediment. The average sedimentation rates in Lake Koyashskoe, determined using 210Pb and 137Cs data, were 0.117 and 0.109 cm per year, respectively.

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  9. Conceptual Model for Selenium Cycling in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Conover, M. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Adams, J.

    2006-12-01

    The conceptual model for Selenium cycling in the Great Salt Lake was developed to guide investigations in support of determining an open water selenium standard for the Great Salt Lake. The motivation to determine this particular selenium standard derives from public concern for a plan to allow disposal of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate in the GSL, which would contain elevated concentrations of major and trace elements, including selenium. The development of an open water standard for selenium requires a working knowledge of the biological significance of existing selenium concentrations in the Great Salt Lake, as well as a working understanding of the likely changes of these concentrations over time given existing and proposed loads to the system. This working knowledge" is being represented in a conceptual model that accounts for selenium in various stocks" in the system (e.g. water, sediment, biota) and the flow" of selenium between stocks (e.g., precipitation and settling, volatilization, bioconcentration). It illustrates the critical pathway of selenium in the Great Salt Lake from water, to microorganisms, to brine shrimp and brine flies, to birds, and to their eggs. It also addresses the complexity of the GSL system: a) Spatially diverse, being comprised by four distinct bays and two layers, with major differences in salinity among their waters. b) Temporally dynamic, due to seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff. The conceptual model is presently descriptive, but will serve as the basis for a semi-quantitative model that will be fed by data accumulated during subsequent investigations.

  10. Volatile Selenium Flux in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Volatilization of selenium has been proven to be the major source of selenium vapor from oceans and estuaries and it may be the major mechanism of permanent selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake (other than brine shrimp harvest). However, the volatilization flux of selenium from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hyper-saline environment. This work presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of volatile selenium (geographical and with depth) in the South Arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of volatile selenium in a cryo-focusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryo-trapped volatile selenium was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-MS. The results show concentrations of volatile selenium that are much greater than values reported for marine estuaries and oceans. Volatile selenium flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport equations corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the South Arm of the Great Salt Lake.

  11. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaps, Richard A.

    Between February 7 and February 24, 2002, Utah and Salt Lake City hosted the Winter Olympics. Due to the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the emotional fallout that resulted, it was recommended that the Utah Psychological Association and Utah Red Cross plan for such an occurrence and organize a coordinated Disaster Mental Health…

  12. Geochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah I: Hydrochemistry since 1850

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah, has been defined for the historic period, 1850 through 1982, from published data combined with new observations. The water balance depends largely on river inflow, atmospheric precipitation onto the lake surface and evaporation. Input of the major solutes can best be accounted for by mixing dilute calcium-bicarbonate type river waters with NaCl-dominated hydrothermal springs. Prior to 1930, lake concentrations fluctuated inversely with lake volume in response to small climatic variations. Since then, salt precipitation and dissolution have significantly modified lake brine compositions and have led to density stratification and the formation of brine pockets of differing composition. Brine mixing has become an important component of brine evolution. We have used calculated evaporation curves with mineral precipitation and dissolution to clarify these processes. Pore fluids represent important storage for solutes. Solute profiles can be modeled by simple one-dimensional diffusion calculations. Short-term historic variations in lake composition affect shallow pore fluids in the upper 2 metres of sediment. ?? 1985.

  13. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina A.; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Held, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Originally, Western Australia was covered with Eucalyptus trees. Large scale deforestation for agricultural purposes led to rising ground water levels and brought dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. Nowadays, Western Australia is known for a great plenty of salt lakes with pH levels reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The land is mainly used for wheat farming and livestock and becomes drier due to the lack of rain periods. One possible reason could be the formation of ultrafine particles from salt lakes, which increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei, and thus potentially suppresses precipitation. Several field campaigns have been conducted between 2006 and 2011 with car-based and airborne measurements, where new particle formation has been observed and has been related to the Western Australian salt lakes (Junkermann et al., 2009). To identify particle formation directly above the salt lakes, a 2.35 m³ PTFE chamber was set up above several lakes in 2012 and 2013. Inside the chamber, photochemistry may take place whereas mixing through wind or advection of already existing particles is prevented. Salt lakes with a low pH level led to strongly increased aerosol formation. Also, the dependence on meteorological conditions has been examined. To obtain chemical information of the newly formed particles, during the chamber experiments also aerosol filter samples have been taken. The analysis of the anions by ion chromatography in 2012 showed an 8 to 17 times higher concentration of Cl- than SO42-, which led to the assumption that particle formation may have been influenced by halogens. As reference experiments, laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber runs were performed to examine halogen induced aerosol formation under atmospheric conditions using simulated sunlight and the simplified chemical composition of a salt lake. The mixture included FeSO4, NaCl and Na2SO4. After adding α-pinene to the simulated salt lake, a strong nucleation event began comparable to

  14. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial Biogeography of Six Salt Lakes in Inner Mongolia, China, and a Salt Lake in Argentina ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pagaling, Eulyn; Wang, Huanzhi; Venables, Madeleine; Wallace, Andrew; Grant, William D.; Cowan, Don A.; Jones, Brian E.; Ma, Yanhe; Ventosa, Antonio; Heaphy, Shaun

    2009-01-01

    We used cultivation-independent methods to investigate the prokaryotic biogeography of the water column in six salt lakes in Inner Mongolia, China, and a salt lake in Argentina. These lakes had different salt compositions and pH values and were at variable geographic distances, on both local and intercontinental scales, which allowed us to explore the microbial community composition within the context of both contemporary environmental conditions and geographic distance. Fourteen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed, and over 200 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained. These sequences were used to construct biotic similarity matrices, which were used in combination with environmental similarity matrices and a distance matrix in the Mantel test to discover which factors significantly influenced biotic similarity. We showed that archaeal biogeography was influenced by contemporary environmental factors alone (Na+, CO32−, and HCO3− ion concentrations; pH; and temperature). Bacterial biogeography was influenced both by contemporary environmental factors (Na+, Mg2+, and HCO3− ion concentrations and pH) and by geographic distance. PMID:19648369

  16. Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Samad

    2006-01-01

    Urmia Lake has been designated as an international park by the United Nations. The lake occupies a 5700 km2 depression in northwestern Iran. Thirteen permanent rivers flow into the lake. Water level in the lake has been decreased 3.5 m in the last decade due to a shortage of precipitation and progressively dry climate. Geologically the lake basin is considered to be a graben of tectonic origin. Na, K, Ca, Li and Mg are the main cations with Cl, SO4, and HCO3 as the main anions. F & Br are the other main elements in the lake. A causeway crossing the lake is under construction, which may affect the lake's annual geochemistry. The main object of this project is mainly to consider the potential of K-mineral production along with ongoing salt production. Seven hundred and four samples were taken and partially analyzed for the main cations and anions. Surface water (0.5 m. depth) was analyzed for Na, K, Mg, Ca, Br and Li, and averaged 87.118 g/lit, 1.48 g/lit, 4.82 g/lit, 4.54 g/lit, 1.19 ppm and 12.7 ppm respectively for the western half of the lake. Sodium ranged between 84 to 91.2 g/lit, and showed higher concentrations in the south than in the north. This unexpected result may be caused by shallower depth in the south and a higher net evaporation effect. Calcium ranged between 4.2 to 5 g/lit, apparently slightly higher in the north. K is higher in the south, possibly due to rivers entering from south that may carry slightly higher K in solution. In the middle-range samples (0.5–5 m.), K averaged 1.43 g/lit and ranged from 1.40 to 1.46 g/lit. At this intermediate depth the distribution of K is clearly higher to the south of the causeway that is currently under construction. It is not clear whether this increase is the effect of the causeway or the effect of the salty Aji-Chay River to the east, and the Khoy salt domes to the north of the lake. At depth (5 m–10 m), K averaged 1.48 g/lit and ranged from 1.4 to 1.49 g/lit, differing only in the second decimal from

  17. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

  19. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed

    White, James S; Null, Sarah E; Tarboton, David G

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  20. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed

    White, James S; Null, Sarah E; Tarboton, David G

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses.

  1. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed Central

    White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah’s Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey’s Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  2. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  3. Evolution of salt and hydrocarbon migration: Sweet Lake area, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    The interpretation of seismic, gravity, and well data in northern Cameron Parish, Louisiana suggest that lateral salt flow has influenced the area`s structural evolution, depositional patterns, and hydrocarbon migration. Sweet Lake Field has produced over 46 MMBO and 15 BCFG from Middle Miocene deltaic sands. The structural closure is a downthrown anticline on a fault controlled by the underlying salt feature. Sweet Lake Field overlies an allochthonous salt mass that was probably once part of an ancestral salt ridge extending from Hackberry to Big Lake fields. Nine wells encountering top of salt and several seismic lines define a detached salt feature underlying over twenty square miles at depths from 8500-18,000 ft. Salt withdrawal in the East Hackberry-Big Lake area influenced the depositional patterns of the Oligocene lower Hackberry channel systems. Progradation of thick Middle Oligocene Camerina (A) and Miogypsinoides sands into the area caused salt thinning and withdrawal resulting in the development and orientation of the large Marginulina-Miogypsinoides growth fault northwest of Sweet Lake. Additional evidence for the southeast trend of the salt is a well approximately two miles southeast of Sweet Lake which encountered salt at approximately 19,800 ft. High quality 2-D and 3-D seismic data will continue to enhance the regional understanding of the evolving salt structures in the onshore Gulf Coast and the local understanding of hydrocarbon migration. Additional examples of lateral salt flow will be recognized and some may prove to have subsalt hydrocarbon potential.

  4. Great Salt Lake Microbial Communities: The Foundation of a Terminal Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, B. K.; Acord, M.; Riddle, M. R.; Avery, B.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a natural hypersaline ecosystem and a terminal lake of substantial size. The dramatic fluctuation in water levels and salinity creates an ecological backdrop selective for organisms with a high degree of adaptability. At the macro level, the biodiversity of the GSL ecosystem is simple, due to the limitations of an extreme saline environment: Birds eat the two invertebrates of the lake, and the invertebrates eat phytoplankton. However, analysis of the microbial level reveals an enormous diversity of species interacting with one another and the ecosystem as a whole. Our cultivation, biochemical tests, microscopy and DNA sequencing yielded data on dozens of isolates. These data demonstrate novel species, and possibly genera, living in the lake. In addition, we have discovered viruses (bacteriophage) that prey on the microorganisms. Preliminary data on bacteria dwelling in the gut of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, link these prokaryotic organisms to the food chain for the first time. All of these results taken together open the door for the discussion of the significance of the microbial level of terminal lake ecosystem, particularly in light of lake water contamination and bioremediation possibilities.

  5. Scope of work-supplemental standards-related fieldwork - Salt Lake City UMTRA Project Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    This scope of work governs the field effort to conduct transient in situ (hereafter referred to by the trademark name HydroPunch{reg_sign}) investigative subsurface logging and ground water sampling, and perform well point installation services at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Salt Lake City, Utah. The HydroPunch{reg_sign} and well point services subcontractor (the Subcontractor) shall provide services as stated herein to be used to investigate the subsurface, collect and analyze ground water samples, and install shallow well points.

  6. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake... remains was made by the Utah Museum of Natural History professional staff......

  7. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are Ballet West, Pioneer Memorial Theatre, Repertory Dance Theatre, Salt Lake City Art Center, Theatre 138, Tiffany's Attic, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Utah Symphony, Utah Opera Company,…

  8. 77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... the March 5, 2012 Federal Register (76 FR 2012-5245), GIPSA requested applications for designation to..., IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration...) 423-9010... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Utah Salt Lake City, UT (801) 392- 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 2292....

  9. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT... of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O. Box 45155-0155 to 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1345. The proposed date will...

  10. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

  11. Analysis of seasonal characteristics of Sambhar Salt Lake, India, from digitized Space Shuttle photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Sambhar Salt Lake is the largest salt lake (230 sq km) in India, situated in the northwest near Jaipur. Analysis of Space Shuttle photographs of this ephemeral lake reveals that water levels and lake basin land-use information can be extracted by both the digital and manual analysis techniques. Seasonal characteristics captured by the two Shuttle photos used in this study show that additional land use/cover categories can be mapped from the dry season photos. This additional information is essential for precise cartographic updates, and provides seasonal hydrologic profiles and inputs for potential mesoscale climate modeling. This paper extends the digitization and mensuration techniques originally developed for space photography and applied to other regions (e.g., Lake Chad, Africa, and Great Salt Lake, USA).

  12. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Western Australian Salt Lake Sediments: Implications for Meridiani Planum on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, A.; Schröder, C.; Byrne, J.; Weigold, P.; Behrens, S.; Kappler, A.

    2016-07-01

    Hypersaline lakes are characteristic for Western Australia and display a rare combination of geochemical and mineralogical properties that make these lakes potential analogues for past conditions on Mars. In our study, we focused on the geochemistry and mineralogy of Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. While both lakes are poor in organic carbon (<1%), the sediments' pH values differ and range from 3.8 to 4.8 in Lake Orr and from 5.4 to 6.3 in Lake Whurr sediments. Lake Whurr sediments were dominated by orange and red sediment zones in which the main Fe minerals were identified as hematite, goethite, and tentatively jarosite and pyrite. Lake Orr was dominated by brownish and blackish sediments where the main Fe minerals were goethite and another paramagnetic Fe(III)-phase that could not be identified. Furthermore, a likely secondary Fe(II)-phase was observed in Lake Orr sediments. The mineralogy of these two salt lakes in the sampling area is strongly influenced by events such as flooding, evaporation, and desiccation, processes that explain at least to some extent the observed differences between Lake Orr and Lake Whurr. The iron mineralogy of Lake Whurr sediments and the high salinity make this lake a suitable analogue for Meridiani Planum on Mars, and in particular the tentative identification of pyrite in Lake Whurr sediments has implications for the interpretation of the Fe mineralogy of Meridiani Planum sediments.

  14. The dry deposition of mercury into the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisonbee, Joel R.

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the western United States has been identified as the most mercury laden body of water in the United States with a median water mercury concentration of 42 nanograms per liter. When Hg enters an aquatic ecosystem, it can be converted to the toxic organic mercury compound, methylmercury. Methylmercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and has been the cause of consumption advisories for game fish in many lakes and rivers in the historically pristine Intermountain West. In 2005, the Utah Department of Health and the Fish and Wildlife Service placed a similar consumption advisory on waterfowl on the GSL. The primary goal of this study is to identify the pathway of greatest influx of Hg pollution to the GSL to give insight toward the source and an eventual solution to the Hg pollution problem. Speciated atmospheric mercury measurements were collected at a field site on the eastern shore of the GSL for a 1-year period beginning on July 1, 2009. These atmospheric mercury concentrations, along with turbulence measurements, were used as input to a resistance-in-series dry deposition model (based on Wesley and Hicks 1977). The dry deposition flux of mercury was determined from the modeled dry deposition velocity and the measured concentrations. This dry deposition flux was compared to the wet deposition flux measured by the National Deposition Network and the riverine influx measured by the USGS. It was found that in the 1 year from July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010, 10.7 nanograms per square meter of Hg was deposited into the GSL by dry deposition from the atmosphere. Dry deposition makes up 60% of the total Hg influx from all measured pathways. The flux from the dry deposition of the global background pool of Hg (1.5 +/- 0.2 nanograms per square meter) dominated the dry deposition flux, making up 82.5+/-8.5% of the dry deposition flux and 50% of the total Hg influx to the GSL. Lake sediment cores from the GSL suggest a much larger annual flux

  15. Does road salting confound the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified lake?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Correll; Meland, Sondre; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Walseng, Bjørn

    2014-04-15

    Numerous boreal lakes across the Northern Hemisphere recovering from acidification are experiencing a simultaneous increase in chloride (Cl) concentrations from road salting. Increasing Cl may have profound effects on the lake ecosystem. We examine if an increase in Cl from road salting has modified the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified boreal lake undergoing chemical recovery (study lake). Results from the study lake were compared with an acidified "reference lake". The community changed during the study period in the study lake mainly driven by the reduction in acidification pressure. Despite the community changes and an increase in species richness, the absence of several acid sensitive species, previously occurring in the lake, indicates a delayed biological recovery relative to the chemical recovery. Moreover, changes in occurrence of acid sensitive and acid tolerant species indicated that the biological recovery was slower in the study lake compared to the "reference". Although recurrent episodes of high aluminum and low pH and decreasing Ca are likely important factors for the delay, these do not explain, for instance, the shift from Cyclops scutifer to Bosmina longispina in the study lake. Although the contribution of Cl was not significant, the correlation between Cl and the variation in microcrustacean community was twice as high in the study lake compared to the "reference". We argue that small, sheltered forest lakes may be especially sensitive to increased Cl levels, through changes in pattern of stratification, thus providing a mechanism for the shift from C. scutifer to B. longispina. The reduction of the acidification pressure seems to override the Cl effects on microcrustaceans at low Cl levels in salt-affected lakes recovering from acidification. However, prognoses for growing traffic and increasing road salting raise concern for many recovering lakes located in proximity to roads and urbanized areas.

  16. Does road salting confound the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified lake?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Correll; Meland, Sondre; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Walseng, Bjørn

    2014-04-15

    Numerous boreal lakes across the Northern Hemisphere recovering from acidification are experiencing a simultaneous increase in chloride (Cl) concentrations from road salting. Increasing Cl may have profound effects on the lake ecosystem. We examine if an increase in Cl from road salting has modified the recovery of the microcrustacean community in an acidified boreal lake undergoing chemical recovery (study lake). Results from the study lake were compared with an acidified "reference lake". The community changed during the study period in the study lake mainly driven by the reduction in acidification pressure. Despite the community changes and an increase in species richness, the absence of several acid sensitive species, previously occurring in the lake, indicates a delayed biological recovery relative to the chemical recovery. Moreover, changes in occurrence of acid sensitive and acid tolerant species indicated that the biological recovery was slower in the study lake compared to the "reference". Although recurrent episodes of high aluminum and low pH and decreasing Ca are likely important factors for the delay, these do not explain, for instance, the shift from Cyclops scutifer to Bosmina longispina in the study lake. Although the contribution of Cl was not significant, the correlation between Cl and the variation in microcrustacean community was twice as high in the study lake compared to the "reference". We argue that small, sheltered forest lakes may be especially sensitive to increased Cl levels, through changes in pattern of stratification, thus providing a mechanism for the shift from C. scutifer to B. longispina. The reduction of the acidification pressure seems to override the Cl effects on microcrustaceans at low Cl levels in salt-affected lakes recovering from acidification. However, prognoses for growing traffic and increasing road salting raise concern for many recovering lakes located in proximity to roads and urbanized areas. PMID:24530583

  17. Arsenophilic Bacterial Processes in Searles Lake: A Salt-saturated, Arsenic-rich, Alkaline Soda Lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Swizer Blum, J.; Stolz, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Searles Lake, located in the Mojave Desert of California, is essentially a chemically-similar, concentrated version of Mono Lake, but having a much higher salinity (e.g., 340 vs. 90 g/L) and a greater dissolved inorganic arsenic content in its brine (e.g., 3.9 vs. 0.2 mM). The source of all this arsenic ultimately comes from hydrothermal spring inputs, thereby underscoring the importance of volcanic and fluvial processes in transporting this toxic element into these closed basin lakes. Nonetheless, the presence of microbial activities with regard to respiration of arsenate oxyanions under anaerobic conditions and the oxidation of arsenite oxyanions under aerobic conditions can be inferred from porewater profiles taken from handcores retrieved beneath Searles Lake's salt crust. Sediment slurry incubations confirmed biological arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, with the former processes notably enhanced by provision of the inorganic electron donor sulfide or H2. Hence, arsenic-linked chemo-autotrophy appears to be an important means of carbon fixation in this system. Subsequent efforts using 73As-arsenate as radiotracer detected dissimilatory arsenate reduction activity down the length of the core, but we were unable to detect any evidence for sulfate-reduction using 35S-sulfate. An extremely halophilic anaerobic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales [strain SLAS-1] was isolated from the sediments that grew via arsenate respiration using lactate or sulfide as its electron donors. These results show that, unlike sulfate-reduction, arsenic metabolism (i.e., both oxidation of arsenite and dissimilatory reduction of arsenate) is operative and even vigorous under the extreme conditions of salt-saturation and high pH. The occurrence of arsenophilic microbial processes in Searles Lake is relevant to the search for extant or extinct microbial life on Mars. It is evident from surface imagery that Mars had past episodes of volcanism, fluvial transport, and most

  18. Cultural Meromixis: the Influence of Road Salt Deicers on Two Urban Kettle Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koretsky, C.; Sibert, R.; Wyman, D. A.; Griffey, D.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global use of road salt deicers has led to an influx of salts, particularly NaCl and CaCl2, into urban surface waters. This influx has led to documented salinization of drinking water supplies, as well as damage to ecosystems. There is an increasing recognition that the influx of road salt deciers may also influence the physical mixing of lakes, with dramatic consequences for lake biogeochemistry. In this study, the water column chemistry of two kettle lakes in urban Kalamazoo, MI, USA was monitored for over a year. Woods Lake, an ~9.7 ha, 14 m max depth lake, receives most water from storm water sewers, whereas nearby Asylum Lake, an ~19.8 ha, 15.8 m max depth lake, is primarily groundwater fed. The water columns of both lakes are strongly redox stratified, but exhibit some significant differences in water chemistry. The input of road salt has caused Woods Lake to transition to meromixis, with permanently anoxic bottom waters and significant accumulations of dissolved Mn(II), Fe(II), NH3, PO4-3 and sometimes HS- in the hypolimnion. In contrast, Asylum Lake appears to be monomictic, with turnover occurring in fall, but not spring. During most seasons, the hypolimnion of Asylum Lake has significant levels of dissolved Mn(II), NH3, PO4-3, and sometimes HS-, but dissolved Fe(II) remains below detection limits. A comparison of δ18O and δD with the local meteoric water line demonstrates that both lakes undergo significant evaporation. Woods Lake is considerably more influenced by evaporation than Asylum Lake, presumably due to the longer residence time of water in Woods Lake. The longer residence time, together with the smaller volume of water in Woods Lake, likely explains the more rapid transition to meromixis compared to Asylum Lake. This study demonstrates that road salt deicers can significantly influence the biogeochemistry and physical function of urban lakes, and in some cases can result in dimictic lakes transitioning to cultural meromixis.

  19. Salt Lake Community College Veterans Services: A Model of Serving Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.

  20. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  1. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  2. Salting our Freshwater: A Macrosystems Study of Global Chloride Patterns and Trends in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Bartlett, S.; Burke, S.; Doubek, J.; Krivak-Tetley, F.; Skaff, N.; Summers, J.; Farrell, K.; McCullough, I.; Morales, A. M.; Roberts, D.; Yang, Z.; Scordo, F.; Hanson, P. C.; Weathers, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride is a naturally occurring ion in freshwater lakes that can have adverse ecological impacts if concentrations rise above natural background levels. Many lakes worldwide, including the Great Lakes, have seen increased chloride concentrations over the past few decades. Regional drivers include both natural processes (e.g., sea salt deposition and long periods of drought) and anthropogenic influences (e.g., runoff from road salt application and agricultural fertilizer and discharge of industrial effluent). While these trends and drivers have been studied at the watershed scale, there has been no large-scale analyses of chloride trends in freshwater lakes. Here, we have compiled a dataset of long-term (> 10 years) chloride concentrations in over 500 freshwater lakes, ponds and reservoirs worldwide (>0.04 ha), predominantly in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The geographic and morphometric range of lakes in this dataset allows us to assess the impact of ecoregion, lake area, residence time, and lake depth on relative changes in chloride concentrations. For the United States, we combined our dataset with the National Land Cover Database and the National Hydrography Dataset to quantify percent impervious surface, as a proxy for road density, within the near-shore environment of our study lakes. We find that urban lakes, especially in the American Midwest (Wisconsin, Minnesota) have strong positive trends in chloride concentrations, whereas remote lakes, such as ponds in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, have had stable or decreasing chloride levels. In states with seasonal road-salt application, the percent impervious surface within 100 m of a lake is strongly correlated with increases in chloride. Road salt runoff is just one ecological threat to urban lakes, but can be abated with proper management.

  3. 75 FR 73983 - Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B... information from airspace users and others concerning a proposal to revise the Class B airspace area at Salt... Terminal, 397 North 2370 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116. (3) The meeting on Thursday, February 3,...

  4. Arcellacea (testate amoebae) as bio-indicators of road salt contamination in lakes.

    PubMed

    Roe, Helen M; Patterson, R Timothy

    2014-08-01

    Winter deicing operations occur extensively in mid- to high-latitude metropolitan regions around the world and result in a significant reduction in road accidents. Deicing salts can, however, pose a major threat to water quality and aquatic organisms. In this paper, we examine the utility of Arcellacea (testate amoebae) for monitoring lakes that have become contaminated by winter deicing salts, particularly sodium chloride. We analysed 50 sediment samples and salt-related water property variables (chloride concentrations; conductivity) from 15 lakes in the Greater Toronto Area and adjacent areas of southern Ontario, Canada. The sampled lakes included lakes in proximity to major highways and suburban roads and control lakes in forested settings away from road influences. Samples from the most contaminated lakes, with chloride concentrations in excess of 400 mg/l and conductivities of >800 μS/cm, were dominated by species typically found in brackish and/or inhospitable lake environments and by lower faunal diversities (lowest Shannon diversity index values) than samples with lower readings. Q-R-mode cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) resulted in the recognition of four assemblage groupings. These reflect varying levels of salt contamination in the study lakes, along with other local influences, including nutrient loading. The response to nutrients can, however, be isolated if the planktic eutrophic indicator species Cucurbitella tricuspis is removed from the counts. The findings show that the group has considerable potential for biomonitoring in salt-contaminated lakes, and their presence in lake sediment cores may provide significant insights into long-term benthic community health, which is integral for remedial efforts.

  5. Halomonas xiaochaidanensis sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Guojing; Xian, Wendong; Yang, Jian; Yang, Lingling; Xiao, Min; Jiang, Hongchen; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A short-rod-shaped moderately halophilic bacterium, designated CUG 00002(T), was isolated from the sediment of Xiaochaidan salt lake in Qinghai Province, China by using R2A medium. The cells were Gram-staining negative, aerobic, forming creamy and circular colonies with diameters of 2-3 mm on R2A agar when incubated at 30 °C for 3 days. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain CUG 00002(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria, showing highest sequence similarity of 97.1 and 96.7 % to Halomonas mongoliensis Z-7009(T) (=DSM 17332=VKM B2353) and Halomonas shengliensis SL014B-85(T) (=CGMCC 1.6444(T)=LMG 23897(T)), respectively. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9), and the major fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) and summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c or C18:1 ω6c). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CUG 00002(T) was 61.8 mol%. The above characteristics were consistent with the placement of the organism in the genus Halomonas. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between CUG 00002(T) and its most closely related strain H. mongoliensis Z-7009(T) was 41.0 ± 1.6 %. Based on the results of phenotypic, phylogenetic and biochemical analyses, strain CUG 00002(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xiaochaidanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CUG 00002(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014152(T)=KCTC 42685(T)). PMID:27177899

  6. Halomonas xiaochaidanensis sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Guojing; Xian, Wendong; Yang, Jian; Yang, Lingling; Xiao, Min; Jiang, Hongchen; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    A short-rod-shaped moderately halophilic bacterium, designated CUG 00002(T), was isolated from the sediment of Xiaochaidan salt lake in Qinghai Province, China by using R2A medium. The cells were Gram-staining negative, aerobic, forming creamy and circular colonies with diameters of 2-3 mm on R2A agar when incubated at 30 °C for 3 days. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain CUG 00002(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria, showing highest sequence similarity of 97.1 and 96.7 % to Halomonas mongoliensis Z-7009(T) (=DSM 17332=VKM B2353) and Halomonas shengliensis SL014B-85(T) (=CGMCC 1.6444(T)=LMG 23897(T)), respectively. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9), and the major fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) and summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c or C18:1 ω6c). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CUG 00002(T) was 61.8 mol%. The above characteristics were consistent with the placement of the organism in the genus Halomonas. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between CUG 00002(T) and its most closely related strain H. mongoliensis Z-7009(T) was 41.0 ± 1.6 %. Based on the results of phenotypic, phylogenetic and biochemical analyses, strain CUG 00002(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xiaochaidanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CUG 00002(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014152(T)=KCTC 42685(T)).

  7. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  8. Halorussus amylolyticus sp. nov., isolated from an inland salt lake.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Ye, Wei-Tao; Pan, Jia-Xiang; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-10-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, YC93T, was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi Province, China. Cells were pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative and formed light-red-pigmented colonies on agar plates. Strain YC93T was able to grow at 25–50 °C (optimum 37 °C), with 1.4–4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.0 M), with 0–1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 6.0–9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 8 % (w/v). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain YC93T had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes both of which were phylogenetically related to those of the two recognized members of the genus Halorussus (93.0–95.3 % similarity). The rpoB′ gene of strain YC93T was phylogenetically related to the corresponding gene of Halorussus rarus TBN4T (91.3 % similarity) and Halorussus ruber YC25T (90.5 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and five glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122T. The DNA G+C content of strain YC93T was 64.6 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YC93T represents a novel species of the genus Halorussus, for which the name Halorussus amylolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC93T ( = CGMCC 1.12126T = JCM 18367T). PMID:26228463

  9. Hydrogeology of shallow basin-fill deposits in areas of Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A study of recently developed residential/commercial areas of Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was done from 1999 to 2001 in areas in which shallow ground water has the potential to move to a deeper aquifer that is used for public supply. Thirty monitoring wells were drilled and sampled in 1999 as part of the study. The ground water was either under unconfined or confined conditions, depending on depth to water and the presence or absence of fine-grained deposits. The wells were completed in the shallowest water-bearing zone capable of supplying water. Monitoring-well depths range from 23 to 154 feet. Lithologic, geophysical, hydraulic-conductivity, transmissivity, water-level, and water-temperature data were obtained for or collected from the wells. Silt and clay layers noted on lithologic logs correlate with increases in electrical conductivity and natural gamma radiation shown on many of the electromagnetic-induction and natural gamma logs. Relatively large increases in electrical conductivity, determined from the electromagnetic-induction logs, with no major changes in natural gamma radiation are likely caused by increased dissolved-solids content in the ground water. Some intervals with high electrical conductivity correspond to areas in which water was present during drilling. Unconfined conditions were present at 7 of 20 monitoring wells on the west side and at 2 of 10 wells on the east side of Salt Lake Valley. Fine-grained deposits confine the ground water. Anthropogenic compounds were detected in water sampled from most of the wells, indicating a connection with the land surface. Data were collected from 20 of the monitoring wells to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the shallow ground-water system. Hydraulic-conductivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 30 to 540 feet per day. Transmissivity values of the shallow aquifer ranged from 3 to 1,070 feet squared per day. There is a close linear relation between transmissivity determined

  10. Quality and sources of ground water used for public supply in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Manning, Andrew H.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water supplies about one-third of the water used by the public in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. The occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in ground water used for public supply in the valley were evaluated. Water samples were collected from 31 public-supply wells in 2001 and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, methylene blue active substances, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. The samples also were analyzed for the stable isotopes of water (oxygen-18 and deuterium), tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gases to determine recharge sources and ground-water age. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 157 to 1,280 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 31 public-supply wells. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentration of water sampled from the principal aquifer during 1988-92 and 1998-2002 shows a reduction in the area where water with less than 500 mg/L occurs. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 12 of the 31 public-supply wells was higher than an estimated background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. At least one pesticide or pesticide degradation product was detected at a concentration much lower than drinking-water standards in water from 13 of the 31 wells sampled. Chloroform was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound (17 of 31 samples). Its widespread occurrence in deeper ground water is likely a result of the recharge of chlorinated public-supply water used to irrigate lawns and gardens in residential areas of Salt Lake Valley. Environmental tracers were used to determine the sources of recharge to the principal aquifer used for public supply in the valley. Oxygen-18 values and recharge temperatures computed from dissolved noble gases in the ground water were used to differentiate between mountain and valley recharge. Maximum recharge temperatures in the eastern part of the valley generally are below the range

  11. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

  12. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)).

  13. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the Central Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  14. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the central andes.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, S H; Chang, C C

    1984-04-20

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  15. Great Salt Lake, and precursors, Utah: The last 30,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.J.; Baedecker, M.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Forester, R.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Jones, B.F.; Kelts, K.; McKenzie, J.; Madsen, D.B.; Rettig, S.L.; Rubin, M.; Bowser, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sediment cores up to 6.5 m in length from the South Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, have been correlated. Radiocarbon ages and volcanic tephra layers indicate a record of greater than 30,000 years. A variety of approaches have been employed to collect data used in stratigraphic correlation and lake elevation interpretation; these include acoustic stratigraphy, sedimentologic analyses, mineralogy, geochemistry (major element, C, O and S isotopes, and organics), paleontology and pollen. The results indicate that prior to 32,000 year B.P. an ephemeral saline lake-playa system was present in the basin. The perennial lake, which has occupied the basin since this time, rose in a series of three major steps; the freshest water conditions and presumably highest altitude was reached at about 17,000 year B.P. The lake remained fresh for a brief period, followed by a rapid increase in salinity and sharp lowering in elevation to levels below that of the present Great Salt Lake. The lake remained at low elevations, and divided at times into a north and south Basin, until about 8,000 year B.P. Since that time, with the exception of two short rises to about 1290 m, the lake level has remained near the present elevation of 1280 m. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  17. Great Salt Lake, Utah: chemical and physical variations of the brine, 1963-1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahl, D.C.; Handy, A.H.

    1969-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is a shallow, closed-basin lake in northern Utah. Its surface area and concentration of dissolved solids vary in response to both annual and long-term climatic changes. The lake gains water mainly as streamflow from mountains to the east and loses water through evaporation. In 1965, at a lake-surface altitude of 4,194 feet, the surface area was about 1,000 square miles, and the maximum measured depth was 27 feet. Studies to define the variations in chemical and physical characteristics of the brine began in 1963, and detailed sampling of the lake at 29 sites was made in October 1965 and May 1966. Data resulting from concurrent sampling of the 29 sites indicated that four types of brine coexist in the lake. The concentration of dissolved solids in the Great Salt Lake brine has always varied from place to place and with depth. Inflow, evaporation, currents, wind, and density differences resulted in brine stratification in the deep parts and brine concentration in the shallow, isolated parts of the lake. Completion of a railroad causeway by the Southern Pacific Co. in 1957 divided the lake into two parts and altered the movement of brine. The northwestern part of the lake was essentially cut off from direct fresh-water inflow by the causeway, and as a result it was saturated and well mixed from 1963 to 1966. During the main evaporation season (June-October), a layer of salt crust was precipitated on the lakebed north of the causeway. Near Rozel Point the salt crust contained 99.6 percent sodium chloride. The southern two-thirds of the lake receives over 90 percent of the surface inflow and since 1957 has rarely reached saturation. The southern part of the lake is not well mixed, and three types of brine have been identified by their location, concentrations of specific ions, and concentrations of dissolved solids. These brines are located (1) in a zone from the surface to a depth of 16 feet, (2) in a zone below 16 feet south of the causeway, and (3) in

  18. Lithium in the brines of Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Meier, Allen L.; Downey, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of waters-from springs in Nevada have led to the identification of an area containing anomalous amounts of lithium northwest of the Clayton Valley-area. Fish Lake Valley and Columbus Salt Marsh contain waters having, relatively high lithium and potassium concentrations. At least a part of these waters is probably derived from the leaching of Tertiary rocks containing saline minerals. The high-lithium waters at Columbus Salt Marsh could be derived not only by the leaching of rocks with a high soluble lithium ands, potassium content but also by subsurface outflow from Fish Lake Valley.

  19. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara.

    PubMed

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed.

  20. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara

    PubMed Central

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed. PMID:21909172

  1. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), 1847-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, with an area of about 6000 square kilometers at its historic high elevation. Since its historic low elevation of 1277.52 meters in 1963, the lake has risen to a new historic high elevation of 1283.77 meters in 1986-1987, a net increase of about 6.25 meters. About 60 percent of this increase, 3.72 meters, has occurred since 1982 in response to greater than average precipitation and less than average evaporation. Variations in salinity have resulted in changes in the composition of the aquatic biological community which consists of bacteria, protozoa, brine shrimp and brine flies. These changes were particularly evident following the completion of a causeway in 1959 which divided the lake. Subsequent salinities in the north part of the lake have ranged from 16 to 29 percent and in the south part from 6 to 28 percent. Accompanying the rise in lake elevation from 1982 to 1987 have been large decreases in salinity of both parts of the lake. This has resulted in changes in the biota from obligate halophiles, such as Dunaliella salina and D. viridis, to opportunistic forms such as a blue-green alga (Nodularia spumigena). The distribution and abundance of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in the lake also have followed closely the salinity. In 1986, when the salinity of the south part of the lake was about 6 percent, a population of brackish-water killifish (Lucania parva) was observed along the shore near inflow from a spring. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  2. Hydrologic characteristics of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake in Utah is a large body of water bordered on the west by barren desert and on the east by a major metropolitan area. It is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, covering about 2,300 square miles in 1986. Since its historic low elevation of 4,191.35 feet in 1963, the lake rose to a new historic high elevation of 4,211.85 feet in 1986. Most of this increase (12.2 feet) occurred after 1982. The rise has caused $285 million of damage to lakeside industries, transportation, farming, and wildlife. Accompanying the rapid rise in lake level has been a decrease in salinity--from 28 percent in 1963 to about 6 percent in 1986. This has resulted in changes in the biota of the lake from obligate halophiles to opportunistic forms, such as blue-green algae and, most recently, a brackish-water fish.

  3. Ooid formation in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: Insights from clumped isotope paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. P.; Bird, J. T.; Meneske, M.; Stefurak, E. J.; Berelson, W.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Shapiro, R. S.; Sessions, A. L.; Tripati, A.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ooids (coated grains formed in agitated environments) are a relatively common constituent of the sedimentary record through time, but details of their formation remain enigmatic. Although not as abundant today as at other times in the past, ooids are known from several key carbonate environments, including the Bahamas, Persian Gulf, Shark Bay, and the Great Salt Lake. We collected ooids from the Great Salt Lake in association with the International GeoBiology Summer Course in 2012 and 2013 from the north shore of Antelope Island and Spiral Jetty in order to investigate their origin. Petrographic investigation reveals the ooids are composed of aragonite, and display an alternating radial, concentric, and radial-concentric fabric. The delicate nature of the radial fabric is suggestive, but not conclusive, that they form currently (agitation would abrade the fabric). The nuclei are typically rod shaped micritic peloids (up to 80%) or siliciclastic mineral grains. The Great Salt Lake surface water temperature undergoes a predictable annual cycle, with summer months approaching 25 degrees C or more, and winter months dipping to 5 degrees C or less, depending on the region of the lake. Clumped isotope temperatures allow us to constrain ooid formation to the warm months. A contrast between the isotopic composition of the waters for Antelope Island (~0 per mill), likely affected by spring runoff, and the ooids of the same location (~4.5 per mill) further suggest ooid formation took place after the spring runoff, constraining ooid formation to between mid-June and October. We calculated the summer and winter carbonate saturation state of the lake, and while the lake is supersaturated throughout the year, it is significantly more saturated during the summer months. Our results give new insight into ooid formation in the Great Salt Lake, and suggest that the ooids form predominantly during the warm months following the spring runoff.

  4. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South...

