Science.gov

Sample records for judgment

  1. Fallible Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joynson, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    The posthumous condemnation of Cyril Burt destroyed his reputation and undermined his life's work on the genetic nature of differences in intelligence. Whether Burt falsified research findings or not, the real significance of the affair lies in what it teaches about scientific methodology and the fallibility of personal judgments. (SLD)

  2. Marking as Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  3. Social judgments from faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  4. Grouping Information for Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Models of cue weighting in judgment have typically focused on how decision-makers weight cues individually. Here, the authors propose that people might recognize and weight "groups" of cues. They examine how judgments change when decision-makers focus on cues individually or as parts of groups. Several experiments demonstrate that people can…

  5. Time and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Renata S.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Do moral judgments hinge on the time available to render them? According to a recent dual-process model of moral judgment, moral dilemmas that engage emotional processes are likely to result in fast deontological gut reactions. In contrast, consequentialist responses that tot up lives saved and lost in response to such dilemmas would require…

  6. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  7. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  8. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Discriminatory Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha; Ungerleider, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Having pursued policies of human rights and multiculturalism, Canadians regard themselves as tolerant. Yet some critics say that when it comes to Aboriginals, Canadians seem xenophobic and discriminatory. This study is the first empirical test of whether Canadian preservice teachers' judgments about the performance of Aboriginal students are…

  10. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  11. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  12. Associative processes in intuitive judgment.

    PubMed

    Morewedge, Carey K; Kahneman, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures: the automatic operations of a 'System 1' generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a 'System 2' fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory--associative coherence, attribute substitution and processing fluency--give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors.

  13. Modeling Rehabilitation Counselor Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluate three proposed models of the rehabilitation counselor judgment process. Counselors made multiple judgments about clients whose information systematically varied across three dimensions. These data were then analyzed using path analytic techniques to determine which of the models was the best description of the process rehabilitation…

  14. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  15. Pitfalls in Teaching Judgment Heuristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepperd, James A.; Koch, Erika J.

    2005-01-01

    Demonstrations of judgment heuristics typically focus on how heuristics can lead to poor judgments. However, exclusive focus on the negative consequences of heuristics can prove problematic. We illustrate the problem with the representativeness heuristic and present a study (N = 45) that examined how examples influence understanding of the…

  16. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured ‘personal’ (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or ‘impersonal’ (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare—the ‘utilitarian’ choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  17. Utilitarian moral judgment in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Koenigs, Michael; Kruepke, Michael; Zeier, Joshua; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n = 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n = 12) and non-psychopaths (n = 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving hypothetical dilemmas. The moral dilemmas featured 'personal' (i.e. involving direct physical harm) or 'impersonal' (i.e. involving indirect or remote harm) actions. Compared to non-psychopaths, both groups of psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the impersonal actions. However, only the low-anxious psychopaths were significantly more likely to endorse the personal harms when commission of the harm would maximize aggregate welfare-the 'utilitarian' choice. High-anxious psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ in their personal moral judgments. These results provide novel laboratory evidence of abnormal moral judgment in psychopaths, as well as additional support for the importance of considering psychopathic subtypes. PMID:21768207

  18. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  19. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  20. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  1. What Happened to Intelligent Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    In so many cases, hours spent focused on documenting accountability to standards actually decreases the possibility for quality improvements through genuine reflection, self-examination, and the exercise of intelligent judgment. Focusing only on ratings and requirements narrows one's thinking and exemplifies the tendency toward stagnation. The…

  2. Processing Goals and Social Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, C. Douglas

    Cognitive psychologists believe that knowledge is multifaceted and that people process more than just semantic content from a stimulus array. To investigate the implications of recall and impression formation processing objectives on the representation of serial order in memory and judgment, subjects participated in two recall and impression…

  3. Expert judgment and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, J.; Phillips, L.D.; Renn, O.; Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume collects researchers from the fields of psychology, decision analysis, and artificial intelligence. The purposes were to assess similarities, differences, and complementarities among the three approaches to the study of expert judgment; to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to propose profitable linkages between them. Each of the papers in the present volume is directed toward one or more of these goals.

  4. Training for Improved Covariation Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; And Others

    Four strategies used in judgment patterns were explored. Problem sets in which each solution strategy produces a unique solution pattern are depicted. Several experiments had been conducted using rules in this way with subjects from grade 4 through college. Problems were set in the context of concrete events which could be related, and subjects…

  5. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  6. Quality Judgments of Hearing and Transduced Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witter, H. L.; Goldstein, D. P.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of frequency range, harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion, and transient response of hearing aids upon judgments of quality showed transient response measurements the best predictor of listener judgments, with voice a possible factor. (Author/KW)

  7. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  8. Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallard, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social Judgment Theory is a way to explain when persuasive messages are most likely to succeed and how people make judgments about them. This theory is often covered in communication theory and persuasion courses, but is also applicable when discussing persuasion in basic speech and introductory communication courses. Social Judgment Theory…

  9. Golden Section Relations in Interpersonal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…

  10. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  11. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  12. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  14. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  15. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  18. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  19. On judgment and judgmentalism: how counselling can make people better.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S

    2005-10-01

    Counsellors, like other members of the caring professions, are required to practise within an ethical framework, at least in so far as they seek professional accreditation. As such, the counsellor is called upon to exercise her moral agency. In most professional contexts this requirement is, in itself, unproblematic. It has been suggested, however, that counselling practice does present a problem in this respect, in so far as the counsellor is expected to take a non-judgemental stance and an attitude of "unconditional positive regard" toward the client. If, as might appear to be the case, this stance and attitude are at odds with the making of moral judgments, the possibility of an adequate ethics of counselling is called into question. This paper explores the nature and extent of the problem suggesting that, understood in a Kantian context, non-judgmentalism can be seen to be at odds with neither the moral agency of the counsellor nor that of the client. Instead, it is argued, the relationship between the non-judgmental counsellor and her client is a fundamentally moral relationship, based on respect for the client's unconditional worth as a moral agent. PMID:16199597

  20. Consensus in personality judgments at zero acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Albright, L; Kenny, D A; Malloy, T E

    1988-09-01

    This research focused on the target effect on a perceiver's judgments of personality when the perceiver and the target are unacquainted. The perceiver was given no opportunity to interact with the target, a condition we refer to as zero acquaintance. We reasoned that in order to make personality judgments, perceivers would use the information available to them (physical appearance). Consensus in personality judgments would result, then, from shared stereotypes about particular physical appearance characteristics. Results from three separate studies with 259 subjects supported this hypothesis. On two of the five dimensions (extraversion and conscientiousness) on which subjects rated each other, a significant proportion of variance was due to the stimulus target. Consensus on judgments of extraversion appears to have been largely mediated by judgments of physical attractiveness. Across the three studies there was also evidence that the consensus in judgments on these two dimensions had some validity, in that they correlated with self-judgments on those two dimensions. PMID:3171912

  1. Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?

    PubMed

    Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

    2013-10-01

    Research shows that social judgments influence decision-making in social environments. For example, judgments about an interaction partners' trustworthiness affect a variety of social behaviors and decisions. One mechanism by which social judgments may influence social decisions is by biasing the automatic allocation of attention toward certain social partners, thereby shaping the information people acquire. Using an attentional blink paradigm, we investigate how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments. The first experiment investigates trustworthiness judgments based solely on a social partner's facial appearance. The second experiment examines the effect of trustworthiness judgments based on experienced behavior. In the first, strong appearance-based judgments (positive and negative) enhanced stimulus recognizability but did not alter the size of the attentional blink, suggesting that appearance-based social judgments enhance face memory but do not affect pre-attentive processing. However, in the second experiment, in which judgments were based on behavioral experience rather than appearance, positive judgments enhanced pre-attentive processing of trustworthy faces. This suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. These results have implications for understanding how appearance- and behavior-based social cues shape attention distribution in social environments. PMID:23887150

  2. The controversy over retrospective moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen

    1996-09-01

    The mandate of the U.S. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments required that the Committee take a position on the validity of retrospective moral judgments. However, throughout its period of operation, the Committee remained divided on the question of whether sound judgments of individual culpability and wrongdoing should be included in its Final Report. This essay examines the arguments that various committee members marshalled to support their opposing views on retrospective moral judgment and explains the significance of the controversy.

  3. Passage of Time Judgments Are Not Duration Judgments: Evidence from a Study Using Experience Sampling Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relations between passage of time judgments and duration judgments (DJs) in everyday life, in young and elderly people, with an Experience Sampling Method. The DJs were assessed by verbal estimation and interval production measures. The results showed no difference between young and elderly people in judgments of rate of passage of time, a result contrary to the conventional idea that time passes more quickly as we get older. There were also no significant relation between the judgment of passage of time and the judgments of durations. In addition, the significant predictors of individual differences in the judgment of passage of time (emotion states and focus of attention on the current activity) were not predictors of judgment of durations. In sum, passages of time judgments are not related to DJs. PMID:26925006

  4. Temporal judgments and contextual change.

    PubMed

    Block, R A

    1982-11-01

    Three experiments investigated effects of environmental context on temporal memory judgments. An equal number of items occurred within each of two equal durations (D1 and D2). Subjects subsequently were asked to judge the length of a given duration in comparison with the other, then to discriminate the correct list and serial position for each recognized item on a test. If environmental context was unchanged, D1 was remembered as being longer than D2; if the context was disrupted during the interval separating D1 and D2, this effect was reduced; and if the context prevailing during D2 also was changed, the effect was eliminated. List discrimination was improved only if the context was changed. Serial-position judgment was not affected by either manipulation. Changes in process context--the internal context produced by the performance of specific cognitive processes--lengthened remembered duration, but the effect did not simply add on to the effects of environmental context. Results are discussed in terms of a contextual-change hypothesis.

  5. Contextual determinants of pain judgments.

    PubMed

    Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Roy, C; Catchlove, R; Sullivan, M J L

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of variations in contextual features of a physically demanding lifting task on the judgments of others' pain. Healthy undergraduates (n=98) were asked to estimate the pain experience of chronic pain patients who were filmed while lifting canisters at different distances from their body. Of interest was whether contextual information (i.e., lifting posture) contributed to pain estimates beyond the variance accounted for by pain behavior. Results indicated that the judgments of others' pain varied significantly as a function of the contextual features of the pain-eliciting task; observers estimated significantly more pain when watching patients lifting canisters positioned further away from the body than canisters closest from the body. Canister position contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain estimates even after controlling for observers' use of pain behavior as a basis of pain estimates. Correlational analyses revealed that greater use of the contextual features when judging others' pain was related to a lower discrepancy (higher accuracy) between estimated and self-reported pain ratings. Results also indicated that observers' level of catastrophizing was associated with more accurate pain estimates. The results of a regression analysis further showed that observers' level of catastrophizing contributed to the prediction of the accuracy of pain estimates over and above the variance accounted for by the utilisation of contextual features. Discussion addresses the processes that might underlie the utilisation of contextual features of a pain-eliciting task when estimating others' pain. PMID:18701219

  6. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  7. Judgments of Learning as Memory Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Clark, Colin T.; Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made:…

  8. The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Kent

    Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of…

  9. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  10. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  11. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  12. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  14. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  15. Law, Judgment, and Catholic Social Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skotnicki, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There is a recurrent conflict concerning law and judgment in the Catholic tradition. The tension between the manner in which just punitive judgments are to be rendered and the possibility of judging justly, if at all, is found frequently in Scripture and in Church history. This paper will give an overview of the dynamics of this tension in…

  16. 37 CFR 41.127 - Judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Effect within Office—(1) Estoppel. A judgment disposes of all issues that were, or by motion could have properly been, raised and decided. A losing party who could have properly moved for relief on an issue, but did not so move, may not take action in the Office after the judgment that...

  17. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  18. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  19. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... expert judgment elicitation comports with the level of knowledge required by the questions or issues... judgment elicitation comports with the level and variety of knowledge required by the questions or...

  20. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  1. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  2. Individual differences in moral judgment competence influence neural correlates of socio-normative judgments

    PubMed Central

    Wartenburger, Isabell; Mériau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R.; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role. PMID:19015093

  3. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  4. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  5. Inference of trustworthiness from intuitive moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jim A C; Pizarro, David A; Crockett, M J

    2016-06-01

    Moral judgments play a critical role in motivating and enforcing human cooperation, and research on the proximate mechanisms of moral judgments highlights the importance of intuitive, automatic processes in forming such judgments. Intuitive moral judgments often share characteristics with deontological theories in normative ethics, which argue that certain acts (such as killing) are absolutely wrong, regardless of their consequences. Why do moral intuitions typically follow deontological prescriptions, as opposed to those of other ethical theories? Here, we test a functional explanation for this phenomenon by investigating whether agents who express deontological moral judgments are more valued as social partners. Across 5 studies, we show that people who make characteristically deontological judgments are preferred as social partners, perceived as more moral and trustworthy, and are trusted more in economic games. These findings provide empirical support for a partner choice account of moral intuitions whereby typically deontological judgments confer an adaptive function by increasing a person's likelihood of being chosen as a cooperation partner. Therefore, deontological moral intuitions may represent an evolutionarily prescribed prior that was selected for through partner choice mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054685

  6. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts.

  7. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. PMID:19450013

  8. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  9. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments. PMID:25708080

  10. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model. PMID:21480740

  11. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model.

  12. Biofunctional Understanding and Judgment of Size

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zheng; Lee, Yang; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that the meaningfulness of the material increases judged size, whereas symmetry decreases size judgments. These findings have been interpreted in terms of information processing, with a greater quantity of information leading to a judgment of larger size. An alternative view based on biofunctional understanding theory emphasizes the quality of affordance-triggered biological activity as reported and observed in attitudes toward playing sports, effortless understanding, knowledge-in-action, meditative wisdom, and body–mind cycle of adaptation. This alternative implies that affordance biofunctional activity is naturally size-diminishinging as it moves toward coherence and size-expanding as it moves away from coherence influencing judgments of size accordingly. Here we tested this hypothesis in the realm of sensorimotor integration. Our first experiment showed that phonologically unpronounced or symmetric symbols elicit smaller size judgments than phonologically pronounced and asymmetric symbols. Next, we manipulated the quantity of meaning with the affordance (possibilities for biofunctional activity) orthogonally in a second experiment; results indicated that meaning affects size judgments only in the absence of phonological information. We conclude that the biofunctional activity affordance may be responsible for observed differences in size judgment. PMID:27047438

  13. Primacy effects in clinical judgments of contingency.

    PubMed

    Curley, S P; Young, M J; Kingry, M J; Yates, J F

    1988-01-01

    In contingency judgment a primacy effect exists when a conclusion about the relationship between clinical variables is inordinately influenced by cases seen earlier rather than later in a presentation sequence. In this study, medical and nursing trainees evidenced this behavior in a hypothetical clinical judgment situation. The behavior was tied to an attention decrement explanation, by which inattention to the later-presented cases leads to inaccurate recall of the relative frequencies of observed cases, which in turn induces a misjudgment of a disease-finding contingency. An explicit intervention based on this hypothesis, forcing attention to later cases by warning that recall of the case frequencies would be required, was effective in reducing primacy effects among medical students. A related, but less explicit, intervention was also tried. This intervention did not significantly reduce primacy effects among nursing students, but was somewhat effective among general undergraduate students performing a non-clinical contingency judgment task.

  14. The tacit dimension of clinical judgment.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct views of the nature of clinical judgment are identified and contrasted. The dominant view that clinical judgment is a fully explicit process is compared to the relatively neglected view that tacit knowledge plays a substantial role in the clinician's mental operations. The tacit dimension of medical thinking is explored at length. The discussion suggests severe limits when applying decision analysis, expert systems, and computer-aided cost-benefit review to medicine. The goals and practices of postgraduate medical education are also examined from this perspective, as are various other implications for the clinician. The paper concludes that it is valuable to explore the nature of medical thinking in order to improve clinical practice and education. Such explorations should, however, take cognizance of the often overlooked tacit dimension of clinical judgment. Possible constraints on the medical applicability of both formal expert systems and heavily didactic instructional programs are considered. PMID:2356625

  15. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  16. Reflection and reasoning in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Joseph M; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian responding, as individuals who reflected more on the CRT made more utilitarian judgments. A follow-up study suggested that trait reflectiveness is also associated with increased utilitarian judgment. In Experiment 2, subjects considered a scenario involving incest between consenting adult siblings, a scenario known for eliciting emotionally driven condemnation that resists reasoned persuasion. Here, we manipulated two factors related to moral reasoning: argument strength and deliberation time. These factors interacted in a manner consistent with moral reasoning: A strong argument defending the incestuous behavior was more persuasive than a weak argument, but only when increased deliberation time encouraged subjects to reflect. PMID:22049931

  17. Judgments of learning as memory modifiers.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Clark, Colin T; Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-03-01

    A frequent procedure used to study how individuals monitor their own learning is to collect judgments of learning (JOLs) during acquisition, considered to be important, in part, because such judgments are assumed to guide how individuals allocate their future learning resources. In such research, however, a tacit assumption is frequently made: Namely, that asking for such metacognitive judgments does not affect the learning process per se. In 3 experiments, the present research addressed the accuracy of this assumption and tested a possible account--based on aspects of Koriat's cue-utilization approach to JOLs (Koriat, 1997) and de Winstanley, Bjork, and Bjork's (1996) transfer-appropriate multifactor account of generation effects--for why the mere act of making JOLs might enhance later memory for the information so judged. Potential implications of the present findings for the future conduction of research using metacognitive measures as well as for students studying for exams is discussed. PMID:25528101

  18. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits. PMID:19762717

  19. Good judgments do not require complex cognition.

    PubMed

    Marewski, Julian N; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2010-05-01

    What cognitive capabilities allow Homo sapiens to successfully bet on the stock market, to catch balls in baseball games, to accurately predict the outcomes of political elections, or to correctly decide whether a patient needs to be allocated to the coronary care unit? It is a widespread belief in psychology and beyond that complex judgment tasks require complex solutions. Countering this common intuition, in this article, we argue that in an uncertain world actually the opposite is true: Humans do not need complex cognitive strategies to make good inferences, estimations, and other judgments; rather, it is the very simplicity and robustness of our cognitive repertoire that makes Homo sapiens a capable decision maker.

  20. Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions that maximize good consequences) with controlled cognitive processes and associates non-utilitarian moral judgment with automatic emotional responses. Consistent with this theory, we find that a cognitive load manipulation selectively interferes with utilitarian judgment. This interference effect provides direct evidence for the influence of controlled cognitive processes in moral judgment, and utilitarian moral judgment more specifically. PMID:18158145

  1. Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…

  2. Assessing Clinical Judgment Using Standardized Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashook, Philip

    This paper describes the use of oral examinations to assess the clinical judgment of aspiring physicians. Oral examinations have been used in U.S. medicine since 1917. Currently, 15 member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties administer 17 different standardized oral examinations to approximately 10,000 physician candidates…

  3. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  4. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the "new economy." Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant effects of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socio-economic status background, and stronger self-perceived…

  5. Fatigue, Sleep Loss, and Confidence in Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Joseph V.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four adults participated in a study examining the accuracy of metacognitive judgments during 28 hr of sleep deprivation (SD) and continuous cognitive work. Three tasks were studied (perceptual comparison, general knowledge, and mental addition), collectively spanning a range of cognitive abilities and levels of susceptibility to SD.…

  6. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  7. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  8. Information Sources, Dogmatism, and Judgmental Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    This study examined differences in the number of perceptual judgment modifications made by 36 subjects showing different levels of dogmatism when the source of information was manipulated among superior, subordinate, and peer sources. An experimental and a control group were used, and a 2x3 factorial analysis design was developed. Dogmatism was…

  9. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  10. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  11. Grading: Why You Should Trust Your Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2016-01-01

    Many educators consider grades calculated from statistical algorithms more accurate, objective, and reliable than grades they calculate themselves. But in this research, the authors first asked teachers to use their professional judgment to choose a summary grade for hypothetical students. When the researchers compared the teachers' grade with the…

  12. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  13. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  14. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  15. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812)....

  16. Judgment: The Nurse's Key to Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Examples of nurses in ancient Greek literature--Euryclea in Homer's "Odyssey," Cilissa in Aeschylus'"Oresteia," and the nurse in Euripides'"Medea"--illustrate the personal commitment in judgment and the obligation of nurses to move from doubt and opinion toward knowledge and certitude. (SK)

  17. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Clare A. M.; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A.; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  18. Moral judgments, emotions and the utilitarian brain.

    PubMed

    Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    The investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying the moral mind is of paramount importance for understanding complex human behaviors, from altruism to antisocial acts. A new study on patients with prefrontal damage provides key insights on the neurobiology of moral judgment and raises new questions on the mechanisms by which reason and emotion contribute to moral cognition. PMID:17602852

  19. Science and Judgment in Environmental Standard Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Several major types of environmental standards (design, performance, exposure, safety, and behavioral) are discussed, and their points of contact with educational standards are reviewed. Some areas of judgment are common to both standard-setting processes, and experiences in the environmental area can be extended to the educational arena. (SLD)

  20. Apprentices' Learning of Occupationally Informed Practical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Learning to become trade workers requires developing the ability to make practical workplace-based judgments, often centred around difficult to articulate trade "know-how" or tacit knowledge. Apprentices learn discipline specific ways of doing, thinking, feeling and being from experts, peers and through interactions with occupational…

  1. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  2. ASL or Contact Signing: Issues of Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil; Valli, Clayton

    1991-01-01

    Reports on one aspect of an ongoing study of language contact in the American deaf community. The ultimate goal of the study is a linguistic description of contact signing and a reexamination of claims that it is a pidgin. Patterns of language use are reviewed and the role of demographic information in judgments is examined. (29 references) (GLR)

  3. Assessment Measures: The Reflective Judgment Interview (RJI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews King and Kitchener's "Reflective Judgment Interview" ("RJI"). On the "RJI" website Patricia King notes that a widely espoused outcome of college is the ability to draw reasonable conclusions about complex issues based on incomplete and/or conflicting information. Drawing on the works of Dewey, Piaget, and Perry,…

  4. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  5. From Judgment to Action: The Josephson Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhmerker, Lisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the activities of the Josephson Institute for the Advancement of Ethics which was created to promote ethical principles. Points out that the Institute's program focuses on the movement from judgment to action and attracts professionals in decision-making positions. Provides a description of a workshop and an address for obtaining…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  7. Critical Thinking and the Art of Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Craig

    "Six Steps of Argument Analysis" is a model for a critical thinking class which illustrates where and how the teacher can break off from the well-ordered sequence of critical thinking skills in order to provide occasions for each student to realize where he or she is making a judgment. Through use of this model the teacher can encourage the…

  8. Sequential effects in face-attractiveness judgment.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Aki; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that current-trial responses are biased toward the response of the preceding trial in perceptual decisionmaking tasks (the sequential effect-Holland and Lockhead, 1968 Perception & Psychophysics 3 409-414). The sequential effect has been widely observed in evaluation of the physical properties of stimuli as well as more complex properties. However, it is unclear whether subjective decisions (e.g., attractiveness judgments) are also susceptible to the sequential effect. Here, we examined whether the sequential effect would occur in face-attractiveness judgments. Forty-eight pictures of male and female faces were presented successively. Participants rated the attractiveness of each face on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the attractiveness rating of a given face assimilated toward the rating of the preceding trial. In a separate experiment, we provided the average attractiveness rating by others for each trial as feedback. The feedback weakened the sequential effect. These findings suggest that attractiveness judgment is also biased toward the preceding judgment, and hence the sequential effect can be extended into the domain of subjective decisionmaking. PMID:22611662

  9. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  10. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  11. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at “best” probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of “best” estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity. PMID:26042081

  12. Momentary and integrative response strategies in causal judgment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Darrell J; Shanks, David R

    2002-10-01

    Associative models of causal learning predict recency effects. Judgments at the end of a trial series should be strongly biased by recently presented information. Prior research, however, presents a contrasting picture of human performance. López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) observed recency, whereas Dennis and Ahn (2001) found the opposite, primacy. Here we replicate both of these effects and provide an explanation for this paradox. Four experiments show that the effect of trial order on judgments is a function of judgment frequency, where incremental judgments lead to recency while single final judgments abolish recency and lead instead to integration of information across trials (i.e., primacy). These results challenge almost all existing accounts of causal judgment. We propose a modified associative account in which participants can base their causal judgments either on current associative strength (momentary strategy) or on the cumulative change in associative strength since the previous judgment (integrative strategy).