  5. Five-Year Plan for Development of Library Services in Salt Lake County, 1973-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuurman, Guy

    A five-year plan for the Salt Lake County Library System is presented to meet the complex needs of patrons and to comply with American Library Association's "Minimum Standards for Public Library Systems" (1966). A new main library building is planned to house the main collection, and enlarged nonprint collection, and audiovisual and conference…

  6. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ..., 2012, the FAA published a final rule modifying the Salt Lake City, UT Class B airspace area (77 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  7. The Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratopoulos, Irene Chachas

    The main purposes in examining and evaluating the Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts were to identify the essential curriculum features of the program, to make suggestions for curriculum improvement, and to determine whether or not the quality of the AP English Program surpassed that of the conventional…

  8. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  9. Barriers to Academic Success in a Homeless Population in Salt Lake City, Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Carrie Highton

    This study explored the academic and physical barriers that homeless children in Utah encountered on a daily basis in a structured educational setting. The project was conducted in a shelter and resource center in Salt Lake City. Data were collected from 1 male and 14 female adults and 15 children, representing 15 families. A perceived barriers…

  10. Highland High School Vocational Television; a Salt Lake Schools Exemplary Vocational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, LaMar C.

    The Highland High School (Salt Lake City, Utah) vocational television production program was designed to provide students with marketable skills in color television studio operation. Among the skills covered in the program were camera set-up and operation, video engineering, production switching, directing, television lighting, audio engineering,…

  11. A Five-Year Review of Student Class Evaluations at Salt Lake Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Frank

    This report reviews the past five years of student class evaluations at Salt Lake Community College (SLCC). Included in the review are the Instructional Assessment System (IAS) student class evaluations, the results from the new, non-returning and graduating student surveys, and observations on the student comments in those surveys. The average…

  12. Curriculum Development for Gifted Children in Salt Lake City--An Evolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicord, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    The curriculum director for Salt Lake City's gifted and talented program cites the advantages of using a thematic, interdisciplinary approach developed within the program and having access to administrative assistance in curriculum development. A curriculum map for developing curricula themes and/or processes is included. (CL)

  13. A STUDY OF THE NEED FOR A JUNIOR COLLEGE IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RALPH B.

    A POPULATION INCREASE OF 71 PERCENT IS EXPECTED IN UTAH BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980. THE GREATEST GROWTH IS EXPECTED IN THE SALT LAKE METROPOLITAN AREA. THE COLLEGE AGE GROUP (18 TO 21 YEARS) WILL INCREASE BY 80 PERCENT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970. IF CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES ARE USED, THE PROPOSED JUNIOR COLLEGE COULD EXPECT AN ENROLLMENT OF APPROXIMATELY…

  14. 76 FR 52905 - Proposed Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... FAA issued a final rule establishing the Salt Lake City, UT, Terminal Control Area (54 FR 43786). As a result of the Airspace Reclassification final rule (56 FR 65638), which became effective in 1993, the... rules and equipment requirements. The SLC Class B airspace area was last modified in 1995 (60 FR...

  15. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

  16. Selected hydrologic data for Salt Lake Valley, Utah, October 1968 to October 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic data for 281 wells in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Most of the data were collected from October 1968 to October 1985 by the U.S. Geological Survey, but the report also includes some data that were published in previous reports. Data presented include records of wells, water levels, and chemical analyses for selected wells. (USGS)

  17. 78 FR 27872 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City,...

  18. 78 FR 45848 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...) to modify controlled airspace at Salt Lake City, UT (78 FR 27872). Interested parties were invited to... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  19. Third Project Evaluation Report--Summative for Salt Lake Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siefer, Nancy; Latkiewicz, John

    Through a federal grant, Salt Lake Community College (Utah), in conjunction with two area industries, implemented a workplace literacy project to serve 225 employees. The training included work-related curriculum and instruction in reading, English as a Second Language, oral communication skills, written communication skills, mathematics, and…

  20. Textural variation within Great Salt Lake algal mounds: Chapter 8.5 in Stromatolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    This chapter discusses textural variation within the Great Salt Lake algal mounds. Great Salt Lake algal mounds contain: (1) a framework of non-skeletal, algally induced aragonite precipitates; (2) internal sediment; and (3) inorganic cement. These three elements create a variety of laminated, poorly laminated, and unlaminated internal textures. Interior framework precipitates bear little resemblance to the present living film of the mound surface. Internal texture of the mounds is believed to be largely relict and to have resulted from precipitation by algae different than those presently living at the surface. The most probable cause of local extinction of the algal flora is change in brine salinity. Precipitated blue-green algal structures in ancient rocks may indicate other than normal marine salinity and near shore sedimentation. Extreme variation of internal texture reflects extreme environmental variability typical of closed basin lakes. Recognition of mounds similar to those in the Great Salt Lake can be a first step toward recognition of ancient hyper-saline lake deposits, if such an interpretation is substantiated by consideration of the entire depositional milieu of precipitated algal mounds.

  1. Mercury in the Air, Water and Biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. Sources of Hg to the lake are the watershed and the atmosphere, and we hypothesized that the chemistry of the air above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg0) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface. We found that atmospheric Hg0 and RGM concentrations were comparable to global ambient background values and those measured in rural areas (respectively). Both Hg0 and RGM exhibited regular diel variability, and no consistent seasonal periods of depleted or elevated values were observed. Based on these findings, local factors are thought to be important in generating elevated RGM concentrations that could be deposited to the lake. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm sec-1, with an estimated 19 kg of Hg deposited annually. Total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters of the lake were consistent throughout the year (3.8 ± 0.8 ng L- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.59 ng L-1, respectively) and not significantly elevated relative to natural waters; however, the percent methyl Hg to total Hg was high (25 to 50%). Brine shrimp Hg concentrations were 384 ppb and had a statistically significant increase from early summer to fall. Based on modeled dry deposition and estimated wet deposition, the

  2. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  3. A slab model of the Great Salt Lake for regional climate simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, C.; Kochanski, A. K.; Crosman, E. T.

    2014-09-01

    A slab lake model was developed for the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and coupled to a regional climate model to enable better evaluation of regional effects of projected climate change. The GSL is hypersaline with an area of approximately 4400 km2, and its notable shallowness (the deeper sections average 6.5-9 m at current lake levels) renders it highly sensitive to climate change. A time-independent (constant) effective mixing depth of approximately 5 m was determined for the GSL by numerically optimizing model-observation agreement, and improvement gained using a time-dependent effective mixing depth assumption was smaller than the uncertainty in the satellite-based observations. The slab model with constant effective mixing depth accounted for more than 97% of the variance in satellite-based observations of GSL surface temperature for years 2001 through 2003. Using a lake surface temperature climatology in place of the lake model resulted in annual mean near-surface air temperature differences that were small (˜10-2 K) away from the lake, but differences in annual precipitation downstream reached 3 cm (4.5%) mainly because of enhanced turbulent heat fluxes off the lake during spring. When subjected to a range of pseudo global warming scenarios, the annual mean lake surface temperature increased by 0.8°C per degree of air temperature increase.

  4. Atmospheric reactive chlorine and bromine at the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, Jochen; Ackermann, Ralf; Fast, Jerome D.; Barrie, Leonard

    2002-05-15

    The presence of reactive chlorine in the lower troposphere has been postulated in literature but thus far only indirect measurements have been reported. Here we present the first direct observations of chlorine oxide (ClO). During the Vertical Transport and MiXing (VTMX) study in Salt Lake City in October 2000 we observed mixing ratios of 15 ppt ClO and 6 ppt of BrO downwind of salt flats and upwind from the urban area of Salt Lake City. The observed levels lead to a doubling of the atmospheric oxidation capacity. The ozone concentrations observed simulataneously appear to be anticorrelated to the halogen oxide levels, indicating that ozone depletion by catalytic cycles may have occurred.

  5. Fluctuation history of Great Salt Lake, Utah, during the last 13,000 years, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchison, Stuart B.

    1989-01-01

    Great Salt Lake level fluctuations from 13,000 yr B.P. to the present were interpreted by examination of shoreline geomorphic features, shoreline deposits, archeologic sites, isotopic data, and palynologic data. After the conclusion of the Bonneville paleolake cycle, between 13,000 and 12,000 yr B.P. the lake regressed to levels low enough to deposit a littoral oxidized red bed stratum and a pelagic Glauber's salt layer. A late Pleistocene lake cycle occurred between 12,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. depositing several beaches, the highest reaching an altitude of about 4250 ft (1295.3 m). The lake regressed after 10,000 yr B.P., only to rise to 4230 ft (1289.2 m) between 9700 and 9400 yr B.P. and then gradually lower at least 15 ft (4.5 m) or more. Lake levels fluctuated between 4212 and 4180 ft (1284 and 1274 m) for the next 4000 years. A late Holocene lake cycle, constrained by radiocarbon ages between 3440 and 1400 yr B.P., is reported at a highest static level of 4221 ft (1286.5 m). After a lake level drop to altitudes ranging between 4210 and 4205 ft (1283.2 and 1281.6 m), a 4217 ft (1285.7 m) level was reached after 400 yr B.P. This level lowered to 4214 ft (1284.4 m) in the mid to late 1700 s A.D. The lake levels have since stabilized aroung a 4200 ft (1280 m) mean.

  6. STS-48 ESC Earth observation of southwestern corner of the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Earth observation of the southwestern corner of the Great Salt Lake, 308 nautical miles below Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, was provided by the electronic still camera (ESC). While the image is mostly covered with a thin veil of cirrus clouds, many of the surface features can be recognized. The causeway linking the northern tip of the peninsula to the southwest shore of the lake is clearly visible as is the interstate highway. Considerable topographic detail is visible in the snow covered peaks to the south of the lake. The commercial salt pans between the peninsula and the interstate show high contrast with the brightness dependent on the concentration of the brackish water in the pan. Recent heavy rainfall has caused considerable runoff into the lake but the flooding hazard of a few years past no longer exists due to a pumping system that now transfers excess water to the Bonneville Salt Flats. The ESC image was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk and

  7. Depositional history and neotectonics in Great Salt Lake, Utah, from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Kelts, K.R.; Dinter, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data from Great Salt Lake show that the basinal sediment sequence is cut by numerous faults with N-S and NE-SW orientations. This faulting shows evidence of varied timing and relative offsets, but includes at least three events totaling about 12 m following the Bonneville phase of the lake (since about 13.5 ka). Several faults displace the uppermost sediments and the lake floor. Bioherm structures are present above some faults, which suggests that the faults served as conduits for sublacustrine discharge of fresh water. A shallow, fault-controlled ridge between Carrington Island and Promontory Point, underlain by a well-cemented pavement, separates the main lake into two basins. The pavement appears to be early Holocene in age and younger sediments lap onto it. Onlap-offlap relationships, reflection truncations, and morphology of the lake floor indicate a low lake, well below the present level, during the early Holocene, during which most of the basin was probably a playa. This low stand is represented by irregular reflections in seismic profiles from the deepest part of the basin. Other prominent reflectors in the profiles are correlated with lithologic changes in sediment cores related to the end of the Bonneville stage of the lake, a thick mirabilite layer in the northern basin, and the Mazama tephra. Reflections below those penetrated by sediment cores document earlier lacustrine cycles. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrochemical investigations for delineating salt-water intrusion into the coastal aquifer of Maharlou Lake, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Reza; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality depends on different factors such as geology, lithology, properties of aquifer, land use, the physical condition of boundaries etc. Studying these factors can help users to manage groundwater quality. This study deals with the groundwater quality of an aquifer located in the southeastern part of Maharlou salt lake, Iran. This lake is located in the southeast of Shiraz and is the outlet of Shiraz sewages. Due to overexploitation of groundwater from the aquifer, the gradient of water table is from the lake towards the aquifer and therefore, saline water migrates to the aquifer. The phenomenon of salt water intrusion contributes to the deterioration of groundwater. In this research, groundwater types, maps of iso EC and iso ions, ion exchange in the mixing of fresh and salt water, salinity variation of the groundwater in the profile of well water column, and the salinity-time variation of the groundwater were studied. The gradual increase of the salinity of groundwater with depth from top to down in the aquifer indicates that salt water is located under fresh water. The time variation of physical and chemical parameters in the groundwater discharged from a well shows that the saline water in the bottom of the aquifer moves upward and destroys the quality of groundwater in the study area. Furthermore, Sachoun geological formation formed by evaporate deposits and evaporation from shallow groundwater are two other factors which decrease the groundwater quality.

  9. Characterization and origin of polar dissolved organic matter from the Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Rostad, C.E.; Davisson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Polar dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from a surface-water sample from the Great Salt Lake by separating it from colloidal organic matter by membrane dialysis, from less-polar DOM fractions by resin sorbents, and from inorganic salts by a combination of sodium cation exchange followed by precipitation of sodium salts by acetic acid during evaporative concentration. Polar DOM was the most abundant DOM fraction, accounting for 56% of the isolated DOM. Colloidal organic matter was 14C-age dated to be about 100% modern carbon and all of the DOM fractions were 14C-age dated to be between 94 and 95% modern carbon. Average structural models of each DOM fraction were derived that incorporated quantitative elemental and infrared, 13C-NMR, and electrospray/mass spectrometric data. The polar DOM model consisted of open-chain N-acetyl hydroxy carboxylic acids likely derived from N-acetyl heteropolysaccharides that constituted the colloidal organic matter. The less polar DOM fraction models consisted of aliphatic alicyclic ring structures substituted with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, ester, and methyl groups. These ring structures had characteristics similar to terpenoid precursors. All DOM fractions in the Great Salt Lake are derived from algae and bacteria that dominate DOM inputs in this lake.

  10. Simulation of a cold-air pool in Utah's Salt Lake Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Christopher Stephen

    The Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS), which took place in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during winter 2010-2011, provides a rich dataset of targeted observations at scales appropriate for better understanding the dynamical evolution of persistent cold-air pools. We examine the influence of the land use and land cover datasets available within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model on the model's ability to accurately simulate a persistent cold-air pool (CAP). A modified version of the most recently released land use dataset, 2011's National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2011), was used to model a CAP that occurred from 1 January 2011 to 8 January 2011. Modifications to the NLCD 2011 dataset included reducing the areal extent of the Great Salt Lake to reflect the lake state at that time as well as changing the characteristics of a number of land use classifications (e.g., urban and barren land) to more closely match albedo observations obtained during PCAPS. Snow cover obtained from North American Mesoscale (NAM) reanalysis was also modified to better match observations. The resulting model simulation for the 1-8 January 2011 period was notably improved compared to an 'out-of-the-box' run for the same period relying on the default U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and unmodified NAM reanalysis snow cover data. The most substantive improvements were observed within the Salt Lake and Cache Valleys, where modifications to the areal extent of the Great Salt Lake and improved snow cover allowed for a more realistic simulation. The time of model initialization relative to the onset of the CAP was found to be a less critical factor than the improvements to land use and snow cover.

  11. Sapropels in the Great Salt Lake basin: Indicators of massive groundwater-discharge events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviatt, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    Two stratigraphic intervals of finely laminated, organic-rich muds (referred to as sapropels), which in places are interbedded with mirabilite (Na2SO4 10H2O) and/or halite (NaCl), are present in cores of sediments from the floor of Great Salt Lake, UT (GSL). The muds vary in thickness, including the interbedded salt, from less than 0.5 m to over 10 m (in the case of the younger sapropel in the north arm of GSL). They contain brine-shrimp cysts and well-defined laminations less than 1 mm thick. Immediately after recovery in cores, the muds are pure black, but they oxidize to brown colors after a few days of exposure to the atmosphere. Organic-carbon contents in the younger sapropel are 3-5 %, and nitrogen percentages range from about 0.2 to 0.4. The sapropels are overlain by muds deposited in shallow hypersaline lakes, and overlie sediments of deep, freshwater lakes. Independent evidence from radiocarbon ages and shoreline chronology indicates that the upper sapropel was deposited while the lake was shallow (less than 25 m deep; average maximum depth of modern GSL is ~10 m; maximum depth of Lake Bonneville is >300 m). The age of the upper sapropel is about 10-11.5 cal ka, and it was deposited immediately following the regression of Lake Bonneville, which filled the basin during marine oxygen-isotope stage 2. The older sapropel directly overlies sediments of a deep lake that is likely correlative with oxygen-isotope stage 6. A hypothesis to explain sapropel deposition is that groundwater that had been stored in mountain aquifers during the high-lake periods was discharged onto the basin floor where it ran into the lake and formed a freshwater cap on the saline water; organic matter that settled to the bottom of the lake from the surface exhausted dissolved oxygen and accumulated on the bottom of the stratified lake. The ages of spring and wetland deposits at numerous localities around the basin are consistent with this hypothesis. This hypothetical cause for sapropel

  12. Studies of Quaternary saline lakes-III. Mineral, chemical, and isotopic evidence of salt solution and crystallization processes in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.; Friedman, I.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the 1969-1970 flooding of normally dry Owens Lake, a 2.4-m-deep lake formed and 20% of the 2-m-thick salt bed dissolved in it. Its desiccation began August 1969, and salts started crystallizing September 1970, ending August 1971. Mineralogic, brine-composition, and stable-isotope data plus field observations showed that while the evolving brine composition established the general crystallization timetable and range of primary and secondary mineral assemblages, it was the daily, monthly, and seasonal temperature changes that controlled the details of timing and mineralogy during this depositional process. Deuterium analyses of lake brine, interstitial brine, and hydrated saline phases helped confirm the sequence of mineral crystallizations and transformations, and they documented the sources and temperatures of waters involved in the reactions. Salts first crystallized as floating rafts on the lake surface. Natron and mirabilite, salts whose solubilities decrease greatly with lowering temperatures, crystallized late at night in winter, when surface-water temperatures reached their minima; trona, nahcolite, burkeite, and halite, salts with solubilities less sensitive to temperature, crystallized during the afternoon in summer, when surface salinities reached their maxima. However, different temperatures were generally associated with crystallization (at the surface) and accumulation (on the lake floor) because short-term temperature changes were transmitted to surface and bottom waters at different rates. Consequently, even when solubilities were exceeded at the surface, salts were preserved or not as a function of bottom-water temperatures. Halite, a nearly temperature-insensitive salt, was always preserved. Monitoring the lake-brine chemistry and mineralogy of the accumulating salts shows: (1) An estimated 0.9 ?? 106 tons of CO2 was released to the atmosphere or consumed by the lake's biomass prior to most salt crystallization. (2) After

  13. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  14. MULTISCALE MODELING OF AIR FLOW IN SALT LAKE CITY AND THE SURROUNDING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    M. BROWN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    A general overview is given of a modeling effort to simulate the fate and transport of a tracer within the downtown core of Salt Lake City and beyond into the Salt Lake Basin. The problem crosses three significant scales where different physics are predominant: atmospheric mesoscale, city scale, and building scale. Three different computational fluid dynamics models were used, each with strengths at particular spatial and temporal scales. We show preliminary results and discuss what we believe to be the relevant phenomenon one must model as one crosses from atmospheric scale to engineering scale flow problems. We also describe our model validation efforts, including wind-tunnel and tow-tank experiments and a recently completed urban field experiment.

  15. Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in

  16. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  17. Sedimentary characteristics and depositional model of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaocan; Wang, Chunlian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Haiming; Huang, Hua; Xie, Tengxiao; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jinlei

    2015-11-01

    We studied the sedimentary characteristics of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression through field core observation, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. On the basis of sedimentary characteristics we have summarized the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of the salt lake and proposed 9 types of grade IV salt rhythms. The deposition shows a desalting to salting order of halite-argillaceous-mudstone-mud dolostonemud anhydrock-glauberite-halite. The relationship among grade IV rhythms, water salinity and climate fluctuations was analyzed. Based on the analysis of the relationship between boron content and mudstone color and by combining the mineralogy and sedimentary environment characteristics, we propose that the early and late Paleocene Shashi Formation in the Jiangling Depression was a paleolacustrine depositional environment with a high salt content, which is a representation of the shallow water salt lake depositional model. The middle Paleocene Shashi Formation and the early Eocene Xingouzui Formation were salt and brackish sedimentary environments with low salt content in a deep paleolake, which represents a deep salt lake depositional model.

  18. IX international conference on Salt Lake research: Research opportunities and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jellison, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The 9th International Conference on Salt Lake Research was held 26–30 September 2005 in Western Australia at the Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia. One hundred scientists from 10 countries presented research on a diverse array of topics highlighting research findings and opportunities, and management challenges associated with inland saline waters. Major emergent themes of the conference included modeling of ecosystem processes, microbial communities, and features of Western Australian inland saline environments, including current threats, conservation and management. PMID:16381606

  19. Evaluation of damage induced by lateral spread to roadways and bridges in Salt Lake County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Matthew David

    Many areas within Salt Lake County, Utah are susceptible to liquefaction-induced ground failure resulting from a moderate to large, nearby seismic event. This susceptibility, in combination with the general terrain of the county, is expected to produce liquefaction-induced lateral spread ground deformation in many locations during such an event. Although lateral spread deformation is generally not life threatening, it can be very damaging to transportation infrastructure, especially bridges at river crossings. This type of damage from prior earthquakes has been very costly, both in terms of required repairs and the interruption it causes to traffic and the corresponding economic losses. This thesis develops a relatively simple methodology to estimate potential damage caused by lateral spread ground deformation to roadways and bridges located in Salt Lake County, Utah. This is done using mapped estimates of lateral spread displacement in conjunction with recently published lateral spread fragility curves. Such curves can be used to predict the damage states (i.e., condition) based on the estimates of lateral spread for mapped hazard zones. The results of this study, when used in conjunction with traffic modeling methods, will be useful to public officials and planners to prepare for the impacts of future seismic events along the Wasatch Fault in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah.

  20. Techniques, analysis, and noise in a Salt Lake Valley 4D gravity experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, P.; Chapman, D.S.; Allis, R.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated high-precision gravity measurements using an automated gravimeter and analysis of time series of 1-Hz samples allowed gravity measurements to be made with an accuracy of 5 ??Gal or better. Nonlinear instrument drift was removed using a new empirical staircase function built from multiple station loops. The new technique was developed between March 1999 and September 2000 in a pilot study conducted in the southern Salt Lake Valley along an east-west profile of eight stations from the Wasatch Mountains to the Jordan River. Gravity changes at eight profile stations were referenced to a set of five stations in the northern Salt Lake Valley, which showed residual signals of <10 ??Gal in amplitude, assuming a reference station near the Great Salt Lake to be stable. Referenced changes showed maximum amplitudes of -40 through +40 ??Gal at profile stations, with minima in summer 1999, maxima in winter 1999-2000, and some decrease through summer 2000. Gravity signals were likely a composite of production-induced changes monitored by well-water levels, elevation changes, precipitation-induced vadose-zone changes, and local irrigation effects for which magnitudes were estimated quantitatively. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Pope CA, I.I.I. )

    1991-03-01

    This study assessed the association between respiratory hospital admissions and PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache valleys during April 1985 through March 1989. Utah and Salt Lake valleys had high levels of PM10 pollution that violated both the annual and 24-h standards issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Much lower PM10 levels occurred in the Cache Valley. Utah Valley experienced the intermittent operation of its primary source of PM10 pollution: an integrated steel mill. Bronchitis and asthma admissions for preschool-age children were approximately twice as frequent in Utah Valley when the steel mill was operating versus when it was not. Similar differences were not observed in Salt Lake or Cache valleys. Even though Cache Valley had higher smoking rates and lower temperatures in winter than did Utah Valley, per capita bronchitis and asthma admissions for all ages were approximately twice as high in Utah Valley. During the period when the steel mill was closed, differences in per capita admissions between Utah and Cache valleys narrowed considerably. Regression analysis also demonstrated a statistical association between respiratory hospital admissions and PM10 pollution. The results suggest that PM10 pollution plays a role in the incidence and severity of respiratory disease.

  2. Ecology of methanogenesis in two hypersaline biocoenoses: Great Salt Lake and a San Francisco Bay saltern

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment cultures were prepared from sediment and brine samples from two hypersaline ecosystems, Great Salt Lake in Utah and a solar saltern located in San Francisco Bay. Methane production was greater when enriched with the biopolymer chitin than with cellulose or peptone. Organisms indigenous to hypersaline ecosystems, brine shrimp (Artemia sp.), halobacteria (Halobacterium sp. and Halococcus sp.) and halophilic algae (Dunaliella sp. and others) were cultivated and added to anaerobic and aerobic microcosms prepared with brine and sediment from the ecosystems studied. Methane production and the concentration of the methanogenic precursor, trimethylamine were greatest with brine shrimp as a supplement. Choline produced the highest concentrations of methane in all samples examined. A number of marine-related ecosystems were also examined for their ability to support methanogenesis at various salinities. Methanogenesis occurred at sea water salinity in the majority of samples, and methane production was observed from three sites at salinity found in Great Salt Lake brine. A halophilic methanogenic bacterium species was isolated from both Great Salt Lake and the San Francisco Bay solar saltern sediments. Cells are irregular, nonmotile cocci, approximately 1.0uM in diameter and stain gram negative.

  3. Anthropogenic impacts on the water and salt budgets of St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.

    2011-05-01

    Lake St Lucia in South Africa is part of a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Ramsar wetland of international importance. Like many coastal wetlands worldwide, anthropogenic activities including catchment land-use changes, water diversions/abstractions, and manipulation of the mouth state have significantly affected its functioning over the past century. Questions concerning its sustainability have motivated a re-evaluation of management decisions made in the past and of options for the future. A model for the water and salt budgets has therefore been used to investigate "what if" scenarios in terms of past anthropogenic interventions. In particular, simulations allow us to evaluate the effects of diverting the Mfolozi river from St Lucia on the functioning of the system and on the occurrence of various water level/salinity states that drive the biological functioning of the ecosystem. In the past, when the St Lucia estuary and the Mfolozi river had a combined inlet, the mouth was predominantly open. The lake had relatively stable water levels but variable salinities that increased during dry conditions due to evaporative losses and saltwater inflows from the sea. If the mouth closed, the Mfolozi flow was diverted into the lake which reduced salinities and maintained or increased water levels. Simulations indicate that without a link to the Mfolozi the lake system would naturally have a mainly closed inlet with lower average salinities but more variable water levels. During dry conditions water levels would reduce and result in desiccation of large areas of the lake as has recently occurred. We conclude that the artificial separation of the St Lucia and Mfolozi inlets underpins the most significant impacts on the water & salt budget of the lake and that its reversal is key to the sustainability of the system.

  4. Dealing with uncertainty and limited data availability at Lake Tiberias, Israel: Imaging salt diapir using hydrogeological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Flexer, Akiva; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Joseph; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Direct data of the Tiberias Basin (TB) deep-seated stratigraphy is limited. Therefore, imaging of suspected underlying salt deposits and their structure is carried out based on salt tectonics theory and shallow seismic data interpretation. It is supported by the geochemistry of surrounding springs and numerical modeling of fluid transport processes within the basin. The Tiberias Basin (TB) is a narrow pull-apart basin located along the Dead Sea Transform. It encompasses Lake Tiberias, which is the largest fresh water lake in the Levant. Saline onshore and offshore springs and seepages are known to contribute considerable amount of salt to the lake endangering its water quality. Since the early 1980's, deep-seated salt deposits are known to exist in the Tiberias basin subsurface as a result of one deep exploration borehole. Interpretation of onshore seismic data at the southern part of the basin reveals its structure and distribution. However, offshore seismic interpretation is debatable and leads to uncertainty regarding the structure and distribution of salt deposits under the lake. The results of the current study suggest that a salt diapir rises under the lake, piercing through the basin-fill adjacent to the western boundary fault of the basin. Chemical analyses show that some springs at the western shore of the Lake contain indications of dissolved halite. In addition, numerical modeling of brine flow suggests that shallow salt domes can allow brine plumes to reach the surface and discharge along the western coast. These results allow imaging and support the hypothesis regarding the occurrences of shallow salt structures in the vicinity of the lake and contribute valuable information for sustainable management of its water.

  5. Biostrome communities and mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA).

    PubMed

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A; Gardberg, Jodi; Izdepski, Caleb

    2011-09-15

    The Great Salt Lake has a salinity near 150 g/L and is habitat for over 200 species of migratory birds. The diet of many of these birds is dependent on the food web of carbonaceous biostromes (stromatolites) that cover 260 km(2) of the lake's littoral zone. We investigated the biostrome community to understand their production processes and to assess whether they are a potential vector for bioconcentration of high mercury and selenium levels in the lake. The periphyton community of the biostromes was >99% colonial cyanobacteria. Periphyton chlorophyll levels averaged 900 mg m(-2) or nine times that of the lake's phytoplankton. Lake-wide estimates of chlorophyll suggest that their production is about 30% of that of the phytoplankton. Brine fly (Ephydra gracilis) larval densities on the biostromes increased from 7000 m(-2) in June to 20000m(-2) in December. Pupation and adult emergence halted in October and larvae of various instars overwintered at temperatures <5°C. Mean total dissolved and dissolved methyl mercury concentrations in water were 5.0 and 1.2 ηg L(-1). Total mercury concentrations in the periphyton, fly larvae, pupae, and adults were, respectively, 152, 189, 379 and 659 ηg g(-1) dry weight, suggesting that bioconcentration is only moderate in the short food web and through fly developmental stages. However, common goldeneye ducks (Bucephala clangula) that feed primarily on brine fly larvae at the Great Salt Lake had concentrations near 8000 ηg Hg g(-1) dry weight in muscle tissue. Data from a previous study indicated that selenium concentrations in periphyton, brine fly larvae and goldeneye liver tissue were high (1700, 1200 and 24,000 ηg g(-1), respectively) and Hg:Se molar ratios were <1.0 in all tissues, suggesting that the high mercury concentration in the ducks may be partially detoxified by combining with selenium. The study demonstrated that the high mercury levels in the Great Salt Lake are routed through the biostrome community resulting

  6. Studies of quaternary saline lakes. III. Mineral, chemical, and isotopic evidence of salt solution and crystallization processes in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.I.; Friedman, I.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    As a consequence of the 1969-1970 flooding of normally dry Owens Lake, a 2.4-m-deep lake formed and 20% of the 2-m-thick salt bed dissolved in it. Its desiccation began August 1969, and salts started crystallizing September 1970, ending August 1971. Mineralogic, brine-composition, and stable-isotope data plus field observations showed that while the evolving brine composition established the general crystallization timetable and range of primary and secondary mineral assemblages, it was the daily, monthly, and seasonal temperature changes that controlled the details of timing and mineralogy during this depositional process. Deuterium analyses of lake brine, interstitial brine, and hydrated saline phases helped confirm the sequence of mineral crystallization and transformations, and they documented the sources and temperatures of waters involved in the reactions. Monitoring the lake-brine chemistry and mineralogy of the accumulating salts shows: (1) An estimated 0.9 x 10/sup 6/ tons of CO/sub 2/ was released to the atmosphere or consumed by the lake's biomass prior to most salt crystallization. (2) After deposition, some salts reacted in situ to form other minerals in less than one month, and all salts (except halite) decomposed or recrystallized at least once in response to seasons. (3) Warming in early 1971 caused solution of all the mirabilite and some of the natron deposited a few months earlier, a deepening of the lake (thought the lake-surface lowered), and an increase in dissolved solids. (4) Phase and solubility-index data suggest that at the close of desiccation, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ x 7H/sub 2/O, never reported as a mineral, could have been the next phase to crystallize.

  7. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Orem, William H.; Eugster, Hans P.

    1989-11-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO 3-Cl-SO 4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies ( 13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  8. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.L.; Orem, W.H.; Eugster, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO3-Cl-SO4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies (13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  9. Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC

  10. An observational and numerical modeling investigation of Great Salt Lake-effect snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onton, Daryl John

    2000-05-01

    The structure and evolution of a lake-effect snow event associated with the Great Salt Lake (GSL) is described using observational and numerical modeling approaches. This event occurred in an environment characterized by low-level instability, large lake-land and lake-700 hPa temperature differences, and low-level flow nearly parallel to the major axis of the GSL. Localized heating over the relatively warm GSL is shown to have induced mesoscale pressure troughing, land-breeze circulations, and low-level convergence that led to the development of convective updrafts, and a wind-parallel band of clouds and precipitation. The hyper-saline content of the GSL produced reduced moisture fluxes compared to fresh water. Resulting moisture fluxes were sufficient, however, to enhance precipitation rates. Orographically-induced circulations did not play a major role in the formation of the bands, but orographic uplift (subsidence) enhanced (reduced) precipitation rates. Model diagnostics and sensitivity studies are used to examine the predictability of this event given known uncertainties in the specification of lake/land properties and large-scale conditions.

  11. Quality and sources of shallow ground water in areas of recent residential development in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Residential and commercial development of about 80 square miles that primarily replaced undeveloped and agricultural areas occurred in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from 1963 to 1994. This study evaluates the occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in shallow ground water underlying recently developed (post 1963) residential and commercial areas. Monitoring wells from 23 to 153 feet deep were installed at 30 sites. Water-quality data for the monitoring wells consist of analyses of field parameters, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 134 to 2,910 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 30 monitoring wells. Dissolved arsenic concentration in water from 12 wells exceeded the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Water from monitoring wells in the northwestern part of the valley generally contained higher arsenic concentrations than did water from other areas. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 26 of the 30 monitoring wells (86.7 percent) was higher than a background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 to 13.3 mg/L. Fifteen of the 104 pesticides and pesticide degradation products analyzed for were detected in 1 or more water samples from the monitoring wells. No pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or guidelines for 2002. The high detection frequency of atrazine, a restricted-use pesticide, in residential areas on the west side of Salt Lake Valley may be the result of application in agricultural or industrial areas that have been converted to residential uses or application in areas upgradient from the residential areas that was then transported by ground water. Fifteen of the 86 volatile organic compounds analyzed for were detected in 1

  12. Calculation of Area and Volume for the North Part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  13. Bathymetric Map of the North Part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.; Turner, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  14. The Tiberias Basin salt deposits and their effects on lake salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Guttman, Josef; Siebert, Christian; Magri, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    Lake Tiberias is situated in one of the pull-apart basins comprising the Dead Sea transform. The Tiberias basin extends along the northern boundary of the Lower Jordan Rift Valley (LJRV) which is known for its massive salt deposits, mostly at its southern end, at the Dead Sea basin. Nevertheless, prior to the drilling of Zemah-1 wildcat, drilled close to the southern shores of Lake Tiberias, the Tiberias Basin was considered rather shallow and free of salt deposits (Starinsky, 1974). In 1983, Zemah-1 wildcat penetrated 2.8 km thick sequence of sedimentary and magmatic rocks of which 980m are salt deposits (Marcus et al., 1984). Recent studies, including the presented geophysical investigations, lay out the mechanisms of salt deposition in the Tiberias basin and estimate its abundance. Supported by seismic data, our interpreted cross-sections display relatively thick salt deposits distributed over the entire basin. Since early days of hydrological research in the area, saline springs are known to exist at Lake Tiberias' surroundings. Water temperatures in some of the springs indicate their origin to be at depths of 2-3 km (Simon and Mero, 1992). In the last decade, several studies suggested that the salinity of springs may be attributed, at least partially, to the Zemah-1 salt deposits. Chemical justification was attributed to post-halite minerals which were thought to be present among those deposits. This hypothesis was never verified. Moreover, Möller et al. (2011) presented a calculation contradicting this theory. In addition to the geophysical investigations, numerical models of thermally driven flow, examine the possible fluid dynamics developing near salt deposits below the lake and their interactions with springs along the lakeshore (Magri et al., 2015). It is shown that leached halite is too heavy to reach the surface. However, salt diffusing from shallow salt crest may locally reach the western side of the lakeshore. References Magri, F., N. Inbar

  15. Raman and electron microscopy of aerosol particles released above Australian salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, Johannes; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Eitenberger, Elisabeth; Friedbacher, Gernot; Lohninger, Johann; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    New particle formation above Western Australian salt lakes with pH levels from 2.5 to 7.1 was observed during several field campaigns between 2006 and 2013. Besides their high concentration of dissolved salts and the remarkable pH values, many of these salt lakes also exhibit a large organic content, originating from former eucalyptus forests and plant remains. The surrounding land, used for wheat farming and livestock gets drier by missing rain periods. One possible reason can be seen in the formation of ultrafine particles from salt lakes, which increase the cloud condensation nuclei and prevent therefore rainfall. To identify the origin and nature of the formed particles directly with the chemistry of and above the salt lakes a 2.35 m³ chamber made of Teflon® film was brought above the lake in 2012 and 2013. Photochemistry can take place whereas mixing by wind or transport from already existing particles is prevented. Released particles were collected on alumina foils inside the Teflon chamber using a Sioutas impactor, sampling aerosol particles of sizes between 250 nm and 10 µm. While the ultra-fine fraction of the released particles is missing, aged aggregates of the original particles could be collected using the impactor. The alumina foils were analysed using chemical imaging and electron microscopy. A Horiba LabRam 800HR Raman microscope was used for vibrational mapping of an area of about 100 µm x 100 µm of the foils at a resolution of about 0.5 µm. The same area was analysed using a Quanta FEI 200 electron microscope (about 5 nm resolution). Besides the high-resolution image, the elemental composition could be investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This approach provided both molecular information and elemental composition at a high lateral resolution, allowing a detailed study of the deposited particles. Both optical images and the related chemical images were combined and a chemometric investigation of the combined images was

  16. Determination of potential groundwater discharge zones into a Salt Lake using remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ecenur; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Lutfi Suzen, M.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater and surface water are integral components of the hydrologic system with strong feedback mechanisms and hence should be treated as a single resource. Existence of groundwater discharge into lakes is a very significant factor that affects both the water quantity of the lake as well as its ecological and biological diversity. The degree of interaction is more significant for shallow lakes because of their increased vulnerability due to limited volume and rapid changes in the extent and duration of the wet/dry cycles. The Salt Lake, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is a hyper-saline, shallow lake that is ranked as the second largest lake in Turkey. The majority of the lake dries during the late summer season enabling investigation of the lake bottom morphology. Through analysis of the high-resolution satellite images we identified circular features that may indicate possible groundwater seepage locations. The density and shape properties of these features were then investigated via spatial statistics to identify possible trends that can be linked to controlling mechanism(s) such as underlying sediments, geology, hydrogeology and wind patterns. The analysis was supported by field measurement of salt thickness at various locations in a systematic way. Long-term precipitation, lake level and groundwater level data were compared to investigate possible relationships and trends. In this presentation the framework to investigate remotely-sensed and in-situ measurements will be discussed with potential links to the groundwater recharge to the Salt Lake. Future work will focus on installing long-term monitoring networks in the lake.

  17. A multi-proxy record of volume in the Great Salt Lake over the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.; Toney, J. L.; Tarozo, R.; Huang, Y.; Bowen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Continental paleoclimate records for the Holocene are essential for understanding the influence of climate modes on terrestrial settings. Terminal lakes, like the Great Salt Lake, UT (GSL) are particularly well suited for examining changes in water balance in response to large scale climate change. We present records of lipid abundance and hydrogen isotope data; hydrogen and oxygen isotope variability in brine shrimp cysts; carbonate oxygen and carbon isotopes; and variability in mineralogy from reflectance spectrometry in a core spanning 9 to 2 ka bp from the GSL. The isotopic value of lake waters are inferred from the cyst isotope records. The oxygen isotopic composition of cysts decreases slowly by about 2 ‰ from the beginning of the record (approx. 9 ka bp) to about 6 ka, and is highly variable after about 4.5 ka bp. This gradual isotopic decrease suggests increased water input into the GSL up to the Mid-Holocene and more variable inputs after. Some portion of the decrease is likely attributable to a reestablishment of equilibrium with local precipitation sources following the rapid evaporation of Lake Bonneville at the end of the Pleistocene. Carbonate oxygen and carbon isotope ratios co-vary before 5.5 ka and after 4.5 ka, and are anti-correlated between, suggesting a major restructuring of the hydrologic regime in the Mid-Holocene. Distributions of lipid and n

  18. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  19. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [(14)C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

  20. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation

    PubMed Central

    Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life. PMID:24352146

  1. Microbial life in the Lake Medee, the largest deep-sea salt-saturated formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; La Cono, Violetta; Slepak, Vladlen Z.; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Messina, Enzo; Borghini, Mireno; Monticelli, Luis S.; Rojo, David; Barbas, Coral; Golyshina, Olga V.; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N.; Giuliano, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic lakes (DHALs) of the Eastern Mediterranean represent some of the most hostile environments on our planet. We investigated microbial life in the recently discovered Lake Medee, the largest DHAL found to-date. Medee has two unique features: a complex geobiochemical stratification and an absence of chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria, which usually play the primary role in dark bicarbonate assimilation in DHALs interfaces. Presumably because of these features, Medee is less productive and exhibits reduced diversity of autochthonous prokaryotes in its interior. Indeed, the brine community almost exclusively consists of the members of euryarchaeal MSBL1 and bacterial KB1 candidate divisions. Our experiments utilizing cultivation and [14C]-assimilation, showed that these organisms at least partially rely on reductive cleavage of osmoprotectant glycine betaine and are engaged in trophic cooperation. These findings provide novel insights into how prokaryotic communities can adapt to salt-saturated conditions and sustain active metabolism at the thermodynamic edge of life.

  2. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-02-28

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Salt Lake City covered a total of about 34 km2 (13 mi2). At 0.50-m resolution, there were approximately 1.4 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the areas studied, vegetation covers about 46 percent of the area (ranging 44-51 percent), roofs cover about 21 percent (ranging 15-24 percent), and paved surfaces about 26 percent (ranging 21-28 percent). For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 46-66 percent of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the area. Land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) data from the United States Geological Survey were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to metropolitan Salt Lake City. In an area of roughly 560 km2, defining most of metropolitan Salt Lake City, over 60 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 110 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 170 km2. The total vegetated area covers about 230 km2.

  3. Analysis and Application of Airborne Thermal Data at the Local Level Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley-Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Expanding cities are transforming periurban environments such as agricultural land, natural grasslands, forests, wetlands, and and land, into urban surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. This transformation is part of a process defined as "urban heat island". The urban surfaces get much hotter during the daylight hours in the summer than the natural or vegetated environment. The heat builds up creating a dome effect over the city making it many degrees hotter than it's surrounding area. The impacts from this, which include higher usage of air conditioners, water, etc., are numerous and costly. As cities expand, this problem is exacerbated. It is necessary to incorporate better quality data into urban analysis and for establishing methods that systematically and objectively monitor growth and change due to increased urbanization. NASA initiated Project Atlanta in 1997 "as an interdisciplinary remote sensing study to observe and measure the growth and development of the urban heat island effect over Atlanta, and its associated impacts". This project has recently included Salt Lake City, among others, in the study of the development and effects of "urban heat islands". NASA has made available to Salt Lake City, high resolution, 10 meter, multispectral thermal data collected in June 1998. The data collection was part of a special NASA over-flight, a mission supported by the U.S. EPA in conjunction with their Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation Initiative. Salt Lake City is one of three pilot cities selected to participate in this unique initiative. Hence, this project constitutes a rare opportunity to capitalize upon state-of-the-art NASA technology and link it to an urban community very concerned about rapid growth and development. This data will enhance existing data and be used for improving technical tools used to plan for Utah's future.

  4. Program for the Division of Chemical Education Salt Lake City, March 22-26, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smist, Julianne M.; Harwood, William S.; Levy, Irvin J.

    2009-03-01

    CHED technical sessions will be held in the Salt Lake Marriott City Center Hotel, 220 South State Street (location #10 on the ACS map). Exceptions are the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event, the Sunday evening poster session, Undergraduate Program, Undergraduate Research Posters, and Sci-Mix, all of which will be held at the Salt Palace Convention Center. Be sure to check the on-site program for any last-minute changes in time or location. Unless otherwise noted, morning sessions begin at 8:30 a.m. and afternoon sessions at 1:30 p.m. Symposia that are related to the over arching multidisciplinary theme "Nanoscience: Challenges for the Future" are noted cosponsored by NANO.

  5. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  6. Salt Lake Clean Cities Coalition: Outstanding coalition director: Beverly Miller (Clean Cities alternative fuel information series fact sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, S.

    2000-04-26

    The Salt Lake metropolitan area faces some interesting economic and environmental challenges. It ranks eighth in the nation in population growth, so managing its increasing numbers without spoiling the beauty of its high mountain valley may seem to be a contradiction in goals. In addition, the 2002 Winter Olympics will attract almost 2 million visitors during February, when Salt Lake's unusual topography encourages its highest levels of air pollution. The Clean Cities Coalition is working with the Salt Lake Olympic Organizing Committee to find clean vehicles to transport visitors to and from the various Olympic venues. A major goal of the Coalition is to keep as many AFVs as possible in Utah after the Olympics.

  7. Ground-water conditions in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-83, and predicted effects of increased withdrawals from wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Santini, Melissa; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with several organizations in the Salt Lake Valley and with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District to present results of a study to determine changes in the ground-water conditions in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from 1969 to 1983, and to predict the aquifer response to projected withdrawals. The average annual recharge and discharge from the ground-water reservoir in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, during 1969-82 were estimated to be about 352,000 and 353,000 acre-feet per year. Withdrawals from wells increased from 107,000 acre-feet per year during 1964-68 to 117,000 acre-feet per year during 1969-82. The greatest increase in use was for public supply and institutions which increased from 35,000 acre-feet per year during 1964-68 to 46,700 acre-feet per year during 1969-82.

  8. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  9. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  11. Evaluating the Biological Influences on Ooid Formation in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, J. T.; Stefurak, E. J.; Anderson, R. P.; Meneske, M.; Berelson, W.; Sessions, A. L.; Osburn, M. R.; Spear, J. R.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B.; Shapiro, R. S.; Torres, M. A.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies from the Bahamas and Shark Bay imply microbial influence on ooid formation based on both 16S-rRNA and lipid biomarkers [1,2]. The Great Salt Lake, Utah, provides an opportunity to assess the possible role of microbes in ooid formation because of its unique environmental setting: the lake is divided into the more saline North Arm (NA) and the less saline South Arm (SA). The microbial community of the NA ooids was dominated by members of the Halobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The diversity of the surrounding water was identical to that of the NA ooids. The community from the SA ooids, dominated by Bacteriodetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, was distinct from that of the surrounding water, which was dominated by Halobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. OTUs related to Bacteriodetes and Gammaproteobacteria in SA ooids differed from the surrounding water and NA ooids. While ooid fabrics from the NA and SA were identical, their microbial communities differed which indicates the variance in diversity exerts no obvious control on ooid morphology. In addition, the microbial communities of the Great Salt Lake shared few similarities with those of recently examined ooids in the Bahamas and Shark Bay. The Great Salt Lake is supersaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite, suggesting that carbonate precipitation need not require biological mediation. However, we did identify taxa that can alter the local saturation state of calcium carbonate (e.g., Desulfohalobiaceae and Ectothiorhodospiraceae), although they were different between the two sites. Intriguingly, the ooids contain a significant amount of sulfur (up to 0.15 wt. %). The microbial communities observed, which include sulfate reducers and sulfide oxidizers, could facilitate this sulfur formation and in doing so provide a significant boost to the local alkalinity. We hypothesize that this observed microbial community could influence ooid

  12. Seismic characterization of the Wasatch fault system beneath Salt Lake City using a land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.

  13. Salt Water Intrusion Modeling of an Aquifer in the Northwest of Maharlu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghader, Fatemeh; Zaree, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    Coastal aquifers are important supply sources of fresh water in numerous area of earth. The problem of saltwater intrusion has been widely caused the deterioration of water qulity in these sources. As fresh water flows from the aquifer near the coastline. Eventually dynamic equilibrium is reached between the fresh and saltwater. Intrusion of pumping wells within coastal aquifer has the potential to disturb this equilibrium. Maharloo Lake is a salt lake located 27 km southeast of Shiraz. There are many fresh coastal aquifera around this lake that naturally are recharged by fresh water entering from the landward karstic aquifer. The hydraulic equilibrium could be disturbed due to large extraction rate and consequently dropping in groundwater table. So, the lake saltwater with high salinity (Ec more than 300ms/cm in summer) coukd flow toward the aquifer. This lake salinity is much more than oceans salinity, so aquifer salinity could be changed very much even at low equilibrium disturbance. As a result, the management and maintenance of this aquifer is very important. The object of this research is preparation of an intrusion model of a coastal aquifer at the northwestern of Maharloo Lake, where the coastal aquifer is the single supply source of fresh water and the saltwater intrusion has been widely caused the deterioration of water quality. In this study SEAWAT computer code, a three dimensional finit difference model, used to study the intrusion mechanisms and groundwater systems. After data collection including qualitative and quantitative data and geology and hydrogeology of study area in the field, a conseptual model were prepared. On the basis of collected data, condition of the aquifer in February 2008 were taken as the initial condition and the length of calibration and verification periods consequently take 150 and 121 days after this time. After model calibration and verification, the aquifer conditions for next year predicted on the basis of two following

  14. Physical Monitoring of Flow Into and Within Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, T. A.; Naftz, D. L.; Perschon, W. C.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the hydrologic terminus for the eastern part of the Great Basin. As the largest inland waterbody in the Western United States, GSL plays a critical ecologic role for many migratory bird species. In terms of harvest quantity and quality, the brine shrimp (Artemia) fishery of GSL is among the strongest in the world. The characteristic of GSL as a hydrologic sink amplifies anthropogenic activities throughout the basin, most specifically activities that occur along its eastern and southern shores, the urban corridor of the Wasatch Front. In 1959 GSL was divided into north and south parts by a rock-fill railroad causeway. Since then, an extreme density gradient between the north and south part exists as a result of limited conveyance of water from the south part where more than 95 percent of the total freshwater input occurs (Loving, and others, 2000). To date, little is known about the loading and cycling of various chemical constituents associated with human activities including nutrients, selenium, and mercury. Hydroacoustic technology, specifically acoustic Doppler technology, is currently being used to obtain a better physical understanding of GSL. Since 1999, stratified bi-directional discharge has been measured at the causeway breach with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. From these measurements, net flow components to the north and south have been used to assess the movement of water and salt through the causeway. Low hydraulic gradients and variable backwater conditions at the two largest inflows to GSL required the deployment of in-situ acoustic Doppler velocity meters to accurately compute continuous discharge, critical for constituent loading analyses. These discharge records, computed using the index velocity method, show sensitivity to large wind events that can lead to a complete reversal of flow. Velocity profiles acquired during two multi-day water-quality synoptic sampling runs with acoustic Doppler current profilers have

  15. Public health assessment for Petrochem Recycling Corporation/Ekotek, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UTD093119196. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-07

    The Petrochem/EkoTek site was operated by several owners as a refinery from 1953 until 1978 and as a hazardous waste storage/treatment facility and a petroleum recycling facility from 1978 through 1988. Removal of essentially all petroleum products and hazardous wastes in tanks and drums was accomplished from 1988 - 1991. The process that will lead to the complete clean-up of the facility is ongoing. The site was added to the National Priorities List (NPL) in October 1992. Contaminants in the soil are arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and heptachlor epoxide. Children who ingest regularly large amounts (five grams or more a day) of soil contaminated with the highest levels of arsenic and cadmium have some risk for adverse health effects. The arsenic levels are typical for the Salt Lake City area. The maximum levels of barium could also cause health effects in children according to animal studies. There are four ways that humans may have been exposed: surface water, groundwater, soil gas, and waste materials. Surface-water runoff probably transported unknown concentrations of site contaminants to businesses west of the site. Residences and businesses within 1 mile of the site use municipal water for drinking water.

  16. The Arsenic Cycle in Searles Lake, California: An Arsenic-Rich, Salt-Saturated Soda Lake: I. Sediment Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    Searles Lake is a residual playa of what once was the end-member of a series of soda lakes that were connected during the Pleistocene. Brinewaters are saturated (300 g/L), alkaline (pH = 9.8), and rich in arsenic (3.9 mM). Porewater profiles (max. depth = 25 cm.) show the speciation of arsenic changes from arsenate [As(V)] in the slightly oxic (DO = 6.2 uM) surface to predominantly arsenite [As(III)] in the sediments. Porewaters also contained ammonia (0.4 - 1.2 mM), sulfide (0.1 - 0.2 mM), and methane (0.05 - 0.6 uM). Sediment slurries incubated with artificial brinewater (salinity = 346 g/L) demonstrated reduction of As(V) to As(III). The rate of As(V) reduction (40 umol/L/day) increased 50 percent with addition of lactate. Addition of sulfide or hydrogen to slurries stimulated this rate by 2.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. This suggests that chemoautotrophs are important agents of As(V)-respiration in this system. The rate of As(V)-reduction responded inversely with increased salinity, decreasing from 470 umol/L/day at 50 g/L to 40 umol/L/day at 346 g/L. A similar relationship to salinity was found for methane production. Slurries incubated under aerobic conditions showed a rapid biological oxidization of As(III) (rate = 220 umol/L/day). These results show that a microbiological arsenic cycle occurs in this extreme environment. The anaerobes in this ecosystem, however, seem best adapted to lower salinities. Nonetheless, significant dissimilatory As(V) reduction still occurs at the condition of salt-saturation.

  17. The distribution, structure, and composition of freshwater ice deposits in Bolivian salt lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Freshwater ice deposits are described from seven, high elevation (4117-4730 m), shallow (mean depth <30 cm), saline (10-103 g l-1) lakes in the southwestern corner of Bolivia. The ice deposits range to several hundred meters in length and to 7 m in height above the lake or playa surface. They are located near the lake or salar margins; some are completely surrounded by water, others by playa deposits or salt crusts. Upper surfaces and sides of the ice deposits usually are covered by 20-40 cm of white to light brown, dry sedimentary materials. Calcite is the dominant crystalline mineral in these, and amorphous materials such as diatom frustules and volcanic glass are also often abundant. Beneath the dry overburden the ice occurs primarily as horizontal lenses 1-1000 mm thick, irregularly alternating with strata of frozen sedimentary materials. Ice represents from 10 to 87% of the volume of the deposits and yields freshwater (TFR <3 g l-1) when melted. Oxygen isotope ratios for ice are similar to those for regional precipitation and shoreline seeps but much lower than those for the lakewaters. Geothermal flux is high in the region as evidenced by numerous hot springs and deep (3.0-3.5 m) sediment temperatures of 5-10??C. This flux is one cause of the present gradual wasting away of these deposits. Mean annual air temperatures for the different lakes probably are all in the range of -2 to 4??C, and mean midwinter temperatures about 5??C lower. These deposits apparently formed during colder climatic conditions by the freezing of low salinity porewaters and the building up of segregation ice lenses. ?? 1988 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  18. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries.

  19. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries. PMID:25185397

  20. Lateral spread hazard mapping of the northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, for a M7.0 scenario earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, M.J.; Bartlett, S.F.; Solomon, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a lateral spread-displacement hazard map for northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, using a scenario M7.0 earthquake occurring on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault. The mapping effort is supported by a substantial amount of geotechnical, geologic, and topographic data compiled for the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. ArcGIS?? routines created for the mapping project then input this information to perform site-specific lateral spread analyses using methods developed by Bartlett and Youd (1992) and Youd et al. (2002) at individual borehole locations. The distributions of predicted lateral spread displacements from the boreholes located spatially within a geologic unit were subsequently used to map the hazard for that particular unit. The mapped displacement zones consist of low hazard (0-0.1 m), moderate hazard (0.1-0.3 m), high hazard (0.3-1.0 m), and very high hazard (> 1.0 m). As expected, the produced map shows the highest hazard in the alluvial deposits at the center of the valley and in sandy deposits close to the fault. This mapping effort is currently being applied to the southern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and probabilistic maps are being developed for the entire valley. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. The Implementation of the Salt Lake City School District's Shared Governance Policy: A Study of School-Site Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malen, Betty; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    Confronted by complex and divisive issues and by groups seeking participation in policymaking, the Salt Lake City Board of Education adopted a shared governance policy in the middle 1970's. The policy mandated creation of two related councils at each school site. The School Improvement Council (SIC) consisted of the principal and specified school…

  2. General Studies Majors at Salt Lake Community College: A Secondary Analysis of the Fall 1999 New Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Frank

    This fall 1999 survey of new Salt Lake Community College (SLCC, Utah) students compared the clarity of career and educational goals expressed by General Studies majors with other students, and considered implications with respect to student success. General Studies majors, representing 35% of the student population, include students with…

  3. A Review of the Results and Methodology in the 1999 Noel Levitz Student Satisfaction Survey at Salt Lake Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Frank

    This report analyzes the 1999 Student Satisfaction Inventory (SSI) survey results of Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) (Utah) conducted by the Noel-Levitz company. In 1999, a stratified random sample was utilized that produced a more representative profile of the student demographics compared to previous years (e.g., the percentage of full-time…

  4. An Analysis of the Costs and Savings of the Concurrent Enrollment Program at Salt Lake Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Larry A.

    The Salt Lake Community College (SLCC) (Utah) implemented a concurrent enrollment program in the 1989-90 academic year that provides high school students with an opportunity to enroll in college-level courses and receive college and high school credit. This study evaluated enrollment data for students who had completed concurrent enrollment…

  5. Differential Staffing Patterns with Job Analyses and Operational Procedures for Salt Lake City School District Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkin, Katherine Story

    Duties of the staff of media centers in the Salt Lake City School District and an analysis of task performances by position are listed. Positions included are: (1) head of the school media center/school media specialist, (2) school media center technician, (3) school media center aide, and (4) student aides. Twenty general district operational…

  6. 77 FR 13074 - Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas; Request for Comments on the Official Agencies Servicing...

  7. Selected aquatic biological investigations in the Great Salt Lake basins, 1875-1998, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise M.P.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes previous investigations of aquatic biological communities, habitat, and contaminants in streams and selected large lakes within the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The Great Salt Lake Basins study unit is one of 59 such units designed to characterize water quality through the examination of chemical, physical, and biological factors in surface and ground waters across the country. The data will be used to aid in the planning, collection, and analysis of biological information for the NAWQA study unit and to aid other researchers concerned with water quality of the study unit. A total of 234 investigations conducted during 1875-1998 are summarized in this report. The studies are grouped into three major subjects: (1) aquatic communities and habitat, (2) contamination of streambed sediments and biological tissues, and (3) lakes. The location and a general description of each study is listed. The majority of the studies focus on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Studies of algal communities, aquatic habitat, riparian wetlands, and contamination of streambed sediment or biological tissues are less common. Areas close to the major population centers of Salt Lake City, Provo, and Logan, Utah, are generally well studied, but more rural areas and much of the Bear River Basin are lacking in detailed information, except for fish populations..

  8. End-Permian mass extinction caused by high volatile halogenated gases from giant salt lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyna, Lidia; Weissflog, Ludwig

    2010-05-01

    Climatic and paleotoxicological processes, which caused mass extinction (ME) approx. 250 Ma ago may also play a decisive role in the present day sixth large-scale ME of species, caused by mankind. The speed with which the currently ME is taking effect is higher by a factor of 1000 than that of 100 years ago (8th UN Conference on Biological Diversity in 2006, Djoghlaf, 2006). The worldwide increasing temperature and dryness incorporated in climate change are already leading to progressive desertification and to an increase in number and surface areas of hyper saline salt lakes, salt lagoons, saline marshlands and sabkhas. Furthermore the predicted sea level rise by approx. 1 m (even up to 6 m according to more recent assumptions) leads to an expansion or new formation of salt ecosystems caused by flooding of coastal areas and hinterland. Particularly in regions with current and/or future semiarid and arid climatic features this will lead, amongst others, to increased emissions of naturally formed phytotoxic VHCs. Additionally, wind and storms will transport large quantities of salt (dust) from surfaces of these parched hyper saline salt ecosystems for uptake in so far unsalinated soils. An example of this is currently apparent in Central Asia, where several hundred thousand metric tons of salt dust are picked up every year from the former sea floor of the drying-up Aral Sea, the Kara-Bogaz-Gol and saline marshlands of Caspian Sea and transported several thousand kilometers [Orlovsky and Orlovsky, 2001]. In combination with increasing temperatures, intensive radiation and increasing input of man-made pollutants, desert areas of Central Asia are expanding ever faster. In this context it has to be borne in mind that today's observations only refer to a timeframe of a few years or decades. The developments at end-Permian, on the other hand, encompass approx. 100,000 years. In this respect, the current state of art does not permit any definite statements as to what

  9. Geological applications of LANDSAT-1 imagery to the Great Salt Lake area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Smith, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    The ERTS program has been designed as a research and development tool to demonstrate that remote sensing from orbital altitudes is a feasible and practical approach to efficient management of earth resources. From this synoptic view and repetitive coverage provided by ERTS imagery of the Great Salt Lake area, large geological and structural features, trends, and patterns have been identified and mapped. A comparative analysis of lineaments observed in September and December data was conducted, existing mineral locations were plotted, and areas considered prospective for mineralization based on apparent structure-mineralization relationships were defined. The additional information obtained using ERTS data provides an added source of information to aid in the development of more effective mineral exploration programs.

  10. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Halophilic Methanogen from Great Salt Lake

    PubMed Central

    Paterek, J. Robert; Smith, Paul H.

    1985-01-01

    A halophilic methanogenic microorganism isolated from sediments collected from the southern arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, is described. Cells were irregular, nonmotile cocci approximately 1.0 μm in diameter and stained gram negative. Colonies from anaerobic plates and roll tubes were foamy, circular, and cream-yellow. Methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine supported growth and methanogenesis. Hydrogen-carbon dioxide, formate, and acetate were not utilized. Sodium and magnesium were required for growth; the optimum NaCl concentration ranged between 1.0 and 2.0 M, with the minimum doubling time occurring at 2.0 M. The optimum growth temperature was 35°C, with maximum growth rate occurring at pH 7.5. The DNA base composition was 48.5 mol% guanine + cytosine. SLP is the type strain designation (= ATCC 35705). Images PMID:16346919

  12. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  13. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with <24-h-old nauplii, continued through reproduction of the parental generation, and ended after 28 days of exposure. The concentrations tested were 4, 8, 15, 31, and 56mg/L dissolved arsenic. The test was conducted using water from the Great Salt Lake, Utah as the dilution water. Adult survival was the most sensitive biological endpoint, with growth and reproduction somewhat less sensitive than survival. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for survival was 8mg/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 15mg/L dissolved arsenic. The LOEC for growth and reproduction was greater than the highest concentration tested, 56mg/L. Based on survival, the final chronic value (geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC) was 11mg/L dissolved arsenic. The F(1) generation appeared to acclimate to the prior arsenic exposure of the parental generation and was significantly less sensitive than the parental generation. For example, survival for the F(1) generation through day 12 was 100% in 56mg/L dissolved arsenic, compared to 26% for the parental generation. Growth of the F(1) generation was significantly less than that of the parental generation across all concentrations including the control, indicating a generational difference in brine shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp. PMID:12550094

  14. Reconnaissance of the shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Waddell, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    The shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake (Jordan) Valley, Utah, seldom is used for domestic or industrial purposes because it yields water slowly and is readily contaminated. The water in the aquifer, however, can flood basements and is a potential source of contamination to other water supplies. In about one-half of the valley, water in the shallow-unconfined aquifer is less than 10 feet below land surface. The general direction of flow in the shallow aquifer is toward the Jordan River. Water levels in the north part of the valley and along the Jordan River are highest in March or April and in the south part of the valley are highest in late summer. The smallest concentrations of dissolved solids in water from wells along the east side of the valley, and the greatest concentrations are in the northwest part of the valley near the Great Salt Lake. Large dissolved-solids concentrations are found near some landfills and tailings areas. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 86 milligrams per liter and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations from less than 0.02 to 0.85 milligram per liter. Some of the largest nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in water wells near animal pens. The greatest concentrations of trace elements generally came from wells near landfills and tailings area. The greatest measured concentration of cadmium was 200 microgram per liter, of mercury 0.1 microgram per liter, of lead 46 micrograms per liter, of iron 37,000 micrograms per liter and of arsenic 360 micrograms per liter. Synthetic organic chemicals were found in water from several wells. The greatest measured concentration of benzene was 400 micrograms per liter, of phenol 660 micrograms per liter, of 1,1 dichloroethane 20 micrograms per liter, of tichloroethylene 8 micrograms per liter , and of chloroethylene, 11 micrograms per liter. The greatest concentrations were in water from wells near landfills. (USGS)

  15. Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

  16. Miscellaneous High-Resolution Seismic Imaging Investigations in Salt Lake and Utah Valleys for Earthquake Hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.; Worley, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies by researchers at the Utah Geological Survey, University of Utah, Utah State University, Brigham Young University, and San Diego State University, the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Hazards Team Intermountain West Project conducted three high-resolution seismic imaging investigations along the Wasatch Front between September 2003 and September 2005. These three investigations include: (1) a proof-of-concept P-wave minivib reflection imaging profile in south-central Salt Lake Valley, (2) a series of seven deep (as deep as 400 m) S-wave reflection/refraction soundings using an S-wave minivib in both Salt Lake and Utah Valleys, and (3) an S-wave (and P-wave) investigation to 30 m at four sites in Utah Valley and at two previously investigated S-wave (Vs) minivib sites. In addition, we present results from a previously unpublished downhole S-wave investigation conducted at four sites in Utah Valley. The locations for each of these investigations are shown in figure 1. Coordinates for the investigation sites are listed in Table 1. With the exception of the P-wave common mid-point (CMP) reflection profile, whose end points are listed, these coordinates are for the midpoint of each velocity sounding. Vs30 and Vs100, also shown in Table 1, are defined as the average shear-wave velocities to depths of 30 and 100 m, respectively, and details of their calculation can be found in Stephenson and others (2005). The information from these studies will be incorporated into components of the urban hazards maps along the Wasatch Front being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Utah Geological Survey, and numerous collaborating research institutions.

  17. Torrefaction of cultivation residue of Auricularia auricula-judae to obtain biochar with enhanced fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yao, Aiying; Song, Kuiyan

    2016-04-01

    Auricularia auricula-judae, commonly known as the wood ear, is a species of edible Auriculariales fungus. Torrefactions of cultivation residues of A. auricula-judae (CRAA) at different temperatures and residence times are carried out. Effect of different torrefaction conditions on the mass and energy yields, elemental composition, heating value, thermal properties; and chemical, crystal and morphological structures of biochars are analyzed. Low torrefaction temperatures could not enhance the fuel properties as expected. Crystallinities of biochars derived from mild torrefaction conditions do not have a suitable variation trend because of the unstable degrees between degradation and recrystallization. Torrefaction of CRAA should be processed under severe conditions, such as 320 °C for 60 min and 280 °C for 120 min, in order to obtain enhanced biochar properties with DTGmax at low peak temperatures of 367 and 361 °C, as well high burnout temperatures of 528 and 530 °C, respectively.

  18. Estimating selenium removal by sedimentation from the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, W.; Fuller, C.; Naftz, D.L.; Johnson, W.P.; Diaz, X.

    2009-01-01

    The mass of Se deposited annually to sediment in the Great Salt Lake (GSL) was estimated to determine the significance of sedimentation as a permanent Se removal mechanism. Lake sediment cores were used to qualitatively delineate sedimentation regions (very high to very low), estimate mass accumulation rates (MARs) and determine sediment Se concentrations. Sedimentation regions were defined by comparison of isopach contours of Holocene sediment thicknesses to linear sedimentation rates determined via analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 7Be and 137Cs activity in 20 short cores (<5 cm), yielding quantifiable results in 13 cores. MARs were developed via analysis of the same radioisotopes in eight long cores (>10 cm). These MARs in the upper 1-2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.019 to 0.105 gsed/cm2/a. Surface sediment Se concentrations in the upper 1 or 2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.79 to 2.47 mg/kg. Representative MARs and Se concentrations were used to develop mean annual Se removal by sedimentation in the corresponding sedimentation region. The spatially integrated Se sedimentation rate was estimated to be 624 kg/a within a range of uncertainty between 285 and 960 kg/a. Comparison to annual Se loading and other potential removal processes suggests burial by sedimentation is not the primary removal process for Se from the GSL. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Millero, F.J.; Jones, B.F.; Green, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is one of the largest and most saline lakes in the world. In order to accurately model limnological processes in GSL, hydrodynamic calculations require the precise estimation of water density (??) under a variety of environmental conditions. An equation of state was developed with water samples collected from GSL to estimate density as a function of salinity and water temperature. The ?? of water samples from the south arm of GSL was measured as a function of temperature ranging from 278 to 323 degrees Kelvin (oK) and conductivity salinities ranging from 23 to 182 g L-1 using an Anton Paar density meter. These results have been used to develop the following equation of state for GSL (?? = ?? 0.32 kg m-3): ?? - ??0 = 184.01062 + 1.04708 * S - 1.21061*T + 3.14721E - 4*S2 + 0.00199T2 where ??0 is the density of pure water in kg m-3, S is conductivity salinity g L-1, and T is water temperature in degrees Kelvin. ?? 2011 U.S. Government.

  20. Comparison of Radiocarbon Ages for Multiproxy Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2008-12-01

    Multiproxy paleoclimate reconstructions from high sedimentation-rate systems offer promising opportunities to deconvolve multiple aspects climate system response to past forcing. However, the time-equivalence of proxies must be established before such reconstructions can be usefully interpreted. Differences in source ages, transport pathways, and surface residence times for substrates may lead to differences in lag times between proxy formation and deposition, compromising comparative analysis of data from multiple proxies. We used multi-substrate radiocarbon dating to investigate the potential for multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene changes in the volume of the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, based on the stable isotope composition of organic and inorganic substrates in lake sediment cores. Among potential substrates for this work are normal alkanes of vascular higher plant and algal origin, fossil cysts of lake-dwelling brine shrimp (Artemia), and micritic aragonite. Radiocarbon ages for all organic substrates (alkanes, cysts) sampled at any given core depth are concordant within analytical uncertainty and are similar to ages determined on land-plant debris and filamentous algae isolated from the sediment. Inorganic carbonate, in contrast, is depleted in 14C compare to the organic proxies, giving ages that were apparently 2000 to 3000 years older, likely due to winnowing and re-deposition of carbonate at the core site. These results suggest that the maximum temporal resolution achievable through analysis of mineral substrates is on the order of several millennia. Although the limited precision of the radiocarbon analysis precludes precise determination of the maximum potential resolution of organic-proxy based climate reconstructions, the relatively high sedimentation rates (50--150 cm/kyr) and age-equivalence of the substrates analyzed implies that sub- centennial scale resolution should be achievable throughout much of the Holocene portion of the GSL

  1. Enhanced development of lacustrine microbialites on gravity flow deposits, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Mulder, Thierry; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Goslar, Tomasz; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Désaubliaux, Guy; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-07-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA is a shallow, hypersaline, intracontinental lake hosting extensive microbial deposits. At a large spatial scale, the distribution of these deposits is driven by environmental and geodynamical factors (i.e. water-level fluctuations and a fault-related framework). A detailed mapping of the Buffalo Point area, in the north-western part of Antelope Island, indicates the presence of an anomalous concentration of microbial deposits dated ca. 5.8 ka BP and distributed along a lobe-shaped geometry. This uncommon microbial deposit geometry results from an extensive colonization of a conglomerate substrate exhibiting an accumulation of m-sized rounded Cambrian quartzite boulders. We suggest that this conglomerate substrate provides a stable nucleation point that promotes the development and preservation of the lobe-shaped microbial deposits. Microbial deposits may also have protected the conglomerate substrate from erosional processes and thereby increased the preservation potential of the lobe-shaped structure. Based on the characteristics of the conglomerate (e.g. grain size, texture) and its location (i.e. 200 m beyond the average shoreline), this lobe-shaped structure likely results from subaqueous debris or a hyperconcentrated density flow that transports sedimentary material from the Buffalo Point slopes downward to the shore. We estimate the age of the conglomerate deposition to be between 21 and 12 ka BP. The initiation of the flow may have been triggered by various mechanisms, but the existence of a major active normal fault in the vicinity of these deposits suggests that an earthquake could have destabilized the accumulated sediments and resulted in conglomerate emplacement. The catastrophic 15 ka BP Bonneville Flood, which led to a drop in the lake level (approximately 110 m), may also provide an explanation for the initiation of the flow.

  2. Salt lake Laguna de Fuente de Piedra (S-Spain) as Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, Nicole; Melles, Martin; Reicherter, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    This study deals with Late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental variability in Iberia reconstructed from terrestrial archives. In southern Iberia, endorheic basins of the Betic Cordilleras are relatively common and contain salt or fresh-water lakes due to subsurface dissolution of Triassic evaporites. Such precipitation or ground-water fed lakes (called Lagunas in Spanish) are vulnerable to changes in hydrology, climate or anthropogenic modifications. The largest Spanish salt lake, Laguna de Fuente de Piedra (Antequera region, S-Spain), has been investigated and serves as a palaeoenvironmental archive for the Late Pleistocene to Holocene time interval. Several sediment cores taken during drilling campaigns in 2012 and 2013 have revealed sedimentary sequences (up to 14 m length) along the shoreline. A multi-proxy study, including sedimentology, geochemistry and physical properties (magnetic susceptibility) has been performed on the cores. The sedimentary history is highly variable: several decimetre thick silty variegated clay deposits, laminated evaporites, and even few-centimetre thick massive gypsum crystals (i.e., selenites). XRF analysis was focussed on valuable palaeoclimatic proxies (e.g., S, Zr, Ti, and element ratios) to identify the composition and provenance of the sediments and to delineate palaeoenvironmental conditions. First age control has been realized by AMS-radiocarbon dating. The records start with approximately 2-3 m Holocene deposits and reach back to the middle of MIS 3 (GS-3). The sequences contain changes in sedimentation rates as well as colour changes, which can be summarized as brownish-beige deposits at the top and more greenish-grey deposits below as well as highly variegated lamination and selenites below ca. 6 m depth. The Younger Dryas, Bølling/Allerød, and the so-called Mystery Interval/Last Glacial Maximum have presumably been identified in the sediment cores and aligned to other climate records. In general, the cores of the Laguna de

  3. Virgibacillus sediminis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Wang, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Wen, Meng-Liang; Peng, Qian

    2009-08-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, alkalitolerant, strictly aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain YIM kkny3T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a salt lake in the Qaidam Basin of north-west China. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Growth occurred with 1-20% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and 10-55 degrees C (optimum, 35-40 degrees C). It was unable to grow with NaCl as the only salt. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The strain contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid as polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 40.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM kkny3T belonged to the genus Virgibacillus, and was most closely related to the type strains of Virgibacillus olivae (97.1% similarity), Virgibacillus marismortui (97.0%) and Virgibacillus kekensis (96.8%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM kkny3T and the type strains of V. olivae, V. marismortui and V. kekensis were 12.4, 10.6 and 15.7%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, genotypic data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences indicated that strain YIM kkny3T represents a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM kkny3T (=CCTCC AA 207023T=DSM 19797T=KCTC 13193T). PMID:19605714

  4. Development of a Site-specific Standard for Selenium in Open Waters of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellmer, W. O.; Miller, T.; Ohlendorf, H.; Denbleyker, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a unique terminal lake located adjacent to a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the western United States. The open water of the GSL is protected for its current beneficial uses through the application of a narrative criteria clause in the state water quality standards. The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) initiated a process in 2004 to develop a site-specific numeric water quality standard for selenium for the open waters of the GSL to balance protection of the GSL's unique ecology and beneficial uses with burgeoning development. The process the DEQ initiated included the formation of a Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee and a Science Panel to identify the studies required, manage the studies and finally recommend a site-specific standard. Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee. The DEQ established the GSL Water Quality Steering Committee (Steering Committee) to provide a forum for stakeholders to assist in guiding the process of developing numeric standards for the lake. This group consists of federal and state regulatory agencies, other public entities, conservation organizations, recreation groups, and industrial users of the lake. Great Salt Lake Science Panel. The DEQ established the GSL Science Panel (Science Panel) to advise the DEQ and Steering Committee and provide overall technical direction and review for the program. The Science Panel is composed of 9 members representing federal and state regulatory agencies, industry and academia. The purpose of the panel is to identify data gaps in the literature, design and oversee scientific investigations to fill critical data gaps, and finally recommend a numeric water quality standard to the Steering Committee. Studies Currently Underway. A partnership of researchers—including local and national experts from education and industry—are collaborating with the DEQ, the Steering Committee, and the Science Panel to complete the studies required

  5. Evolution of Chaka Salt Lake in NW China in response to climatic change during the Latest Pleistocene Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xingqi, Liu; Dong, Hailiang; Rech, Jason A.; Matsumoto, Ryo; Bo, Yang; Yongbo, Wang

    2008-04-01

    The Late Pleistocene and Holocene hydrologic balance of Chaka Salt Lake in the eastern Qaidam Basin of NW China was studied based on the analysis of lithostratigraphy, mineralogy, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen from a 9.0-m long sediment core. An age-depth model for the lake sediments is based on eight accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C measurements of organic matter and a 1700-year radiocarbon reservoir correction. The Pitzer model was used to calculate the sequence of minerals precipitated as a function of salinity assuming that the initial lake water was recharged from adjacent rivers and springs. Lake salinity values were derived from a good match between the calculated and observed mineral sequences. Our multi-proxy based hydrologic reconstruction of Chaka Lake indicates that it was a clastic-dominated, freshwater lake between 17.2 and 11.4 cal ka BP, which may have resulted from the input of glacial water into the lake at that time. During the Lateglacial and Holocene, a warm climatic regime predominated between 13.9 and 12.7 cal ka BP and then a cold climatic regime prevailed between 12.7 and 11.4 cal ka BP. These warm and cold periods correlate with the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas events in the region. Beginning at 11.4 cal ka BP, a saline or hypersaline lake developed, which may have resulted from increased summer insolation and temperatures. These conditions persisted throughout the Holocene. Modeling indicates that lake salinity fluctuated between 66 and 223 ppt from 11.4 to 7.2 cal ka BP and then increased to 223-322 ppt between 7.2 and 6.0 cal ka BP, when most regions of China recorded high moisture availability (i.e. the so-called "mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum"). Lake salinity decreased to 66-223 ppt during a short time period between 6.0 and 5.3 cal ka BP, possibly caused by reduced evaporation. Subsequently, salinity values rapidly increased to 223-322 ppt between 5.3 and 5.2 cal ka BP and a hypersaline lake with a salinity

  6. Prediction of water surface elevation of Great Salt Lake using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, N. K.; Urroz, G.

    2009-12-01

    Record breaking rises of Great Salt Lake (GSL) water levels that were observed in the period 1982-1987 resulted in severe economic impact to the State of Utah. Rising lake levels caused flooding that damaged highways, railways, recreation facilities and industries located in exposed lake bed. Prediction of GSL water levels necessitates the development of a model for accurate predictions of such levels in order to reduce or prevent economic loss due to flooding as happened in the past. A data-driven model, whose intent is to determine the relationship between inputs and outputs without knowing underlying physical process, was used in this project. A data-driven model can bridge the gap between classical regression-based and physically-based hydrological models. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) was used to predict water surface elevation of the GSL. The SVM-based reconstruction was used to develop time series forecast for multiple lead times. The model is able to extract the dynamics of the system by using only a few observed data points for training. The reliability of the algorithm in learning and forecasting the dynamics of the system was tested by changing two parameters: the integer time lag and the dimension (d) of the system. Parameter tau models the delay in which the dynamics unfolds by creating vectors of dimension d out of single measurements. For a given set of parameters tau and d, the discrepancy between observation and prediction is reduced by changing the cost parameter and a parameter called epsilon that controls the width of the SVM insensitive zone. All the data points within the epsilon insensitive zone are neglected in the SVM analysis. The analysis was performed for two time periods. The period of 1982 to 1987 was used to test the model performance in predicting the corresponding dramatic rise of GSL elevation. The period of 1987 to 2008 was used to test the performance of model for the normal water level rise and fall of the GSL. This analysis

  7. Boron occurrence in halite and boron isotope geochemistry of halite in the Qarhan Salt Lake, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, QiShun; Ma, YunQi; Cheng, HuaiDe; Wei, HaiCheng; Yuan, Qin; Qin, ZhanJie; Shan, FaShou

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated boron (B) isotope composition of salt lake brines in the Qaidam Basin, western China. However, the research on B isotope geochemistry of halite from a sediment core in a typical sedimentary basin has been very limited. In this study, a 102-m-long drill core (ISL1A) was recovered from Qarhan Salt Lake in eastern Qaidam Basin. Forty-three halite samples from upper 44.0 m in ISL1A were collected and analyzed for chemical compositions (K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, SO42 -, Sr2 + and B3 +) and B isotopes in order to investigate their relationships, and B isotope fractionation between halite and brines in the Qarhan Salt Lake. The results show that: (1) more B3 + and Mg2 + values in halite are low concentrations and more concentrated, and low B3 + concentrations have a strong correlation with low Mg2 + in halite, which imply that they might be the same source; (2) low Mg2 + values in halite from ISL1A have a similar trend with mMg2 + (molarity) of fluid inclusion brines from two sediment cores (east to ISL1A about 50 km) in the study area, suggesting that low B3 + and Mg2 + concentrations should derive from fluid inclusions in halite based on X-ray diffraction results in ISL1A that no borate and small amount of magnesium salts were deposited; (3) δ11B values of halite in ISL1A range from - 0.35 to + 5.84‰, which are in the range of those of river water and brines (- 1.0 to + 9.6‰), and almost overlapped with those of brines (+ 2.9 to + 7.5‰) in the Qarhan Salt Lake. These results suggest that no or minor B isotope fractionation between halite and brine occurred.