  13. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  14. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  15. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  16. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  17. Preschoolers Can Make Highly Accurate Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers' ability to make judgments of learning (JOLs) was examined in 3 experiments in which they were taught proper names for animals. In Experiment 1, when judgments were made immediately after studying, nearly every child predicted subsequent recall of every name. When judgments were made after a delay, fewer showed this response…

  18. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  19. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  20. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  1. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  2. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  3. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric as a Framework to Enhance Clinical Judgment in Novice and Experienced Nurses.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Robbin; Asselin, Marilyn E

    2015-01-01

    Clinical judgment has been identified as a critical component of professional nursing practice and enables nurses to deliver safe patient care with optimal outcomes. Nurses, particularly those transitioning into clinical practice, may require assistance to enhance their clinical judgment skills. This article presents the Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, which has primarily been used in the academic setting, as a framework for nursing professional development specialists to enhance the clinical judgment skills of novice and experienced nurses. PMID:26381339

  4. Correcting Experience-Based Judgments: The Perseverance of Subjective Experience in the Face of the Correction of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussinson, Ravit; Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    Many of our cognitive and metacognitive judgments are based on sheer subjective experience. Subjective experience, however, may be contaminated by irrelevant factors, resulting in biased judgments. Under certain conditions people exert a metacognitive correction process to remedy such biased judgments. In this study we examine the proposition that…

  5. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  6. A Bayesian approach for calibrating probability judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; Santana, Nielson A.

    2012-10-01

    Eliciting experts' opinions has been one of the main alternatives for addressing paucity of data. In the vanguard of this area is the development of calibration models (CMs). CMs are models dedicated to overcome miscalibration, i.e. judgment biases reflecting deficient strategies of reasoning adopted by the expert when inferring about an unknown. One of the main challenges of CMs is to determine how and when to intervene against miscalibration, in order to enhance the tradeoff between costs (time spent with calibration processes) and accuracy of the resulting models. The current paper dedicates special attention to this issue by presenting a dynamic Bayesian framework for monitoring, diagnosing, and handling miscalibration patterns. The framework is based on Beta-, Uniform, or Triangular-Bernoulli models and classes of judgmental calibration theories. Issues regarding the usefulness of the proposed framework are discussed and illustrated via simulation studies.

  7. Judgments of culpability in a filicide scenario.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Miller-Stratton, Heather; Heinrich, Emily; Fritz, Stacey; Smith, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that potential jurors are likely to use personal biases, such as those based on gender and ethnicity, in their judgments of culpability of criminal defendants in addition to, or instead of, the facts of the crime. The present paper seeks to extend this literature to the crime of filicide; to examine whether male defendants are judged more harshly than female defendants, as is the case for domestic violence and sexual abuse. 214 participants were provided with a scenario of filicide in which the gender of the perpetrator, the gender of the child, and the family's social class were randomly assigned. Participants were asked to rate the culpability of the defendant in the case. Results indicated that, unlike for other violent crimes, participants did not use gender or social class biases in their judgments of criminal culpability. PMID:18158184

  8. Fluency and response speed in recognition judgments.

    PubMed

    Poldrack, R A; Logan, G D

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceptual fluency can contribute to recognition judgments. In this study, we examined whether fluency in recognition is based upon the speed of preceding operations, as suggested by studies of perceptual fluency. Subjects studied items in both lexical decision and naming tasks, and were then tested on two blocks of lexical decision trials with probe recognition trials. Jacoby's process dissociation procedure was used, and results from this procedure suggested that recognition judgments in the task were based largely upon familiarity. However, the estimated discriminability available from response time distributions was significantly less than the observed recognition discriminability. Simulated memory operating characteristics confirmed this under determination of recognition by response times. The results demonstrate, contrary to previous suggestions, that fluency in recognition is not based upon speed.

  9. Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of judgments about work for the attainment process in the “new economy.” Findings show continuing links between social origins and work orientations at age 21/22, as well as significant impacts of work orientations on occupational outcomes at age 31/32. Higher socioeconomic status background, and stronger self-perceived ability, are tied to weaker extrinsic orientations. Young women are more intrinsically oriented than young men. Stronger intrinsic orientations predict holding jobs that offer more intrinsic rewards, self-direction, and security. Stronger extrinsic orientations predict higher biweekly earnings (largely via work hours), but not more prestigious, better paying, or more secure jobs. Judgments about work, and especially intrinsic orientations, thus remain important precursors of occupational attainments, despite economic turbulence and change in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21765555

  10. The brain's specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment.

    PubMed

    Ishizu, T; Zeki, S

    2013-05-01

    We recorded brain activity when 21 subjects judged the beauty (aesthetic or affective judgment) and brightness (perceptual or cognitive judgment) of simultaneously presented paintings. Aesthetic judgments engaged medial and lateral subdivisions of the orbitofrontal cortex as well as subcortical stations associated with affective motor planning (globus pallidus, putamen-claustrum, amygdala, and cerebellar vermis), whereas the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, as well as the anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were engaged by both kinds of judgment. The results lead us to conclude: (i) that there is a functional specialization for judgment, with aesthetic judgments engaging distinct systems, in addition to those that they share with perceptual judgments; (ii) that the systems engaged by affective judgments are those in which activity correlates with polar experiences (e.g. love-hate, beauty-ugliness, and attraction-repulsion); and (iii) that there is also a functional specialization in the motor pathways, with aesthetic judgments engaging motor systems not engaged by perceptual judgments, in addition to those engaged by both kinds of judgment.

  11. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...

  12. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  13. Effects of Judgment on Memory: Experiments in Recognition Bias and Process Dissociation in a Professional Judgment Task

    PubMed

    Ricchiute

    1997-04-01

    Three experiments investigated post-judgment memory bias in a professional task for which the judge is liable. The experimental setting replicates a task in which a subordinate documents evidence after making a judgment, and a reviewer affirms or overrules the judgment from evidence the subordinate documents. This setting is common, for example, in auditing firms, law firms, and investment banking houses. The results lead to three findings. First, subordinates' judgments interact with evidence in memory to bias their post-judgment recognition of the evidence they will document in evidence files. Second, subordinate memory performance is consistent with the predictions of process dissociation: Conscious recollection is lower when attention is divided, but unconscious familiarity is invariant to attention manipulations. Third, the incomplete evidence sets that subordinates recognize and document systematically bias reviewers' judgments in the direction of subordinates' judgments. PMID:9236163

  14. Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth.

    PubMed

    Judd, Charles M; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2005-12-01

    In seems there are two dimensions that underlie most judgments of traits, people, groups, and cultures. Although the definitions vary, the first makes reference to attributes such as competence, agency, and individualism, and the second to warmth, communality, and collectivism. But the relationship between the two dimensions seems unclear. In trait and person judgment, they are often positively related; in group and cultural stereotypes, they are often negatively related. The authors report 4 studies that examine the dynamic relationship between these two dimensions, experimentally manipulating the location of a target of judgment on one and examining the consequences for the other. In general, the authors' data suggest a negative dynamic relationship between the two, moderated by factors the impact of which they explore.

  15. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  16. Neural Correlates of Explicit Social Judgments on Vocal Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Lukas; Bzdok, Danilo; Müller, Veronika I.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research on the neural basis of social evaluation has traditionally focused on face perception paradigms. Thus, little is known about the neurobiology of social evaluation processes based on auditory cues, such as voices. To investigate the top-down effects of social trait judgments on voices, hemodynamic responses of 44 healthy participants were measured during social trait (trustworthiness [TR] and attractiveness [AT]), emotional (happiness, HA), and cognitive (age, AG) voice judgments. Relative to HA and AG judgments, TR and AT judgments both engaged the bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC; area PGa) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) extending into the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. This dmPFC activation overlapped with previously reported areas specifically involved in social judgments on ‘faces.’ Moreover, social trait judgments were expected to share neural correlates with emotional HA and cognitive AG judgments. Comparison of effects pertaining to social, social–emotional, and social–cognitive appraisal processes revealed a dissociation of the left IPC into 3 functional subregions assigned to distinct cytoarchitectonic subdivisions. In total, the dmPFC is proposed to assume a central role in social attribution processes across sensory qualities. In social judgments on voices, IPC activity shifts from rostral processing of more emotional judgment facets to caudal processing of more cognitive judgment facets. PMID:24243619

  17. Reflective journaling for clinical judgment development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie; Nielsen, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Reflective journaling is a strategy used often in clinical education to gain insight into students' clinical thinking; however, studies indicate that students may benefit from guided reflections. Numerous tools have been used to structure student reflection with varying results. This article describes the outcomes from using the Guide for Reflection based on Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, created from the Model, is used to evaluate development of clinical judgment and provides language to communicate about clinical thinking with students. Senior immersion course competencies, also developed with language from Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model,offer a comprehensive package that fosters students' clinical judgment development, faculty-student communication about clinical judgment, and evaluation of students' clinical thinking.

  18. Emotion and Deliberative Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a “greater good” outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (“yes”) decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say “no.” Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether “yes” or “no” constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results

  19. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a "greater good" outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian ("yes") decisions, but contrary to the model's predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say "no." Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether "yes" or "no" constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model's predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent with the

  20. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  1. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  2. Using checklists and algorithms to improve qualitative exposure judgment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susan F; Stenzel, Mark; Drolet, Daniel; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-01-01

    Most exposure assessments are conducted without the aid of robust personal exposure data and are based instead on qualitative inputs such as education and experience, training, documentation on the process chemicals, tasks and equipment, and other information. Qualitative assessments determine whether there is any follow-up, and influence the type that occurs, such as quantitative sampling, worker training, and implementing exposure and risk management measures. Accurate qualitative exposure judgments ensure appropriate follow-up that in turn ensures appropriate exposure management. Studies suggest that qualitative judgment accuracy is low. A qualitative exposure assessment Checklist tool was developed to guide the application of a set of heuristics to aid decision making. Practicing hygienists (n = 39) and novice industrial hygienists (n = 8) were recruited for a study evaluating the influence of the Checklist on exposure judgment accuracy. Participants generated 85 pre-training judgments and 195 Checklist-guided judgments. Pre-training judgment accuracy was low (33%) and not statistically significantly different from random chance. A tendency for IHs to underestimate the true exposure was observed. Exposure judgment accuracy improved significantly (p <0.001) to 63% when aided by the Checklist. Qualitative judgments guided by the Checklist tool were categorically accurate or over-estimated the true exposure by one category 70% of the time. The overall magnitude of exposure judgment precision also improved following training. Fleiss' κ, evaluating inter-rater agreement between novice assessors was fair to moderate (κ = 0.39). Cohen's weighted and unweighted κ were good to excellent for novice (0.77 and 0.80) and practicing IHs (0.73 and 0.89), respectively. Checklist judgment accuracy was similar to quantitative exposure judgment accuracy observed in studies of similar design using personal exposure measurements, suggesting that the tool could be useful in