  8. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  9. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic “fluffy” surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  10. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  11. Total- and Methyl-mercury Response to Causeway Closure in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, C. A.; Tingey, C.; Frederick, L.; Black, F.; Stringham, B.; Johnson, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, high mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in various waterfowl species residing at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah. During this time high monomethylmercury (MMHg, the toxic bioaccumulative form of Hg) concentrations were also determined in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the GSL, ranging from 0.8 to >30 ng-L-1. The DBL is therefore suspected as a source of MMHg to the surrounding ecosystem; however, the pathways by which MMHg is able to propagate from the DBL upward into the higher trophic levels of the GSL ecosystem is unknown. The DBL has recently retreated from the southernmost basin of the GSL following the closure of culverts in the causeway separating the north and south arms of the lake. Anoxic, reductive conditions and high dissolved organic matter (DOM) content in the DBL allow the persistence of MMHg, thus the retreat of the DBL could affect total mercury (THg) and MMHg concentrations in brine and sediment, as well as the Hg burdens in invertebrates and waterfowl. Because the extent of the DBL depends on flux of north arm brine through causeway openings, this temporary closing of flow provides a unique opportunity to monitor the response of Hg concentrations in the DBL, sediment, and biota during this transient. Waterfowl and invertebrate tissues, plant, sediment, and brine samples were collected before and after the culvert closure. Biota and sediment samples were digested, and all samples were analyzed using cold vapor adsorption atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS). The samples from pre- and post-closure will be compared and described in order to deduce the role of the DBL as a potential reservoir of MMHg in the GSL.

  12. Contrasting patterns of community assembly in the stratified water column of Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Meuser, Jonathan E; Baxter, Bonnie K; Spear, John R; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C; Boyd, Eric S

    2013-08-01

    Phylogenetic examinations of communities sampled along geochemical gradients provide a framework for inferring the relative importance of niche-based ecological interactions (competition, environmental filtering) and neutral-based evolutionary interactions in structuring biodiversity. Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah exhibits strong spatial gradients due to both seasonal variation in freshwater input into the watershed and restricted fluid flow within North America's largest saline terminal lake ecosystem. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure and composition of archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes sampled along a stratified water column (DWR3) in the south arm of GSL in order to infer the underlying mechanism of community assembly. Communities sampled from the DWR3 epilimnion were phylogenetically clustered (i.e., coexistence of close relatives due to environmental filtering) whereas those sampled from the DWR3 hypolimnion were phylogenetically overdispersed (i.e., coexistence of distant relatives due to competitive interactions), with minimal evidence for a role for neutral processes in structuring any assemblage. The shift from phylogenetically clustered to overdispersed assemblages was associated with an increase in salinity and a decrease in dissolved O2 (DO) concentration. Likewise, the phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic similarity of assemblages was strongly associated with salinity or DO gradients. Thus, salinity and/or DO appeared to influence the mechanism of community assembly as well as the phylogenetic diversity and composition of communities. It is proposed that the observed patterns in the phylogenetic composition and structure of DWR3 assemblages are attributable to the meromictic nature of GSL, which prevents significant mixing between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion. This leads to strong physicochemical gradients at the halocline, which are capable of supporting a greater diversity. However, concomitant

  13. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the Jordan River about 10 mi to the east has been contaminated by seepage from reservoirs and evaporation ponds associated with mining activities. Many domestic and irrigation wells yield water with concentrations of dissolved solids that exceed 2,000 mg/L. A reservoir in the mouth of Bingham Canyon contains acidic waters with a pH of 3 to 4 and concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 43,000 to 68,000 mg/L. Seepage from evaporation ponds, which are about 4.5 mi east of the reservoir, also is acidic and contains similar concentrations of dissolved solids. East of the reservoir, where a steep hydraulic gradient exists along the mountain front, the velocities of contaminant movement were estimated to range from about 680-1,000 ft/yr. Groundwater underlying part of the community of South Salt Lake near the Jordan River has been contaminated by leachate from uranium-mill tailings. The major effect of the leachate from the tailings of the Vitro Chemical Co. on the shallow unconfined aquifer downgradient from the tailings was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, and uranium. The concentration of dissolved solids in uncontaminated water was 1,650 mg/L, whereas downgradient from the tailings area, the concentrations ranged from 2,320-21,000 mg/L. The maximum volume of contaminated water was estimated to be 7,800 acre-ft. The major effect of the leachate from the Vitro tailings on the confined aquifer was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and iron. The concentration of dissolved solids upgradient from

  14. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water

  15. Elastic-wave propagation and site amplification in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, from simulated normal faulting earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, H.M.; Smith, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The two-dimensional seismic response of the Salt Lake valley to near- and far-field earthquakes has been investigated from simulations of vertically incident plane waves and from normal-faulting earthquakes generated on the basin-bounding Wasatch fault. The plane-wave simulations were compared with observed site amplifications in the Salt Lake valley, based on seismic recordings from nuclear explosions in southern Nevada, that show 10 times greater amplification with the basin than measured values on hard-rock sites. Synthetic seismograms suggest that in the frequency band 0.3 to 1.5 Hz at least one-half the site amplitication can be attributed to the impedance contrast between the basin sediments and higher velocity basement rocks. -from Authors

  16. Virgibacillus salarius sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a Saharan salt lake.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ngoc-Phuc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Vreeland, Russell H; Isoda, Hiroko; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2008-10-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped and moderately halophilic bacterium was isolated from a salt-crust sample collected from Gharsa salt lake (Chott el Gharsa), Tunisia. The newly isolated bacterium, designated SA-Vb1(T), was identified based on polyphasic taxonomy including genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization. Strain SA-Vb1(T) was closely related to the type strains of Virgibacillus marismortui and Virgibacillus olivae, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.7 and 99.4 %, respectively. However, strain SA-Vb1(T) was distinguished from these two type strains on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness (29.4 and 5.1 %, respectively). The genetic relationship between strain SA-Vb1(T) and Virgibacillus pantothenticus IAM 11061(T) (the type strain of the type species) and other type strains of the genus was 96-98 % based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 18.3-22.3 % based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Biochemical analysis resulted in determination of major fatty acids iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) (33.3, 29.2 and 9.8 %, respectively); phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were the main polar lipids and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone ( approximately 100 %). The distinct characteristics demonstrated by strain SA-Vb1(T) represent properties of a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus salarius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA-Vb1(T) (=JCM 12946(T) =DSM 18441(T)). PMID:18842865

  17. Continuous seismic-reflection survey of the Great Salt Lake, Utah- east of Antelope and Fremont Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, P.M.; West, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection survey of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, was conducted east of Fremont and Antelope Islands in 1984 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources and produced data along approximately 80 miles of seismic lines. The survey was conducted to determine depth to consolidated rock, and definition and continuity of overlying basin fill under the lake. Interpretation of the data indicates the presence of faulted rock dipping away from Fremont and Antelope Islands. A north-south-trending consolidated-rock ridge is identified 200 ft below lake bottom, 275 miles east of Fremont Island. Shallow rock is also inferred 380 ft below lake bottom, near Hooper Hot Springs, and 520 ft below lake bottom approximately 4 miles east of the south end of Antelope Island. Interpretation of reflections from overlying basin fill indicates fine-grained, thinly-bedded deposits that become coarser with depth. Strong reflectors in the basin fill can be correlated with water-bearing strata penetrated by wells near the north end of Antelope Island and along the east shore of the lake. Many continuous, high-amplitude reflections can be identified in data from basin fill and may represent sedimentary sections or aquifer boundaries but cannot be defined because of a lack of subsurface control in the area. (USGS)

  18. Bioadvection of mercury from the Great Salt Lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, F.; Goodman, J.; Collins, J.; Saxton, H.; Mansfield, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, is a hypersaline terminal lake that is home to some of the highest concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) ever measured in natural waters. While terrestrial organisms typically have very low concentrations of MeHg because it is produced almost exclusively in sub-oxic aquatic environments, we documented elevated concentrations of MeHg in brine flies (Ephydra spp.) and spiders along the shores of the GSL. We hypothesized that brine flies, with their larval and pupal stages in the GSL, act as vectors that transfer Hg from the lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems as flying adults where they are eaten by spiders and other organisms. The GSL is visited annually by millions of migratory birds, and a major food source for both resident and migratory birds at the GSL are brine flies, so brine flies may represent an important source of Hg to birds here. We conducted a spatial and temporal study of HgT and MeHg in surface waters, brine flies, spiders, and Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) a predatory terrestrial songbird of conservation concern, and investigated sublethal effects due to Hg exposure on Antelope Island in the GSL. Samples were also analyzed for their stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios. While HgT and MeHg concentrations in surface waters were elevated, they varied relatively little throughout the year and exhibited no clear seasonal trends. However, seasonal maxima in concentrations of HgT and MeHg in brine flies and spiders occurred in spring and fall, periods of peak migratory bird numbers at the GSL. Approximately 20% of adult/juvenile shrikes had blood HgT concentrations above thresholds previously shown to reduce breeding success in other songbirds, with these concentrations increasing after the annual appearance of orb weaving spiders. HgT concentrations of shrikes decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline and decreasing brine fly abundance, again suggesting the GSL is the ultimate

  19. Impacts of upwind wildfire emissions on CO, CO2, and PM2.5 concentrations in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, D. V.; Lin, J. C.; Urbanski, S.; Ehleringer, J.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2015-01-01

    burning is known to contribute large quantities of CO2, CO, and PM2.5 to the atmosphere. Biomass burning not only affects the area in the vicinity of fire but may also impact the air quality far downwind from the fire. The 2007 and 2012 western U.S. wildfire seasons were characterized by significant wildfire activity across much of the Intermountain West and California. In this study, we determined the locations of wildfire-derived emissions and their aggregate impacts on Salt Lake City, a major urban center downwind of the fires. To determine the influences of biomass burning emissions, we initiated an ensemble of stochastic back trajectories at the Salt Lake City receptor within the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, driven by wind fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The trajectories were combined with a new, high-resolution biomass burning emissions inventory—the Wildfire Emissions Inventory. Initial results showed that the WRF-STILT model was able to replicate many periods of enhanced wildfire activity observed in the measurements. Most of the contributions for the 2007 and 2012 wildfire seasons originated from fires located in Utah and central Idaho. The model results suggested that during intense episodes of upwind wildfires in 2007 and 2012, fires contributed as much as 250 ppb of CO during a 3 h period and 15 µg/m3 of PM2.5 averaged over 24 h at Salt Lake City. Wildfires had a much smaller impact on CO2 concentrations in Salt Lake City, with contributions rarely exceeding 2 ppm enhancements.

  20. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  1. Geochemical reactivity in the mixing zone of a coastal salt lake and its effect on microbialite formation, Lake Clifton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, J. G.; Breecker, D.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrochemistry of Lake Clifton, Western Australia was investigated to evaluate the effects of mixing on geochemical reactions occurring at or near the groundwater-surface water interface. Lake Clifton is a coastal salt lake located along Australia's southwest coast known for both its value as a wetland habitat and for containing modern microbialite structures. The microbialites occur near zones of groundwater input along the eastern and northeastern lakeshore. Composed of aragonite and predominantly thrombolytic in texture, the microbialites form isolated conical structures nearly 1 m in height and a seasonally submerged reef that is 5 km long and up to 30 m wide. Microbialite structures in Lake Clifton have been subjected to an approximately 3-fold increase in salinity from hyposaline lake water in the early 1990s to hypersaline at present. Recent measurements of total dissolved solids at the Lake Clifton boardwalk varied between 56132 ppm in August, 2012 and 73707 ppm in June, 2011. The mixing of carbonate waters can cause nonlinear effects that might result in either mineral dissolution or precipitation. PHREEQC was used to model geochemical reactivity in the Lake Clifton mixing zone in order to better understand the current geochemical impact of the salinity increase. The mixing model suggests that if mixing is the only process influencing water chemistry, mixtures of supersaturated, hypersaline lake water and saturated, fresh groundwater will be supersaturated above (and undersaturated below) 14-22% lake water, with respect to aragonite. The transition between waters saturated and undersaturated with respect to aragonite depended on fluctuations in the chemistry of the lake water end member. The minimum saturation index occurred at 4% lake water and indicated weakly undersaturated (SI = -0.12) waters. Data from seepage meters, pore-waters (7-50 mm depth), and piezometers (41.6-80.5 cm depth) were compared to the mixing model based on chloride

  2. Dispersion of Perfluorocarbon Tracers within the Salt Lake Valley during VTMX 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Allwine, K Jerry; Dietz, Russell N.; Clawson, Kirk L.; Torcolini, Joel C.

    2006-06-01

    Six PFT experiments were conducted in Salt Lake City during October 2000 as part of the VTMX field campaign. Four tracers were released at different sites to obtain information on dispersion during stable conditions within down-valley flow, canyon outflow, and interacting circulations in the downtown area. Some of the extensive tracer data that were collected is presented in the context of the meteorological field campaign measurements. Tracer measurements at building top sites in the downtown area and along the lower slopes of the Wasatch Front indicated vertical mixing processes transported material up to at least 180 m above the valley floor. Tracer data provided evidence of downward mixing of canyon outflow, upward mixing within down-valley flow, horizontal transport above the surface stable layer, and transport within horizontal eddies produced by the interaction of canyon and down-valley flows. Although point meteorological measurements are useful in evaluating the forecasts produced by mesoscale models, the tracer data provides information on the time-varying three-dimensional mean and turbulent motions that cannot be obtained in any other way. While the mean tracer transport predicted by the modeling system employed in this study was qualitatively similar to the measurements, improvements are needed in the treatment of turbulent vertical mixing.

  3. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-01-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments. PMID:27527125

  4. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

  5. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites.

    PubMed

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T

    2016-01-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments. PMID:27527125

  6. Formation of aragonite cement by nannobacteria in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, Vicki A.; Folk, Robert L.

    1996-08-01

    Brine-shrimp egg cases in growth cavities in modern stromatolites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, are replaced by aragonite and cemented together by aragonite cement. The fabric of the cement changes dramatically as the distance from the egg case increases. The cement within 50 to 70 μm of the egg case exhibits a random fabric of 10 to 20 μm equant crystals. The surface of the cement is covered by bead-like bumps, 0.1 μm in diameter, interpreted as nannobacteria. Overlying the random, “beaded” fabric with a relatively abrupt transition are epitaxial, prismatic aragonite crystals that have smooth crystal surfaces lacking bead-like bodies. The smooth-surfaced prismatic aragonite crystals are interpreted to be “normal” abiotic precipitates, whereas the “beaded” microspar is interpreted to result from biotic processes, where the nannobacteria serve as catalysts for creation of the cement. A population explosion of bacteria occurs as the organic material of egg case rots, which alters the microchemical environment and induces a rapid precipitation of aragonite, enclosing tens of thousands of nannobacteria. As the organic material is destroyed, reproduction of bacteria slows and epitaxial, prismatic aragonite crystals nucleate and grow abiotically on the structureless, “biotic” layer.

  7. Progress report on the geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Darling, R.; Davis, D.A.; Gwynn, J.W.; Murphy, P.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    Two known geothermal areas have been investigated previously in the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah. These reports indicate meteoric water is being circulated to depth and heated by the ambient temperature derived from normal heat flow. This warm water subsequently migrates upward along permiable fault zones. The gravity survey conducted in the valley indicates a number of fault blocks are present beneath the unconsolidated valley sediments. The faults bounding these blocks could provide conduits for the upward migration of warm water. Four areas of warm water wells, in addition to the two known geothermal areas, have been delineated in the valley. However, the chemistry of the Jordan Valley is quite complex and at this time is not fully understood in regard to geothermal potential. Thick sequences of unconsolidated valley fill could conceal geothermal areas due to lateral dispersion or dilution within the principal aquifer, as well as retardation of warm water flow allowing time for cooling prior to discharge in wells or springs. Other areas are possibly diluted and cooled by high quality, ground water recharge from snow melt in the Wasatch Range.

  8. Earthquake Ground Motion for the Salt Lake City Segment of the Wasatch Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Archuleta, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Approximately 80% of Utah’s 2.7 million people live within 15 miles of the Wasatch Fault. This area is one of the most hazardous places in the US that under the threat of big earthquakes (M > 7). The Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch Fault (SLCWF) poses a serious threat to the nearby city and surrounding communities. The SLCWF is a normal fault with a dip of about 50° that forms a boundary between the Wasatch Mountains to the east and a relatively thin sedimentary basin to the west that rests on the hanging wall. Recently a 3D Wasatch Fault Community Velocity Model (WFCVM) was released for the region. To have a more accurate estimation of what the ground motion might be due to potential earthquakes, we use a finite element method (Ma & Liu, BSSA, 2006) to simulate dynamic ruptures on the fault embedded within the WFCVM. We will consider simplified heterogeneous velocity models (e.g. layered model) and compare the results with the one given by WFCVM to get a better understanding of the effects on ground motion due to velocity structure heterogeneity. Preliminary results for simple layer models over a halfspace already indicate that the ground motion in the basin, i.e., on the hanging wall, is significantly greater than the footwall. The maximum ground velocities occur over a swath whose width is comparable to depth of the basin.

  9. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting. PMID:27209783

  10. Diurnal trends in methylmercury concentration in a wetland adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Cederberg, J.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Beisner, K.R.; Whitehead, J.; Gardberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    A 24-h field experiment was conducted during July 2008 at a wetland on the eastern shore of Great Salt Lake (GSL) to assess the diurnal cycling of methylmercury (MeHg). Dissolved (<0.45??m) MeHg showed a strong diurnal variation with consistently decreasing concentrations during daylight periods and increasing concentrations during non-daylight periods. The proportion of MeHg relative to total Hg in the water column consistently decreased with increasing sunlight duration, indicative of photodegradation. During the field experiment, measured MeHg photodegradation rates ranged from 0.02 to 0.06ngL-1h-1. Convective overturn of the water column driven by nighttime cooling of the water surface was hypothesized as the likely mechanism to replace the MeHg in the water column lost via photodegradation processes. A hydrodynamic model of the wetland successfully simulated convective overturn of the water column during the field experiment. Study results indicate that daytime monitoring of selected wetlands surrounding GSL may significantly underestimate the MeHg content in the water column. Wetland managers should consider practices that maximize the photodegradation of MeHg during daylight periods. ?? 2011.

  11. Meteorological Modeling of Wintertime Cold Air Pool Stagnation Episodes in the Uintah and Salt Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Blaylock, B. K.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    High wintertime ozone concentrations in rural areas associated with oil and gas development and high particulate concentrations in urban areas have become topics of increasing concern in the Western United States, as both primary and secondary pollutants become trapped within stable wintertime boundary layers. While persistent cold air pools that enable such poor wintertime air quality are typically associated with high pressure aloft and light winds, the complex physical processes that contribute to the formation, maintenance, and decay of persistent wintertime temperature inversions are only partially understood. In addition, obtaining sufficiently accurate numerical weather forecasts and meteorological simulations of cold air pools for input into chemical models remains a challenge. This study examines the meteorological processes associated with several wintertime pollution episodes in Utah's Uintah and Salt Lake Basins using numerical Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations and observations collected from the Persistent Cold Air Pool and Uintah Basin Ozone Studies. The temperature, vertical structure, and winds within these cold air pools was found to vary as a function of snow cover, snow albedo, land use, cloud cover, large-scale synoptic flow, and episode duration. We evaluate the sensitivity of key atmospheric features such as stability, planetary boundary layer depth, local wind flow patterns and transport mechanisms to variations in surface forcing, clouds, and synoptic flow. Finally, noted deficiencies in the meteorological models of cold air pools and modifications to the model snow and microphysics treatment that have resulted in improved cold pool simulations will be presented.

  12. Stably Stratified Flows near a Notched Transverse Ridge across the Salt Lake Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Ludwig, Francis L.; Street, Robert L.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes observed and simulated interactions among atmospheric forcing, cold-pool development, and complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake valley, near the Jordan Narrows and the Traverse Range. The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic compressible new-generation large-eddy simulation code in generalized terrain-following coordinates with advanced model parameterizations, was used. Past studies showed that a finer resolution produces more accurate simulations, and so this study used six one-way nested grids to resolve the complex topography. Horizontal grid spacing ranged from 20 km (initialized by Eta 40-km operational analyses) to 250 m; the finest grid had 200 vertically stretched levels between 5 m and 20 km above the surface. Two intense operating periods with weak synoptic forcing, stable stratification, and pronounced nighttime drainage were selected for simulation from the October 2000 Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) experiment. Qualitative agreement between simulations and observations at four stations was good. Usually, the quantitative agreement was also good. Finer horizontal and vertical resolution improved agreement, capturing daytime and nighttime temperature structures, including inversion-layer strength. The simulations showed a complex flow near the Jordan Narrows, with hydraulic jumps and internal waves initiated by the Traverse Range to either side.

  13. Paleo-earthquakes of diverse magnitude recorded at the Salt Lake site, the Haiyuan Fault, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Shao, Y.; Klinger, Y.; Xie, K.; Yuan, D.; Lei, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Paleoseismology provides routinely fundamental data for earthquake recurrence models, by revealing past ground-breaking events that stopped at different levels in layered soft sediments. Paleo-earthquakes recognized in trenches are often unknown in size, vaguely defined as surface-breaking events, but often explicitly or implicitly assumed to be similar in size when calculating earthquake recurrence interval in seismic hazard assessment of the studied fault. Here, we show data that challenge this basic underlying premise. At the Salt Lake site on the active left-lateral Haiyuan fault, northeastern Tibetan plateau, a sequence of remarkably high-resolution stratigraphy recorded at least four events since 1500 A.D., constrained by AMS C14 dating. A comparison with regional historical earthquake accounts shows that they are a mix of events of disparaging magnitudes. Except the most recent earthquake of M~8 in 1920 A.D., three earlier events, occurred in 1760 A.D., 1638 A.D., 1597 A.D. respectively, are smaller in magnitude, M~6 to M~7. Our results thus show that events order of magnitude difference in rupture length and seismic moment can be recorded at a single site, contrary to conventional definition of paleoseimic recurrence interval, which assumes simple large characteristic magnitude for recurring events.

  14. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-08-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments.

  15. Derivation of a chronic site-specific water quality standard for selenium in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; DeForest, David K; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a site-specific water quality standard for selenium in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. The study examined the bioavailability and toxicity of selenium, as selenate, to biota resident to the Great Salt Lake and the potential for dietary selenium exposure to aquatic dependent birds that might consume resident biota. Because of its high salinity, the lake has limited biological diversity with bacteria, algae, diatoms, brine shrimp, and brine flies being the only organisms present in the main (hypersaline) portions of the lake. To evaluate their sensitivity to selenium, a series of acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted on brine shrimp (Artemia franiciscana), brine fly (Ephydra cinerea), and a hypersaline alga (Dunaliella viridis). The resulting acute and chronic toxicity data indicated that resident species are more selenium tolerant than many freshwater species. Because sulfate is known to reduce selenate bioavailability, this selenium tolerance is thought to result in part from the lake's high ambient sulfate concentrations (>5,800 mg/L). The acute and chronic test results were compared to selenium concentrations expected to occur in a mining effluent discharge located at the south end of the lake. Based on these comparisons, no appreciable risks to resident aquatic biota were projected. Field and laboratory data collected on selenium bioaccumulation in brine shrimp demonstrated a linear relationship between water and tissue selenium concentrations. Applying a dietary selenium threshold of 5 mg/kg dry weight for aquatic birds to this relationship resulted in an estimate of 27 microg/L Se in water as a safe concentration for this exposure pathway and an appropriate chronic site-specific water quality standard. Consequently, protection of aquatic birds represents the driving factor in determining a site-specific water quality standard for selenium. PMID:15285352

  16. Role of exchange flow in salt water balance of Urmia Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Aliasghar; Jamali, Mirmosadegh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we examine how exchange flow in Urmia Lake plays a crucial role in dynamics of the lake. Urmia Lake, a very large hyper-saline lake of high ecological significance, is located in northwest of Iran with a 15-km causeway dividing it into north and south lakes. A 1250-m opening in the causeway near the east coast links the two lakes. The differences in mean water levels and densities of the two lakes increase in spring due to large freshwater inflows into the south lake. High evaporation dominates the lake in summer. By incorporating the results of a two-layer hydraulics theory into a mixing model of the lake, we show that the exchange flow through the opening diminishes the water level and salinity differences of the two lakes and hence helps restoration of the pre-construction state of the lake by the end of fall. The model results are confirmed by the field data. The north-south and south-north flows through the opening are equal in most of the year, except in spring when the south-north flow is greater due to the head difference of the two lakes.

  17. Calculating salt loads to Great Salt Lake and the associated uncertainties for water year 2013; updating a 48 year old standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, Christopher L.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s.We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates,we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.

  18. Calculating salt loads to Great Salt Lake and the associated uncertainties for water year 2013; updating a 48 year old standard.

    PubMed

    Shope, Christopher L; Angeroth, Cory E

    2015-12-01

    Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s. We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates, we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency. PMID:26231769

  19. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed. PMID:26475261

  20. Numerical weather prediction of Great Salt Lake effect precipitation at convection-permitting grid spacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, John Daniel

    This dissertation examines Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations of Great Salt Lake Effect (GSLE) precipitation. An evaluation of banded and nonbanded GSLE-event simulations shows that WRF has low skill predicting GSLE precipitation. An object-based verification method is used in this evaluation to quantify a precipitation bias that contributes to WRF models' low skill. We also analyze WRF simulations of the 27 October 2010 banded GSLE event to evaluate the sensitivity of precipitation prediction to the choice of microphysics parameterization (MP). WRF simulations of 11 banded and eight nonbanded GSLE events are evaluated with subjective, traditional, and object-based verification. Subjectively, a majority of simulations of banded GSLE events produce realistic precipitation features, whereas a majority of simulations of nonbanded GSLE events do not. Simulations of both banded and nonbanded GSLE events record low equitable threat scores, but simulations of banded GSLE events outperform simulations of nonbanded events. Verification using the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) developed by Davis et al. shows that simulations of banded and nonbanded GSLE events exhibit a southward (rightward and downstream relative to the flow) bias in event total precipitation location that limits forecast skill. WRF simulations of the 27 October 2010 GSLE event are sensitive to the choice of MP. Precipitation simulated using the Thompson MP scheme (THOM) verifies best against radar-estimated precipitation and gauge observations. The Goddard, Morrison, and WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6) schemes produce more precipitation than THOM, with WDM6 producing the most. Analyses of hydrometeor mass tendencies show that WDM6 creates more graupel and total precipitation than the other schemes and indicate that the rate of graupel and snow production can strongly influence the precipitation efficiency in simulations of lake-effect storms. These results show that

  1. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed.

  2. Late quaternary geomorphology of the Great Salt Lake region, Utah, and other hydrographically closed basins in the western United States: A summary of observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currey, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    Attributes of Quaternary lakes and lake basins which are often important in the environmental prehistory of semideserts are discussed. Basin-floor and basin-closure morphometry have set limits on paleolake sizes; lake morphometry and basin drainage patterns have influenced lacustrine processes; and water and sediment loads have influenced basin neotectonics. Information regarding inundated, runoff-producing, and extra-basin spatial domains is acquired directly from the paleolake record, including the littoral morphostratigraphic record, and indirectly by reconstruction. Increasingly detailed hypotheses regarding Lake Bonneville, the largest late Pleistocene paleolake in the Great Basin, are subjects for further testing and refinement. Oscillating transgression of Lake Bonneville began about 28,000 yr B.P.; the highest stage occurred about 15,000 yr B.P., and termination occurred abruptly about 13,000 yr B.P. A final resurgence of perennial lakes probably occurred in many subbasins of the Great Basin between 11,000 and 10,000 yr B.P., when the highest stage of Great Salt Lake (successor to Lake Bonneville) developed the Gilbert shoreline. The highest post-Gilbert stage of Great Salt Lake, which has been one of the few permanent lakes in the Great Basin during Holocene time, probably occurred between 3,000 and 2,000 yr B.P.

  3. Properties of solonetzes on terraces of salt lakes Bulukhta and Khaki in the Caspian Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanova, N. P.; Lebedeva, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    A comparative assessment of pedogenetic processes in solonetzes (Calcic Gypsic Salic Solonetzes (Siltic, Albic, Cutanic, Differentic)) developing on terraces of lake depressions within the Volga-Ural interfluve of the Caspian Lowland has been performed on the basis of data on their macro- and micromorphological features and chemical, physicochemical, and physical properties. The studied soils have number of common characteristics shaped by the humus-accumulative, solonetzic, eluvial-illuvial, calcification, and gypsification processes. However, it is shown that macro- and micromorphological indicators of solonetzic processes (the development of clay-humus coatings and the character of structural units in the solonetzic (B) horizon) do not always agree with the modern physicochemical conditions of the development of this process. This is explained by differences in the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization and the depth and salinity of the groundwater. Solonetzes developing on the second terrace of Playa Khaki are distinguished by the highest water content and maximum thickness of the horizons depleted of soluble salts. They are characterized by the well-pronounced humus-accumulative process leading to the development of the light-humus (AJ) horizon. In other solonetzes, the accumulation of humus is weaker, and their topsoil part can be diagnosed as the solonetzic-eluvial (SEL) horizon. Active solodic process and illuviation of organomineral substances with the development of thick coatings and infillings in the B horizon are also typical of solonetzes on the second terrace of Playa Khaki. Micromorphological data indicate that, at present, layered clayey coatings in these soils are subjected to destruction and in situ humification owing to the active penetration of plant roots into the coatings with their further biogenic processing by the soil microfauna. The process of gleyzation (as judged from the number of Fe-Mn concentrations) is most active in

  4. Reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Kendall R.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, was made during July, 1980 to October, 1982 as part of a larger study of the river that included studies of sanitary quality, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Samples for toxic substances were collected at five sites on the Jordan River, at three major tributaries, and at six storm drains. The toxic substance that most frequently exceeded State standards was total mercury. About 78 percent of the 138 samples for total mercury exceeded the State standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Other toxic substances that exceeded State standards were: Ammonia-18 percent of the samples analyzed, cadmium--9 percent, copper-9 percent, zinc--6 percent, and lead--2 percent. One sample for cyanide and one for iron also exceeded State standards. The diversity of toxic substances with concentrations large enough to cause them to be problems increased from the upstream sampling site at the Jordan Narrows to the next two downstream sites at 9000 South and 5800 South Streets. Concentrations of trace elements in stream-bottom materials also increased in a downstream direction. Substantial increases first were observed at 5800 South Street, and they were sustained throughout the downstream study area. Iron is transported in the greatest quantity of all the trace elements studied, with a mean load of 110 pounds per day. Notable loads of barium, boron, lead , and zinc also are transported by the river. DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor, PCB, and 2,4-D were detected in bottom materials; and DDE, Silvex, and 2,4-D were detected in water samples. Of 112 organic compounds in the Environmental Protection Agency 's priority pollutant list, only chloroform was detected in the storm drains that empty into the Joran River. Several metals and phenol also were detected in the samples for priority pollutants. (USGS)

  5. Gracilibacillus kekensis sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from Keke Salt Lake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Miao; Liu, Zhan-Zhi; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Ma, Yu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Chen, San-Feng; Ji, Xiao-Ci

    2012-05-01

    A novel moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain K170(T), was isolated from Keke Salt Lake in Qinghai, China. The strain grew with 0-22 % (w/v) NaCl, at 4-50 °C and at pH 6-11, with optimum growth in 3 % (w/v) NaCl, at 40 °C and at pH 8. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified phospholipids, aminolipids and glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 35.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain K170(T) was a member of the genus Gracilibacillus. High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain K170(T) and Gracilibacillus boraciitolerans DSM 17256(T) (97.3 %) and Gracilibacillus thailandensis JCM 15569(T) (97.1 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain K170(T) and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Gracilibacillus were below 97 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain K170(T) with G. boraciitolerans DSM 17256(T) and G. thailandensis JCM 15569(T) were 21.9 % and 34.3 %, respectively. On the basis of these results, strain K170(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus, for which the name Gracilibacillus kekensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is K170(T) ( = CGMCC 1.10681(T) = DSM 23178(T)).

  6. a Survey of Landnet Sites Focusing on Tuz GÖLÜ Salt Lake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, S. Z.; Özen, H.; Chander, G.

    2012-07-01

    Radiometric calibration is critical to ensure the accuracy, veracity, continuity and reliability of satellite data measured from multiple sensors and platforms, and is thus recognized as a key activity by all satellite operators. For imaging sensors, vicarious methods using natural targets (such as salt lakes, deserts, or flatlands that are well-characterized and preferably temporally and spatially stable) as a reference are similarly well established. However, while selecting a target site, it is important that its quality and location are selected to minimize sources of uncertainty for any given sensor. To maximize the benefit from limited resources and minimize the impact on satellite operators, the Infrared Visible Optical Sensor (IVOS) sub-group of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) has selected a few, well-characterized, regularly instrumented target sites, which have since become known as LANDNET sites. Currently, there are eight LANDNET sites: 1) Dome C, Antarctica; 2) Dunhuang, China, Asia; 3) Lspec Frenchman Flat, NV, USA, North America; 4) Ivanpah, NV/CA, USA, North America; 5) La Crau, France, Europe; 6) Negev, Southern Israel, Asia; 7) Railroad Valley Playa, NV, USA, North America; 8) Tuz Gölü, Central Anatolia, Turkey, Asia. This work summarizes the key characteristics, and areas of application of each of the LANDNET sites, especially that of Tuz Gölü, to guide and inform researchers on site selection, and increase international awareness and collaboration in this field. Additionally, detailed information about the Tuz Gölü, Turkey test site is provided, including geographical characteristics, spatial uniformity qualities, and opportunities for international researchers to conduct experiments and measurements. Practical, technical, and logistical experience gained through the international field campaigns organized over the last few years at Tuz Gölü is also shared in detail.

  7. Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ke; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    A novel bacterium, TRM 0175(T), belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a soil sample taken from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of 0-20 % (optimum at 10-13 %), at 15-50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). Metabolism was respiratory with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. Acid was produced from D-ribose, D- and L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and D- and L-fucose and was produced weakly from aesculin. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.0 mol%. The affiliation of strain TRM 0175(T) with the genus Halomonas was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The most closely related species was Halomonas anticariensis; 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between H. anticariensis FP35(T) and strain TRM 0175(T) was 95.3 %. Phenotypically, some characteristics of TRM 0175(T) differed from those of H. anticariensis. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 0175(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TRM 0175(T) (=CCTCC AB 208329(T) =KCTC 22608(T)). PMID:19651733

  8. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  9. Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ke; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Li-Li

    2010-02-01

    A novel bacterium, TRM 0175(T), belonging to the genus Halomonas, was isolated from a soil sample taken from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The isolate was Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. It was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of 0-20 % (optimum at 10-13 %), at 15-50 degrees C (optimum at 37 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0). Metabolism was respiratory with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. Acid was produced from D-ribose, D- and L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and D- and L-fucose and was produced weakly from aesculin. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.0 mol%. The affiliation of strain TRM 0175(T) with the genus Halomonas was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The most closely related species was Halomonas anticariensis; 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between H. anticariensis FP35(T) and strain TRM 0175(T) was 95.3 %. Phenotypically, some characteristics of TRM 0175(T) differed from those of H. anticariensis. On the basis of data from this polyphasic study, strain TRM 0175(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TRM 0175(T) (=CCTCC AB 208329(T) =KCTC 22608(T)).

  10. Diel variation of selenium and arsenic in a wetland of the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dicataldo, G.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.; Hayes, D.F.; Moellmer, W.O.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    Diel (24-h) changes in Se and As concentrations in a freshwater wetland pond bordering the Great Salt Lake (GSL) were examined. Selenium concentrations (filtered and unfiltered) changed on a diel basis, i.e., were depleted during early morning and enriched during daytime over August 17-18. During the May 24-25, 2006 and September 29-30 diel studies, no significant 24-h trends were observed in Se concentrations compared to August, which showed daily maximums up to 59% greater than the daily minimum. Both filtered and unfiltered As concentrations also varied on a diel cycle, with increased concentrations during early morning and decreased concentrations during daytime. Filtered As concentrations increased 110% during the May 24-25, 2006 diel study. Selenium varied in phase with pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and water temperature (Tw) whereas As varied opposite to Se, pH, DO and Tw. Changes in pH, DO and Tw showed a direct linear correlation (r=0.74, 0.75, and 0.55, respectively) to filtered Se. Also pH, DO and Tw were inversely correlated to filtered As concentration (r=-0.88, -0.87, and -0.84, respectively). Equilibrium geochemical speciation and sorption models were used to examine the potential oxidation state changes in Se and As, and sorption and desorption reactions corresponding to the observed 24-h variations in pe and pH. In this wetland it was postulated that diel Se variation was driven by sorption and desorption due to photosynthesis-induced changes in pH and redox conditions. Diel variations of As were hypothesized to be linked to pH-driven sorption and desorption as well as co-precipitation and co-dissolution with mineral phases of Mn. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Virgibacillus kekensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Fritze, Dagmar; Chai, Li-Hong; Schumann, Peter; Wen, Meng-Liang; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2008-03-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain YIM kkny16(T), was isolated from a saline mud sample collected from the Keke salt lake in the Qaidam Basin, north-west China. This isolate grew in the presence of 0-25 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-50 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 10 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. Strain YIM kkny16(T) had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, with a significant amount of MK-6, and anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 41.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain YIM kkny16(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 94.9-97.3 % to the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species. Strain YIM kkny16(T) could be differentiated from recognized Virgibacillus species based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain YIM kkny16(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus kekensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM kkny16(T) (=DSM 17056(T)=CGMCC 1.6298(T)). PMID:18319472

  12. Virgibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from a Salt Lake of Xin-jiang Province in China.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Che Ok; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Park, Dong-Jin; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2009-12-01

    A strictly aerobic Gram-positive, moderately halophilic spore forming bacterium, designated strain SL6-1(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xin-jiang province, China. Growth of strain SL6-1(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0 approximately 20% (w/v) (the optimum being 5 approximately 7%, w/v). The peptidoglycan type of strain SL6-1(T) was Algamma-meso-diaminopimelic acid and its major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(14:0) and iso-C(16:0) and ante-iso-C(15:0). The major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.5 mol%. The major cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SL6-1(T) formed a phylogenetic lineage within the genus Virgibacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain was most closely related to Virgibacillus olivae E(30)8(T), Virgibacillus kekensis YIM kkny16(T), Virgibacillus marismortui DSM 12325(T) with 97.1%, 97.1%, and 97.0% gene sequence similarities, respectively and the sequence similarities to other related taxa were less than 96.7%. The DNA relatedness values between strain SL6-1(T) and V. olivae E(30)8(T), V. kekensis YIM kkny16(T), V. marismortui DSM 12325(T) were 16.7%, 51.0%, and 22.8%, respectively. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic properties, strain SL6-1(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Virgibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL6-1(T) (=KCTC 13128(T) =DSM 19031(T)). PMID:20127463

  13. Islands in the desert: Species delimitation and evolutionary history of Pseudotetracha tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae: Megacephalini) from Australian salt lakes.