  3. Electrophysiological difference between the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfei; Liang, Xiuling; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Causally related concepts like "virus" and "epidemic" and general associatively related concepts like "ring" and "emerald" are represented and accessed separately. The Evoked Response Potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory. Participants were required to remember a task cue (causal or associative) presented at the beginning of each trial, and assess whether the relationship between subsequently presented words matched the initial task cue. The ERP data showed that an N400 effect (250-450 ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, the N400 effect elicited by causal relations was more positive than for associative relations in causal cue condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the associative cue condition. The centrally distributed late ERP component (650-750 ms) elicited by the causal cue condition was more positive than for the associative cue condition. These results suggested that the processing of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory recruited different degrees of attentional and executive resources. PMID:25813899

  4. When psychopathy impairs moral judgments: neural responses during judgments about causing fear

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Cardinale, Elise M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by reduced empathy, shallow affect and behaviors that cause victims distress, like threats, bullying and violence. Neuroimaging research in both institutionalized and community samples implicates amygdala dysfunction in the etiology of psychopathic traits. Reduced amygdala responsiveness may disrupt processing of fear-relevant stimuli like fearful facial expressions. The present study links amygdala dysfunction in response to fear-relevant stimuli to the willingness of individuals with psychopathic traits to cause fear in other people. Thirty-three healthy adult participants varying in psychopathic traits underwent whole-brain fMRI scanning while they viewed statements that selectively evoke anger, disgust, fear, happiness or sadness. During scanning, participants judged whether it is morally acceptable to make each statement to another person. Psychopathy was associated with reduced activity in right amygdala during judgments of fear-evoking statements and with more lenient moral judgments about causing fear. No group differences in amygdala function or moral judgments emerged for other emotion categories. Psychopathy was also associated with increased activity in middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) during the task. These results implicate amygdala dysfunction in impaired judgments about causing distress in psychopathy and suggest that atypical amygdala responses to fear in psychopathy extend across multiple classes of stimuli. PMID:22956667

  5. Application of a Judgment Model toward Measurement of Clinical Judgment in Senior Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongmarutai, Tiwaporn

    2010-01-01

    Clinical judgment, defined as "the application of the nurse's knowledge and experience in making decisions about client care" (The National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005, p. 2), has been recognized as a vital and essential skill for healthcare providers when caring for clients. Undisputedly, nurses represent the largest component of the…

  6. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run effect"…

  7. Predicting political elections from rapid and unreflective face judgments.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Charles C; Todorov, Alexander

    2007-11-13

    Here we show that rapid judgments of competence based solely on the facial appearance of candidates predicted the outcomes of gubernatorial elections, the most important elections in the United States next to the presidential elections. In all experiments, participants were presented with the faces of the winner and the runner-up and asked to decide who is more competent. To ensure that competence judgments were based solely on facial appearance and not on prior person knowledge, judgments for races in which the participant recognized any of the faces were excluded from all analyses. Predictions were as accurate after a 100-ms exposure to the faces of the winner and the runner-up as exposure after 250 ms and unlimited time exposure (Experiment 1). Asking participants to deliberate and make a good judgment dramatically increased the response times and reduced the predictive accuracy of judgments relative to both judgments made after 250 ms of exposure to the faces and judgments made within a response deadline of 2 s (Experiment 2). Finally, competence judgments collected before the elections in 2006 predicted 68.6% of the gubernatorial races and 72.4% of the Senate races (Experiment 3). These effects were independent of the incumbency status of the candidates. The findings suggest that rapid, unreflective judgments of competence from faces can affect voting decisions.

  8. Nurses’ Clinical Judgment Development: A Qualitative Research in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seidi, Jamal; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salsali, Mahvash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical judgment development is necessary because it leads to appropriate nursing diagnoses, clinical decision-making and health promotion. Objectives: In this study we explored the process of Iranian nurses’ development in clinical judgment. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2013 at hospitals of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, located in the Sanandaj city of Iran. The data were collected based on semi-structured interviews and the study included 24 participants. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection using the grounded theory method. Results: The study participants’ main concern was ‘being non-professional in clinical judgment’. In response to this concern, they were struggling for gaining professional autonomy, striving for integrating clinical judgment skills, scrambling to make effective educational interventions and striving for professional and inter professional collaboration in clinical judgment. The core category was ‘struggling for becoming professional in clinical judgment development’. When nurses were supported professionally, they were able to develop their professional clinical judgment. Conclusions: The findings of this study provided critical information about nurses’ professionalization in clinical judgment. Accordingly, the participants adopted different strategies to develop their clinical judgment ability. Integrating these strategies into nursing theory and clinical education can improve nurses’ clinical judgment ability. PMID:26473075

  9. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  10. Chemosignals of Stress Influence Social Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual’s emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a ‘washout’ period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether ‘blocking’ the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women’s social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors. PMID:24130845

  11. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of musical backgrounds were asked to compare 2 recordings of the same composition (15 pairs, grouped in 3 musical genres), 1 of which was tempo-transformed (manipulating the expressive timing). The results show that expressive timing judgments are not so much influenced by expertise levels, as is suggested by the expertise hypothesis, but by exposure to a certain musical idiom, as is suggested by the exposure hypothesis. As such, the current study provides evidence for the idea that some musical capabilities are acquired through mere exposure to music, and that these abilities are more likely enhanced by active listening (exposure) than by formal musical training (expertise).

  12. Authority dependence and judgments of utilitarian harm.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648

  13. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  14. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Milman, Lisa H.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in production of functional morphemes like complementizers (e.g., that and if) and tense and agreement markers (e.g., –ed and –s), with complementizers often being more impaired than verbal morphology. However, there has been comparatively little work examining patients’ ability to comprehend or judge the grammaticality of these morphemes. This paper investigates comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections in two timed grammaticality-judgment experiments. In Experiment 1, participants with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia and grammatical-morphology production deficits (n=10) and unimpaired controls (n=10) heard complement clause sentences, subject relative clause sentences, and conjoined sentences. In Experiment 2, the same participants heard sentences with finite auxiliaries, sentences with finite main verbs, and sentences with uninflected verbs. Results showed above-chance accuracy in aphasic participants’ judgments for complementizer sentences in Experiment 1, but chance performance for verb inflections in Experiment 2. This pattern held regardless of whether the verb inflections were affixes or free-standing auxiliaries. Implications of these results for theories of agrammatic morphological impairments, including feature underspecification accounts (Wenzlaff & Clahsen, 2004; Burchert, Swoboda-Moll & DeBleser, 2005a) and hierarchical structure-based accounts (Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Izvorski & Ullman, 1999), are discussed. PMID:18438453

  15. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors. PMID:24130845

  16. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  17. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-08-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors' diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches.

  18. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-08-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors' diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  19. Olympic Medals as Fruits of Comparison? Assimilation and Contrast in Sequential Performance Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas; Plessner, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the evaluative consequences of sequential performance judgments. Recent social comparison research has suggested that performance judgments may be influenced by judgments about a preceding performance. Specifically, performance judgments may be assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on…

  20. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  1. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  2. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth…

  3. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment...

  4. Judgment of Information Quality and Cognitive Authority in the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Soo Young

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at Rutgers University that examined the problem of the judgment of information quality and cognitive authority by observing users' searching behavior in the Web, and the effects of those judgments on selection behaviors. Discusses implications for Web design and suggests future research. (Author/LRW)

  5. Leadership Styles and Moral Judgment Competence of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Cheryl; Miller, Brian; Sypawka, William; Clay, Maria; Hoover-Plonk, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the convergence of leadership styles and moral judgment competence of community college personnel participating in a leadership institute using the Leadership Orientation Instrument (Bolman & Deal, 1984) and the Moral Judgment Test (Lind, 1978). Results indicated that the human resource and structural frames were the…

  6. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  7. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of settlement or judgment. 341.6 Section 341.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a)...

  8. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  9. Judgments about Forces in Described Interactions between Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    In 4 experiments, participants made judgments about forces exerted and resistances put up by objects involved in described interactions. Two competing hypotheses were tested: (1) that judgments are derived from the same knowledge base that is thought to be the source of perceptual impressions of forces that occur with visual stimuli, and (2) that…

  10. Time to Decide? Simplicity and Congruity in Comparative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frosch, Caren A.; McCloy, Rachel; Beaman, C. Philip; Goddard, Kate

    2015-01-01

    What is the relationship between magnitude judgments relying on directly available characteristics versus probabilistic cues? Question frame was manipulated in a comparative judgment task previously assumed to involve inference across a probabilistic mental model (e.g., "Which city is largest"--the "larger" question--vs.…

  11. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary judgment. 60-30.23 Section 60-30.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At...

  12. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Summary judgment. 60-30.23 Section 60-30.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At...

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Summary judgment. 60-30.23 Section 60-30.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At...

  14. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Summary judgment. 60-30.23 Section 60-30.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At...

  15. 41 CFR 60-30.23 - Summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Summary judgment. 60-30.23 Section 60-30.23 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.23 Summary judgment. (a) For the Government. At...

  16. Cognitive Load Selectively Interferes with Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions…

  17. 28 CFR 26.2 - Proposed Judgment and Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed Judgment and Order. 26.2 Section 26.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Implementation of Death Sentences in Federal Cases § 26.2 Proposed Judgment and Order. (a) Whenever this part becomes...

  18. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  19. The Modular Neuroarchitecture of Social Judgments on Faces

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Robert; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2012-01-01

    Face-derived information on trustworthiness and attractiveness crucially influences social interaction. It is, however, unclear to what degree the functional neuroanatomy of these complex social judgments on faces reflects genuine social versus basic emotional and cognitive processing. To disentangle social from nonsocial contributions, we assessed commonalities and differences between the functional networks activated by judging social (trustworthiness, attractiveness), emotional (happiness), and cognitive (age) facial traits. Relative to happiness and age evaluations, both trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments selectively activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, forming a core social cognition network. Moreover, they also elicited a higher amygdalar response than even the emotional control condition. Both social judgments differed, however, in their top-down modulation of face-sensitive regions: trustworthiness judgments recruited the posterior superior temporal sulcus, whereas attractiveness judgments recruited the fusiform gyrus. Social and emotional judgments converged and, therefore, likely interact in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Social and age judgments, on the other hand, commonly engaged the anterior insula, inferior parietal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which appear to subserve more cognitive aspects in social evaluation. These findings demonstrate the modularity of social judgments on human faces by separating the neural correlates of social, face-specific, emotional, and cognitive processing facets. PMID:21725038

  20. How Does Moral Judgment Change with Age and Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at identifying the differences in moral Judgment levels among female students according to their giftedness and grade levels. In specific, the study attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Does moral judgment differ due to the differences in giftedness and grade levels? (2) Is it possible to efficiently predict the…

  1. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  2. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  3. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  4. Speech and Language Correlates of Adults' Judgments of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Elizabeth I.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The semantic differential technique was used to reveal the dimensions describing 4 adults' judgments of 140 conversation samples involving preschool-aged children. Analysis of the association between six speech/language behaviors and judgments on dynamism, maturity, and appeal found that level of phonological accuracy was the only speech/language…

  5. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  6. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  7. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of good engineering... § 94.221 Application of good engineering judgment. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering... the Administrator) a written description of the engineering judgment in question. (c)...

  8. How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Being happy or sad influences the content and style of thought. One explanation is that affect serves as information about the value of whatever comes to mind. Thus, when a person makes evaluative judgments or engages in a task, positive affect can enhance evaluations and empower potential responses. Rather than affect itself, the information conveyed by affect is crucial. Tests of the hypothesis find that affective influences can be made to disappear by changing the source to which the affect is attributed. In tasks, positive affect validates and negative affect invalidates accessible cognitions, leading to relational processing and item-specific processing, respectively. Positive affect is found to promote, and negative affect to inhibit, many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology. PMID:17698405

  9. Praiseworthiness: predictors of positive interpersonal judgments.

    PubMed

    Ogletree, Shirley M; Covington, Jennifer A; Archer, Richard L

    2013-06-01

    Deterministic attitudes, information about a person's background, one's perceived similarity to a target person, and attributions of effort and ability may affect praiseworthiness. Two vignette studies with college student participants were conducted to consider this issue. Based on regression analyses, attributing achievement to effort was the strongest predictor of praiseworthiness across both studies. In addition, evidence for an augmenting effect of an impoverished background on praiseworthiness was found. In the first study, perceived similarity to the target individual and religious-philosophical determinism were also predictors of praiseworthiness, while belief in free will predicted praiseworthiness in the second study. Judgments of praiseworthiness may be tied to a number of factors; among the most important of these are overcoming an impoverished childhood background and the attributed effort required for success.

  10. Metacognitive Judgments and Control of Study

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that people's judgments of their own learning are causally related to their study behavior and not epiphenomenal. I argue here that people use these metacognitions in an effort to selectively study material in their own region of proximal learning. First they attempt to eliminate materials that are already well learned. Then they progress successively from studying easier to more difficult materials. Successful implementation of this metacognitively guided strategy enhances learning. The necessary components are, first, that the metacognitions be accurate, and second, that the appropriate choices are implemented for study. With these parts in place, the individual is in position to effectively take control of his or her own learning. PMID:19750138

  11. How serotonin shapes moral judgment and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jenifer Z; Crockett, Molly J

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now discovering how hormones and brain chemicals shape social behavior, opening potential avenues for pharmacological manipulation of ethical values. Here, we review recent studies showing how altering brain chemistry can alter moral judgment and behavior, focusing in particular on the neuromodulator serotonin and its role in shaping values related to harm and fairness. We synthesize previous findings and consider the potential mechanisms through which serotonin could increase the aversion to harming others. We present a process model whereby serotonin influences social behavior by shifting social preferences in the positive direction, enhancing the value people place on others’ outcomes. This model may explain previous findings relating serotonin function to prosocial behavior, and makes new predictions regarding how serotonin may influence the neural computation of value in social contexts. PMID:25627116

  12. Familiarity influences judgments of sex: the case of voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Mike; Bonner, Lesley

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects made judgments about the sex or the familiarity of a voice. In experiment 1, subjects were fans of the BBC-radio soap opera, The Archers, and familiar voice clips were taken from this programme. Subjects showed a large reduction in response times when making sex judgments to familiar voices, despite the fact that sex judgments are generally much faster than familiarity judgments. In experiment 2, the same familiar clips were played to subjects unfamiliar with the soap opera, and no difference was observed in times to make sex judgments to Archers or non-Archers voices. We conclude that, unlike the case of face recognition, sex and identity processing of voices are not independent. The findings constrain models of person recognition across multiple modalities.

  13. Functional networks in emotional moral and nonmoral social judgments.

    PubMed

    Moll, Jorge; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E; Grafman, Jordan

    2002-07-01

    Reading daily newspaper articles often evokes opinions and social judgments about the characters and stories. Social and moral judgments rely on the proper functioning of neural circuits concerned with complex cognitive and emotional processes. To examine whether dissociable neural systems mediate emotionally charged moral and nonmoral social judgments, we used a visual sentence verification task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that a network comprising the medial orbitofrontal cortex, the temporal pole and the superior temporal sulcus of the left hemisphere was specifically activated by moral judgments. In contrast, judgment of emotionally evocative, but non-moral statements activated the left amygdala, lingual gyri, and the lateral orbital gyrus. These findings provide new evidence that the orbitofrontal cortex has dedicated subregions specialized in processing specific forms of social behavior. PMID:12169253

  14. Systematic Underreproduction of Time Is Independent of Judgment Certainty

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Martin; Rhodes, Darren; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We recently proposed that systematic underreproduction of time is caused by a general judgment bias towards earlier responses, instead of reflecting a genuine misperception of temporal intervals. Here we tested whether this bias can be explained by the uncertainty associated with temporal judgments. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to inhibit neuronal processes in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and tested its effects on time discrimination and reproduction tasks. The results show increased certainty for discriminative time judgments after PPC inhibition. They suggest that the right PPC plays an inhibitory role for time perception, possibly by mediating the multisensory integration between temporal stimuli and other quantities. Importantly, this increased judgment certainty had no influence on the degree of temporal underreproduction. We conclude that the systematic underreproduction of time is not caused by uncertainty for temporal judgments. PMID:26881127

  15. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants’ effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies. PMID:25414690

  16. Effect of training on exposure judgment accuracy of industrial hygienists.

    PubMed

    Vadali, Monika; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mulhausen, John R; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a study that investigated the effect of data interpretation training on exposure judgment accuracy of industrial hygienists across several companies in different industry sectors. Participating companies provided monitoring information on specific exposure tasks. Forty-nine hygienists from six companies participated in the study, and 22 industrial tasks were evaluated. The number of monitoring data points for individual tasks varied between 5 and 24. After reviewing all available basic characterization information for the job, task, and chemical, hygienists were asked to provide their judgment on the probability of the 95th percentile of the underlying exposure distribution being located in one of four exposure categories relative to the occupational exposure limit as outlined in the AIHA exposure assessment strategy. Ninety-three qualitative judgments (i.e., without reviewing monitoring data) and 2142 quantitative judgments (i.e., those made after reviewing monitoring data) were obtained. Data interpretation training, with simple rules of thumb for estimating 95th percentiles, was provided to all hygienists. A data interpretation test was administered before and after training. All exposure task judgments were collected before and after training. Data interpretation test accuracy for the hygienists increased from 48% to 67% after training (p < 0.001) and a significant underestimation bias was removed. Hygienist quantitative task judgment accuracy improved from 46% to 69% (p < 0.001) post-training. Accuracy results showed good improvement in industrial hygienists' quantitative judgments as a result of training. Hence, the use of statistical tools is promoted to improve judgments based on monitoring data and provide feedback and calibration to improve qualitative judgments. It may be worthwhile to develop standard training programs to improve exposure judgments.

  17. Construction and Validation of the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory: Clinical Judgment Skill Competencies That Measure Counselor Debiasing Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…

  18. Relationships Between Conforming Judgment and Employee Rank and Between Conforming Judgment and Dogmatism in an Employment Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey Billy

    This study assessed relationships between conforming judgment and employee rank and between conforming judgment and dogmatism among Florida Forest Service employees. Fifty-nine employees were tested for conforming behavior under varying conditions of dogmatism, institutional rank, and relative rank pressure. Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale was used, as…

  19. Deliberation's blindsight: how cognitive load can improve judgments.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Janina A; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Multitasking poses a major challenge in modern work environments by putting the worker under cognitive load. Performance decrements often occur when people are under high cognitive load because they switch to less demanding--and often less accurate--cognitive strategies. Although cognitive load disturbs performance over a wide range of tasks, it may also carry benefits. In the experiments reported here, we showed that judgment performance can increase under cognitive load. Participants solved a multiple-cue judgment task in which high performance could be achieved by using a similarity-based judgment strategy but not by using a more demanding rule-based judgment strategy. Accordingly, cognitive load induced a shift to a similarity-based judgment strategy, which consequently led to more accurate judgments. By contrast, shifting to a similarity-based strategy harmed judgments in a task best solved by using a rule-based strategy. These results show how important it is to consider the cognitive strategies people rely on to understand how people perform in demanding work environments.

  20. Stochastic Resonance in Time-to-Contact Judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, Manish; Gazula, Harshvardhan; Hsiang, Simon M.; Delucia, Patricia R.

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a counterintuitive phenomenon in which additive noise enhances performance of a nonlinear system. Previous studies demonstrated SR effect on human tactile sensitivity by adding noise of same modality and cross modality. Similarly, enhancement of human hearing through additive noise has been studied. In this study, we investigate the effect of noise in visual perception, specifically time-to-contact (TTC) judgments. This study explores four research questions: (1) Does noise help in TTC judgments? (2) How does noise affect speed and accuracy of TTC judgments? (3) Does cross modal noise help in TTC judgments? (4) How does cross modal noise affect speed and accuracy of TTC judgments? Through simulation, we show that noise in optical cue can enhance weak signals. We also demonstrate that noise can improve speed of TTC judgments at the expense of accuracy. Similarly, we demonstrate SR by adding noise of cross modality. These findings provide plausible hypotheses regarding how much noise should be added to enhance TTC judgments.

  1. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  2. The facial width-to-height ratio shares stronger links with judgments of aggression than with judgments of trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Geniole, Shawn N; Molnar, Danielle S; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-08-01

    Variation in the facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio) is associated with judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness made by observers when viewing men's faces. Although judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness are correlated, they represent distinct constructs. We thus investigated the hypothesis that judgments of aggression share stronger associations with the face ratio than judgments of trustworthiness, and that judgments of aggression mediate the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Across 4 separate studies, involving 129 observers rating subsets of 141 photographs (original photographs of individuals who provided consent for their use) of clean-shaven (65 faces), unshaved (22 faces), or digitized male faces (54 faces; digitized faces were creating using facial modeling software), this hypothesis was supported. The correlations between the face ratio and judgments of aggression were moderate to strong in all 4 studies (rs = .45 to .70). Reaction time was measured in Study 4: Participants judged aggression faster than trustworthiness; thus, temporal precedence also supports the hypothesis that aggression mediates the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Sensitivity to the face ratio may therefore be part of a perceptual mechanism specialized to assess aggressiveness rather than trustworthiness in others, likely because of the greater necessity for rapid judgments of aggressive potential than trustworthiness.

  3. Cosmopolitanism and violence: difficulties of judgment.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses the difficult relation of cosmopolitan ideas to the existence of war and violence. It explores the ambivalences within the cosmopolitan outlook as it seeks to reconcile its attentiveness to the actuality of violence in the modern age with its normative vision of perpetual peace. I address these ambivalences through a discussion of a) what it is to learn from the catastrophes of the twentieth century; b) the contribution Kant's theory of cosmopolitan law to the solution to contemporary problems of violence; c) the reconstruction of cosmopolitan thinking in the wake of the Holocaust as an attempt to take atrocities seriously; d) the application of cosmopolitan criteria to the justification and authorization of humanitarian military intervention; and e) the attempt on the part of Habermas and Derrida to address the ambivalence involved in reconciling cosmopolitanism and violence in Kosovo and Iraq. While cosmopolitanism is usually understood as a reference to a worldly legal and institutional order, the cosmopolitan outlook is also a mode of understanding the world, an ethic of responsibility and an ongoing exercise of political judgment in the face of violence. PMID:16506996

  4. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  5. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  6. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  7. Age-related priming effects in social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, T M; McGee, K A; Woodburn, S M; Bolstad, C A

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the impact of previously activated (and thus easily accessible) trait-related information on judgments about people. The authors hypothesized that age-related declines in the efficiency of controlled processing mechanisms during adulthood would be associated with increased susceptibility to judgment biases associated with such information. In each study, different-aged adults made impression judgments about a target, and assimilation of these judgments to trait constructs activated in a previous, unrelated task were examined. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, older adults were likely to form impressions that were biased toward the primed trait constructs. In contrast, younger adults exhibited greater awareness of the primed information and were more likely to correct for its perceived influence, especially when distinctive contextual cues regarding the source of the primes were available. PMID:9533195

  8. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation is critical for preference judgments.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Frank, Lawrence R

    2003-07-18

    Preference judgment, the process of selecting a response from several alternatives based on which alternative the subject likes best, is an important aspect of daily life. The current study examined whether neural substrates that are thought to be critical for generating somatic markers are involved in preference judgments. Fifteen healthy, right-handed subjects performed a preference judgment task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The medial frontal gyrus was significantly more activated during the preference judgment trials, relative to visual discrimination trials. Other areas that were also differentially activated included the posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulate and the left anterior insula. These findings are consistent with the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the representation of complex appetitive states. PMID:12876463

  9. Effects of meaning and symmetry on judgments of size.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that people judge words as having bigger font size than non-words. This finding has been interpreted in terms of processing fluency, with higher fluency leading to judgments of bigger size. If so, symmetric numbers (e.g., 44) which can be processed more fluently are predicted to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts the notion that the mechanism underlying judgments of size is processing fluency.