    PubMed

    López-López, Alejandro; Hudson, Peter; Galián, José

    2016-08-01

    The Australian salt lakes are a natural archipelago-like laboratory for investigating evolutionary and population processes. Their environmental conditions have not undergone relevant changes since the aridification of Australia 10-5 million years ago. The genus Pseudotetracha, a group of nocturnal tiger beetles found on these remote salt lakes, includes 20 described species. Recent studies based on molecular markers and cytogenetics hinted at the existence of cryptic species within this group. Here we use various species delimitation algorithms to detect a high number of cryptic and undescribed taxa, and challenge the validity of the taxonomic characters traditionally used for discerning species in this group. Our analyses show that the divergence dates of the clades, between 10 and 5 million years ago, correspond to the period in which Australia was undergoing an aridification process that probably isolated the ancestral Pseudotetracha populations to individual lakes or palaeodrainage basins. This implies an important role of the isolation, produced by the aridification of Australia, in the speciation and divergence of Pseudotetracha, which underwent a remarkable radiation as the populations became geographically restricted. PMID:27223998

  14. Added value from 576 years of tree-ring records in the prediction of the Great Salt Lake level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Robert R.; Chung, Oi-Yu; Simon Wang, S.-Y.; DeRose, R. Justin; Sun, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Predicting lake level fluctuations of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah - the largest terminal salt-water lake in the Western Hemisphere - is critical from many perspectives. The GSL integrates both climate and hydrological variations within the region and is particularly sensitive to low-frequency climate cycles. Since most hydroclimate variable records cover less than a century, forecasting the predominant yet under-represented decadal variability of the GSL level with such relatively short instrumental records poses a challenge. To overcome data limitations, this study assesses two options: (1) developing a model using the observational GSL elevation record of 137 years to predict itself; (2) incorporating the recently reconstructed GSL elevation that utilized 576 years worth of tree-ring records into the predictive model. It was found that the statistical models that combined the tree-ring reconstructed data with the observed data outperformed those that did not, in terms of reducing the root mean squared errors. Such predictive models can serve as a means toward practical water risk management.

  15. Islands in the desert: Species delimitation and evolutionary history of Pseudotetracha tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae: Megacephalini) from Australian salt lakes.

    PubMed

    López-López, Alejandro; Hudson, Peter; Galián, José

    2016-08-01

    The Australian salt lakes are a natural archipelago-like laboratory for investigating evolutionary and population processes. Their environmental conditions have not undergone relevant changes since the aridification of Australia 10-5 million years ago. The genus Pseudotetracha, a group of nocturnal tiger beetles found on these remote salt lakes, includes 20 described species. Recent studies based on molecular markers and cytogenetics hinted at the existence of cryptic species within this group. Here we use various species delimitation algorithms to detect a high number of cryptic and undescribed taxa, and challenge the validity of the taxonomic characters traditionally used for discerning species in this group. Our analyses show that the divergence dates of the clades, between 10 and 5 million years ago, correspond to the period in which Australia was undergoing an aridification process that probably isolated the ancestral Pseudotetracha populations to individual lakes or palaeodrainage basins. This implies an important role of the isolation, produced by the aridification of Australia, in the speciation and divergence of Pseudotetracha, which underwent a remarkable radiation as the populations became geographically restricted.

  16. Biogeochemical and hydrologic processes controlling mercury cycling in Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, D.; Kenney, T.; Angeroth, C.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Perschon, C.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL), in the Western United States, is a terminal lake with a highly variable surface area that can exceed 5,100 km2. The open water and adjacent wetlands of the GSL ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere, as well as a brine shrimp industry with annual revenues exceeding 70 million dollars. Despite the ecologic and economic significance of GSL, little is known about the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) and no water-quality standards currently exist for this system. Whole water samples collected since 2000 were determined to contain elevated concentrations of total Hg (100 ng/L) and methyl Hg (33 ng/L). The elevated levels of methyl Hg are likely the result of high rates of SO4 reduction and associated Hg methylation in persistently anoxic areas of the lake at depths greater than 6.5 m below the water surface. Hydroacoustic equipment deployed in this anoxic layer indicates a "conveyor belt" flow system that can distribute methyl Hg in a predominantly southerly direction throughout the southern half of GSL (fig. 1, URL: http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs- AUG06.pdf). Periodic and sustained wind events on GSL may result in transport of the methyl Hg-rich anoxic water and bottom sediments into the oxic and biologically active regions. Sediment traps positioned above the anoxic brine interface have captured up to 6 mm of bottom sediment during cumulative wind-driven resuspension events (fig. 2, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Vertical velocity data collected with hydroacoustic equipment indicates upward flow > 1.5 cm/sec during transient wind events (fig. 3, URL:http://users.o2wire.com/dnaftz/Dave/AGU-abs-figs-AUG06.pdf). Transport of methyl Hg into the oxic regions of GSL is supported by biota samples. The median Hg concentration (wet weight) in brine shrimp increased seasonally from the spring to fall time period and is likely a

  17. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Dichloromethane Extract of Auricularia auricula-judae in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damte, Dereje; Reza, Md. Ahsanur; Lee, Seung-Jin; Jo, Woo-Sik

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dichloromethane extract of Auricularia auricula-judae. Dichloromethane extract of Auricularia auricula-judae inhibited Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced nitric oxide (NO) production significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the concentration ≥10 μg/ml (p < 0.05) . Furthermore, RT-PCR results of this study indicated that the extract markedly reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, which could possibly ameliorate the inflammation. Nevertheless, dichloromethane extract of Auricularia auricula-judae did not show complete inhibition of IL-6 mRNA expression. The inhibition of IL-1β cytokine at protein level was also observed in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion,the current study revealed the previously unknown effect of dichloromethane ethyl extract of Auricularia auricula-judae inhibitions of the production of NO, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated macrophages. PMID:24278544

  19. Linking the distribution of microbial deposits from the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) to tectonic and climatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Boulle, Julien; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Désaubliaux, Guy; Goslar, Tomasz; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Dupraz, Christophe; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-10-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a modern hypersaline lake, in which an extended modern and ancient microbial sedimentary system has developed. Detailed mapping based on aerial images and field observations can be used to identify non-random distribution patterns of microbial deposits, such as paleoshorelines associated with extensive polygons or fault-parallel alignments. Although it has been inferred that climatic changes controlling the lake level fluctuations explain the distribution of paleoshorelines and polygons, straight microbial deposit alignments may underline a normal fault system parallel to the Wasatch Front. This study is based on observations over a decimetre to kilometre spatial range, resulting in an integrated conceptual model for the controls on the distribution of the microbial deposits. The morphology, size and distribution of these deposits result mainly from environmental changes (i.e. seasonal to long-term water level fluctuations, particular geomorphological heritage, fault-induced processes, groundwater seepage) and have the potential to bring further insights into the reconstruction of paleoenvironments and paleoclimatic changes through time. New radiocarbon ages obtained on each microbial macrofabric described in this study improve the chronological framework and question the lake level variations that are commonly assumed.

  20. a Map Mash-Up Application: Investigation the Temporal Effects of Climate Change on Salt Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtiloglu, O. S.; Orhan, O.; Ekercin, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google's free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective "Map Mash-Ups" involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  1. Experimental evaluation of atmospheric effects on radiometric measurements using the EREP of Skylab. [Salton Sea and Great Salt Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. T. (Principal Investigator); Isaacs, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Test sites were located near the Great Salt Lake and the Salton Sea. Calculations were performed for a set of atmospheric models corresponding to the test sites, in addition to standard models for summer and winter midlatitude atmospheres with respective integrated water vapor amount of 2.4 g/sq cm and 0.9 g/sq cm. Each atmosphere was found to contain an average amount of continental aerosol. Computations were valid for high solar elevation angles. Atmospheric attenuation quantities were computed in addition to simulated EREP S192 radiances.

  2. Issues of scale, location and geologic terrain related to Salt Lake City and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.; Godfrey, A.E.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Planning and development of expanding metropolitan regions require consideration of earth science issues related to issues involving scale, space (location), geologic terrain and physiographic units, and information transfer. This paper explores these matters with examples from the Salt Lake City, Utah area and Mid-Atlantic region of Baltimore-Washington that include water supply and natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, and sinkholes.) Information transfer methods using physiographic units at national, regional, local and site scales serve to communicate relevant geologic constraint and natural resource information.

  3. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  4. Modeling carbon dioxide emissions reductions for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucich, Stephen M.

    In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the reduction in CO2 emissions that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 emissions by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was

  5. Earthquakes of moderate magnitude recorded at the Salt Lake paleoseimic site on the Haiyuan Fault, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Shao, Yanxiu; Xie, Kejia; Klinger, Yann; Lei, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Daoyang

    2013-04-01

    The active left-lateral Haiyuan fault is one of the major continental strike-slip faults in the Tibetan Plateau. The last large earthquake occurred on the fault is the great 1920 M~8 Haiyuan earthquake with a 230-km-long surface rupture and maximum surface slip of 11 m (Zhang et al., 1987). Much less known is its earthquake recurrence behavior. We present preliminary results on a paleoseismic study at the Salt Lake site, at a shortcut pull-apart basin, within the section that broke in 1920. 3D excavation at the site exposed 7 m of fine-grained and layered stratigraphy and ample evidence of 6-7 paleoseismic events. AMS dating of charcoal fragments constrains that the events occurred during the past 3600 years. Of these, the youngest 3-4 events are recorded in the top 2.5m section of distinctive thinly-layered stratigraphy of alternating reddish well-sorted granule sand and light gray silty fine sand. The section has been deposited since ~1550 A.D., suggesting 3-4 events occurred during the past 400 years, and an average recurrence interval of less than 150 years, surprisingly short for the Haiyuan fault, with a slip rate of arguably ~10 mm/yr or less. A comparison of paleoseismic with historical earthquake record is possible for the Haiyuan area, a region with written accounts of earthquake effects dated back to 1000 A.D.. Between 1600 A.D. and present, each of the four paleoseismic events can be correlated to one historically recorded event, within the uncertainties of paleoseismic age ranges. Nonetheless, these events are definitely not 1920-type large earthquakes, because their shaking effects were only recorded locally, rather than regionally. More and more studies show that M5 to 6 events are capable of causing ground deformation. Our results indicate that it can be misleading to simply use the time between consecutive events as the recurrence interval at a single paleoseismic site, without information of event size. Mixed events of different magnitudes in the

  6. Selenium and trace element mobility affected by periodic displacement of stratification in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, K.; Naftz, D.L.; Johnson, W.P.; Diaz, X.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a unique ecosystem in which trace element activity cannot be characterized by standard geochemical parameters due to the high salinity. Movement of selenium and other trace elements present in the lake bed sediments of GSL may occur due to periodic stratification displacement events or lake bed exposure. The water column of GSL is complicated by the presence of a chemocline persistent over annual to decadal time scales. The water below the chemocline is referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has a high salinity (16.5 to 22.9%) and is anoxic. The upper brine layer (UBL) resides above the chemocline, has lower salinity (12.6 to 14.7%) and is oxic. Displacement of the DBL may involve trace element movement within the water column due to changes in redox potential. Evidence of stratification displacement in the water column has been observed at two fixed stations on the lake by monitoring vertical water temperature profiles with horizontal and vertical velocity profiles. Stratification displacement events occur over periods of 12 to 24 h and are associated with strong wind events that can produce seiches within the water column. In addition to displacement events, the DBL shrinks and expands in response to changes in the lake surface area over a period of months. Laboratory tests simulating the observed sediment re-suspension were conducted over daily, weekly and monthly time scales to understand the effect of placing anoxic bottom sediments in contact with oxic water, and the associated effect of trace element desorption and (or) dissolution. Results from the laboratory simulations indicate that a small percentage (1%) of selenium associated with anoxic bottom sediments is periodically solubilized into the UBL where it potentially can be incorporated into the biota utilizing the oxic part of GSL.

  7. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Trace Gases and Pollutants Observed with a Light Rail Vehicle Platform in Salt Lake City, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Crosman, E.; Fasoli, B.; Leclair-Marzolf, L.; Jacques, A.; Horel, J.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments are characterized by both spatial complexity and temporal variability, each of which present challenges for measurement strategies aimed at constraining estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. To address these challenges we initiated a project in December 2014 to measure trace species (CO2, CH4, O3, and Particulate Matter) by way of a Utah Transit Authority (UTA) light rail vehicle whose route traverses the Salt Lake Valley in Utah on an hourly basis, retracing the same route through commercial, residential, suburban, and rural typologies. Light rail vehicles present advantages as a measurement platform, including the absence of in-situ fossil fuel emissions, repeated transects across a urban region that provides both spatial and temporal information, and relatively low operating costs. We present initial results from the first year of operations including the spatiotemporal patterns of greenhouse gases and pollutants across Salt Lake City, UT with an emphasis on criteria pollutants, identification of sources, and future applications of this measurement platform.

  8. Salt lakes of La Mancha (Central Spain): A hot spot for tiger beetle (Carabidae, Cicindelinae) species diversity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Flores, Paula C; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Aguirre-Ruiz, Ernesto F; García-París, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The tiger beetle assemblage of the wetlands of La Mancha (central Spain) comprises nine species: Calomera littoralis littoralis, Cephalota maura maura, Cephalota circumdata imperialis, Cephalota dulcinea, Cicindela campestris campestris, Cicindela maroccana, Cylindera paludosa, Lophyra flexuosa flexuosa, and Myriochila melancholica melancholica. This assemblage represents the largest concentration of tiger beetles in a single 1º latitude / longitude square in Europe. General patterns of spatial and temporal segregation among species are discussed based on observations of 1462 specimens registered during an observation period of one year, from April to August. The different species of Cicindelini appear to be distributed over space and time, with little overlapping among them. Three sets of species replace each other phenologically as the season goes on. Most of the species occupy drying or dried salt lakes and salt marshes, with sparse vegetation cover. Spatial segregation is marked in terms of substrate and vegetation use. Calomera littoralis and Myriochila melancholica have been observed mainly on wet soils; Cephalota circumdata on dry open saline flats; Cephalota dulcinea and Cylindera paludosa in granulated substrates with typical halophytic vegetation; Cephalota maura is often present in man-modified areas. Cephalota circumdata and Cephalota dulcinea are included as species of special interest in the list of protected species in Castilla-La Mancha. Conservation problems for the Cicindelini assemblage arise from agricultural activities and inadequate use of sport vehicles. Attempts at restoring the original habitat, supressing old semi-industrial structures, may affect the spatial heterogeneity of the lakes, and have an effect on Cicindelinae diversity. PMID:27006617

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy of lacustrine sediments in the Great Salt Lake Desert: An analog study for Martian paleolake basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Kennda L.; Horgan, Briony H.; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Hanley, Jennifer; Schneider, Robin J.; Rey, Kevin A.; Spear, John R.; Jackson, W. Andrew; Ritter, Scott M.

    2015-03-01

    The identification and characterization of aqueous minerals within ancient lacustrine environments on Mars are a high priority for determining the past habitability of the red planet. Terrestrial analog studies are useful both for understanding the mineralogy of lacustrine sediments, how the mineralogy varies with location in a lacustrine environment, and for validating the use of certain techniques such as visible-near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy. In this study, sediments from the Pilot Valley paleolake basin of the Great Salt Lake desert were characterized using VNIR as an analog for Martian paleolake basins. The spectra and subsequent interpretations were then compared to mineralogical characterization by ground truth methods, including X-ray diffraction, automated scanning electron microscopy, and several geochemical analysis techniques. In general, there is good agreement between VNIR and ground truth methods on the major classes of minerals present in the lake sediments and VNIR spectra can also easily discriminate between clay-dominated and salt-dominated lacustrine terrains within the paleolake basin. However, detection of more detailed mineralogy is difficult with VNIR spectra alone as some minerals can dominate the spectra even at very low abundances. At this site, the VNIR spectra are dominated by absorption bands that are most consistent with gypsum and smectites, though the ground truth methods reveal more diverse mineral assemblages that include a variety of sulfates, primary and secondary phyllosilicates, carbonates, and chlorides. This study provides insight into the limitations regarding the use of VNIR in characterizing complex mineral assemblages inherent in lacustrine settings.

  10. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  13. Use of Landsat land surface temperature and vegetation indices for monitoring drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984-2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5-2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  14. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  15. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  16. Stable isotope record of Holocene climate and ecological change from brine shrimp cyst chitin for the Great Salt Lake, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present a record of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in brine shrimp cysts from the Great Salt Lake, a terminal lake in the Great Basin, US. Water balance for the region is influenced by strength of the El Niño in Pacific and by the strength of the summer monsoon. Brine shrimp cysts are a novel proxy for isotope reconstruction, and allow reconstruction of water isotopes (oxygen, hydrogen) and ecology (hydrogen). Oxygen isotopes in chitin respond to water, while both diet and growth water contribute to hydrogen isotopes, allowing reconstruction of both environmental and ecological information from a single molecule. Values of δ18O decrease from about +15‰ to about +11‰ over course of the 8000 year record. This may suggest the importance of snow melt increased over the Holocene, or it may suggest lake is larger today than it was in mid-Holocene. Hydrogen isotopes are relatively stable for most of record, fluctuating around -140‰. Modeled hydrogen isotopes in food, also stable in the beginning of the record at about -150‰, become much heavier, shifting toward about -75‰ starting about 5000 ybp. This may suggest a shift from a primarily aquatic diet in the Mid-Holocene to a diet with a greater contribution of terrestrial material later in the Holocene. These observations agree broadly with previous inferences of a warm Mid-Holocene and associated low terrestrial productivity, followed by a more moist, and consequently more productive Late Holocene.

  17. Desulfonatronobacter acetoxydans sp. nov.,: a first acetate-oxidizing, extremely salt-tolerant alkaliphilic SRB from a hypersaline soda lake.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Chernyh, N A; Poroshina, M N

    2015-09-01

    Recent intensive microbiological investigation of sulfidogenesis in soda lakes did not result in isolation of any pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) able to directly oxidize acetate. The sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at haloalkaline conditions has, so far, been only shown in two syntrophic associations of novel Syntrophobacteraceae members and haloalkaliphilic hydrogenotrophic SRB. In the course of investigation of one of them, obtained from a hypersaline soda lake in South-Western Siberia, a minor component was observed showing a close relation to Desulfonatronobacter acidivorans--a "complete oxidizing" SRB from soda lakes. This organism became dominant in a secondary enrichment with propionate as e-donor and sulfate as e-acceptor. A pure culture, strain APT3, was identified as a novel member of the family Desulfobacteraceae. It is an extremely salt-tolerant alkaliphile, growing with butyrate at salinity up to 4 M total Na(+) with a pH optimum at 9.5. It can grow with sulfate as e-acceptor with C3-C9 VFA and also with some alcohols. The most interesting property of strain APT3 is its ability to grow with acetate as e-donor, although not with sulfate, but with sulfite or thiosulfate as e-acceptors. The new isolate is proposed as a new species Desulfonatronobacter acetoxydans.

  18. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP.

  19. Purple Sulfur Bacteria Control the Growth of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacterioplankton in a Meromictic Salt Lake

    PubMed Central

    Overmann, J.; Beatty, J. T.; Hall, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    In meromictic Mahoney Lake, British Columbia, Canada, the heterotrophic bacterial production in the mixolimnion exceeded concomitant primary production by a factor of 7. Bacterial growth rates were correlated neither to primary production nor to the amount of chlorophyll a. Both results indicate an uncoupling of bacteria and phytoplankton. In the chemocline of the lake, an extremely dense population of the purple sulfur bacterium Amoebobacter purpureus is present year round. We investigated whether anoxygenic phototrophs are significant for the growth of aerobic bacterioplankton in the overlaying water. Bacterial growth rates in the mixolimnion were limited by inorganic phosphorus or nitrogen most of the time, and the biomass of heterotrophic bacteria did not increase until, in autumn, 86% of the cells of A. purpureus appeared in the mixolimnion because of their reduced buoyant density. The increase in heterotrophic bacterial biomass, soluble phosphorus concentrations below the detection limit, and an extraordinarily high activity of alkaline phosphatase in the mixolimnion indicate a rapid liberation of organically bound phosphorus from A. purpureus cells accompanied by a simultaneous incorporation into heterotrophic bacterioplankton. High concentrations of allochthonously derived dissolved organic carbon (mean, 60 mg of C(middot)liter(sup-1)) were measured in the lake water. In Mahoney Lake, liberation of phosphorus from upwelling purple sulfur bacteria and degradation of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon as an additional carbon source render heterotrophic bacterial production largely independent of the photosynthesis of phytoplankton. A recycling of inorganic nutrients via phototrophic bacteria also appears to be relevant in other lakes with anoxic bottom waters. PMID:16535399

  20. Great Salt Lake halophilic microorganisms as models for astrobiology: evidence for desiccation tolerance and ultraviolet irradiation resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Bonnie K.; Eddington, Breanne; Riddle, Misty R.; Webster, Tabitha N.; Avery, Brian J.

    2007-09-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is home to halophiles, salt-tolerant Bacteria and Archaea, which live at 2-5M NaCl. In addition to salt tolerance, GSL halophiles exhibit resistance to both ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and desiccation. First, to understand desiccation resistance, we sought to determine the diversity of GSL halophiles capable of surviving desiccation in either recently formed GSL halite crystals or GSL Artemia (brine shrimp) cysts. From these desiccated environments, surviving microorganisms were cultured and isolated, and genomic DNA was extracted from the individual species for identification by 16S rRNA gene homology. From the surface-sterilized cysts we also extracted DNA of the whole microbial population for non-cultivation techniques. We amplified the archaeal or bacterial 16S rRNA gene from all genomic DNA, cloned the cyst population amplicons, and sequenced. These sequences were compared to gene databases for determination of closest matched species. Interestingly, the isolates from the crystal dissolution are distinct from those previously isolated from GSL brine. The cyst population results reveal species not found in crystals or brine, and may indicate microorganisms that live as endosymbionts of this hypersaline arthropod. Second, we explored UV resistance in a GSL haloarchaea species, "H. salsolis." This strain resists UV irradiation an order of magnitude better than control species, all of which have intact repair systems. To test the hypothesis that halophiles have a photoprotection system, which prevents DNA damage from occurring, we designed an immunoassay to detect thymine dimers following UV irradiation. "H. salsolis" showed remarkable resistance to dimer formation. Evidence for both UV and desiccation resistance in these salt-tolerant GSL halophiles makes them well-suited as models for Astrobiological studies in pursuit of questions about life beyond earth.

  1. Water quality at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins (GRSL) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program encompasses the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River systems, all of which discharge to Great Salt Lake in Utah. Data were collected during each month at 10 sites in the GRSL study unit from October 1998 to September 2000 to define spatial and temporal distribution and variability in concentration of nutrients, major ions, trace elements, suspended sediments, and organic compounds. Water samples collected from rangeland and forest sites in the GRSL study unit generally contained low concentrations of dissolved solids. Median dissolved-solids concentration in water samples was highest at sites with mixed land uses. Dissolved-solids concentration in some parts of the Bear River during low flow exceeded Utah State standards for agricultural use. Total-nitrogen concentration in water samples from GRSL sites ranged from 0.06 to 11 milligrams per liter. Water samples from predominantly forest and rangeland sites generally had a low total-nitrogen concentration. Many samples from sites with a higher percentage of agricultural and urban land cover had higher concentrations of total nitrogen. Fifty percent of the samples collected at GRSL sites had total phosphorus concentrations that exceeded 0.1 milligram per liter, the recommended limit for the prevention of nuisance aquatic-plant growth in streams not discharging directly into lakes or impoundments. Concentration of most trace elements in water samples from the fixed sites generally was low; however, arsenic concentrations, as high as 284 micrograms per liter, sometimes exceeded aquatic-life guidelines. Forty-three pesticides and 35 volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from three GRSL sites; however, the concentration of most was low, less than 1 microgram per liter. The herbicides atrazine and prometon and the insecticides carbaryl and diazinon were the most frequently detected pesticides

  2. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical... section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Nuclear...

  3. THE MEASUREMENT OF PM2.5, INCLUDING SEMI-VOLATILE COMPONENTS, IN THE EMPACT PROGRAM: RESULTS FROM THE SALT LAKE CITY STUDY. (R827993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Lake City EPA Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) project, initiated in October 1999, is designed to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed real-time continuous monitor (RAMS) for total (non-volatile plus semi-volatile) PM<...

  4. Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Carbon Dioxide In The Urban Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA: Source And Long-Term Monitoring Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J.; Lai, C.; Strong, C.; Pataki, D. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Schauer, A. J.; Bush, S.

    2011-12-01

    A high-precision, decadal record of carbon isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide has been produced for the urbanized Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA. These data complement a similar time series of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for different locations in the same urban region. This isotopic record includes diurnal and nocturnal observations based on flask (IRMS-based) and continuous (TDL-based) measurement systems. These data reveal repeatable diurnal and seasonal variations in the anthropogenic and biogenic carbon sources that can be used to reconstruct different source inputs. As the Salt Lake Valley is an isolated urban region, the impacts of local anthropogenic inputs can be distinguished from regional patterns as measured by NOAA at the rural Wendover monitoring station 200 km to the west of the Salt Lake Valley. Complementary data, such as vehicle exhaust, emission from power plants and household furnaces, plant and soil organic matter, are also provided to quantify the carbon isotope ratios of the predominant anthropogenic and biogenic sources within the Salt Lake Valley. The combined source and long-term observational values will be made freely available and their utility is discussed for modeling efforts including urban metabolism modeling and atmospheric trace gas modeling.

  5. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA. Technical Supplement. Volume I [and] Volume II--Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David; Smith, D. Alden

    The research methods, procedures, and data for determining the impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy (1978) are outlined. A 30-equation model was used to identify a variety of effects on local businesses, government, and individuals. Researchers examined internal records of the 10 institutions as well as local, state,…

  6. Field immobilization of feral 'Judas' donkeys (Equus asinus) by remote injection of medetomidine and ketamine and antagonism with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Andrew P; Hampton, Jordan O; Campbell, Susan; Lethbridge, Mark R; Boardman, Wayne S J; Sharp, Trudy; Rose, Ken

    2012-04-01

    The Judas technique is a method used for landscape control of feral donkeys (Equus asinus) in northern Australia. Central to the success of any Judas program is the safe, efficient, and humane attachment of the telemetry device. For feral donkeys, this involves the use of field immobilization. We examine the replacement of the current chemical capture agent, succinylcholine, with contemporary immobilization agents to achieve positive animal welfare outcomes. A combination of medetomidine and ketamine delivered by remote injection from a helicopter was used to capture 14 free-ranging feral donkeys for the fitting of telemetry collars in Western Australia in November 2010. Dose rates of 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine and 4.1 mg/kg ketamine were appropriate to immobilize animals in 9 min (± SD = 3). Mean recovery time (total time in recumbency) was 21 min (± 14). All animals recovered uneventfully after being administered atipamezole, a specific antagonist of medetomidine, intramuscularly at 0.35 mg/kg. Physiologic parameters were recorded during recumbency, with environment-related hyperthermia being the only abnormality recognized. No significant complications were encountered, and this drug combination represents an efficient approach to capturing wild donkeys. This new method allows a rapid, safe, cost-effective approach to the immobilization of feral donkeys for use as Judas animals. This drug combination will replace the relatively inhumane succinylcholine for the field immobilization of feral donkeys.

  7. Ecophysiology of "halarsenatibacter silvermanii" strain SLAS-1T, gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultative chemoautotrophic arsenate respirer from salt-saturated Searles Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, J.S.; Han, S.; Lanoil, B.; Saltikov, C.; Witte, B.; Tabita, F.R.; Langley, S.; Beveridge, T.J.; Jahnke, L.; Oremland, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Searles Lake occupies a closed basin harboring salt-saturated, alkaline brines that have exceptionally high concentrations of arsenic oxyanions. Strain SLAS-1T was previously isolated from Searles Lake (R. S. Oremland, T. R. Kulp, J. Switzer Blum, S. E. Hoeft, S. Baesman, L. G. Miller, and J. F. Stolz, Science 308:1305-1308, 2005). We now describe this extremophile with regard to its substrate affinities, its unusual mode of motility, sequenced arrABD gene cluster, cell envelope lipids, and its phylogenetic alignment within the order Halanaero-bacteriales, assigning it the name "Halarsenatibacter silvermanii" strain SLAS-1T. We also report on the substrate dynamics of an anaerobic enrichment culture obtained from Searles Lake that grows under conditions of salt saturation and whose members include a novel sulfate reducer of the order Desulfovibriales, the archaeon Halorhabdus utahensis, as well as a close homolog of strain SLAS-1T. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  9. Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  11. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the southern Great Salt Lake Desert and summary of the hydrology of west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Kruer, Stacie A.

    1981-01-01

    This report is the last of 19 hydrologic reconnaissances of the basins in western Utah. The purposes of this series of studies are (1) to analyze available hydrologic data and describe the hydrologic system, (2) to evaluate existing and potential water-resources development, and (3) to identify additional studies that might be needed. Part 1 of this report gives an estimate of recharge and discharge, an estimate of the potential for water-resources development, and a statement on the quality of water in the southern Great Salt Lake Desert part of west-central Utah. Part 2 deals with the same aspects of west-central Utah as a whole. Part 2 also summarizes the evidence of interbasin ground-water flow in west-central Utah and presents a theory for the origin of the water discharged from Fish Springs.

  12. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration.

  13. Salt lakes of La Mancha (Central Spain): A hot spot for tiger beetle (Carabidae, Cicindelinae) species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Flores, Paula C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Aguirre-Ruiz, Ernesto F.; García-París, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The tiger beetle assemblage of the wetlands of La Mancha (central Spain) comprises nine species: Calomera littoralis littoralis, Cephalota maura maura, Cephalota circumdata imperialis, Cephalota dulcinea, Cicindela campestris campestris, Cicindela maroccana, Cylindera paludosa, Lophyra flexuosa flexuosa, and Myriochila melancholica melancholica. This assemblage represents the largest concentration of tiger beetles in a single 1º latitude / longitude square in Europe. General patterns of spatial and temporal segregation among species are discussed based on observations of 1462 specimens registered during an observation period of one year, from April to August. The different species of Cicindelini appear to be distributed over space and time, with little overlapping among them. Three sets of species replace each other phenologically as the season goes on. Most of the species occupy drying or dried salt lakes and salt marshes, with sparse vegetation cover. Spatial segregation is marked in terms of substrate and vegetation use. Calomera littoralis and Myriochila melancholica have been observed mainly on wet soils; Cephalota circumdata on dry open saline flats; Cephalota dulcinea and Cylindera paludosa in granulated substrates with typical halophytic vegetation; Cephalota maura is often present in man-modified areas. Cephalota circumdata and Cephalota dulcinea are included as species of special interest in the list of protected species in Castilla–La Mancha. Conservation problems for the Cicindelini assemblage arise from agricultural activities and inadequate use of sport vehicles. Attempts at restoring the original habitat, supressing old semi-industrial structures, may affect the spatial heterogeneity of the lakes, and have an effect on Cicindelinae diversity. PMID:27006617

  14. West Nile Virus Transmission in Winter: The 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality Event

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlane, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dickson, Sammie Lee; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee; Bodenstein, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites. PMID:24761310

  15. West nile virus transmission in winter: the 2013 great salt lake bald eagle and eared grebes mortality event.

    PubMed

    Ip, Hon S; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; McFarlane, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dickson, Sammie Lee; Baker, Jodee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee; Bodenstein, Barbara

    2014-04-18

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  16. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  17. Density-stratified flow events in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA: implications for mercury and salinity cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Carling, Gregory T.; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Pazmiño, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Density stratification in saline and hypersaline water bodies from throughout the world can have large impacts on the internal cycling and loading of salinity, nutrients, and trace elements. High temporal resolution hydroacoustic and physical/chemical data were collected at two sites in Great Salt Lake (GSL), a saline lake in the western USA, to understand how density stratification may influence salinity and mercury (Hg) distributions. The first study site was in a causeway breach where saline water from GSL exchanges with less saline water from a flow restricted bay. Near-surface-specific conductance values measured in water at the breach displayed a good relationship with both flow and wind direction. No diurnal variations in the concentration of dissolved (total and MeHg loadings was observed during periods of elevated salinity. The second study site was located on the bottom of GSL where movement of a high-salinity water layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), is restricted to a naturally occurring 1.5-km-wide “spillway” structure. During selected time periods in April/May, 2012, wind-induced flow reversals in a railroad causeway breach, separating Gunnison and Gilbert Bays, were coupled with high-velocity flow pulses (up to 55 cm/s) in the DBL at the spillway site. These flow pulses were likely driven by a pressure response of highly saline water from Gunnison Bay flowing into the north basin of Gilbert Bay. Short-term flow reversal events measured at the railroad causeway breach have the ability to move measurable amounts of salt and Hg from Gunnison Bay into the DBL. Future disturbance to the steady state conditions currently imposed by the railroad causeway infrastructure could result in changes to the existing chemical balance between Gunnison and Gilbert Bays. Monitoring instruments were installed at six additional sites in the DBL during October 2012 to assess impacts from any future modifications to the railroad causeway.

  18. West nile virus transmission in winter: the 2013 great salt lake bald eagle and eared grebes mortality event.

    PubMed

    Ip, Hon S; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; McFarlane, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dickson, Sammie Lee; Baker, Jodee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee; Bodenstein, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites. PMID:24761310

  19. Responses of Wetland Biota to Water Quality in Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madon, S.; Hoven, H.; Miller, T.; Myers, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Farmington Bay wetlands are part of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and are valued as important feeding and nesting areas for migratory birds and for support of aquatic life and various recreational activities. The construction of a causeway in 1969 subsequently reduced natural mixing between Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake, often causing nutrients to remain concentrated in Farmington Bay. In recent years, there has also been growing concern among natural resource agencies and local stakeholders about the effects of nutrient loads from publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) and other natural and anthropogenic sources on the assimilative capacity of the Farmington Bay wetlands. In response to these concerns, the Utah Division of Water Quality began a program in 2004 to characterize the wetland ecosystems of Farmington Bay. The results presented in this study mainly represent the first year of a three-year characterization effort. Wetland sites representing a variety of wetland types along Farmington Bay were sampled in the fall of 2004 and included 16 sites receiving sheet-flow hydrology and 13 impounded sites. Sites included areas receiving flows from POTWs and reference sites which lacked such flows. Sampling was conducted at each site along established transects to characterize water quality (pH, total dissolved solids or TDS, dissolved oxygen, total P, total-N, and water temperature), wetland soils (pH, conductivity and organic matter), wetland plants (species, percent cover and plant height) and macroinvertebrates (species and numbers). Univariate and multivariate statistical tests were used to explore relationships between physical, chemical and biological variables and define key metrics of wetland function in relation to water quality. This study provides a preliminary evaluation of the ecological relationships and patterns between key biological and water quality parameters and offers useful insights into potential metrics that may be useful in

  20. Mineralogic Causes of Variations in Magnetic Susceptibility of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Sediment from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    We describe here results of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements and magnetic mineralogy of sediments sampled in three cores from the south basin of Great Salt Lake. The cores were obtained in 1996 with a Kullenburg-type piston corer at sites in close proximity: core 96-4 at 41 deg 01.00' N, 112 deg 28.00' W and cores 96-5 and 96-6 at 41 deg 00.09' N, 112 deg 23.05' W. Cores 96-5 (2.16 m long) and -6 combine to make a composite 11.31-m sediment record. Sediments in core 96-4 (5.54 m long) correspond to the approximate depth interval of 3.9-9.6 m in the composite core of 96-5 and -6 based on similarities in the MS records as described below. The central goal of the research was to provide a sediment record of paleoenvironmental change in the northeastern Basin and Range Province over the past 40,000 years. Specific targets included a sedimentologic record of lake-level change combined with a pollen record of climatic change.

  1. Patterns and Determinants of Halophilic Archaea (Class Halobacteria) Diversity in Tunisian Endorheic Salt Lakes and Sebkhet Systems

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Cherif, Ameur

    2015-01-01

    We examined the diversity and community structure of members of the halophilic Archaea (class Halobacteria) in samples from central and southern Tunisian endorheic salt lakes and sebkhet (also known as sebkha) systems using targeted 16S rRNA gene diversity survey and quantitative PCR (qPCR) approaches. Twenty-three different samples from four distinct locations exhibiting a wide range of salinities (2% to 37%) and physical characteristics (water, salt crust, sediment, and biofilm) were examined. A total of 4,759 operational taxonomic units at the 0.03 (species-level) cutoff (OTU0.03s) belonging to 45 currently recognized genera were identified, with 8 to 43 genera (average, 30) identified per sample. In spite of the large number of genera detected per sample, only a limited number (i.e., 2 to 16) usually constituted the majority (≥80%) of encountered sequences. Halobacteria diversity showed a strong negative correlation to salinity (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.92), and community structure analysis identified salinity, rather than the location or physical characteristics of the sample, as the most important factor shaping the Halobacteria community structure. The relative abundance of genera capable of biosynthesis of the compatible solute(s) trehalose or 2-sulfotrehalose decreased with increasing salinities (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.80). Indeed, qPCR analysis demonstrated that the Halobacteria otsB (trehalose-6-phosphatase)/16S rRNA gene ratio decreases with increasing salinities (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.87). The results highlight patterns and determinants of Halobacteria diversity at a previously unexplored ecosystem and indicate that genera lacking trehalose biosynthetic capabilities are more adapted to growth in and colonization of hypersaline (>25% salt) ecosystems than trehalose producers. PMID:25911472

  2. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  3. The fate of minor alkali elements in the chemical evolution of salt lakes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline earth elements and alkali metals (Mg, Ca, Na and K) play an important role in the geochemical evolution of saline lakes as the final brine type is defined by the abundance of these elements. The role of major ions in brine evolution has been studied in great detail, but little has been done to investigate the behaviour of minor alkali elements in these systems despite their similar chemical affinities to the major cations. We have examined three major anionic brine types, chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate-carbonate, in fifteen lakes in North America and Antarctica to determine the geochemical behaviour of lithium, rubidium, strontium, and barium. Lithium and rubidium are largely conservative in all water types, and their concentrations are the result of long-term solute input and concentration through evaporation and/or sublimation. Strontium and barium behaviours vary with anionic brine type. Strontium can be removed in sulphate and carbonate-rich lakes by the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Barium may be removed in chloride and sulphate brines by either the precipitation of barite and perhaps biological uptake. PMID:21992434

  4. Image-based terrain modeling with thematic mapper applied to resolving the limit of Holocene Lake expansion in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scanner records reflected solar energy from the earth's surface in six wavelength regions, or bands, and one band that records emitted energy in the thermal region, giving a total of seven bands. Useful research was extracted about terrain morphometry from remote sensing measurements and this information is used in an image-based terrain model for selected coastal geomorphic features in the Great Salt Lake Desert (GSLD). Technical developments include the incorporation of Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) data in satellite image analysis, and the production and use of 3-D surface plots of TM reflectance data. Also included in the technical developments is the analysis of the ground control point spatial distribution and its affects on geometric correction, and the terrain mapping procedure; using satellite data in a way that eliminates the need to degrade the data by resampling. The most common approach for terrain mapping with multispectral scanner data includes the techniques of pattern recognition and image classification, as opposed to direct measurement of radiance for identification of terrain features. The research approach in this investigation was based on an understanding of the characteristics of reflected light resulting from the variations in moisture and geometry related to terrain as described by the physical laws of radiative transfer. The image-based terrain model provides quantitative information about the terrain morphometry based on the physical relationship between TM data, the physical character of the GSLD, and the APTS measurements.