  10. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another's pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another's needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people's moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  11. Low levels of empathic concern predict utilitarian moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges. PMID:23593213

  12. For the greater goods? Ownership rights and utilitarian moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Millar, J Charles; Turri, John; Friedman, Ori

    2014-10-01

    People often judge it unacceptable to directly harm a person, even when this is necessary to produce an overall positive outcome, such as saving five other lives. We demonstrate that similar judgments arise when people consider damage to owned objects. In two experiments, participants considered dilemmas where saving five inanimate objects required destroying one. Participants judged this unacceptable when it required violating another's ownership rights, but not otherwise. They also judged that sacrificing another's object was less acceptable as a means than as a side-effect; judgments did not depend on whether property damage involved personal force. These findings inform theories of moral decision-making. They show that utilitarian judgment can be decreased without physical harm to persons, and without personal force. The findings also show that the distinction between means and side-effects influences the acceptability of damaging objects, and that ownership impacts utilitarian moral judgment. PMID:24972369

  13. Direct and judgmental measures of family planning program inputs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P; Ross, J A; Kekovole, J; Barkat-e-Khuda; Barkat, A

    1995-01-01

    This report compares two different approaches to measuring the strength of family planning programs in Bangladesh and Kenya. The first approach, the judgmental approach, has been used in a number of studies during the past two decades; scores on the characteristics of family planning programs are derived from the responses knowledgeable persons give to a series of questions. The second approach is to obtain direct measures of each item being considered. In Bangladesh, the total score varied trivially between the direct and the judgmental approaches. In Kenya, the total direct score was substantially higher than the judgmental score. The primary advantage of the judgmental approach is that comparative scores can be obtained for a larger number of countries for the same time period at a much lower cost than would be required by the direct approach.

  14. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  15. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  16. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  17. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  18. 33 CFR 153.411 - Procedures for payment of judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.411 Procedures for payment of judgments. An owner or operator of...

  19. Virtual Morality: Transitioning from Moral Judgment to Moral Action?

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kathryn B.; Howard, Charles; Howard, Ian S.; Gummerum, Michaela; Ganis, Giorgio; Anderson, Grace; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses–killing one in order to save many others–when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts. Heart rate in virtual moral dilemmas was significantly increased when compared to both judgment counterparts and control virtual tasks. Our research suggests that moral action may be viewed as an independent construct to moral judgment, with VR methods delivering new prospects for investigating and assessing moral behaviour. PMID:27723826

  20. Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges. PMID:23593213

  1. Experienced and novice officers' generalized communication suspicion and veracity judgments.

    PubMed

    Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions. PMID:26844912

  2. Interpersonal orientation and the accuracy of personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dawne S; Colvin, C Randall

    2003-04-01

    Are those who are more invested in developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships able to provide more accurate judgments of others' personality characteristics? Previous research has produced mixed findings. In the present study, a conceptual framework was presented and methods were used that overcome many of the problems encountered in past research on judgmental accuracy. On four occasions, 102 judges watched a 12-min videotaped dyadic interaction and described the personality of a designated target person. Judges' personality characteristics were described by self, parents, and friends. Results revealed that psychological communion was positively associated with judges' accuracy in rating targets' personality characteristics. In addition, whereas women were more communal and provided more accurate judgments than men, the relationship between communion and accuracy held after controlling for the effect of gender. Finally, preliminary findings suggested that interpersonally oriented individuals may sometimes draw on information about themselves and about stereotypical others to facilitate accurate judgments of others.

  3. Developing Taste and Judgment: Correctness and the Technical Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsden, Dorothy Corner; Sanders, Scott P.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a practical discussion for an editing course of the manner in which editors and writers routinely consult reference tools as they work and use what they find as the basis for editorial judgment and creativity. (HTH)

  4. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  5. Form and Diversity in Human Habitats: Judgmental and Attitude Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyron, Bernard

    1972-01-01

    Description of a study conducted in Madison, Wisconsin, in which building form and diversity of space arrangement, as perceived by the subjects, were reported. Judgmental and attitude responses and implications for psychological health also are discussed. (LK)

  6. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  7. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  8. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  9. 20 CFR 341.6 - Report of settlement or judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.6 Report of settlement or judgment. (a) When... the employee received sickness benefits, the person or company shall notify the Board of...

  10. Does mood influence the realism of confidence judgments?

    PubMed

    Allwood, Carl Martin; Granhag, Pär Anders; Jonsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-07-01

    Previous research has shown that mood affects cognition, but the extent to which mood affects meta-cognitive judgments is a relatively over-looked issue. In the current study we investigated how mood influences the degree of realism in participants' confidence judgments (based on an episodic memory task). Using music and film in combination, we successfully induced an elated mood in half of the participants, but failed to induce a sad mood in the other half. In line with previous research, the participants in both conditions were overconfident in their judgments. However, and contrary to our prediction, our data indicated that there was no difference in the realism of the confidence between the conditions. When relating this result to previous research, our conclusion is that there is no, or very little, influence of mood of moderate intensity on the realism of confidence judgments.

  11. Beyond smile dynamics: mimicry and beliefs in judgments of smiles.

    PubMed

    Maringer, Marcus; Krumhuber, Eva G; Fischer, Agneta H; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2011-02-01

    The judgment that a smile is based on "true," usually positive, feelings affects social interaction. However, the processes underlying the interpretation of a smile as being more or less genuine are not well understood. The aim of the present research was to test predictions of the Simulation of Smiles Model (SIMS) proposed by Niedenthal, Mermillod, Maringer, and Hess (2010). In addition to the perceptual features that can guide the judgment of a smile as genuine, the model identifies the conditions that the judgments rely on: (a) the embodiment of the facial expression and its corresponding state, and (b) beliefs about the situations in which genuine smiles are most often expressed. Results of two studies are consistent with the model in that they confirm the hypotheses that facial mimicry provides feedback that is used to judge the meaning of a smile, and that beliefs about the situations in which a smile occurs guides such judgments when mimicry is inhibited. PMID:21401238

  12. Making judgment calls. The ultimate act of leadership.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Noel M; Bennis, Warren G

    2007-10-01

    According to the traditional view, judgment is an event: You make a decision and then move on. Yet Tichy, of the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, and Bennis, of the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, found that good leadership judgment occurs not in a single moment but throughout a process. From their research into the complex phenomenon of leadership judgment, the authors also found that most important judgment calls reside in one of three domains: people, strategy, and crisis. Understanding the essence of leadership judgment is crucial. A leader's calls determine an organization's success or failure and deliver the verdict on his or her career. The first phase of the judgment process is preparation--identifying and framing the issue that demands a decision and aligning and mobilizing key stakeholders. Second is the call itself, And third is acting on the call, learning and adjusting along the way. Good leaders use a "story line"--an articulation of a company's identity, direction, and values--to inform their actions throughout the judgment process. Boeing CEO Jim McNerney, for instance, focused on a story line of Boeing as a world-class competitor and ethical leader to make a judgment call that launched the company's recovery from a string of ethical crises. Good leaders also take advantage of "redo loops" throughout the process, reconsidering the parameters of the decision, relabeling the problem, and redefining the goal in a way that more and more people can accept. Procter & Gamble's A.G. Lafley and Best Buy's Brad Anderson have both used redo loops--in preparation and execution, respectively--to strengthen not only support for their calls but also the outcomes.

  13. Egocentric biases in comparative volume judgments of rooms.

    PubMed

    Saulton, Aurelie; Mohler, Betty; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Dodds, Trevor J

    2016-01-01

    The elongation of a figure or object can induce a perceptual bias regarding its area or volume estimation. This bias is notable in Piagetian experiments in which participants tend to consider elongated cylinders to contain more liquid than shorter cylinders of equal volume. We investigated whether similar perceptual biases could be found in volume judgments of surrounding indoor spaces and whether those judgments were viewpoint dependent. Participants compared a variety of computer-generated rectangular rooms with a square room in a psychophysical task. We found that the elongation bias in figures or objects was also present in volume comparison judgments of indoor spaces. Further, the direction of the bias (larger or smaller) depended on the observer's viewpoint. Similar results were obtained from a monoscopic computer display (Experiment 1) and stereoscopic head-mounted display with head tracking (Experiment 2). We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to model participants' volume judgments using a function of room depth and width. A good fit to the data was found when applying weight on the depth relative to the width, suggesting that participants' judgments were biased by egocentric properties of the space. We discuss how biases in comparative volume judgments of rooms might reflect the use of simplified strategies, such as anchoring on one salient dimension of the space.

  14. Strategies of Model Construction for the Analysis of Judgment Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine

    This paper is concerned with the types of models researchers use to analyze empirical data in the domain of social judgments and decisions. Models for the analysis of judgment data may be divided into two classes depending on the criteria they optimize: Optimizing an internal (mathematical) criterion function with the aim to minimize the discrepancy of values predicted by the model from obtained data or incorporating a substantive underlying theory into the model where model parameters are not only formally defined, but represent specified components of judgments. Results from applying models from both classes to empirical data exhibit considerable differences between the models in construct validity, but not in empirical validity. It may be concluded that any model for the analysis of judgment data implies the selection of a formal theory about judgments. Hence, optimizing a mathematical criterion function does not induce a non-theoretical rationale or neutral tool. As a consequence, models satisfying construct validity seem superior in the domain of judgments and decisions.

  15. Comparing perceptual judgment and subjective measures of spatial awareness.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2009-07-01

    Spatial awareness is important in domains where safety hinges on human operators keeping track of the relative locations of objects in the environment. While a variety of subjective and judgment-based measures have been used to evaluate spatial awareness, none have probed all three of its levels: (1) identification of environmental objects, (2) their current locations relative to the operator, and (3) their relative positions over time. This work compares new judgment-based measures of spatial awareness that probe all three levels of spatial awareness to conventional subjective measures. In the evaluation of 14 configurations of Synthetic Vision Systems head down displays (seven terrain textures and two Geometric Fields of View (GFOVs)), 18 pilots made four types of judgments (relative angle, distance, height, and abeam time) regarding the location of terrain points displayed in 112 5-s, non-interactive simulations. They also provided subjective demand, awareness, clutter, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. Correlation analyses revealed that displays that received higher awareness and SA-SWORD subjective ratings were associated with smaller errors in abeam time judgments and, for SA-SWORD, smaller errors in relative distance judgments. Thus SA-SWORD provides insight into level 2 spatial awareness and both SA-SWORD and awareness provide insight into level 3 spatial awareness. ANOVA and chi(2) analyses revealed comparable results between display configurations that produced the minimum error in judgments and those recommended by the awareness, SA-SWORD, and preferred GFOV measures. PMID:18639862

  16. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  17. Disentangling similarity judgments from pragmatic judgments: Response to Sloutsky and Fisher (2012).

    PubMed

    Noles, Nicholaus S; Gelman, Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Sloutsky and Fisher (2012) attempt to reframe the results presented in Noles and Gelman (2012) as a pure replication of their original work validating the similarity, induction, naming, and categorization (SINC) model. However, their critique fails to engage with the central findings reported in Noles and Gelman, and their reanalysis fails to examine the key comparison of theoretical interest. In addition to responding to the points raised in Sloutsky and Fisher's (2012) critique, we elaborate on the pragmatic factors and methodological flaws present in Sloutsky and Fisher (2004) that biased children's similarity judgments. Our careful replication of that study suggests that, rather than measuring the influence of labels on judgments of perceptual similarity, the original design measured sensitivity to the pragmatics of task demands. Together, the results reported in Noles and Gelman and the methodological problems highlighted here represent a serious challenge to the validity of the SINC model specifically and the words-as-features view more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  19. Development of the Physical Educators' Judgments about Inclusion Instrument for Japanese Physical Education Majors and an Analysis of Their Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Sato, Takahiro; Mukoyama, Takahito; Kozub, Francis M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Physical Educators' Judgments about Inclusion (PEJI) survey for analysing the judgments of Japanese (361 male, 170 female) physical education teacher education majors. A secondary purpose was to examine group differences in judgments as a function of gender and past…

  20. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the

  1. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework. PMID:26918742

  2. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  3. Effects of Experienced Disgust on Morally-Relevant Judgments.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; David Puncochar, Bieke; Cox, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Although disgust has been implicated in moral judgments, the extent to which the influence of disgust on moral judgment is distinct from other negative affective states remains unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, participants in Study 1 were randomized to a disgust (hand submersion in imitation vomit), discomfort (hand submersion in ice water), or neutral (hand submersion in room temperature water) affect condition while moral judgments of offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that participants in the discomfort condition made the most severe moral judgments, particularly for moderate offenses. To examine if disgust may have more of an effect on some moral violations than others, participants in Study 2 were randomized to similar affect inductions while judgments of purity and non-purity offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that those who had their hand submerged in imitation vomit recommended harsher punishment for purity violations relative to moral violations unrelated to purity. The opposite was true for those who submerged their hands in ice water, whereas punishment ratings for purity and non-purity violations did not significantly differ for those who submerged their hands in room temperature water. The implications of these findings for further delineating the specific role of experienced disgust in moral decision-making are discussed. PMID:27482909

  4. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  5. Effects of Experienced Disgust on Morally-Relevant Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; David Puncochar, Bieke; Cox, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Although disgust has been implicated in moral judgments, the extent to which the influence of disgust on moral judgment is distinct from other negative affective states remains unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, participants in Study 1 were randomized to a disgust (hand submersion in imitation vomit), discomfort (hand submersion in ice water), or neutral (hand submersion in room temperature water) affect condition while moral judgments of offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that participants in the discomfort condition made the most severe moral judgments, particularly for moderate offenses. To examine if disgust may have more of an effect on some moral violations than others, participants in Study 2 were randomized to similar affect inductions while judgments of purity and non-purity offenses were simultaneously assessed. The results showed that those who had their hand submerged in imitation vomit recommended harsher punishment for purity violations relative to moral violations unrelated to purity. The opposite was true for those who submerged their hands in ice water, whereas punishment ratings for purity and non-purity violations did not significantly differ for those who submerged their hands in room temperature water. The implications of these findings for further delineating the specific role of experienced disgust in moral decision-making are discussed. PMID:27482909

  6. Physician judgment in clinical settings: methodological influences and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Dawson, N V

    1993-07-01

    Understanding the quality of physicians' intuitive judgments is essential in determining the appropriate use of their judgments in medical decision-making (vis-a-vis analytical or actuarial approaches). As part of this process, the quality of physicians' predictions must be assessed because prediction is fundamental to common clinical tasks: determining diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy; establishing monitoring intervals; performing screening and preventive maneuvers. Critical evaluation of predictive capabilities requires an assessment of the components of the prediction process: the data available for prediction, the method used for prediction, and the accuracy of prediction. Although variation in and uncertainty about the underlying data elements are often acknowledged as a source of inaccurate predictions, prediction also can be confounded by both methodological and cognitive limitations. During the past two decades, numerous factors have been recognized that may bias test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). These same factors may also produce bias in intuitive judgments. The use of cognitive processes to simplify judgment tasks (e.g., the availability and representativeness heuristics) and the presence of certain biases in the judgment process (e.g., ego, regret) may present obstacles to accurate estimation of probabilities by physicians. Limitations on the intuitive use of information (cognitive biases) have been demonstrated in both medical and nonmedical decision-making settings. Recent studies have led to a deepening understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of intuitive and analytical approaches to decision making. Here, many aspects of the basis for this understanding are reviewed.

  7. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise. PMID:25090427

  8. On the validity of remember-know judgments: evidence from think aloud protocols.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Geraci, Lisa; Boman, Jeffrey K; Sensenig, Amanda E; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2011-12-01

    The use of remember-know judgments to assess subjective experience associated with memory retrieval, or as measures of recollection and familiarity processes, has been controversial. In the current study we had participants think aloud during study and provide verbal reports at test for remember-know and confidence (i.e., sure-probably) judgments. Results indicated that the vast majority of remember judgments for studied items were associated with recollection from study (87%), but this correspondence was less likely for high-confidence judgments (72%). Instead, high-confidence judgments were more likely than remember judgments to be associated with incorrect recollection and a lack of recollection. Know judgments were typically associated with a lack of recollection (62%), but still included recollection from the study context (33%). Thus, although remember judgments provided fairly accurate assessments of retrieval including contextual details, know judgments did not provide accurate assessments of retrieval lacking contextual details.

  9. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure. PMID:24333538

  10. Role modeling clinical judgment for an unfolding older adult simulation.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie; Johnson, Elizabeth A; Ravert, Patricia; Rink, Doris

    2014-05-01

    Nurse educators must foster development of clinical judgment in students to help them provide the best care for the increasing population of older adult patients. This article reports qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study that focused on clinical judgment in the simulated perioperative care of an older adult. The sample was composed of treatment and control groups of prelicensure students (N = 275) at five sites. The treatment group watched a video of an expert nurse role model caring for a patient similar to the simulation patient, whereas the control group did not watch the video. Four weeks after simulation, participants cared for real-life, older adult perioperative patients. After the simulated and real-life care experiences, participants completed questionnaires related to clinical judgment dimensions. These two data sets revealed rich findings about the students' simulation learning, affirming the value of expert role models. Transferability of simulation learning to practice was also explored. PMID:24716674

  11. Understanding due discretion of judgment in Catholic marriage courts.

    PubMed

    Young, J L; Griffith, E E

    1991-01-01

    Psychiatrists and psychologists provide consultation to the Catholic Church's marriage courts. Operating under the Church's legal code, these tribunals assess the validity of weddings that have ended in divorce. This report describes one of the standards used for this purpose, the lack of due discretion of judgment, which is concerned with the maturity, understanding, and appreciation that the couple brought to the ceremony. This normal capacity is vulnerable to various mental illnesses, which if present with sufficient severity may nullify the marriage vows as seen by the Church (though not necessarily by the state). Such a finding results in freedom to marry again despite the Church's ban on divorce, provided that due discretion of judgment is regained. Case examples and discussion of the assessment process for due discretion of judgment prepare the consultant to apply psychiatric findings to this unique and urgent legal issue.

  12. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts.

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  13. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment.

  14. Motor influences on judgment: Motor and cognitive integration.

    PubMed

    Mullet, Etienne; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Performing motor behaviours (arm flexion vs. extension) that correspond also to lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance have been previously shown to impact cognitive performance and judgment. Three experiments are reported that examined the combined effect of these variables, as a kind of motor integration, on the implementation of information integration rules in various judgment tasks: judging of a person's attractiveness from personality information, judging of the severity of health risk from alcohol and tobacco intake, and attributing blame to a perpetrator from information as to intent and severity of harm done. It was found that the congruence between these motivational activations consistently influenced the use of interactive information integration rules, compared to additive ones. This set of findings showed that cognitive rules might also be embodied. Motor integration affects cognitive integration in judgment.

  15. Effects of social value orientations on fairness judgments.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William D; Patterson, Miles L

    2008-04-01

    The authors assessed the impact that social value orientations--prosocial (i.e., concerned about outcomes for both oneself and others) versus proself (i.e., concerned about one's own outcome only)--had on fairness judgments in a non-negotiation setting. The results indicated that prosocials generally formed fairness judgments in a manner suggested by equity theory: Given the same input as a comparison other, they saw an equal outcome as fairer than a favorable or unfavorable outcome. The fairness determinations of proselfs, however, tended to follow the tenets of self-interest theory: Given the same input as a comparison other, they saw a favorable outcome as fairer than an unfavorable outcome. Contrary to self-interest theory, proselfs did not find a favorable outcome fairer than an equal outcome. These findings indicate that social value orientations differentially affect the evaluation of outcome information in the formation of fairness judgments. PMID:18512420

  16. Instruction in information structuring improves Bayesian judgment in intelligence analysts

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information) for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts' probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem). Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target's membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments. PMID:25904882

  17. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure.

  18. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  19. Judgmental biases in decision support for strike operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulick, Jonathan D.; Davis, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    Human decisionmaking does not typically fit the classical analytic model, and the heuristics employed may yield a variety of biased judgments. These biases are often considered inherently adverse, but may be functional in some cases. Decision support systems can mitigate some biases, but often introduce others. "Debiasing" decision support systems entails designing DSS to address expected biases, and to preclude inducing new ones. High-level C2 decisionmaking processes are poorly understood, but these general principles and lessons learned in other fields are expected to obtain. A notional air campaign illustrates potential biases in a commander"s judgment during planning and execution, and the role of debiasing operational DSS.

  20. 40 CFR 135.5 - Service of proposed consent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Service of proposed consent judgment. 135.5 Section 135.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.5 Service of...

  1. 40 CFR 135.5 - Service of proposed consent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Service of proposed consent judgment. 135.5 Section 135.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.5 Service of...

  2. 40 CFR 135.5 - Service of proposed consent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of proposed consent judgment. 135.5 Section 135.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.5 Service of...

  3. Intracranial markers of emotional valence processing and judgments in music.

    PubMed

    Omigie, Diana; Dellacherie, Delphine; Hasboun, Dominique; Clément, Sylvain; Baulac, Michel; Adam, Claude; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the processing of valenced stimuli is well established. However, less is known about the extent to which activity in these regions reflects a stimulus' physical properties, the individual subjective experience it evokes, or both. We recorded cortical electrical activity from five epileptic patients implanted with depth electrodes for presurgical evaluation while they rated "consonant" and "dissonant" musical chords using a "pleasantness" scale. We compared the pattern of responses in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex when trials were sorted by pleasantness judgments relative to when they were sorted by the acoustic properties known to influence emotional reactions to musical chords. This revealed earlier differential activity in the amygdala in the physical properties-based, relative to in the judgment-based, analyses. Thus, our results demonstrate that the amygdala has, first and foremost, a high initial sensitivity to the physical properties of valenced stimuli. The finding that differentiations in the amygdala based on pleasantness ratings had a longer latency suggests that in this structure, mediation of emotional judgment follows accumulation of sensory information. This is in contrast to the orbitofrontal cortex where sensitivity to sensory information did not precede differentiation based on affective judgments. PMID:25496511

  4. International Teachers' Judgment of Gifted Mathematics Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficici, Abdullah; Siegle, Del

    2008-01-01

    Teachers play a key role in the identification and training of talented mathematicians, and their attitudes are important in improving math instruction for gifted students. We surveyed secondary mathematics teachers from South Korea, Turkey, and the United States. These teachers completed a survey instrument called the Teachers' Judgments of…

  5. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct…

  6. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

  7. 40 CFR 135.5 - Service of proposed consent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Service of proposed consent judgment. 135.5 Section 135.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.5 Service of...