  5. The Arsenic Cycle in Searles Lake, California: An Arsenic-Rich, Salt-Saturated Soda Lake. II. Isolation of Arsenic-Metabolizing Microbes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Stolz, J. F.; Langley, S.; Beveridge, T. J.; Kulp, T. R.; Oremland, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    The motivation for isolating arsenic-metabolizing prokaryotes from Searles Lake was to characterize the physiology of microbes that can cope simultaneously with at least 3 environmental extremes: saturating salt concentration, high pH, and high dissolved inorganic arsenic. A secondary motivation was to find extremely halophilc Archaea that could respire As(V), as this has only been reported for the Crenarchaea. Enrichment cultures of arsenate [As(V)]-respirers were established by inoculating Searles Lake mud into an anaerobic, alkaline (pH = 9.8) artificial medium containing 346 g/L dissolved salts, with lactate as the electron donor and As(V) as the electron acceptor. After about 6 months of bi-weekly transfers, the enrichment was purified by serial dilution, with the highest growth-positive dilution tube exhibiting motile cells having uniform morphology (curved rods). This culture, strain SLAS-1, grew by oxidizing lactate to acetate plus carbon dioxide while reducing As(V) to arsenite [As(III)]. The doubling time was 48 hours at 346 g/L salinity, and nearly equivalent growth rates were observed over a salinity range of 200 to 346 g/l, with no growth evident below 200 g/L. The pH range was 8.5 to 10, with an optimum at 9.5. Strain SLAS-1 has an unusual motility that can be characterized as a "fish-like" swimming motion. Thin section electron micrographs revealed the presence of an internal cytoplasmic filament that runs the full length of the microorganism. We suggest that this filament may be involved in cellular motility. However, taxonomic classification of SLAS-1 made by 16S rRNA gene sequences aligned it in the order Haloanaerobacteriales of the Domain Bacteria. In a further effort to isolate haloalkaliphilic Archaea, a similar enrichment strategy was employed as above, but cell-wall antibiotics were added to the medium to discourage the growth of Bacteria. An enrichment culture, designated Serl-Ab, was established that oxidized lactate to acetate plus carbon

  6. Planktosalinus lacus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Qing; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-staining-negative bacterium, strain X14M-14T, was isolated from a salt lake (Lake Xiaochaidan) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain X14M-14T were non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. Strain X14M-14T was strictly heterotrophic and aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain X14M-14T belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and formed a distinct lineage that was independent of the most closely related genera: Aequorivita (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 91.8-93.1 %) and Salinimicrobium (91.5-92.4 %). Strain X14M-14T contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown lipids as the major polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The presence of iso-C15 : 1 G as a predominant fatty acid could distinguish this strain clearly from the most closely related genera in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The DNA G+C content was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain X14M-14T represents a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Planktosalinus lacus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X14M-14T ( = CGMCC 1.12924T = KCTC 42675T). PMID:26928891

  7. [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Swanson, Kevin D.; Howells, Alta E.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Meuser, Jonathan E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Peters, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2). Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:25464382

  8. Size and elemental distributions of nano- to micro-particulates in the geochemically-stratified Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Fernandez, D.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of trace elements in terms of their apportionment among dissolved, macromolecular, nano- and micro-particulate phases in the water column of the Great Salt Lake carries implications for the potential entry of toxins into the food web of the lake. Samples from the anoxic deep and oxic shallow brine layers of the lake were fractionated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The associated trace elements were measured via online collision cell inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CC-ICP-MS). Results showed that of the total (dissolved + particulate) trace element mass, the percent associated with particulates varied from negligible (e.g. Sb), to greater than 50% (e.g. Al, Fe, Pb). Elements such as Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Au, Hg, and U were associated with nanoparticles, as well as being present as dissolved species. Particulate-associated trace elements were predominantly associated with particulates larger than 450 nm in size. Among the smaller nanoparticulates (<450 nm), some trace elements (Ni, Zn, Au and Pb) showed higher percent mass (associated with nanoparticles) in the 0.9-7.5 nm size range relative to the 10-250 nm size range. The apparent nanoparticle size distributions were similar between the two brine layers; whereas, important differences in elemental associations to nanoparticles were discerned between the two layers. Elements such as Zn, Cu, Pb and Mo showed increasing signal intensities from oxic shallow to anoxic deep brine, suggesting the formation of sulfide nanoparticles, although this may also reflect association with dissolved organic matter. Aluminum and Fe showed greatly increased concentration with depth and equivalent size distributions that differed from those of Zn, Cu, Pb and Mo. Other elements (e.g. Mn, Ni, and Co) showed no significant change in signal intensity with depth. Arsenic was associated with <2 nm nanoparticles, and showed no increase in concentration with depth, possibly indicating

  9. Estimation of Selenium Loads Entering the South Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, from May 2006 through March 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Johnson, William P.; Freeman, Michael L.; Beisner, Kimberly; Diaz, Ximena; Cross, VeeAnn A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collected from six streamflow-gaging stations were used in combination with the LOADEST software to provide an estimate of total (dissolved + particulate) selenium (Se) load to the south arm of Great Salt Lake (GSL) from May 2006 through March 2008. Total estimated Se load to GSL during this time period was 2,370 kilograms (kg). The 12-month estimated Se load to GSL for May 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007, was 1,560 kg. During the 23-month monitoring period, inflows from the Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) Drain and Bear River outflow contributed equally to the largest proportion of total Se load to GSL, accounting for 49 percent of the total Se load. Five instantaneous discharge measurements at three sites along the railroad causeway indicate a consistent net loss of Se mass from the south arm to the north arm of GSL (mean = 2.4 kg/day, n = 5). Application of the average daily loss rate equates to annual Se loss rate to the north arm of 880 kg (56 percent of the annual Se input to the south arm). The majority of Se in water entering GSL is in the dissolved (less than 0.45 micron) state and ranges in concentration from 0.06 to 35.7 micrograms per liter (ug/L). Particulate Se concentration ranged from less than 0.05 to 2.5 ug/L. Except for the KUCC Drain streamflow-gaging station, dissolved (less than 0.45 um) inflow samples contain an average of 21 percent selenite (SeO32-) during two sampling events (May 2006 and 2007). Selenium concentration in water samples collected from four monitoring sites within GSL during May 2006 through August 2007 were used to understand how the cumulative Se load was being processed by various biogeochemical processes within the lake. On the basis of the Mann-Kendall test results, changes in dissolved Se concentration at the four monitoring sites indicate a statistically significant (90-percent confidence interval) upward trend in Se concentration over the 16-month monitoring period. Furthermore

  10. Multivariate analysis of particulate sulfate and other air quality variables by principal components—II. Salt Lake City, Utah and St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Ronald C.; Hidy, George M.

    The behavior of 24-h average concentrations of particulate sulfate is investigated in relation to other aerometric variables for St. Louis and Salt Lake City. These cities were chosen to contrast and compare with Los Angeles and New York, which have been reported previously. The observations were examined statistically using a regression analysis of sulfate on Principal Components (PC) of the other aerometric variables. The PCs are associated with indications of the independent effects of atmospheric chemistry and dispersion, pollutant emissions and seasonal variations. The analysis showed major distinctions between sulfate dependence on aerometric variables in the four cities. These are interpreted in terms of differences in the influence of air transport, dispersion and atmospheric chemical processes. Sulfate levels in St. Louis are found to be highly correlated with a seasonal photochemical smog component which is very similar to that found in Los Angeles and New York City. In the dry climate of Salt Lake City, sulfate formation is a maximum in the winter rather than in the summer and appears to depend mainly on the relation between sources and synoptic meteorological conditions conducive to air stagnation, and trapping of pollution beneath a low inversion. The lack of a moist and photochemically-related contribution to sulfate variability and the winter sulfate maximum in Salt Lake City suggests that primary sulfate emissions are an influencing factor, or the predominant SO 2 oxidation process is a heterogeneous one most active in winter air.

  11. Drop-size soda lakes: transient microbial habitats on a salt-secreting desert tree.

    PubMed

    Qvit-Raz, Noga; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Belkin, Shimshon

    2008-03-01

    We describe a hitherto unrecognized bacterial community, inhabiting the leaf surfaces of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix. High temperatures, strong radiation, and very low humidity dictate a daytime existence in complete desiccation, but damp nights allow the microbial population to proliferate in a sugar-rich, alkaline, and hypersaline solution, before drying up again after sunrise. The exclusively bacterial population contains many undescribed species and genera, but nevertheless appears to be characterized by relatively limited species diversity. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes from either isolates or total community DNA place the identified members of the community in five bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, alpha-, and gamma-Proteobacteria); in each of these, they concentrate in a very narrow branch that in most cases harbors organisms isolated from unrelated halophilic environments. PMID:18245835

  12. Sequence and structural characterization of great salt lake bacteriophage CW02, a member of the T7-like supergroup.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peter S; Domek, Matthew J; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Makaju, Aman; Taylor, Ryan M; Hoggan, Ryan; Culumber, Michele D; Oberg, Craig J; Breakwell, Donald P; Prince, John T; Belnap, David M

    2012-08-01

    Halophage CW02 infects a Salinivibrio costicola-like bacterium, SA50, isolated from the Great Salt Lake. Following isolation, cultivation, and purification, CW02 was characterized by DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, and electron microscopy. A conserved module of structural genes places CW02 in the T7 supergroup, members of which are found in diverse aquatic environments, including marine and freshwater ecosystems. CW02 has morphological similarities to viruses of the Podoviridae family. The structure of CW02, solved by cryogenic electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, enabled the fitting of a portion of the bacteriophage HK97 capsid protein into CW02 capsid density, thereby providing additional evidence that capsid proteins of tailed double-stranded DNA phages have a conserved fold. The CW02 capsid consists of bacteriophage lambda gpD-like densities that likely contribute to particle stability. Turret-like densities were found on icosahedral vertices and may represent a unique adaptation similar to what has been seen in other extremophilic viruses that infect archaea, such as Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus and halophage SH1.

  13. Streptomonospora amylolytica sp. nov. and Streptomonospora flavalba sp. nov., two novel halophilic actinomycetes isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Tang, Shu-Kun; Chen, Yi-Guang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-10-01

    Two novel halophilic, aerobic, catalase-positive but oxidase-negative, Gram-positive actinomycetes, designated YIM 91353(T) and YIM 91394(T), were isolated from a salt lake in the north-west of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolates should be assigned to the genus Streptomonospora. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolates also matched those described for members of the genus Streptomonospora. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H(8)), MK-10(H(6)) and MK-9(H(8)), and meso-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic amino acid in the cell walls. The phospholipids of the isolates consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The major fatty acids of strain YIM 91353(T) were anteiso-C(17 : 0) and C(18 : 0), and of strain YIM 91394(T) were anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C contents were 71.2 and 72.5 mol%, respectively. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic differences supported the view that strains YIM 91353(T) and YIM 91394(T) each represent a novel species of the genus Streptomonospora, for which the names Streptomonospora amylolytica sp. nov. and Streptomonospora flavalba sp. nov. are proposed, with type strains YIM 91353(T) (=DSM 45171(T)=CCTCC AA 208048(T)) and YIM 91394(T) (=DSM 45155(T)=CCTCC AA 208047(T)), respectively.

  14. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in contrasting environmental settings: Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Zappia, H.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of invertebrate assemblages along gradients of urban intensity were examined in three metropolitan areas with contrasting climates and topography (Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Salt Lake City, Utah). Urban gradients were defined using an urban intensity index (UII) derived from basin-scale population, infrastructure, land-use, land-cover, and socioeconomic characteristics. Responses based on assemblage metrics, indices of biotic integrity (B-IBI), and ordinations were readily detected in all three urban areas and many responses could be accurately predicted simply using regional UIIs. Responses to UII were linear and did not indicate any initial resistance to urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urbanization than were density metrics. Metrics that were good indicators were specific to each study except for a richness-based tolerance metric (TOLr) and one B-IBI. Tolerances to urbanization were derived for 205 taxa. These tolerances differed among studies and with published tolerance values, but provided similar characterizations of site conditions. Basin-scale land-use changes were the most important variables for explaining invertebrate responses to urbanization. Some chemical and instream physical habitat variables were important in individual studies, but not among studies. Optimizing the study design to detect basin-scale effects may have reduced the ability to detect local-scale effects. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  16. Enrichment of arsenic transforming and resistant heterotrophic bacteria from sediments of two salt lakes in Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lara, José; Escudero González, Lorena; Ferrero, Marcela; Chong Díaz, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Microbial populations are involved in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle in catalyzing arsenic transformations and playing indirect roles. To investigate which ecotypes among the diverse microbial communities could have a role in cycling arsenic in salt lakes in Northern Chile and to obtain clues to facilitate their isolation in pure culture, sediment samples from Salar de Ascotán and Salar de Atacama were cultured in diluted LB medium amended with NaCl and arsenic, at different incubation conditions. The samples and the cultures were analyzed by nucleic acid extraction, fingerprinting analysis, and sequencing. Microbial reduction of As was evidenced in all the enrichments carried out in anaerobiosis. The results revealed that the incubation factors were more important for determining the microbial community structure than arsenic species and concentrations. The predominant microorganisms in enrichments from both sediments belonged to the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla, but most of the bacterial ecotypes were confined to only one system. The occurrence of an active arsenic biogeochemical cycle was suggested in the system with the highest arsenic content that included populations compatible with microorganisms able to transform arsenic for energy conservation, accumulate arsenic, produce H(2), H(2)S and acetic acid (potential sources of electrons for arsenic reduction) and tolerate high arsenic levels. PMID:22555750

  17. Temporal Study of the Microbial Diversity of the North Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Dalmet, Swati; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M; Litchfield, Carol D; Baxter, Bonnie K

    2015-07-02

    We employed a temporal sampling approach to understand how the microbial diversity may shift in the north arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S. To determine how variations in seasonal environmental factors affect microbial communities, length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting was performed using consensus primers for the domain Bacteria, and the haloarchaea. The archaeal fingerprints showed similarities during 2003 and 2004, but this diversity changed during the remaining two years of the study, 2005 and 2006. We also performed molecular phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of the whole microbial community to characterize the taxa in the samples. Our results indicated that in the domain, Bacteria, the Salinibacter group dominated the populations in all samplings. However, in the case of Archaea, as noted by LIBSHUFF for phylogenetic relatedness analysis, many of the temporal communities were distinct from each other, and changes in community composition did not track with environmental parameters. Around 20-23 different phylotypes, as revealed by rarefaction, predominated at different periods of the year. Some phylotypes, such as Haloquadradum, were present year-round although they changed in their abundance in different samplings, which may indicate that these species are affected by biotic factors, such as nutrients or viruses, that are independent of seasonal temperature dynamics.

  18. Mitigating and Tracking Black Carbon Exposure at Schools in the Mountain View Corridor of Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. T.; Brown, S. G.; Vaughn, D.; DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a short lived climate forcer and is associated with human health effects. We measured BC inside and outside at four schools in Salt Lake City during two studies in 2011-2014. In addition, PM2.5 was measured indoor and outdoor at one school, and gaseous air toxics outdoor at one school. The schools are within 500 m of a planned major freeway, and two of them will adjoin the freeway. The objectives included determining the outdoor and indoor concentrations of BC, the likely sources of BC, and once the freeway is built, the change in ambient BC at the schools. We determined the current state of air quality outdoors at these schools, to provide baseline data for comparison when the major freeway is operational, and indoors as a baseline before installing improved filtration to reduce BC in classrooms. Using MATES IV cancer risk values, we found that diesel particulate matter, as indicated by ambient, outdoor BC measurements, was responsible for 84% of the cancer risk at the schools. The HVAC system was moderately effective at filtrating PM mass (73% reduction), but very poor at filtering BC (7%-34% reduction), indicating that air toxics risk is similar indoors and outdoors. Improved filtration devices could potentially mitigate this risk, and improved filtration systems have been recommended for the schools. Lastly, we used the difference in absorption at two Aethalometer channels to determine that the majority of BC (> 90%) during the spring through fall is from fossil fuel emissions.

  19. Sequence and Structural Characterization of Great Salt Lake Bacteriophage CW02, a Member of the T7-Like Supergroup

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Peter S.; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Makaju, Aman; Taylor, Ryan M.; Hoggan, Ryan; Culumber, Michele D.; Oberg, Craig J.; Breakwell, Donald P.; Prince, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Halophage CW02 infects a Salinivibrio costicola-like bacterium, SA50, isolated from the Great Salt Lake. Following isolation, cultivation, and purification, CW02 was characterized by DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, and electron microscopy. A conserved module of structural genes places CW02 in the T7 supergroup, members of which are found in diverse aquatic environments, including marine and freshwater ecosystems. CW02 has morphological similarities to viruses of the Podoviridae family. The structure of CW02, solved by cryogenic electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, enabled the fitting of a portion of the bacteriophage HK97 capsid protein into CW02 capsid density, thereby providing additional evidence that capsid proteins of tailed double-stranded DNA phages have a conserved fold. The CW02 capsid consists of bacteriophage lambda gpD-like densities that likely contribute to particle stability. Turret-like densities were found on icosahedral vertices and may represent a unique adaptation similar to what has been seen in other extremophilic viruses that infect archaea, such as Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus and halophage SH1. PMID:22593163

  20. Temporal Study of the Microbial Diversity of the North Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Dalmet, Swati; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Litchfield, Carol D.; Baxter, Bonnie K.

    2015-01-01

    We employed a temporal sampling approach to understand how the microbial diversity may shift in the north arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S. To determine how variations in seasonal environmental factors affect microbial communities, length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting was performed using consensus primers for the domain Bacteria, and the haloarchaea. The archaeal fingerprints showed similarities during 2003 and 2004, but this diversity changed during the remaining two years of the study, 2005 and 2006. We also performed molecular phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of the whole microbial community to characterize the taxa in the samples. Our results indicated that in the domain, Bacteria, the Salinibacter group dominated the populations in all samplings. However, in the case of Archaea, as noted by LIBSHUFF for phylogenetic relatedness analysis, many of the temporal communities were distinct from each other, and changes in community composition did not track with environmental parameters. Around 20–23 different phylotypes, as revealed by rarefaction, predominated at different periods of the year. Some phylotypes, such as Haloquadradum, were present year-round although they changed in their abundance in different samplings, which may indicate that these species are affected by biotic factors, such as nutrients or viruses, that are independent of seasonal temperature dynamics.

  1. Carbon-14 analyses reveal fine structure of the urban carbon dioxide dome in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J. R.; Hopkins, F. M.; Xu, X.; Barnette, J.; Randerson, J. T.; Bush, S.; Lai, C.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon-14 analyses of mature deciduous tree leaves (aspen and cottonwood) were used to measure the increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide within the expansive urbanizing Salt Lake Valley, Utah, USA associated with fossil fuel combustion. Our objectives were twofold: to understand the fine scale spatial structure of elevated carbon dioxide levels in this urban environment and to relate these observations to actual carbon dioxide observations collected using both long-term monitoring sites and a mobile measurement vehicle. Paired observations of aspen and cottonwood at sites across the valley showed that there was no significant difference in carbon-14 values, allowing spatial pattern evaluations at sites where one but not the other species was present. Statistically significant patterns were observed over a two-year measurement period, with elevated carbon dioxide levels associated with carbon-14 depleted leaves, particularly in regions with higher vehicle travel. Carbon-14 content of leaves was significantly lower on 4-lane roads than on nearby 2-lane roads in both residential and commercial zones, consistent with atmospheric carbon dioxide observations. The analysis of spatial patterns in the carbon-14 in leaves was then used to evaluate how well these observations compared to instantaneous and long-term observations of carbon dioxide using traditional infrared gas analyzer approaches.

  2. The disappearing of the largest lake in the Middle East: Geochemical clues for human impact on Urmia salt lake NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, O.; Haeri-Ardakani, O.; Pourmand, A.

    2012-12-01

    The water level in Lake Urmia, the third largest saline lake on earth and the largest continental lake in the Middle East, has dropped by more than 9 m over the last two decades, with no signs of improvement in recent years. Urmia is a hypersaline shallow lake (average salinity ~200 ‰) located in a closed continental drainage basin in northwestern Iran, and is surrounded by a variety of rock formations, ranging in age from Precambrian metamorphic complexes to Holocene mud deposits. Lake sediments are composed of two major components; chemical-biochemical and clastic fractions. Based on grain size analysis of samples from 24 push-cores, silt-size particles dominate the lake's sediments with clay-bearing materials mostly present near the center of the lake. Sand-size particles are dominant in the northwest, where felsic to intermediate plutonic and metamorphic rocks are located in the proximity of the lake. The water of the Urmia Lake can be classified as Na-K-Cl-Mg-SO4 brine. Based on chemical analysis of conservative lithogenic elements (e.g., Ti, Si, Al, Ca) as well as redox-sensitive elements (e.g., Fe, K, Rb, Sr) in the clastic fraction of the lake's sediment, elemental distributions are reflective of regional geology. The main sources of ions to the lake are evaporite formations with minor contribution from igneous rocks. Ion concentrations in the northern part of the lake are nearly constant throughout the year while south-southeastern parts of the lake show variable annual ion concentration due to major fresh water inflows. Chemical analysis of the surface sediment samples for heavy metals (Ni, Cr, V and Hg) indicate moderate to high degrees of contamination in the affected areas, where Hg is the most abundant heavy metal. The highest concentrations of Hg (Normalized Enrichment Factor =6) are observed in the middle part of the lake, where intensive dredging and construction activities have taken place. In contrast, the lowest concentrations of Hg in

  3. Water-quality investigations of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality studies were conducted on the Jordan River, Utah, to investigate specific problems: dissolved oxygen, toxic substances, sanitary quality, and turbidity and suspended sediment. The dissolved oxygen decreased from 8 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to less than 5 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street. Chemical oxygen demand increased about 23 percent and biochemical oxygen demand increased 90 percent. Nearly 78 percent of the water samples analyzed for total mercury exceeded the State intended-use standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Concentrations of ammonia, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc exceeded the standards periodically. The pesticides DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, methoxychlor, and 2,4-D were occasionally detected in bottom materials. Most were present in quantities of less than 15 micrograms per kilogram. Concentrations of three indicator bacteria (total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus) increased in a downstream direction. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. The primary sources of turbidity in the Jordan River are Utah Lake and discharges from the wastewater-treatment plants. Large values of turbidity were measured at the Jordan Narrows with a summer mean value of 88 nephelometer turbidity units (NTU) and a winter mean value of 43 NTU. (USGS)

  4. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.; Angeroth, C.; Kenney, T.; Waddell, B.; Darnall, N.; Silva, S.; Perschon, C.; Whitehead, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6??? decrease in ??15N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in ??15N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing ??15N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO42 - reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH3Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH3Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves generated during sustained wind events can temporarily mix the

  5. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W. F.

    2009-06-01

    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L - 1 , and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (< 3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km 2). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state.

  6. Lacimicrobium alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Alteromonadaceae isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain X13M-12T, was isolated from a salt lake (Lake Xiaochaidan) in the Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, PR China. Cells of strain X13M-12T were slightly curved, rod-shaped, 0.5-0.8 μm wide and 1.2-2.3 μm long, and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Strain X13M-12T was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %), and at 4-40 °C (optimum 25-30 °C) and pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.5). Strain X13M-12T contained Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of totals) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, and C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain X13M-12T belonged to the family Alteromonadaceae and formed a distinct lineage, showing low gene sequence similarities to closely related genera: Bowmanella, Aestuariibacter and Salinimonas (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 93.0-93.1 %, 92.3-93.1 % and 92.6-92.7 %, respectively). In addition, strain X13M-12T showed < 92.7 % gene sequence similarities to other species of the family Alteromonadaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain X13M-12T was 49 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented above, strain X13M-12T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Alteromonadaceae, for which the name Lacimicrobium alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X13M-12T ( = CGMCC 1.12923T = KCTC 42674T).

  7. Lacimicrobium alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Alteromonadaceae isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain X13M-12T, was isolated from a salt lake (Lake Xiaochaidan) in the Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, PR China. Cells of strain X13M-12T were slightly curved, rod-shaped, 0.5-0.8 μm wide and 1.2-2.3 μm long, and motile by means of a polar flagellum. Strain X13M-12T was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3.0-5.0 %), and at 4-40 °C (optimum 25-30 °C) and pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.5). Strain X13M-12T contained Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 % of totals) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, and C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain X13M-12T belonged to the family Alteromonadaceae and formed a distinct lineage, showing low gene sequence similarities to closely related genera: Bowmanella, Aestuariibacter and Salinimonas (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, 93.0-93.1 %, 92.3-93.1 % and 92.6-92.7 %, respectively). In addition, strain X13M-12T showed < 92.7 % gene sequence similarities to other species of the family Alteromonadaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain X13M-12T was 49 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented above, strain X13M-12T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Alteromonadaceae, for which the name Lacimicrobium alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X13M-12T ( = CGMCC 1.12923T = KCTC 42674T). PMID:26537772

  8. Salinicoccus kekensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphile and moderate halophile isolated from Keke Salt Lake in Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Lei; Chen, San-feng; Zhou, Yu-guang; Liu, Hong-can

    2010-10-01

    A novel alkaliphilic and moderate halophilic bacterium, designated strain K164(T), was isolated from Keke Salt Lake in Qinghai, China. The strain grew with 2.0-20.0% (w/v) NaCl, at 4-50 degrees C and pH 6.5-11.5, with an optimum of 8% (w/v) NaCl, 37degrees C and pH 10, respectively. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 50.16 mol. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain K164(T) was a member of the genus Salinicoccus. Strain K164(T) showed the highest similarity (98.4%) with Salinicoccus alkaliphilus AS 1.2691(T) and below 97% similarity with other recognized members of the genus in 16S rRNA gene sequence. Level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain K164(T) and Salinicoccus alkaliphilus AS 1.2691(T) was 20.1%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and the level of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain K164(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, for which the name Salinicoccus kekensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K164(T) (=CGMCC 1.10337(T) = DSM 23173(T)).

  9. Identification of carotenoids in ancient salt from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, using laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winters, Y D; Lowenstein, T K; Timofeeff, M N

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are common components of many photosynthetic organisms and are well known from the red waters of hypersaline ecosystems where they are produced by halophilic algae and prokaryotes. They are also of great interest as biomarkers in extraterrestrial samples. Few laser Raman spectroscopy studies have examined ancient field samples, where pigments and microscopic life are less defined. Here, we have identified carotenoids in ancient halite brine inclusions, 9 ka to 1.44 Ma in age, from borehole cores taken from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, for the first time with laser Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoids occurred in fluid inclusions as colorless to red-brown amorphous and crystalline masses associated with spheroidal algal cells similar in appearance to the common halophilic alga Dunaliella. Spectra from carotenoid standards, including β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, were compared to microscopically targeted carotenoids in fluid inclusions. Carotenoids produced characteristic bands in the Raman spectrum, 1000-1020 cm⁻¹ (v₃), 1150-1170 cm⁻¹ (v₂), and 1500-1550 cm⁻¹ (v₁), when exposed to visible laser excitation. Laser Raman analyses confirmed the presence of carotenoids with these characteristic peaks in ancient halite. A number of band sets were repeated at various depths (ages), which suggests the stability of this class of organic molecules. Carotenoids appear well preserved in ancient salt, which supports other observations, for example, preserved DNA and live cells, that fluid inclusions in buried halite deposits preserve intact halophilic microbial ecosystems. This work demonstrates the value of laser Raman spectroscopy and carotenoids in extraterrestrial exploration for remnants of microbial life.

  10. Identification of carotenoids in ancient salt from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, using laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winters, Y D; Lowenstein, T K; Timofeeff, M N

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are common components of many photosynthetic organisms and are well known from the red waters of hypersaline ecosystems where they are produced by halophilic algae and prokaryotes. They are also of great interest as biomarkers in extraterrestrial samples. Few laser Raman spectroscopy studies have examined ancient field samples, where pigments and microscopic life are less defined. Here, we have identified carotenoids in ancient halite brine inclusions, 9 ka to 1.44 Ma in age, from borehole cores taken from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, for the first time with laser Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoids occurred in fluid inclusions as colorless to red-brown amorphous and crystalline masses associated with spheroidal algal cells similar in appearance to the common halophilic alga Dunaliella. Spectra from carotenoid standards, including β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, were compared to microscopically targeted carotenoids in fluid inclusions. Carotenoids produced characteristic bands in the Raman spectrum, 1000-1020 cm⁻¹ (v₃), 1150-1170 cm⁻¹ (v₂), and 1500-1550 cm⁻¹ (v₁), when exposed to visible laser excitation. Laser Raman analyses confirmed the presence of carotenoids with these characteristic peaks in ancient halite. A number of band sets were repeated at various depths (ages), which suggests the stability of this class of organic molecules. Carotenoids appear well preserved in ancient salt, which supports other observations, for example, preserved DNA and live cells, that fluid inclusions in buried halite deposits preserve intact halophilic microbial ecosystems. This work demonstrates the value of laser Raman spectroscopy and carotenoids in extraterrestrial exploration for remnants of microbial life. PMID:24283928

  11. Quality and quantity of runoff and atmospheric deposition in urban areas of Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, R.C.; Stephens, D.W.; Pyper, G.E.; McCormack, H.F.; Weigel, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Water of good quality from mountain streams is degraded as it moves through urban areas to the Jordan River in Salt Lake County, Utah. The impact of urban runoff and atmospheric deposition on the quality of water in those streams and in storm conduits and canals functioning as storm drains was evaluated using data collected during 1980-81. Atmospheric-wetfall loads for an average storm were as much as 10 pounds per acre for total solids, but the dissolved trace metals were generally present in insignificant quantities. Wetfall-deposition loads generally were greater than storm-runoff loads, indicating that a large quantity of the wetfall load remained as soil deposits. Acid rain fell in more than one-half of the storms sampled, most commonly in September and October. Dustfall concentrations reflected the composition of local soils, particularly with regard to iron, manganese, and chromium; but concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chloride were considerably enriched. Monthly loads of dryfall solids reached a maximum of 62 pounds per acre in the Little Cottonwood Creek urban basin, but were of the same magnitude as total storm loads for a heavy rainfall. Urban runoff represented about 38 percent of the discharge in three canals. The water in the canals was poorer in quality than the water in the mountain streams. The impact of the canal discharges to the streams is slight, however, owing to their ' relatively small amounts. ' Concentrations of sediment, suspended solids, suspended trace metals, phosphorus, and oxygen-demanding substances were much greater during storm runoff than under base-flow conditions. This report contains data for basin and storm characteristics and water-quality information for atmospheric deposition and urban runoff. (USGS)

  12. Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Lop Nur salt lake in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Zhou, Yu; Ja, Man; Shi, Rong; Chun-Yu, Wei-Xun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)). PMID:22622623

  13. Installation restoration program final remedial investigation report IRP sites 8 and 10. 151st air refueling group Utah Air National Guard, Salt Lake City, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results from a Remedial Investigation (RI) for two sites at the Utah Air National Guard (UANG) Base located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The two sites investigated are identified as Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 8, a former underground storage tank (UST) location, and IRP Site 10, an existing petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) yard. The RI was conducted as outlined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan prepared by Stone Webster and submitted to and approved by the ANG in May 1993. The field work associated with the RI was performed in June, July, and August 1995.

  14. A novel cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Alkalibacterium sp. SL3 from the sediment of a soda lake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guozeng; Wang, Qiaohuang; Lin, Xianju; Ng, Tzi Bun; Yan, Renxiang; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    A novel esterase gene (estSL3) was cloned from the Alkalibacterium sp. SL3, which was isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. The 636-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino acid residues that is closely related with putative GDSL family lipases from Alkalibacterium and Enterococcus. The gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein (rEstSL3) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. rEstSL3 exhibited the highest activity towards pNP-acetate and had no activity towards pNP-esters with acyl chains longer than C8. The enzyme was highly cold-adapted, showing an apparent temperature optimum of 30 °C and remaining approximately 70% of the activity at 0 °C. It was active and stable over the pH range from 7 to 10, and highly salt-tolerant up to 5 M NaCl. Moreover, rEstSL3 was strongly resistant to most tested metal ions, chemical reagents, detergents and organic solvents. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that EstSL3 had fewer proline residues, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges than mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, but more acidic amino acids and less hydrophobic amino acids when compared with other salt-tolerant esterases. The cold active, salt-tolerant and chemical-resistant properties make it a promising enzyme for basic research and industrial applications.

  15. A novel cold-adapted and highly salt-tolerant esterase from Alkalibacterium sp. SL3 from the sediment of a soda lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guozeng; Wang, Qiaohuang; Lin, Xianju; Bun Ng, Tzi; Yan, Renxiang; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    A novel esterase gene (estSL3) was cloned from the Alkalibacterium sp. SL3, which was isolated from the sediment of soda lake Dabusu. The 636-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 211 amino acid residues that is closely related with putative GDSL family lipases from Alkalibacterium and Enterococcus. The gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant protein (rEstSL3) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. rEstSL3 exhibited the highest activity towards pNP-acetate and had no activity towards pNP-esters with acyl chains longer than C8. The enzyme was highly cold-adapted, showing an apparent temperature optimum of 30 °C and remaining approximately 70% of the activity at 0 °C. It was active and stable over the pH range from 7 to 10, and highly salt-tolerant up to 5 M NaCl. Moreover, rEstSL3 was strongly resistant to most tested metal ions, chemical reagents, detergents and organic solvents. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that EstSL3 had fewer proline residues, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges than mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts, but more acidic amino acids and less hydrophobic amino acids when compared with other salt-tolerant esterases. The cold active, salt-tolerant and chemical-resistant properties make it a promising enzyme for basic research and industrial applications. PMID:26915906

  16. Halomonas qijiaojingensis sp. nov. and Halomonas flava sp. nov., two moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Rong; Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Sun, Hong-Zhuan; Li, Chang-Tian; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Two moderately halophilic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, designated YIM 93003(T) and YIM 94343(T), were isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province, north-west China. The two strains YIM 93003(T) and YIM 94343(T) grew at 20-40°C, pH 6-9, 0.5-24% (w/v) NaCl and at 20-40°C, pH 6-9, 0.5-23% (w/v) NaCl, respectively. No growth occurred in absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 93003(T) and YIM 94343(T) were phylogenetically affiliated to the genus Halomonas and exhibited sequence similarity of 97.5% and 97.4% to the type strain Halomonas anticariensis DSM 16096(T), respectively. The strains possessed chemotaxonomic markers that were consistent with their classification in the genus Halomonas (Q-9 as predominant respiratory quinine; C18:1ω7c, C16:0 and C16:1 ω7c/iso-C15:02-OH as the major fatty acids). The DNA-DNA hybridization values for strains YIM 93003(T) and YIM 94343(T), YIM 93003(T) and DSM 16096(T), YIM 94343(T) and DSM 16096(T) were 38.1 ± 3.0, 18.3 ± 4.7, and 20.8 ± 4.6%, respectively. The G+C contents of the strains YIM 93003(T) and YIM 94343(T) were 63.4 and 64.0 mol%, respectively. Based on comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, including low DNA-DNA hybridization results, two novel species, Halomonas qijiaojingensis sp. nov., and Halomonas flava sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are YIM 93003(T) (=CCTCC AB 208133(T) =KCTC 22228(T)) and YIM 94343(T) (=CCTCC AB 2010382(T) =KCTC 23356(T)), respectively. PMID:21656193

  17. Improving fossil fuel emissions scenarios with urban ecosystem studies: A case study in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Dudley-Murphy, E. A.; Emmi, P. C.; Forster, C. B.; Mills, J. I.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Peterson, T. R.

    2005-05-01

    Scenarios of the future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions have been generated at the global scale using assumptions about regional to global economic growth and demography. A limitation to this approach is the mismatch in scale between local geographical, cultural, and economic factors that influence patterns of energy and fuel use and their impact on global emissions. However, resolving mismatches between local and global processes has been successfully addressed in other aspects of carbon cycle science, such as natural sources and sinks of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We propose a similar approach for reducing uncertainty in fossil fuel emissions scenarios with process-level studies of the factors underlying emissions at the local scale. We initiated a project to apply a whole ecosystem framework to the study of CO2 emissions in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Our goal was to quantify both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of urban ecosystem function that determined net CO2 emissions from the major sectors in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region, an area characterized by good historical records, a highly seasonal climate, and a rapid rate of both population growth and urban expansion. We analyzed the strong linkages between energy use and climate in the region with data from the local utilities. We also applied a linked land use- transportation framework that quantified interactions between urban development and emissions from the transportation sector. These processes were captured in a systems dynamics model of urban ecosystem function that incorporated stakeholder involvement in model development using a mediated modeling approach. The model was validated with direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by eddy covariance and attribution of local CO2 concentrations to fuel types using stable isotopes. The model may be used to evaluate possible consequences of policy levers such as changes in urban developmental densities, acceleration of

  18. Improving fossil fuel emissions scenarios with urban ecosystem studies: A case study in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Dudley-Murphy, E. A.; Emmi, P. C.; Forster, C. B.; Mills, J. I.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Peterson, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    Scenarios of the future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions have been generated at the global scale using assumptions about regional to global economic growth and demography. A limitation to this approach is the mismatch in scale between local geographical, cultural, and economic factors that influence patterns of energy and fuel use and their impact on global emissions. However, resolving mismatches between local and global processes has been successfully addressed in other aspects of carbon cycle science, such as natural sources and sinks of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We propose a similar approach for reducing uncertainty in fossil fuel emissions scenarios with process-level studies of the factors underlying emissions at the local scale. We initiated a project to apply a whole ecosystem framework to the study of CO2 emissions in a rapidly urbanizing region in the United States. Our goal was to quantify both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of urban ecosystem function that determined net CO2 emissions from the major sectors in the Salt Lake-Ogden metropolitan region, an area characterized by good historical records, a highly seasonal climate, and a rapid rate of both population growth and urban expansion. We analyzed the strong linkages between energy use and climate in the region with data from the local utilities. We also applied a linked land use- transportation framework that quantified interactions between urban development and emissions from the transportation sector. These processes were captured in a systems dynamics model of urban ecosystem function that incorporated stakeholder involvement in model development using a mediated modeling approach. The model was validated with direct measurements of CO2 fluxes by eddy covariance and attribution of local CO2 concentrations to fuel types using stable isotopes. The model may be used to evaluate possible consequences of policy levers such as changes in urban developmental densities, acceleration of

  19. Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan; Spangler, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers are a major source of good-quality water for public supply in many areas of the southwestern United States and have undergone increasing development as populations have grown over time. During 2005, the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, provided approximately 75,000 acre-feet, or about 29 percent of the total amount of water used by a population of 967,000. Groundwater in the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits that make up the aquifer occurs under unconfined and confined conditions. Water in the shallow unconfined part of the groundwater system is susceptible to near-surface contamination and generally is not used as a source of drinking water. Groundwater for public supply is withdrawn from the deeper unconfined and confined parts of the system, termed the principal aquifer, because yields generally are greater and water quality is better (including lower dissolved-solids concentrations) than in the shallower parts of the system. Much of the water in the principal aquifer is derived from recharge in the adjacent Wasatch Range (mountain-block recharge). In many areas, the principal aquifer is separated from the overlying shallow aquifer by confining layers of less permeable, fine-grained sediment that inhibit the downward movement of water and any potential contaminants from the surface. Nonetheless, under certain hydrologic conditions, human-related activities can increase dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer and result in groundwater becoming unsuitable for consumption without treatment or mixing with water having lower dissolved-solids concentrations. Dissolved-solids concentrations in areas of the principal aquifer used for public supply typically are less than 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) secondary (nonenforceable) drinking-water standard. However, substantial increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer have been documented in some

  20. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin--Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents. The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  1. Trace Elements and Organic Compounds in Sediment and Fish Tissue from the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Giddings, Elise M.

    2004-01-01

    A study to determine the occurrence and distribution of trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment and in fish tissue was conducted in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program during 1998-99. Streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected concurrently at 11 sites and analyzed for trace-element concentration. An additional four sites were sampled for streambed sediment only and one site for fish tissue only. Organic compounds were analyzed from streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples at 15 sites concurrently. Bed-sediment cores from lakes, reservoirs, and Farmington Bay collected by the NAWQA program in 1998 and by other researchers in 1982 were used to examine historical trends in trace-element concentration and to determine anthropogenic sources of contaminants. Cores collected in 1982 from Mirror Lake, a high-mountain reference location, showed an enrichment of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, tin, and zinc in the surface sediments relative to the deeper sediments, indicating that enrichment likely began after about 1900. This enrichment was attributed to atmospheric deposition during the period of metal-ore mining and smelting. A core from Echo Reservoir, in the Weber River Basin, however, showed a different pattern of trace-element concentration that was attributed to a local source. This site is located downstream from the Park City mining district, which is the most likely historical source of trace elements. Cores collected in 1998 from Farmington Bay show that the concentration of lead began to increase after 1842 and peaked during the mid-1980s and has been in decline since. Recent sediments deposited during 1996-98 indicate a 41- to 62-percent reduction since the peak in the mid-1980s. The concentration of trace elements in streambed sediment was greatest at sites that have been affected by historic mining

  2. Storage and release of road-salt contamination from a calcareous lake-basin fen, western Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Amy L; Guswa, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Road salt (NaCl) applications to highways have increased stream sodium and chloride concentrations due to retention within watersheds. The mechanisms for retention and export of Na(+) and Cl(-) from different environments are not fully understood. This field study examines the hydrologic and cation exchange processes that store and release Na(+) and Cl(-) from a calcareous fen adjacent to a highway. Despite high concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), elevated salt concentrations enable Na(+) to occupy up to 15% of the cation exchange capacity of shallow peat. Calculations of selectivity coefficients show that Na(+) preferentially exchanges with Mg(2+), and Na(+) can be desorbed under more dilute conditions caused by precipitation and snowmelt. Detailed sampling of surface and ground waters during three snowmelt events illustrate early releases of Na(+) and Cl(-) at the onset of melting, with maximum fluxes coinciding with peak discharge. From 7 March through 4 April 2005, the flux of dissolved salt exiting the wetland amounts to 13% (Na) and 17% (Cl) of annual rock salt applied to the highway. For all of 2005, the total salt mass leaving the wetland via Kampoosa Brook is similar to the amount of road salt applied; 50% of the annual salt efflux occurred during the snowmelt season of March through May. In general, exported Na(+) and Cl(-) correlate with the number of lane miles of highway crossing the watershed. Large rain events outside of winter months are more effective than snowmelt with reducing dissolved salts because snowmelt also introduces contamination. For this and other wetlands having alkaline geochemistry and high flushing rates, management strategies that reduce rock salt amounts to roadways will assist with reducing salt contamination to levels less toxic to vegetation and aquatic organisms. PMID:26760273

  3. A Three-Component Microbial Consortium from Deep-Sea Salt-Saturated Anoxic Lake Thetis Links Anaerobic Glycine Betaine Degradation with Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    La Cono, Violetta; Arcadi, Erika; La Spada, Gina; Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Bellocco, Ersilia; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Smedile, Francesco; Messina, Enzo; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lakes of the Eastern Mediterranean operate under harsh physical-chemical conditions that are incompatible with the lifestyle of common marine microorganisms. Here, we investigated a stable three-component microbial consortium obtained from the brine of the recently discovered deep-sea salt-saturated Lake Thetis. The trophic network of this consortium, established at salinities up to 240, relies on fermentative decomposition of common osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). Similarly to known extreme halophilic anaerobic GB-degrading enrichments, the initial step of GB degradation starts with its reductive cleavage to trimethylamine and acetate, carried out by the fermenting member of the Thetis enrichment, Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21. In contrast to acetate, which cannot be easily oxidized in salt-saturated anoxic environments, trimethylamine represents an advantageous C1-substrate for methylotrophic methanogenic member of the Thetis enrichment, Methanohalophilus sp. TA21. This second member of the consortium likely produces hydrogen via methylotrophic modification of reductive acetyl-CoA pathway because the initial anaerobic GB cleavage reaction requires the consumption of reducing equivalents. Ecophysiological role of the third member of the Thetis consortium, Halanaerobium sp. TB24, which lacks the capability of either GB or trimethylamine degradation, remains yet to be elucidated. As it is true for cultivated members of family Halanaerobiaceae, the isolate TB24 can obtain energy primarily by fermenting simple sugars and producing hydrogen as one of the end products. Hence, by consuming of TB21 and TA21 metabolites, Halanaerobium sp. TB24 can be an additional provider of reducing equivalents required for reductive degradation of GB. Description of the Thetis GB-degrading consortium indicated that anaerobic degradation of osmoregulatory molecules may play important role in the overall turnover of

  4. A Three-Component Microbial Consortium from Deep-Sea Salt-Saturated Anoxic Lake Thetis Links Anaerobic Glycine Betaine Degradation with Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    La Cono, Violetta; Arcadi, Erika; La Spada, Gina; Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Bellocco, Ersilia; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Smedile, Francesco; Messina, Enzo; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lakes of the Eastern Mediterranean operate under harsh physical-chemical conditions that are incompatible with the lifestyle of common marine microorganisms. Here, we investigated a stable three-component microbial consortium obtained from the brine of the recently discovered deep-sea salt-saturated Lake Thetis. The trophic network of this consortium, established at salinities up to 240, relies on fermentative decomposition of common osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). Similarly to known extreme halophilic anaerobic GB-degrading enrichments, the initial step of GB degradation starts with its reductive cleavage to trimethylamine and acetate, carried out by the fermenting member of the Thetis enrichment, Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21. In contrast to acetate, which cannot be easily oxidized in salt-saturated anoxic environments, trimethylamine represents an advantageous C1-substrate for methylotrophic methanogenic member of the Thetis enrichment, Methanohalophilus sp. TA21. This second member of the consortium likely produces hydrogen via methylotrophic modification of reductive acetyl-CoA pathway because the initial anaerobic GB cleavage reaction requires the consumption of reducing equivalents. Ecophysiological role of the third member of the Thetis consortium, Halanaerobium sp. TB24, which lacks the capability of either GB or trimethylamine degradation, remains yet to be elucidated. As it is true for cultivated members of family Halanaerobiaceae, the isolate TB24 can obtain energy primarily by fermenting simple sugars and producing hydrogen as one of the end products. Hence, by consuming of TB21 and TA21 metabolites, Halanaerobium sp. TB24 can be an additional provider of reducing equivalents required for reductive degradation of GB. Description of the Thetis GB-degrading consortium indicated that anaerobic degradation of osmoregulatory molecules may play important role in the overall turnover of

  5. Investigation of wintertime cold-air pools and aerosol layers in the Salt Lake Valley using a lidar ceilometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Joseph Swyler

    This thesis investigates the utility of lidar ceilometers, a type of aerosol lidar, in improving the understanding of meteorology and air quality in persistent wintertime stable boundary layers, or cold-air pools, that form in urbanized valley and basin topography. This thesis reviews the scientific literature to survey the present knowledge of persistent cold-air pools, the operating principles of lidar ceilometers, and their demonstrated utility in meteorological investigations. Lidar ceilometer data from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS) are then used with meteorological and air quality data from other in situ and remote sensing equipment to investigate cold-air pools that formed in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during the winter of 2010-2011. The lidar ceilometer is shown to accurately measure aerosol layer depth and aerosol loading, when compared to visual observations. A linear relationship is found between low-level lidar backscatter and surface particulate measurements. Convective boundary layer lidar analysis techniques applied to cold-air pool ceilometer profiles can detect useful layer characteristics. Fine-scale waves are observed and analyzed within the aerosol layer, with emphasis on Kelvin-Helmholz waves. Ceilometer aerosol backscatter profiles are analyzed to quantify and describe mixing processes in persistent cold-air pools. Overlays of other remote and in-situ observations are combined with ceilometer particle backscatter to describe specific events during PCAPS. This analysis describes the relationship between the aerosol layer and the valley inversion as well as interactions with large-scale meteorology. The ceilometer observations of hydrometers are used to quantify cloudiness and precipitation during the project, observing that 50% of hours when a PCAP was present had clouds or precipitation below 5 km above ground level (AGL). Then, combining an objective technique for determining hourly aerosol layer depths and correcting this

  6. Salinization forced anoxia in the Sea of Aral, the Dead Sea and the Urmia Lake: a temporal feature of the salt lakes development under the Global Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, Evgeniy; Ghaffari, Peygham; Zavialov, Petr; Kurbaniyazov, Abilgazi

    2016-04-01

    The Sea of Aral is undergone a process of its volume decrease and salinization started about 30 years ago. In the remained now lake in the former deepest part of the Sea the salinity increased from about 8 PSU in 1990 to 120 PSU in the surface layer, and 240 PSU in the bottom layer in 2015. On top of an increase of salinity, there was formed a sulfidic zone in the bottom layer, that was separated from the upper layer by an extremely strong halocline (more than 50 PSU in 100 cm). The reason of this halocline might be an influx of the heavy high salinity water formed in summer in the shallower part of the Aral Sea to the bottom layer of the deeper part of the Sea through a strait between them. The similar processes could take place in the Urmia Lake, where salinity increased from 120 PSU in 2000 to about 350-400 PSU in 2015. This lake also consists from a shallow and deep parts connected by a channel in the dam, and where there was also reported anoxia. And finally, the Dead Sea demonstrates a further development happened after the shallower Southern part of the Sea was totally evaporated. After 1993 the vertical mixing started to occur down to the bottom layer, and the lake regime changed from meromictic to monomictic, that resulted in aeration of the bottom layer. In this work we compare interannual changes of the main salinity components in the 3 water bodies and analyze results of the vertical chemical structure of the Sea of Aral studied in 2015.

  7. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  8. Purification and characterization of halo-alkali-thermophilic protease from Halobacterium sp. strain HP25 isolated from raw salt, Lake Qarun, Fayoum, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Khaled; Ibrahim, Ibrahim M; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2015-07-01

    A total of 33 halophilic protease producers were isolated from different salt samples collected from Emisal salt company at Lake Qarun, Fayoum, Egypt. Of these strains, an extremely halophilic strain that grew optimally at 30 % (w/v) NaCl was characterized and identified as Halobacterium sp. strain HP25 based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization. A halo-alkali-thermophilic protease was purified in three successive steps from the culture supernatant. The purified halophilic protease consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and was enriched 167-fold to a specific activity of 6350 U mg(-1). The purified enzyme was active over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0, with maximum activity at pH 8.0, exhibited a broad temperature range from 30 to 80 °C with optimum activity at 60 °C, and was active at salt concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 % (w/v), with optimum activity at 17 % NaCl (w/v). The K M and V max values of the purified halophilic protease with casein as a substrate were 523 µg mL(-1) and 2500 µg min(-1) mL(-1), respectively. In addition, this enzyme was stable in the tested organic solvents and laundry detergents such methanol, propanol, butanol, hexane, Persil and Ariel. The unusual properties of this enzyme allow it to be used for various applications, such as the ripening of salted fish. Furthermore, its stability and activity in the presence of organic solvents and detergents also allow the use of this enzyme for further novel applications and as an additive in detergent formulations.

  9. THE MEASUREMENT OF PM2.5, INCLUDING SEMI-VOLATILE COMPONENTS, IN THE EMPACT PROGRAM: RESULTS FROM THE SALT LAKE CITY STUDY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS, HEALTH EFFECTS, AND CONTROL STRATEGIES (R827993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Lake City EPA Environmental

    Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) project,

    initiated in October 1999, is designed to evaluate the usefulness of a

    newly developed real-time continuous monitor (RAMS) for total

    (non-volatil...

  10. Ethnic Traditions and the Family: Asian, Black, Greek, Native American, Polynesian and Hispanic Culture. Proceedings of a Symposium (Salt Lake City, Utah, April 30, May 1, 7-8 and 14-15, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Rafael, Ed.; Henry, Alberta, Ed.

    Presentations from a symposium series sponsored by the Salt Lake City School District and the Utah Endowment for the Humanities in the spring of 1980 describe the family customs and ethnic traditions of Asians, Blacks, Greeks, Native Americans, Polynesians, and Hispanics. The first presentation notes the differences between Asians who have been in…

  11. Health assessment for Utah Power and Light/American Barrel, Salt Lake City, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UTD980667240. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-20

    The Utah Power and Light (UP L) site, formerly known as American Barrel, is located one-half mile from downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. A creosote treatment facility operated there in the early 1900's. Later, a 55-gallon drum storage facility contaminated the soil and groundwater with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, phthalates, and heavy metals. This site is of potential public health concern because humans maybe exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Contamination has spread to off-site areas and children from the nearby residential area have access to contaminated soil. In addition, transients frequently use these areas and may be exposed to the contaminants. UP L is in the 8th update of the National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites.

  12. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  13. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  14. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William P; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Greg; Fernandez, Diego P; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible 'reactive' Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values of kmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation. PMID:25576792

  15. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  16. Relationships of surface water, pore water, and sediment chemistry in wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, and potential impacts on plant community health.

    PubMed

    Carling, Gregory T; Richards, David C; Hoven, Heidi; Miller, Theron; Fernandez, Diego P; Rudd, Abigail; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P

    2013-01-15

    We collected surface water, pore water, and sediment samples at five impounded wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, during 2010 and 2011 in order to characterize pond chemistry and to compare chemistry with plant community health metrics. We also collected pore water and sediment samples along multiple transects at two sheet flow wetlands during 2011 to investigate a potential link between wetland chemistry and encroachment of invasive emergent plant species. Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace and major elements, nutrients, and relevant field parameters. The extensive sampling campaign provides a broad assessment of Great Salt Lake wetlands, including a range of conditions from reference to highly degraded. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) to characterize the wetland sites based on the multiple parameters measured in surface water, pore water, and sediment. NMS results showed that the impounded wetlands fall along a gradient of high salinity/low trace element concentrations to low salinity/high trace element concentrations, whereas the sheet flow wetlands have both elevated salinity and high trace element concentrations, reflecting either different sources of element loading or different biogeochemical/hydrological processes operating within the wetlands. Other geochemical distinctions were found among the wetlands, including Fe-reducing conditions at two sites and sulfate-reducing conditions at the remaining sites. Plant community health metrics in the impounded wetlands showed negative correlations with specific metal concentrations in sediment (THg, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, Ag, Tl), and negative correlations with nutrient concentrations in surface water (nitrite, phosphate, nitrate). In the sheet flow wetlands, invasive plant species were inversely correlated with pore water salinity. These results indicate that sediment and pore water chemistry play an important role in wetland plant community health, and that monitoring and

  17. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  18. The toolbox of Auricularia auricula-judae dye-decolorizing peroxidase - Identification of three new potential substrate-interaction sites.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Eric; Serrer, Kerstin; Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Piontek, Klaus; Schleicher, Erik; Plattner, Dietmar A

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) such as AauDyPI from the fungus Auricularia auricula-judae are able to oxidize substrates of different kinds and sizes. A crystal structure of an AauDyPI-imidazole complex gives insight into the binding patterns of organic molecules within the heme cavity of a DyP. Several small N-containing heterocyclic aromatics are shown to bind in the AauDyPI heme cavity, hinting to susceptibility of DyPs to azole-based inhibitors similar to cytochromes P450. Imidazole is confirmed as a competitive inhibitor with regard to peroxide binding. In contrast, bulky substrates such as anthraquinone dyes are converted at the enzyme surface. In the crystal structure a substrate analog, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), binds to a tyrosine-rich hollow harboring Y25, Y147, and Y337. Spin trapping with a nitric oxide donor uncovers Y229 as an additional tyrosine-based radical center in AauDyPI. Multi-frequency EPR spectroscopy further reveals the presence of at least one intermediate tryptophanyl radical center in activated AauDyPI with W377 as the most likely candidate.

  19. Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai

    2007-12-01

    Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

  20. Holocene and latest Pleistocene paleoseismology of the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah, at the Penrose Drive Trench Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DuRoss, Christopher B.; Hylland, Michael D.; McDonald, Greg N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Gold, Ryan D.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake City segment (SLCS) of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) and the West Valley fault zone (WVFZ) compromise Holocene-active normal faults that bound a large intrabasin graben in northern Salt Lake Valley and have evidence of recurrent, large-magnitude (M ~6-7) surface-faulting earthquakes. However, at the time of this investigation, questions remained regarding the timing, displacement, and recurrence of latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes on the northern SLCS and WVFZ , and whether the WVFZ is seismically independent of, or moves coseismically with, the SLCS. To improve paleoseismic data for the SLCS, we conducted a fault-trench investigation at the Penrose Drive site on the northern SLCS. Two trenches, excavated across an 11-m-high scarp near the northern end of the East Bench fault, exposed colluvial-wedge evidence for fize of six (preferred) surface-faulting earthquakes postdating to Provo-phase shoreline of Lake Bonneville (~14-18 ka). Radiocarbon and luminescence ages support earthquake times at 4.0 ± 0.5 ka (2σ) (PD1), 5.9 ± 0.7 ka (PD2), 7.5 ± 0.8 ka (PD3a), 9.7 ± 1.1 ka (PD3b), 10.9 ± 0.2 ka (PD4), and 12.1 ± 1.6 ka (PD5). At least one additional earthquake occurred at 16.5 ± 1.9 ka (PD6) based on an erosional unconformity that separates deformed Lake Bonneville sily and flat-lying Provo-phase shoreline gravel. Earthquakes PD5-PD1 yield latest Pleistocene (post-Provo) and Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.6 kyr and ~1.7-1.9 kyr, respectively. Using 1.0-1.4 m of per-event vertical displacement for PD5-PD3b corroborate previously identified SLCS earthquakes at 4-10 ka. PD4 and PD5 occurred within an ~8-kyr *17-9 ka) time interval on the SLCS previously interpreted as a period of seismic quiescence, and PD6 possibly corresponds with a previously identified earthquake at ~17 ka (although both events have large timing uncertainties). The Penrose data, when combined with previous paleoseismic results, improve the latest Pleistocene

  1. Insights from the Metagenome of an Acid Salt Lake: The Role of Biology in an Extreme Depositional Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars. PMID:25923206

  2. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

  3. Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT) from InSAR data near Toolik Lake in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Liu, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Parsekian, A.; Jafarov, E. E.; Zebker, H. A.; Zhang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Toolik Field Station is built on spatially continuous permafrost on the north slope of Alaska. Seasonal surface subsidence and uplift occurs in permafrost regions due to thaw settlement and frost heave as the active layer thaws and refreezes. Using L-band (23.6 cm wavelength) InSAR data from ALOS-PALSAR acquired between 2006 and 2010, we use a small-baseline subset (SBAS) method to estimate seasonal surface subsidence and retrieve fine-resolution maps of active layer thickness (ALT) for a ~25x25 km area surrounding Toolik Field Station (located at 68.63°N, -149.60°E). We compare these remotely sensed ALT (ReSALT) results with in situ data from: 1) the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) network showing mean ALT of ~40-50 cm in the region surrounding Toolik Field Station, corresponding to seasonal subsidence of 1 to 2 cm, and 2) mechanical probing measurements of ALT, obtained during field work in the study area in August 2014. We also solve for secular subsidence trends from the InSAR data. The trends are close to zero in most places, but larger subsidence trends in some isolated areas could be due to thermokarst processes (long-term thawing of ice-rich permafrost). We note, however, that downslope motion due to gelifluction cannot be separated from vertical thermokarst-related deformation without incorporating InSAR measurements from multiple look angles. Two key limitations to our method are the spatial variability of volumetric soil moisture content and the accuracy of the DEM needed to correct for topographic effects. We investigate the use of bulk volumetric water content inferred from ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data to improve the ReSALT retrieval algorithm. We also quantify the effect of DEM accuracy on ReSALT uncertainties, leads to requirements for DEM accuracy in InSAR-based ALT retrieval.

  4. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    PubMed

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats. PMID:26040582

  5. Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and total suspended-solids data for surface water in the Great Salt Lake basins study unit, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Heidi K.

    2000-01-01

    Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids surface-water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which extends from southeastern Idaho to west-central Utah and from Great Salt Lake to the Wasatch and western Uinta Mountains. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality database. The Division of Water Quality database includes data that are submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STOrage and RETrieval system. Water-quality data included in this report were selected for surface-water sites (rivers, streams, and canals) that had three or more nutrient, suspended-sediment, or total suspended-solids analyses. Also, 33 percent or more of the measurements at a site had to include discharge, and, for non-U.S. Geological Survey sites, there had to be 2 or more years of data. Ancillary data for parameters such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow (discharge), dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, and turbidity also were compiled, as available. The compiled nutrient database contains 13,511 samples from 191 selected sites. The compiled suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database contains 11,642 samples from 142 selected sites. For the nutrient database, the median (50th percentile) sample period for individual sites is 6 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 52 and the 75th percentile is 110 samples. For the suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database, the median sample period for individual sites is 9 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 76 and the 75th percentile is 120 samples. The compiled historical data are being used in the

  6. Spatiotemporal comparison of highly-resolved emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide and criteria pollutants in Salt Lake City, Utah for health and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Fasoli, B.; Bares, R.; o'Keefe, D.; Song, T.; Huang, J.; Horel, J.; Crosman, E.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the need for robust highly-resolved emissions and concentration data required for planning purposes and policy development aimed at managing pollutant sources. Adverse health effects resulting from urban pollution exposure are dependent on proximity to emission sources and atmospheric mixing, necessitating models with high spatial and temporal resolution. As urban emission sources co-emit carbon dioxide (CO2) and criteria pollutants (CAPs), efforts to reduce specific pollutants would synergistically reduce others. We present emissions inventories and modeled concentrations for CO2 and CAPs: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and sulfur oxides (SOx) for Salt Lake County, Utah. We compare the resulting concentrations against stationary and mobile measurement data and present a systematic quantification of uncertainties. The emissions inventory for CO2 is based on the Hestia emissions data inventory that resolves emissions at an hourly, building and road link resolution as well as hourly gridded emissions with a 0.002o x 0.002o spatial resolution. Two methods for deriving criteria pollutant emission inventories were compared. One was constructed using methods similar to Hestia but downscales total emissions based on the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The other used Emission Modeling Clearinghouse spatial and temporal surrogates to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution to hourly and 0.002o x 0.002o grid cells. The gridded emissions from both criteria pollutant methods were compared against the Hestia CO2 gridded data to characterize spatial similarities and differences between them. Correlations were calculated at multiple scales of aggregation. The CALPUFF dispersion model was used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002o resolution. The resulting concentrations were spatially compared in the same manner

  7. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT.

  8. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  9. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. PMID:26340643

  10. A field study for the validation and implementation of the urban airshed model (UAM) in the complex terrain surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Swart, H.R.; Barickman, P.R.; Wilkerson, G.W.; Hauze, W.

    1998-12-31

    Historically the Wasatch Front has exceeded the existing one-hour ozone standard, and is expected to have difficulty meeting the new 8-hour standard. To better understand and forecast these exceedance episodes the Utah Division of Air Quality (UDAQ) has elected to apply the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). The application of UAM in this area is difficult because of the Wasatch mountain range to the east of the urbanized area and the Great Salt Lake to the west. The UDAQ sponsored a field data measurement project during the summer of 1996 to support the UAM effort. Special intensive measurements of meteorology, precursor emissions, and chemistry, at ground level and aloft, were conducted on five days to develop a more complete understanding of ozone and its evolutionary process. Aircraft and ground-based mobile measurements of air quality and meteorology supplemented the existing networks to define the boundary conditions as well as document the chemical changes and transport within the airshed. On the study days ozone concentrations did not exceed the 1-hour standard but did exceed the 8-hour standard. The field effort has provided valuable data for characterizing the complex meteorology and boundary conditions in the airshed. This paper discusses the data analysis as it applies to the development of wind fields with the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM)1 for use in the UAM.

  11. Marsh wrens as bioindicators of mercury in wetlands of Great Salt Lake: do blood and feathers reflect site-specific exposure risk to bird reproduction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Isanhart, John; Herzog, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Nonlethal sampling of bird blood and feathers are among the more common ways of estimating the risk of mercury exposure to songbird reproduction. The implicit assumption is that mercury concentrations in blood or feathers of individuals captured in a given area are correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs from the same area. Yet, this assumption is rarely tested. We evaluated mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs of marsh wrens in wetlands of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and, at two spatial scales, specifically tested the assumption that mercury concentrations in blood and feather samples from birds captured in a defined area were predictive of mercury concentrations in eggs collected in the same area. Mercury concentrations in blood were not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected within the same wetland unit, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs collected at the smaller home range spatial scale of analysis. Moreover, mercury exposure risk, as estimated via tissue concentrations, differed among wetland units depending upon whether blood or egg mercury concentrations were sampled. Mercury concentrations in feathers also were uncorrelated with mercury concentrations in eggs, and were poorly correlated with mercury concentrations in blood. These results demonstrate the potential for contrasting management actions that may be implemented based solely on the specific avian tissue that is sampled, and highlight the importance of developing avian tissues as biomonitoring tools for assessing local risk of mercury exposure to bird reproduction.

  12. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-391-2174, New England Lead Burning Co. (NELCO), Eaton Metals, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Hales, T.R.; Daniels, W.J.; Lee, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from the Director of the Department of Safety and Health, United Association of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry, a follow up investigation was undertaken to determine if worker exposures to lead (7439921) had been reduced as a result of changes made after an initial evaluation at the New England Lead Burning Company (SIC-3443) project at Eaton Metals, Salt Lake City, Utah. The job at Eaton Metals involved the lining of two 85 foot long, 14.5 foot diameter steel tanks with lead sheets. All 22 employees on the day of the study provided blood specimens. The short term lead concentrations for the various jobs ranged from 53 to 450 micrograms/cubic meter. Wipe samples revealed the presence of lead contamination on table surfaces in the lunch room, on workers' clothes and shoes, in the workers' cars, and on the floor of the change room. The authors conclude that employee blood lead levels were reduced below the level requiring bimonthly testing. However, personal breathing zone lead levels were above the PEL and wipe samples still indicated lead contamination. The authors recommend that additional efforts be made to clean up lead contamination. Respirators should be stored in protective bags.

  14. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time. PMID:25690606

  15. Trichloroacetic acid in the vegetation of polluted and remote areas of both hemispheres—Part II: salt lakes as novel sources of natural chlorohydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissflog, Ludwig; Elansky, Nikolai; Putz, Erich; Krueger, Gert; Lange, Christian A.; Lisitzina, Lida; Pfennigsdorff, Andrea

    One of the issues provided for by the 1993 existing substances regulation (793/93/EEC) is the assessment of the environmental risk emanating from waste materials. One such material is the highly volatile substance perchloroethene (PER; TECE). PER is produced in large quantities all over the world by the chemical industry. There are many industrial processes in which PER escapes into the environment, especially the atmosphere. It has since been proven that after entering plants via the air/leaf pathway, airborne PER can be metabolised into the phytotoxic substance trichloroacetic acid. However our own studies detected relatively high levels of TCA in environmental compartments in regions far away from industry which cannot be explained by the anthropogenic input of airborne substances into the relevant ecosystems. This indicates that natural PER emittents also exist and must be identified, in order to find out more about the global spread of PER. This paper reports on the findings of related fieldwork in the Kalmykian Steppe. This area of steppe in southern Russia spans an area extending west-to-east from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and north-to-south between the Greater Caucasus and Volgograd. The main aim of the experiments in the Kalmykian Steppe was to study water from lakes, rivers and springs with differing levels of salinity. The concentrations of the chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) chloroform (CHCl 3), tetrachloromethane (CCl 4), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-C 2H 3Cl 3), trichloroethene (TRI; C 2HCl 3), tetrachloroethene (PER; C 2Cl 4) and TCA in these waters were measured, along with the levels of cations and anions and the pH-value of the waters. The measurements indicate that in particular water from salt lakes located in semiarid/arid areas of the study region must be considered as new types of natural emittents of PER and other chlorinated hydrocarbons as well as trichloroacetic acid. Furthermore, attention is drawn to ecological impacts

  16. Principal Locations of Major-Ion, Trace-Element, Nitrate, and Escherichia coli Loading to Emigration Creek, Salt Lake County, Utah, October 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Housing development and recreational activity in Emigration Canyon have increased substantially since 1980, perhaps causing an observed decrease in water quality of this northern Utah stream located near Salt Lake City. To identify reaches of the stream that contribute to water-quality degradation, a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was done to quantify mass loading of major ions, trace elements, nitrate, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the stream. The resulting mass-loading profiles for major ions and trace elements indicate both geologic and anthropogenic inputs to the stream, principally from tributary and spring inflows to the stream at Brigham Fork, Burr Fork, Wagner Spring, Emigration Tunnel Spring, Blacksmith Hollow, and Killyon Canyon. The pattern of nitrate loading does not correspond to the major-ion and trace-element loading patterns. Nitrate levels in the stream did not exceed water-quality standards at the time of synoptic sampling. The majority of nitrate mass loading can be considered related to anthropogenic input, based on the field settings and trends in stable isotope ratios of nitrogen. The pattern of E. coli loading does not correspond to the major-ion, trace-element, or nitrate loading patterns. The majority of E. coli loading was related to anthropogenic sources based on field setting, but a considerable part of the loading also comes from possible animal sources in Killyon Canyon, in Perkins Flat, and in Rotary Park. In this late summer sampling, E. coli concentrations only exceeded water-quality standards in limited sections of the study reach. The mass-loading approach used in this study provides a means to design future studies and to evaluate the loading on a catchment scale.

  17. Haloactinopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic filamentous actinomycete isolated from a salt lake, with proposal of Jiangellaceae fam. nov. and Jiangellineae subord. nov.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Yun; Shi, Rong; Lou, Kai; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated YIM 93246(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province, north-west China, and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate grew in the presence of 7-23 % (w/v) NaCl, but not in the absence of NaCl. Strain YIM 93246(T) had particular morphological properties, forming aerial mycelium that had long spore chains and pseudosporangium-like, rhiziform spore aggregates at maturity. LL-DAP was the cell-wall diamino acid and glucosamine, mannose, glucose, arabinose and galactose were the cell-wall sugars. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). MK-9 (H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 70.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93246(T) clustered with the genus Jiangella. The sequence similarities between strain YIM 93246(T) and Jiangella alba, Jiangella gansuensis and Jiangella alkaliphila were 96.9, 96.9 and 96.6 %, respectively. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic differences, and phylogenetic analysis, a novel genus and species, Haloactinopolyspora alba gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the species is YIM 93246(T) (=DSM 45211(T)=KCTC 19409(T)). Additionally, phylogenetic analysis placed the genus Jiangella together with strain YIM 93246(T) within the order Actinomycetales as an independent lineage, clearly distinguished from other described suborders of the class Actinobacteria. Hence, based on phylogenetic characteristics, the genus Jiangella together with the newly proposed genus Haloactinopolyspora are proposed to be classified as Jiangellaceae fam. nov. and Jiangellineae subord. nov.

  18. Spatio-temporal variation in the tap water isotope ratios of Salt Lake City: a novel indicator of urban water system structure and dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas. How we use urban water systems affects more than human health and well-being. Our water use can alter a city's energy balance, including how much solar energy is absorbed as heat or reflected back into space. The severity of these effects, and the need to better understand connections between climate, water extraction, water use, and water use impacts, is strongest in areas of climatic aridity and substantial land-use change, such as the rapidly urbanizing areas of Utah. We have gathered and analyzed stable water isotope data from a series of semi-annual hydrological surveys (spring and fall, 2013 and 2014) in urban tap water sampled across the Salt Lake Valley. Our study has led to four major findings thus far: 1) Clear and substantial variation in tap water isotopic composition in space and time that can be linked to different water sources and management practices within the urban area, 2) There is a strong correlation between the range of observed isotope values and the population of water districts, reflecting use of water from multiple local and non-local sources in districts with high water demand, 3) Water isotopes reflect significant and variable loss of water due to evaporation of surface water resources and 4) Overall, tap water contains lower concentrations of the heavy H and O isotopes than does precipitation within the basin, reflecting the connection between city water supplies and mountain water sources. Our results highlight the utility of isotopic data as an indicator of heterogeneities within urban water systems, management practices and their variation across a major metropolitan area, and effects of climate variability on urban water supplies

  19. Hypolipidemic Effects of Biopolymers Extracted from Culture Broth, Mycelia, and Fruiting Bodies of Auricularia auricula-judae in Dietary-induced Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hun; Yang, Byung-Keun; Jeong, Yong-Tae; Kim, Guk-Nam; Jeong, Yu-Sun; Kim, Sang-Min; Mehta, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Hypolipidemic effect of biopolymers extracted from culture broth (CP), mycelia (MP), and fruiting bodies (FP) of Auricularia auricula-judae was investigated in dietary-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The experimental animals were administrated (100 mg/kg body weight) with different biopolymers, daily for 4 weeks. Hypolipidemic effects were achieved in all the experimental groups, however, FP was proved to be the most potent one. The administration of the FP reduced the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index by 24.3, 28.5, 36.4, and 40.9%, respectively, while increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (9.0%), when compared to the saline (control) administered group. PMID:24015062

  20. Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  1. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in

  2. Late Pleistocene paleoclimatic history documented by an oxygen isotope record from carbonate sediments in Qarhan Salt Lake, NE Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, QiShun; Ma, HaiZhou; Wei, HaiCheng; Shan, FaShou; An, FuYuan; Xu, LiMing; Madsen, David B.

    2014-05-01

    Late Pleistocene paleoclimatic variability on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (NE QTP) was reconstructed using a chronology based on AMS 14C and 230Th dating results and a stable oxygen isotopic record. These are derived from lake carbonates in a 102-m-long Qarhan sediment core (ISL1A) collected from the eastern Qaidam Basin. Previous research indicates that the δ18O values of lacustrine carbonates are mainly controlled by the isotopic composition of lake water, which in turn is a function of regional P/E balance and the proportion of precipitation that is monsoon-derived on the NE QTP. Modern isotopic observations indicate that the δ18O values of lake carbonates in hyper-arid Qaidam Basin are more positive during the warm and wet period. Due to strong evaporation and continental effect in this basin, the positive δ18O values in the arid region indicate drier climatic conditions. Based on this interpretation and the δ18O record of fine-grained lake carbonates and dating results in ISL1A, the results imply that drier climatic conditions in the Qarhan region occurred in three intervals, around 90-80 ka, 52-38 ka and 10-9 ka, which could correspond to late MIS 5, middle MIS 3 and early Holocene, respectively. These three phases were almost coincided with low lake level periods of Gahai, Toson and Qinghai Lakes (to the east of Qarhan Lake) influenced by ASM on the orbital timescales. Meanwhile, there was an episode of relatively high δ18O value during late MIS 3, suggesting that relatively dry climatic condition in this period, rather than “a uniform Qarhan mega-paleolake” spanning the ˜44 to 22 ka period. These results insight into the understanding of “the Greatest Lake Period” on the QTP.

  3. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  4. Volcano crisis response at Yellowstone volcanic complex - after-action report for exercise held at Salt Lake City, Utah, November 15, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A functional tabletop exercise was run on November 14-15, 2011 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to test crisis response capabilities, communication protocols, and decision-making by the staff of the multi-agency Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) as they reacted to a hypothetical exercise scenario of accelerating volcanic unrest at the Yellowstone caldera. The exercise simulated a rapid build-up of seismic activity, ground deformation, and hot-spring water-chemistry and temperature anomalies that culminated in a small- to moderate-size phreatomagmatic eruption within Yellowstone National Park. The YVO scientific team's responses to the unfolding events in the scenario and to simulated requests for information by stakeholders and the media were assessed by (a) the exercise organizers; (b) several non-YVO scientists, who observed and queried participants, and took notes throughout the exercise; and (c) the participants themselves, who kept logs of their actions during the exercise and later participated in a group debriefing session and filled out detailed questionnaires. These evaluations were tabulated, interpreted, and summarized for this report, and on the basis of this information, recommendations have been made. Overall, the YVO teams performed their jobs very well. The exercise revealed that YVO scientists were able to successfully provide critical hazards information, issue information statements, and appropriately raise alert levels during a fast-moving crisis. Based on the exercise, it is recommended that several measures be taken to increase YVO effectiveness during a crisis: 1. Improve role clarification within and between YVO science teams. 2. Improve communications tools and protocols for data-sharing and consensus-building among YVO scientists, who are geographically and administratively dispersed among various institutions across the United States. 3. Familiarize YVO staff with Incident Command System (ICS) procedures and protocols, and provide more in

  5. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  6. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy.

  7. Comparative Antitumor Activity of Different Solvent Fractions from an Auricularia auricula-judae Ethanol Extract in P388D1 and Sarcoma 180 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Ahsanur; Choi, Myung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Jo, Woo-Sik; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joong-Su

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antitumor activity of different solvent fractions (ethanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) of the Auricularia auricula-judae 70% ethanol extract on the P388D1 macrophage and sarcoma 180 cells. A dose-dependent antitumor activity of each solvent fraction (from 0.01 mg/ml to 0.3 mg/ml) was shown against both cell types. These cytotoxic effects of all the tested fractions were confirmed on the MTT and SRB assays, without statistical differences each other. IC50 value of dichloromethane fraction was 94.2 μg/ml against sarcoma 180 cells lower than any other solvent fractions. The potent antitumor effect of the dichloromethane (DCM) fraction was also found against solid tumor in BALB/c mice. The splenomegaly and higher splenic index were found in tumor-bearing mice, with the DCM fraction returning to the negative control values. Thus, the results indicated the dichloromethane fraction may have potential ingredients as antitumor candidates. PMID:24278555

  8. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy. PMID:27367576

  9. Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongqi; Shi, Huahong; Li, Lan; Li, Jiana; Jabeen, Khalida; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu

    2015-11-17

    Microplastics have been found in seas all over the world. We hypothesize that sea salts might contain microplastics, because they are directly supplied by seawater. To test our hypothesis, we collected 15 brands of sea salts, lake salts, and rock/well salts from supermarkets throughout China. The microplastics content was 550-681 particles/kg in sea salts, 43-364 particles/kg in lake salts, and 7-204 particles/kg in rock/well salts. In sea salts, fragments and fibers were the prevalent types of particles compared with pellets and sheets. Microplastics measuring less than 200 μm represented the majority of the particles, accounting for 55% of the total microplastics, and the most common microplastics were polyethylene terephthalate, followed by polyethylene and cellophane in sea salts. The abundance of microplastics in sea salts was significantly higher than that in lake salts and rock/well salts. This result indicates that sea products, such as sea salts, are contaminated by microplastics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on microplastic pollution in abiotic sea products.

  10. Contaminants in fish tissue from US lakes and reservoirs: A national probabilistic study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unequal probability design was used to develop national estimates for 268 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in fish tissue from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake). Predator (fillet) ...

  11. Bacterial voltage-gated sodium channels (BacNa(V)s) from the soil, sea, and salt lakes enlighten molecular mechanisms of electrical signaling and pharmacology in the brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, Jian; Minor, Daniel L

    2015-01-16

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) provide the initial electrical signal that drives action potential generation in many excitable cells of the brain, heart, and nervous system. For more than 60years, functional studies of Na(V)s have occupied a central place in physiological and biophysical investigation of the molecular basis of excitability. Recently, structural studies of members of a large family of bacterial voltage-gated sodium channels (BacNa(V)s) prevalent in soil, marine, and salt lake environments that bear many of the core features of eukaryotic Na(V)s have reframed ideas for voltage-gated channel function, ion selectivity, and pharmacology. Here, we analyze the recent advances, unanswered questions, and potential of BacNa(V)s as templates for drug development efforts.

  12. Bacterial voltage-gated sodium channels (BacNaVs) from the soil, sea, and salt lakes enlighten molecular mechanisms of electrical signaling and pharmacology in the brain and heart

    PubMed Central

    Payandeh, Jian; Minor, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) provide the initial electrical signal that drives action potential generation in many excitable cells of the brain, heart, and nervous system. For more than 60 years, functional studies of NaVs have occupied a central place in physiological and biophysical investigation of the molecular basis of excitability. Recently, structural studies of members of a large family of bacterial voltage-gated sodium channels (BacNaVs) prevalent in soil, marine, and salt lake environments that bear many of the core features of eukaryotic NaVs have reframed ideas for voltage-gated channel function, ion selectivity, and pharmacology. Here, we analyze the recent advances, unanswered questions, and potential of BacNaVs as templates for drug development efforts. PMID:25158094

  13. Salinization: unplumbed salt in a parched landscape.

    PubMed

    Williams, W D

    2001-01-01

    The global hydrological and salt cycles are described, as are the ways in which human activities have led to their disturbance. One effect of this disturbance is the unnatural increase in the salinity of many inland waters (secondary salinization). The geographical extent of secondary salinization is outlined, together with its effects on various types of inland waters, such as salt lakes, freshwater lakes and wetlands, and rivers and streams. The likely impact on salinization of global climate change is summarized.

  14. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  15. Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the

  16. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Applications, Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI), Salt Lake City, UT, February 17, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.; Frikken, Don; Skolnik, Edward G.; Weiner, Steven C.

    2009-07-16

    Following a telephone interview with Materials and Systems Research, Inc. (MSRI) by members of the Hydrogen Safety Panel on December 4, 2008, a safety review team was dispatched to Salt Lake City, UT to perform a site-visit review. The major topic of concern was the presence of a hydrogen storage and dispensing shed on the MSRI premises close to both its own laboratory/office building and to the adjoining property. The metal shed contains 36 cylinders (two 18-cylinder "pods") of hydrogen all connected to a common manifold and used to supply hydrogen to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel cell project plus several other projects using an entire pod as a common supply. In busy times, MSRI uses and replaces one pod per week. As a result of the site visit, the safety review team has raised some concern with the shed’s location, design, use, and safety features as well as other components of the facility, including the laboratory area.

  17. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.77 Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh...

  18. Salt budget for West Pond, Utah, April 1987 to June 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wold, S.R.; Waddell, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    During operation of the West Desert pumping project, April 10. 1987, to June 30, 1989, data were collected as part of a monitoring program to evaluate the effects of pumping brine from Great Salt Lake into West Pond in northern Utah. The removal of brine from Great Sail was part of an effort to lower the level of Great Salt Lake when the water level was at a high in 1986. These data were used to prepare a salt budget that indicates about 695 million tons of salt or about 14.2 percent of salt contained in Great Salt Lake was pumped into West Pond. Of the 695 million tons of salt pumped into West Pond, 315 million tons (45 percent) were dissolved in West Pond, 71 million tons (10.2 percent) formed a salt crust at the bottom of the pond, 10 million tons (1.4 percent) infiltrated the subsurface areas inundated by storage in the pond, 88 million tons (12.7 percent) were withdrawn by American Magnesium Corporation, and 123 million tons (17.7 percent) discharged from the pond through the Newfoundland weir. About 88 million tons (13 percent) of the salt pumped from the lake could not be accounted for in the salt budget. About 94 million tons of salt (1.9 percent of the total salt in Great Salt Lake) flowed back to Great Salt Lake.

  19. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  20. Investigation of Salt Loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats, Northwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats study area is located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwestern Utah, about 110 miles west of Salt Lake City. The salt crust covers about 50 square miles, but the extent varies yearly as a result of salt being dissolved by the formation and movement of surface ponds during the winter and redeposited with the evaporation of these ponds during the summer. A decrease in thickness and extent of the salt crust on the Bonneville Salt Flats has been documented during 1960-88 (S. Brooks, Bureau of Land Management, written commun., 1989). Maximum salt-crust thickness was 7 feet in 1960 and 5.5 feet in 1988. No definitive data are available to identify and quantify the processes that cause salt loss. More than 55 million tons of salt are estimated to have been lost from the salt crust during the 28-year period. The Bureau of Land Management needs to know the causes of salt loss to make appropriate management decisions.

  1. New explorations along the northern shores of Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    This field trip begins in Salt Lake City and makes a clockwise circuit of Great Salt Lake, with primary objectives to observe stratigraphie and geomorphic records of Lake Bonneville. Stops include Stansbury Island, Puddle Valley, gravel pits at Lakeside and the south end of the Hogup Mountains, several stops in Curlew Valley and Hansel Valley, and a final stop at the north end of Great Salt Lake east of the Promontory Mountains. Stratigraphie observations at gravel-pit and natural exposures will be linked to interpretations of lake-level change, which were caused by climate change. Evidence of paleoseismic and volcanic activity will be discussed at several sites, and will be tied to the lacustrine stratigraphic record. The trip provides an overview of the history of Lake Bonneville and introduces participants to some new localities with excellent examples of Lake Bonneville landforms and stratigraphy.

  2. Salamander colonization of Chase Lake, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Salt concentrations in lakes are dynamic. In the western United States, water diversions have caused significant declines in lake levels resulting in increased salinity, placing many aquatic species at risk (Galat and Robinson 1983, Beutel et al. 2001). Severe droughts can have similar effects on salt concentrations and aquatic communities (Swanson et al. 2003). Conversely, large inputs of water can dilute salt concentrations and contribute to community shifts (Euliss et al. 2004).

  3. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Kartch, F.X.; Stroud, R.K.; Smith, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  4. Westminster College of Salt Lake City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeples, Douglas W.

    1988-01-01

    Strategic planning can successfully counter crises threatening a college's survival by clarifying the mission, by shaping institutional reorganization and curriculum development and by focusing marketing efforts and attracting new support. Crisis background, financial exigency, and reorganizing strategically are discussed. (MLW)

  5. Water Budget and Salinity of Walker Lake, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Walker Lake is one of the rare perennial, terminal lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States. The lake is the terminus for all surface- water and ground-water flow in the Walker River Basin Hydrographic Region that is not consumed by evaporation, sublimation, or transpiration. The concentration of dissolved solids (salts) in the lake-surface altitude depend primarily on the amounts of water entering and evaporation from the lake. Because Walker Lake is a terminal sink--it has no documented surface- or ground-water outflow--dissolved solids that enter it accumulate as the lake water evaporates. Declining lake levels, owing to natural and anthropogenic processes, have resulted in most Great Basin terminal lakes being too saline to support fish. In Nevada, the only terminal lakes that contain fish are Pyramid Lake, Ruby Lake, and Walker Lake. Dissolved-solids concentration in Walker Lake increased from about 2,500 milligrams per liter in 1882 to 13,300 milli- grams per liter in July 1994 (U.S. Geological Survey analysis), as the lake-surface altitude declined from about 4,080 to 3,944 feet above sea level. This dramatic increase in dissolved-solids concentration threatens the Walker Lake ecosystem and the fish that depend on this ecosystem.

  6. Response of closed basin lakes to interannual climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, Kathleen; Rupper, Summer; Roe, Gerard H.

    2016-06-01

    Lakes are key indicators of a region's hydrological cycle, directly reflecting the basin-wide balance between precipitation and evaporation. Lake-level records are therefore valuable repositories of climate history. However, the interpretation of such records is not necessarily straightforward. Lakes act as integrators of the year-to-year fluctuations in precipitation and evaporation that occur even in a constant climate. Therefore lake levels can exhibit natural, unforced fluctuations that persist on timescales of decades or more. This behavior is important to account for when distinguishing between true climate change and interannual variability as the cause of past lake-level fluctuations. We demonstrate the operation of this general principle for the particular case-study of the Great Salt Lake, which has long historical lake-level and climatological records. We employ both full water-balance and linear models. Both models capture the timing and size of the lake's historical variations. We then model the lake's response to much longer synthetic time series of precipitation and evaporation calibrated to the observations, and compare the magnitude and frequency of the modeled response to the Great Salt Lake's historical record. We find that interannual climate variability alone can explain much of the decadal-to-centennial variations in the lake-level record. Further, analytic solutions to the linear model capture much of the full model's behavior, but fail to predict the most extreme lake-level variations. We then apply the models to other lake geometries, and evaluate how the timing and amplitude of a lake-level response differs with climatic and geometric setting. A lake's response to a true climatic shift can only be understood in the context of these expected persistent lake-level variations. On the basis of these results, we speculate that lake response to interannual climate variability may play an important part in explaining much of Holocene lake

  7. 62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  9. Determination of hydrologic properties needed to calculate average linear velocity and travel time of ground water in the principal aquifer underlying the southeastern part of Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to

  10. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in spite of the fact that Dunaliella is often the main or even the sole primary producer present, so that the entire ecosystem depends on carbon fixed by this alga. This review paper summarizes our knowledge about the occurrence and the activities of different Dunaliella species in natural salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea and others), in saltern ponds and in other salty habitats where members of the genus have been found. PMID:25984505

  11. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in spite of the fact that Dunaliella is often the main or even the sole primary producer present, so that the entire ecosystem depends on carbon fixed by this alga. This review paper summarizes our knowledge about the occurrence and the activities of different Dunaliella species in natural salt lakes (Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea and others), in saltern ponds and in other salty habitats where members of the genus have been found.

  12. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  13. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  14. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  15. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  16. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  17. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Lake Constance, Europe     View ... This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Lake Constance covers an area measuring 355 kilometers x 287 kilometers, and ... wastewater and fertilizers. This leads to overproduction of algae and aquatic plants, exhaustion of available oxygen, loss of some fish ...

  18. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron in Tansania, in the 35-mile-wide East African Rift Valley. This lake is surrounded by sodium carbonate volcanoes. Through erosion, these salts of volcanic origin are transported into the rift valley lakes. The various shades of bright red reflecting from the lake result from the water chemistry and biotic blooms. The white spots in the lakebed are drying soda salts. The depth and circulation of the water in the southern end of the lake cause it to appear dark blue rather than bright red. In the repeated photographs of this lake from orbit, we have seen the extent and intensity of its colors fluctuate seasonally. In this photograph, the biotic activity appears to be at a peak. Such a large extent of red-colored water was not present in the photos taken from STS-56, just a few days before (04-10-93).

  19. A late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene pluvial lake in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Slate, J.L.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The question of whether a pluvial lake existed in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada and California, has been debated for more than 100 yr. New stratigraphic evidence indicates that a lake did exist in this valley at intervals during late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time. This lake may have drained northward, or it may have been periodically contiguous with a pluvial lake to the north in Columbus Salt Marsh. Proof of the existence of this lake, informally named Pluvial Lake Rennie, is derived from three principal outcrops of shallow-water deposits, two outcrops of deep-water deposits, and several drilling logs. The deposits contain beds of silicic tephra, which provide age control. Pluvial Lake Rennie fluctuated in size and depth beginning prior to 2 Ma and continuing until sometime after 0.77 Ma. At about 0.77 Ma, the lake had a highstand at an elevation of ~1460 m, covered an area of 400-500 km2, and had a maximum depth of ~250 m. The lake level dropped just after the eruption of the Bishop ash, but the lake may have persisted at a lower level until ~0.5 Ma. -from Authors

  20. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  1. Past, present and future of saline lakes: research for global sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrin, Nickolai; Zheng, Mianping; Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference on Salt Lake Research was held in Langfang City, China from July 14 to 18, 2014. Fifteen manuscripts of presentations have been retained for publication in this special issue. They are very diverse, covering the biology, physics, chemistry and geology of salt lakes, the history of hydrological research on the Dead Sea, the effects of socioeconomic and environmental policies by stakeholders on human populations, and the increasing salinization of freshwater lakes around the world.

  2. Water quality of Rogers Lake, Dakota County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Have, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of water from Rogers Lake suggest that sodium and chloride concentrations were higher than in ground water or in water in some surrounding lakes . Sodium ranged from 7.2 to 55 milligrams per liter, and chloride ranged from 15 to 30 milligrams per liter. Concentrations were highest in March 1978, when most of the lake water was frozen. Much of the sodium and chloride may have been derived from road salts used for deicing.

  3. Mono Lake's Radiocarbon Budget: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace; Stine, Scott

    Mono Lake occupies a semiarid basin just east of the central Sierra Nevada in California. During the past 4 decades, diversion of the lake's tributary streams by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has caused the lake to shrink dramatically. This shrinkage has concentrated the salts that occur naturally in the lake, forcing the salinity to rise toward levels that will cause the extinction of the resident brine shrimp and brine flies that provide food for many hundreds of thousands of migratory waterfowl. The lake is now the focus of a pitched battle between conservationists who want to curtail diversions before serious ecological consequences occur and the LADWP, whose responsibility is to supply the city with water.

  4. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  5. A survey of lakes in the Republic of Ireland: hydrochemical characteristics and acid sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Aherne, Julian; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Farrell, Edward P

    2002-09-01

    In 1997, as part of a national program to determine and map critical loads, a lake survey was carried out in the Republic of Ireland. In total 200 lakes were sampled, which represents approximately 3.3% of the total lake population. The majority of lakes were situated in remote, high-altitude, acid-sensitive areas along the coastal margins of the country. Lake chemistry was dominated by marine inputs. Approximately 50% of the lakes had DOC > 5 mg L-1 due to the presence of organic soils in a large proportion of the catchments. Nonmarine sulfate concentrations were at background levels (< 20 mu eq L-1) in 50% of the lakes. Exceedance of critical load was observed in 7% of the sampled lakes (13 lakes). However, there are uncertainties in the critical load calculations due to the interference of sea salts and organic acids; accurate estimation under such conditions requires long-term lake and deposition chemistry.

  6. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  7. Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes, Oregon; with section on Chemistry of the Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Kenneth N.; Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1968-01-01

    Crater, East, and Davis Lakes are small bodies of fresh water that occupy topographically closed basins in Holocene volcanic terrane. Because the annual water supply exceeds annual evaporation, water must be lost by seepage from each lake. The seepage rates vary widely both in volume and in percentage of the total water supply. Crater Lake loses about 89 cfs (cubic feet per second), equivalent to about 72 percent of its average annual supply. East Lake loses about 2.3 cfs, or about 44 percent of its estimated supply. Davis Lake seepage varies greatly with lake level, but the average loss is about 150 cfs, more than 90 percent of its total supply. The destination of the seepage loss is not definitely known for any of the lakes. An approximate water budget was computed for stationary level for each lake, by using estimates 'by the writer to supplement the hydrologic data available. The three lake waters are dilute. Crater Lake contains about 80 ppm, (parts per million) of dissolved solids---mostly silica, sodium, and bicarbonate, and lesser amounts of calcium, sulfate, and chloride. Much of the dissolved-solids content of Crater Lake---especially the sulfate and chloride---may be related to fumarole and thermal-spring activity that presumably followed the collapse of Mount Mazama. Although Grater Lake loses an estimated 7,000 tons of its 1.5million-ton salt content each year by leakage, the chemical character of the lake did not change appreciably between 1912 and 1964. East Lake contains 200 ppm of dissolved solids, which includes major proportions of calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, but almost no chloride. The lake apparently receives much of its dissolved solids from subsurface thermal springs. Annual solute loss from East Lake by leakage is about 450 tons, or 3 percent of the lake's 15,000-ton estimated solute content. Davis Lake contains only 48 ppm of dissolved solids, much of which is silica and bicarbonate; chloride is almost completely absent

  8. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Mortality of waterfowl on a hypersaline wetland as a result of salt encrustation

    SciTech Connect

    Wobeser, G.; Howard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 300 geese, primarily lesser Canada geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) were found unable to fly or dead on a small hypersaline lake (conductivity 77,000-90,000 mumhos/cm) in western Saskatchewan in September 1985. The birds were heavily encrusted with sodium sulfate crystals. Dead birds that were necropsied had aspirated lake water and had evidence of acute muscle degeneration. The live geese (155) were captured and moved to nearby freshwater wetlands where most apparently survived. Some birds died of severe myopathy after translocation. Five northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) were found encrusted with salt and unable to fly on the lake approximately 10 days later. Salt encrustation apparently occurred when rapid cooling of the lake resulted in supersaturation and crystallization of the dissolved salt. A local resident recalled similar events occurring on the lake in autumn on at least two other occasions during the past 50 yr.

  10. The Necessity of Salt Precipitation for the Dead Sea Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, Y.; Lensky, N.; Lyahovsky, V.; Gertman, I.; Gavrieli, I.

    2006-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake with a composition that differs significantly from regular seawater. During the winter the DS is well mixed but in the spring a thermocline develops and the lake becomes stratified. Evaporation, mainly during summer leads to the development of a destabilizing halocline together with a stabilizing thermocline. Thus, the upper mixed layer is warmer due to heating and more saline due to evaporation than the lower layer. In the autumn, when the upper layer cools sufficiently, the lake overturns and becomes mixed again. To model this behavior one has to take into account the unique features of the Dead Sea. These features include the need for a special equation of state, determination of water activity and its impact on the evaporation rate, water inflow, including rejected brine (end brine) from the Dead Sea works and salt precipitation from the DS water body. The modeling of the water activity and salt precipitation requires a multicomponent (rather than usual salinity-based) model which enables determination of the degrees of saturation for specific salts and the calculation of the corresponding amount of precipitated salt required to maintain saturation. This precipitated salt accumulates on the bottom of the lake thus making the water deficit greater than surmised from observed water level drop. In the present study we modified the 1-D Princeton Oceanographic Model (POM) incorporating a new equation of state. The model correctly reproduces the measured temperature and salinity profiles, sea level drop and seasonal stratification and overturn of the DS. Our results show that the timing of the overturn is determined by the interplay between the temperature and the salinity of the mixed upper layer. The greater amount of salt in the water in the case of no salt precipitation results in premature overturn. Thus, salt precipitation and its impact on the mixed layer salinity were found to be of utmost importance.

  11. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  12. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  13. Lake Michigan's late Quaternary limnological and climate history from ostracode, oxygen isotope, and magnetic susptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, Richard M.; Colman, Steven M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Keigwin, Loyd D.

    1994-01-01

    The limnology of Lake Michigan has changed dramatically since the late Pleistocene in response to the expansion and contraction of continental glaciers, to differential isostatic rebound, and to climate change. The lake sediment's stratigraphic trends, magnetic susceptibility, δ18O, and ostracode species abundance ratios provide criteria to identify the lake's response to glacial ice and to differential isostatic rebound. The latter phenomena dominate the lake's late Pleistocene and early Holocene history. The lake's hydrological budget provides the primary linkage between the lake and climate, particularly effective moisture. Dissolved salts were stored in the lake's water column when the lake's output shifted toward evaporation, but were flushed when output shifted toward outflow. The lake's salt storage history may be interpreted from some ostracode, δ18O, and magnetic susceptibility records found in sediment cores. Climate change influenced the entire lake's limnological history, but became the primary limnological driver from about the middle-Holocene to the present. The complex limnological history of Lake Michigan resulted in substantial changes in the ostracode species assemblages; from about 12,000 ka to about 5,500 ka, five ostracode intervals can be identified. These ostracode intervals provide a within-lake biostratigraphy and a stratigraphic reference for reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental dynamics of the lake.

  14. Multi-temporal water extent analysis of a hypersaline playa lake using Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ecenur; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Lutfi Suzen, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Distinguishing inland water bodies from satellite imagery has always been one of the main practices of remote sensing. In some cases this differentiation can directly be obtained by visual interpretation. However, in case of hyper-saline playa lakes, presence of high albedo salt crust in the lake bed hampers visual interpretation and requires further attention. Lake Tuz is a hypersaline playa lake which is ranked as the second largest lake in Turkey. Spatio-temporal changes in lake water extent are important both economically and hydrologically including salt production, lake water balance, drought and over-exploitation issues. This study investigates the spatiotemporal changes in Lake Tuz water extent during the last decade using single-band thresholding and multi-band indices extracted from the multi-temporal Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images. The applicability of different satellite-derived indices including Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI (MNDWI), Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) and Tasseled Cap Wetness (TCw) were investigated for the extraction of lake water extent from Landsat imagery. Our analysis indicated that, overall, NDWI is superior to other tested indices in separating wet/dry pixels over the lake bottom covered with salt crust. Using a NDWI thresholding procedure, the annual and seasonal variation in the Lake Tuz water extent were determined and further linked to hydro-meteorological variables such as precipitation.

  15. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  16. Characterization and simulation of the quantity and quality of water in the Highland Lakes, Texas, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Timothy H.; Rast, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Results from the simulations indicate that saline inflows to the Highland Lakes similar to those of the releases from Natural Dam Salt Lake during 1987–89 are unlikely to cause large increases in future concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in the Highland Lakes. The results also indicate that high-salinity water will continue to be diluted as it is transported downstream through the Highland Lakes, even during extended dry periods.

  17. Hydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    High water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota, and other terminal lakes, have, in recent years, threatened highways, agricultural land, recreational cabins, and communities located near these lakes. This study was undertaken to describe the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin and to determine how to estimate future water level probabilities. Analysis of the available hydrologic and climatologic data indicates the water level of Devils Lake fluctuates largely in response to climatic variability. Average annual net storage gain has varied from 70 ,000 acre-feet for 1969-83 to as little as 4,530 acre-feet for 1931-40. In addition to the influence of climatic variability on the inflow to Devils Lake, an interconnected chain of lakes upstream of Devils Lake retains runoff and acts as an evaporation basin for runoff from the Devils Lake basin. During 1965-67, at least 112,000 acre-feet of water was stored in this upstream chain of lakes. A review of research conducted on other terminal lakes indicated that the water level in these lakes fluctuated primarily in response to climate variability. There is agreement between water level fluctuations of terminal lakes in Western North America and water level fluctuations of Devils lake during times of climatic extremes. No standardized methods are available for computing water level probabilities of terminal lakes. Most of the development of a method for determining future water level probabilities has been focused on Great Salt Lake, Utah. A number of techniques have been used to estimate the future water-level probabilities for Great Salt Lake; however, they provide a wide range in probability of occurrence for any given water level. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  19. PySALT: SALT science pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, S. M.; Still, M.; Schellart, P.; Balona, L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; Pickering, T. E.; Potter, S.; Romero Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Wiliams, T.; Zietsman, E.

    2012-07-01

    The PySALT user package contains the primary reduction and analysis software tools for the SALT telescope. Currently, these tools include basic data reductions for RSS and SALTICAM in both imaging, spectroscopic, and slot modes. Basic analysis software for slot mode data is also provided. These tools are primarily written in python/PyRAF with some additional IRAF code.

  20. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  1. Selected hydrologic data for the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley, western Utah, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Brothers, W.C.; Gerner, L.J.; Muir, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic data collected during 1991-93 in the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley study area of western Utah. These data were collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, as part of a study to investigate possible salt loss from the Bonneville Salt Flats. The Bonneville Salt Flats and adjacent Pilot Valley are located in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in Utah, near the Nevada border. The Bonneville Salt Flats playa has a thick, perennial salt crust and the Pilot Valley playa has a thin, ephemeral salt crust. Well-completion data, including well depth and screened intervals, are presented in this report for selected shallow and deep monitoring wells. Water-level measurements are reported with corresponding specfic-gravity and temperature measurements. Results of chemical analyses are reported for brine collected from wells and pore fluids extracted from cores.

  2. Studies of quaternary saline lakes-II. Isotopic and compositional changes during desiccation of the brines in Owens Lake, California, 1969-1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Smith, G.I.; Hardcastle, Kenneth G.

    1976-01-01

    Owens Lake is an alkaline salt lake in a closed basin in southeast California. It is normally nearly dry, but in early 1969, an abnormal runoff from the Sierra Nevada flooded it to a maximum depth of 2??4 m. By late summer of 1971, the lake was again nearly dry and the dissolved salts recrystallized. Changes in the chemistry, pH, and deuterium content were monitored during desiccation. During flooding, salts (mostly trona, halite, and burkeite) dissolved slowly from the lake floor. Their concentration in the lake waters increased as evaporation removed water and salts again crystallized, but winter temperatures caused precipitation of some salts and the following summer warming caused their solution, resulting in seasonal variations in the concentration patterns of some ions. The pH values (9??4-10??4) changed with time but showed no detectable diurnal pattern. The deuterium concentration increased during evaporation and appeared to be in equilibrium with vapor leaving the lake according to the Rayleigh equation. The effective ??(D/H in liquid/D/H in vapor) decreased as salinity increased; the earliest measured value was 1??069 [as total dissolved solids (TDS) of lake waters changed from 136,200 to 250,400 mg/1]and the last value (calc.) was 1??025 (as TDS changed from 450,000 to 470,300 mg/1). Deuterium exchange with the atmosphere was apparently small except during late desiccation stages when the isotopic contrast became great. Eventually, atmospheric exchange, combined with decreasing ?? and lake size and increasing salinity, stopped further deuterium concentration in the lake. The maximum contrast between atmospheric vapor and lake deuterium contents was about 110%. ?? 1976.

  3. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from foods that are always high in salt. Some common ones are: Processed foods, such as cured or smoked meats, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bologna, ham, and salami ... salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon ...

  4. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  5. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  6. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  7. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  8. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  9. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  10. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  11. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  12. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  13. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  14. Sources of dissolved salts in the central Murray Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Hanor, J.S.; Evans, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Large areas of the Australian continent contain scattered saline lakes underlain by shallow saline groundwaters of regional extent and debated origin. The normative salt composition of subsurface pore fluids extracted by squeezing cores collected during deep drilling at Piangil West 2 in the central Murray Basin in southeastern Australia, and of surface and shallow subsurface brines produced by subaerial evaporation in the nearby Lake Tyrrell systems, helps constrain interpretation of the origin of dissolved solutes in the groundwaters of this part of the continent. Although regional sedimentation in the Murray Basin has been dominantly continental except for a marine transgression in Oligocene-Pliocene time, most of the solutes in saline surface and subsurface waters in the central Murray Basin have a distinctly marine character. Some of the Tyrrell waters, to the southwest of Piangil West 2, show the increase in NaCl and decrease in sulfate salts expected with evaporative concentration and gypsum precipitation in an ephemeral saline lake or playa environment. The salt norms for most of the subsurface saline waters at Piangil West 2 are compatible with the dilution of variably fractionated marine bitterns slightly depleted in sodium salts, similar to the more evolved brines at Lake Tyrrell, which have recharged downward after evaporation at the surface and then dissolved a variable amount of gypsum at depth. Apparently over the last 0.5 Ma significant quantities of marine salt have been blown into the Murray Basin as aerosols which have subsequently been leached into shallow regional groundwater systems basin-wide, and have been transported laterally into areas of large evaporative loss in the central part of the basin. This origin for the solutes helps explain why the isotopic compositions of most of the subsurface saline waters at Piangil West 2 have a strong meteoric signature, whereas the dissolved salts in these waters appear similar to a marine assemblage

  15. Ground-water movement and water quality in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, T.A.; Wright, S.J.; Stolp, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, were collected during August 1999 through August 2003. Water levels in Lake Point generally declined about 1 to 2 feet from July 2001 to July 2003, likely because of less-than-average precipitation. Ground water generally flows in two directions from the Oquirrh Mountains. One component flows north toward the regional topographic low, Great Salt Lake. The other component generally flows southwest toward a substantial spring complex, Factory/Dunne's Pond. This southwest component flows through a coarse gravel deposit believed to be a shoreline feature of historic Lake Bonneville. The dominant water-quality trend in Lake Point is an increase in dissolved-solids concentration with proximity to Great Salt Lake. The water type changes from calcium-bicarbonate adjacent to the Oquirrh Mountains to sodium-chloride with proximity to Great Salt Lake. Evaluation of chloride-bromide weight ratios indicates a mixture of fresher recharge waters with a brine similar to what currently exists in Great Salt Lake.

  16. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  17. The timing and magnitude of lake-level variability, in response to interannual climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, K. M.; Rupper, S.; Roe, G.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the primary uncertainties and most critical consequences of both past and future climate change concern Earth's hydrological cycle. Lakes are key indicators of a region's hydrological cycle, directly reflecting the basin-wide balance between evaporation and precipitation. Lake-level records can therefore hold valuable information about the history of these climate variables. However, the interpretation of such records is not necessarily straightforward; because lakes integrate year-to-year climate fluctuations they will exhibit persistent fluctuations on timescales of decades or more. Any system with 'memory' (i.e., inertia, or a dynamic response time) will produce similar behavior. This inertia can make it difficult to distinguish lake-level fluctuations in response to stochastic climate forcing from a true shift in the climate -- a change in the mean or standard deviation of one or several climatic variables. The size and shape of a lake determines the response time to both stochastic forcing and climatic change, meaning that each individual lake will respond with a unique timescale and magnitude. We develop a general lake-level model to constrain a lake's response to interannual climate fluctuations. Because of its long historical lake-level and climatological records, we use the Great Salt Lake as a case-study for this work. We use mass-balance models to track the lake's response to synthetic, random time series of precipitation and evaporation, then compare the magnitude and frequency of our model's response to the historical record of the Great Salt Lake's rise and fall. We then compare simplified geometric representations of several lakes to illustrate how the timing and amplitude of a lake's response differs under unique climatic and geometric scenarios. We find that interannual climate variability alone can explain much of the decadal-centennial variations in the lake-level record. It is only after removing this background variability that a lake

  18. Lake salinity variations resulting from wind direction, Gobi Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. C.; Cartwright, I.; Currell, M.

    2010-12-01

    The southern reaches of the Gobi desert, central China, host a large number (~50) of shallow (<3m depth), narrow, north-south trending through-flow lakes. The size of the sand dunes (many over 150m) in this area means that the valleys between the largest dunes can intersect with the water table. The resultant lakes are of particular interest, not only because they are host to a number of unique ecosystems, including several rare species, but also because they are very susceptible to environmental disturbances. Physical development of the lakes is a clear threat, but also small scale withdrawal of groundwater in proximity to the lakes can cause a drop in the water table, forcing it below the lake floor, and consequently causing many lakes to dry up. Due to their inaccessibility, many of these lakes have remained relatively untouched by development, and only those lakes closest to the eastern edge of the desert have been utilized directly for either salt harvesting or tourism. This paper reports on research from both pristine and developed lakes, and reveals a higher TDS (20-50mS/cm compared to 0.5-5mS/cm) in the northern end relative to the southern end for undisturbed lakes. Water entering the southern end of the lakes is chemically identical to the local groundwater (TDS ~0.5mS/cm). This geographic difference in lake properties is remarkable, not only in terms of chemical variation, but also in terms of plant variety and abundance. Stable isotopes show a clear evaporation trend for these lakes, increasing from the southern tip, to the northern tip of individual lakes (-3 to -1‰ in the south, compared with 2-8‰ in the north, and -6 to -3‰ in the groundwater for δ2H). TDS likewise increases with increasing isotopic fractionation. The primary wind direction fluctuates from the southeast to the east, causing the movement of water from the southern end of the lake to the northern, and aiding in the evaporation. Once at the northern end of the lake, the water

  19. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  20. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  1. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  2. A multi-temporal analysis for change assessment and estimation of algal bloom in Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Pinto, Shannon M; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Pal, Sukdeb; Nandy, Tapas

    2016-09-01

    Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan, India is the major inland salt water lake producing salt for centuries. The present study addresses the monitoring changes in and around the lake and its consequent effect on the lake water ecology. For this, satellite images of the years 1976, 1981, 1997, and 2013 are analyzed for land use land cover classes. Significant reduction in the water body is observed in contrast with the increase in salt pan around the periphery of lake and wetland classes. Further, the extent of water body and algae in the lake are delineated as per normalized difference water index and normalized difference vegetation index. Rainfall data do not indicate any major change in the pattern, but drastic decrease in the extent of water body and significant increase in algal bloom are serious concerns for the lake's existence. This may be due to surrounding anthropogenic activities and construction of check dams and anicuts in the lake catchment which curtail the runoff into the lake and provide favorable growth of algae. Sambhar Lake, being declared as a wetland according to the Ramsar Convention, is necessary to protect and conserve the ecological importance of the lake through sustainable planning and management. PMID:27502521

  3. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  5. Anthropogenically driven changes in chloride complicate interpretation of base cation trends in lakes recovering from acidic deposition.

    PubMed

    Rosfjord, Catherine H; Webster, Katherine E; Kahl, Jeffrey S; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Herlihy, Alan T

    2007-11-15

    Declines in Ca and Mg in low ANC lakes recovering from acidic deposition are widespread across the northern hemisphere. We report overall increases between 1984 and 2004 in the concentrations of Ca + Mg and Cl in lakes representing the statistical population of nearly 4000 low ANC lakes in the northeast U.S. Increases in Cl occurred in nearly all lakes in urbanized southern New England, but only 18% of lakes in more remote Maine had Cl increases. This spatial pattern implicates road salt application as the major source of the increased Cl salts. Among the 48% of the lake population classified as salt-affected, the median changes in Cl (+133 microeq/L) and Ca + Mg (+47 microeq/ L) were large and positive in direction over the 20 years. However, in the unaffected lakes, Cl remained stable and Ca + Mg decreased (-3 microeq/L), consistent with reported long-term trends in base cations of acid-sensitive lakes. This discrepancy between the Cl groups suggests that changes in ion exchange processes in salt-affected watersheds have altered the geochemical cycling of Ca and Mg. One policy-relevant implication is that waters influenced by Cl salts complicate regional assessments of surface water recovery from "acid rain" related to the passage of the Clean Air Act.

  6. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  7. Iodised salt is safe.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S

    1995-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are prevalent in all the States and Union Territories in India. Under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control programme, the Government of India has adopted a strategy to iodisation of all edible salt in the country which is a long term and sustainable preventive solution to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders. The benefits to be derived from universal salt iodisation are more to the population. Iodised salt is safe and does not cause any side effect. PMID:8690505

  8. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  9. Progress report: chemical character of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota was at one time the most popular summer resort in the state. With decline in lake level the lake has become a shallow body pf vary saline water, which scenic value and recreational appeal completely destroyed. Under the Missouri River development program, it is proposed to restore the lake level to an altitude of 1,425 feet by diversion of Missouri River water. The chemical character of the water in Devils Lake and in other surface bodies in Devils Lake Basin is determined from the analyses of 95 samples. The physical and chemical properties of lake bed deposits are also shown. Lake water in the basin vary considerable in both concentration and composition, ranging from fresh bicarbonate waters of 300 parts per million dissolved solids to sulfate waters of over 100,000 parts per million of soluble salts. Twenty-four samples indicates the chemical character of water in the Red River of the North and its tributaries. The probable concentration of dissolved solids in water of Devils Lake at altitude 1,425 feet has been estimated as ranging from 3,000 to 7,600 parts per million. Final concentration will largely depend upon the percentage of deposited salts reentering solution and the quality of the inflow water. The possible effects of lake effluents on downstream developments, with particular reference to sanitation and pollution problems, are also discussed in this report.

  10. Climatological characteristics and orographic enhancement of lake-effect precipitation over eastern Lake Ontario and the Tug Hill Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veals, Peter Gregory

    The Tug Hill Plateau of upstate New York rises approximately 500 m above Lake Ontario, observes frequent (often heavy) lake-effect snowfall, and is one of the snowiest regions in the eastern United States. This work presents a climatology of lake-effect precipitation created using data from the KTYX WSR-88D radar situated atop the plateau. Base reflectivity imagery was manually examined to identify lake-effect periods (LEPs) during each cool season (16 Sep--15 May) from 16 Sep 2001--15 May 2014. The most active months for lake effect in this region are December and January. There is a tendency for LEPs to begin within a few hours before and after sunset in the spring and fall, with no such diurnal signal observed in the winter. Correspondingly, lake effect is slightly more frequent at night than during the day. Overall, the diurnal variability is weaker than found over smaller bodies of water such as the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Classification of events by morphological type revealed that broad coverage and long-lake-axis-parallel (LLAP) account for ~72% and ~24% of lake-effect hours, respectively. The diurnal signal for broad coverage (LLAP) events was less (more) pronounced than for LEPs in general. The near-shore areas south and east of Lake Ontario receive the most frequent lake-effect precipitation. The Tug Hill Plateau produces a strong orographic signal, with an echo frequency maximum on the western (typically windward) slope. Data from cooperative observer (COOP) sites and the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) corroborate these radar-derived results. The `broadening' of high echo frequency over the Tug Hill Plateau, as well as the existence of the lake-orographic morphology, may point to inland/orographic intensification and generation of precipitation during some LEPs.

  11. How is a Brine Pool/Lake Maintained at Seafloor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Highly saline brine pools or lakes have been found at seafloor, mostly associated with a sharp interface of fluid density at their top and often accompanied by high gas concentration of overlain water column and mud/gas venting from below. The occurrence of such brine layer between the seafloor and the overlain seawater may be the result of a vigorous double-diffusive convection within it. This double-diffusive convection is both promoted by a heating from below and suppressed by an upward-decreasing salinity gradient across it. The stability of a hydrostatic brine layer can be analyzed using the Rayleigh number modified by including the salinity effect. The maximum salinity difference is limited by the temperature difference across the brine layer, which supports the occurrence of multiple double-diffusive convection layers in larger brine lakes. Many researchers have suggested that the source of the brine is the salt dissolved from underlain salt dome and carried upwards by convection fluids. However, it is more difficult for fluid convection to occur below than above the seafloor due to both the resistance to fluid flow by and the enhanced salinity stabilization in porous medium. The maximum salinity gradient associated with such convection is further limited to a small number, which makes such convection almost impossible to occur near a salt dome, contrary to what most people believe. Consequently, the salt accumulated in a brine pool or lake must be carried up from below by a different mechanism, most likely an upward gas flow. This explains the fact that most seafloor brine pools/lakes are associated with overlain water column with a high gas (mostly methane) concentration. A possible source of the gas may be related to dissociating natural gas hydrates in depth. Another question is how the sharp interface between a brine pool/lake and the overlain water column is maintained. Without such a mechanism the interface, even if existed earlier, will be smoothed

  12. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  14. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  15. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  16. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  17. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  18. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  19. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  20. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  1. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  2. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  3. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  4. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  5. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  6. Hydrography and circulation of ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Shuchman, R.A.; Meadows, G.A.; Savage, S.; Payne, J.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive suite of physical oceanographic, remotely sensed, and water quality measurements, collected from 2001 through 2004 in two ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska-Berg Lake and Vitus Lake-show that each has a unique circulation controlled by their specific physical forcing within the glacial system. Conductivity profiles from Berg Lake, perched 135 m a.s.l., show no salt in the lake, but the temperature profiles indicate an apparently unstable situation, the 4??C density maximum is located at 10 m depth, not at the bottom of the lake (90 m depth). Subglacial discharge from the Steller Glacier into the bottom of the lake must inject a suspended sediment load sufficient to marginally stabilize the water column throughout the lake. In Vitus Lake, terminus positions derived from satellite imagery show that the glacier terminus rapidly retreated from 1995 to the present resulting in a substantial expansion of the volume of Vitus Lake. Conductivity and temperature profiles from the tidally influenced Vitus Lake show a complex four-layer system with diluted (???50%) seawater in the bottom of the lake. This lake has a complex vertical structure that is the result of convection generated by ice melting in salt water, stratification within the lake, and freshwater entering the lake from beneath the glacier and surface runoff. Four consecutive years, from 2001 to 2004, of these observations in Vitus Lake show little change in the deep temperature and salinity conditions, indicating limited deep water renewal. The combination of the lake level measurements with discharge measurements, through a tidal cycle, by an acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployed in the Seal River, which drains the entire Bering system, showed a strong tidal influence but no seawater entry into Vitus Lake. The ADCP measurements combined with lake level measurements established a relationship between lake level and discharge, which when integrated over a tidal cycle, gives a

  7. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callaha