  8. Applying Research to Making Life-Affecting Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    This keynote address argues that in order for baccalaureate and masters degree students to apply research to make better judgments and decisions in their life-affecting practice and in response to the information revolution, the helping professions need to redesign (from the bottom up) not overhaul (make a few changes in) the way research methods…

  9. Children's Temporal Judgments for Autobiographical Past and Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Judith A.; Mayhew, Estelle M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of twenty 5-7-year-olds on two spatial-temporal judgment tasks. In a semantic task, children located temporal distances from today that were described using conventional, temporal terms on a spatial timeline. In an autobiographical task, children judged temporal distances on the same spatial timeline for events that…

  10. "Naive" Native Speakers and Judgments of Oral Proficiency in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnwell, David

    A study addressed issues of concern in the use of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) Language Proficiency Guidelines commonly used in determination of oral language proficiency. Specifically, potential discrepancies between the judgments of trained raters and "naive" native speakers…

  11. Making the Right Choices: Ethical Judgments among Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Ori; Berkovich, Izhak; Schwartz, Talya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical…

  12. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments. PMID:25910382

  13. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    PubMed

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities. PMID:27570097

  14. Multisensory numerosity judgments for visual and tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    To date, numerosity judgments have been studied only under conditions of unimodal stimulus presentation. It is therefore unclear whether the same limitations on correctly reporting the number of unimodal visual or tactile stimuli presented in a display might be expected under conditions in which participants have to count stimuli presented simultaneously in two or more different sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we investigated numerosity judgments using both unimodal and bimodal displays consisting of one to six vibrotactile stimuli (presented over the body surface) and one to six visual stimuli (seen on the body via mirror reflection). Participants had to count the number of stimuli regardless of their modality of presentation. Bimodal numerosity judgments were significantly less accurate than predicted on the basis of an independent modality-specific resources account, thus showing that numerosity judgments might rely on a unitary amodal system instead. The results of a second experiment demonstrated that divided attention costs could not account for the poor performance in the bimodal conditions of Experiment 1. We discuss these results in relation to current theories of cross-modal integration and to the cognitive resources and/or common higher order spatial representations possibly accessed by both visual and tactile stimuli. PMID:17727102

  15. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  16. Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions about Exclusion in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Gasser, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…

  17. Advancing Knowledge-Building Discourse through Judgments of Promising Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support…

  18. Story Content as a Factor in Children's Moral Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, James D., III

    This study investigates effects of perceived rule-breaking on the moral reasoning of young children. Thirty first-grade children (15 males and 15 females) were read 10 randomly ordered moral judgment stories by one of three experimenters. Each story was accompanied by a two-frame cartoon-like drawing depicting the action. Two stories of each of…

  19. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  20. Judgments about Work and the Features of Young Adults' Jobs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Monserud, Maria

    2010-05-01

    This study revisits the relationship between adolescent judgments about work and later job characteristics, tackling the twin temporal dimensions of age and history. Drawing on 15 consecutive cohorts of high school seniors, we examine 1) whether adolescents' judgments about work become more strongly predictive of the characteristics of their jobs as they move through their twenties, and 2) whether the relationship between adolescents' judgments about work and their later job characteristics has weakened across cohorts of high school seniors between 1976 and 1990. Findings indicate a limited role of history; the larger life course story of these findings is tied to age. Adolescent judgments about work, measured in the senior year of high school, became more predictive of earnings with age during this period of the life course. They were also most predictive of the level of intrinsic job characteristics at the oldest age we examined, but the pattern was not one of progressive strengthening with age as it was for earnings. PMID:20802796

  1. Is AIDS a Biasing Factor in Teacher Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David W.; Hulecki, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    Regular-education, third-grade teachers (n=91) in Indiana reviewed one of two psychological reports, identical except that one reported a diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and one reported a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. AIDS was not found to be a biasing factor in teachers' judgments regarding special education placement.…

  2. Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

  3. Deciding in the Dark: Age Differences in Intuitive Risk Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of risky behavior in adolescence may signal developmental change in unconscious appraisal of risk. Yet, prior research examining adolescent risk judgment has used tasks that elicit conscious deliberation. The present study, in contrast, attempts to characterize age differences in (less conscious) intuitive impressions of risk.…

  4. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-11-29

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach.

  5. Confidence and Professional Judgment in Assessing Children's Risk of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Shlonsky, Aron; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child welfare agencies have moved toward standardized risk assessment measures to improve the reliability with which child's risk of abuse is predicted. Nevertheless, these tools require a degree of subjective judgment. Research to date has not substantially investigated the influence of specific context and worker characteristics on…

  6. Judgments of physics problem difficulty among experts and novices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Morphew, Jason W.; Mestre, José P.

    2015-12-01

    Students' ability to effectively study for an exam, or to manage their time during an exam, is related to their metacognitive capacity. Prior research has demonstrated the effective use of metacognitive strategies during learning and retrieval is related to content expertise. Students also make judgments of their own learning and of problem difficulty to guide their studying. This study extends prior research by investigating the accuracy of novices' and experts' ability to judge problem difficulty across two experiments; here "accuracy" refers to whether or not their judgments of problem difficulty corresponds with actual exam performance in an introductory mechanics physics course. In the first experiment, physics education research (PER) experts judged the difficulty of introductory physics problems and provided the rationales behind their judgments. Findings indicate that experts use a number of different problem features to make predictions of problem difficulty. While experts are relatively accurate in judging problem difficulty, their content expertise may interfere with their ability to predict student performance on some question types. In the second experiment novices and "near experts" (graduate TAs) judged which question from a problem pair (taken from a real exam) was more difficult. The results indicate that judgments of problem difficulty are more accurate for those with greater content expertise, suggesting that the ability to predict problem difficulty is a trait of expertise which develops with experience.

  7. Judgments of Physics Problem Difficulty among Experts and Novices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Morphew, Jason W.; Mestre, José P.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to effectively study for an exam, or to manage their time during an exam, is related to their metacognitive capacity. Prior research has demonstrated the effective use of metacognitive strategies during learning and retrieval is related to content expertise. Students also make judgments of their own learning and of problem…

  8. Children's Moral and Affective Judgments Regarding Provocation and Retaliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Yell, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Children's moral judgments, attributions of emotion, and their associations were examined in hypothetical, prototypical situations and situations of provocation and peer retaliation. Children judged prototypical and provoked moral transgressions (hitting and teasing). Hypothetical moral transgressions were judged to be more serious and deserving…

  9. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  10. Separating Bias and Sensitivity in Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Ratings of the degree of association between words are linearly related to normed associative strengths, but the intercept is high, and the slope is shallow (the judgments of associative memory [JAM] function). Two experiments included manipulations intended to decrease the intercept and increase the slope. Discrimination training on many pairs…

  11. 25 CFR 75.19 - Distribution of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.19 Distribution of judgment funds. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina will be brought up to... Enrollment Office of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Council House, Cherokee, North Carolina...

  12. 25 CFR 75.19 - Distribution of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.19 Distribution of judgment funds. The membership roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina will be brought up to... Enrollment Office of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Council House, Cherokee, North Carolina...

  13. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  14. Moral Judgment Development across Cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg's Universality Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.; Snarey, John R.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits Kohlberg's cognitive developmental claims that stages of moral judgment, facilitative processes of social perspective-taking, and moral values are commonly identifiable across cultures. Snarey [Snarey, J. (1985). "The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research."…

  15. The Axis Feature: Illusionary Effects on Children's Judgments of Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Anat

    1982-01-01

    Forty five-year-olds compared two arms of an L-shaped figure on-axis or perpendicular to axis inside circles of different diameters. In making perceptual judgments about the relative length, the children tended to describe the on-axis line as longer. The context model of visual anomalies was supported. (Author/CM)

  16. How Accurate Are Judgments of Intelligence by Strangers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkenau, Peter

    Whether judgments made by complete strangers as to the intelligence of subjects are accurate or merely illusory was studied in Germany. Target subjects were 50 female and 50 male adults recruited through a newspaper article. Eighteen judges, who did not know the subjects, were recruited from a university community. Videorecordings of the subjects,…

  17. 31 CFR 315.21 - Payment to judgment creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment to judgment creditors. 315.21 Section 315.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Limitations on Judicial...

  18. Quasi-Experimental Analysis: A Mixture of Methods and Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordray, David S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of human judgment in the development and synthesis of evidence has not been adequately developed or acknowledged within quasi-experimental analysis. Corrective solutions need to confront the fact that causal analysis within complex environments will require a more active assessment that entails reasoning and statistical modeling.…

  19. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  20. A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Early studies of intuitive judgment and decision making conducted with the late Amos Tversky are reviewed in the context of two related concepts: an analysis of accessibility, the ease with which thoughts come to mind; a distinction between effortless intuition and deliberate reasoning. Intuitive thoughts, like percepts, are highly accessible.…

  1. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  2. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Žauhar, Valnea; Bajšanski, Igor; Domijan, Dražen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II, and III according to Shepard et al. (1961). The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs) showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar. PMID:27729891

  3. 29 CFR 541.202 - Discretion and independent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... discretion and independent judgment with respect to matters of significance. In general, the exercise of... “matters of significance” refers to the level of importance or consequence of the work performed. (b) The phrase “discretion and independent judgment” must be applied in the light of all the facts involved...

  4. Remember judgments and the constraint of direct experience.

    PubMed

    Stoettinger, Elisabeth; Kaiser, Wolfgang; Perner, Josef

    2009-09-01

    The most direct assessment of episodic memory is provided by Remember versus Know judgments of recalled or recognised items. We investigate whether Remember judgments reflect episodic memories as a re-experience of formerly experienced events (mental time travel). If they do, they must obey the direct experience constraint: only directly experienced events can be re-experienced but not when the event is known through indirectly conveyed information. In two Experiments participants saw simple events in Power Point, e.g. a car exploding. In the direct experience condition these events were directly perceived. In three further conditions information about the object (particular car), the kind of event (explosion), or both were verbally conveyed. After controlling for a potential encoding specificity effect in Experiment 1, the frequency of Remember judgments was twice as high in the direct experience condition than in the other three conditions. This suggests that Remember judgments are--at least to some degree--subject to the direct experience constraint. PMID:18987880

  5. Teacher Judgment, Student Motivation, and the Mediating Effect of Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Based on Weiner's attributional theory of intrapersonal motivation, the mediating effect of attributions between teacher judgment and student motivation was examined. In two studies, 144 German and 272 Chinese fourth-grade elementary school students were tested on their mathematical achievement, causal ascriptions for success and failure,…

  6. Time Keeps on Ticking: The Experience of Clinical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Paul M.; White, Michael J.; Aegisdottir, Stefania; Maugherman, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions by Ridley and Shaw-Ridley (EJ832451) and Lichtenberg (EJ832452) to the authors' meta-analysis on the effects of experience on judgment accuracy add positively to what is hoped will become an ever more focused discourse on this most basic question: How can mental health clinical decision making be improved? In this rejoinder, the…

  7. 29 CFR 541.202 - Discretion and independent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and acting or making a decision after the various possibilities have been considered. The term “matters of significance” refers to the level of importance or consequence of the work performed. (b) The... can exercise discretion and independent judgment even if their decisions or recommendations...

  8. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments.

  9. The Development of Intent-Based Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Sheketoff, Rachel; Wharton, Sophie; Carey, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Between the ages of 4 and 8 children increasingly make moral judgments on the basis of an actor's intent, as opposed to the outcome that the actor brings about. Does this reflect a reorganization of concepts in the moral domain, or simply the development of capacities outside the moral domain such as theory of mind and executive function?…

  10. Moral Judgment as a Function of Age, Sex, and Stimulus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sue J. M.; Giebink, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Provides data in support of Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Shows comparable moral judgments for boys and girls at ages 11 and 17, but higher moral reasoning in 14-year-old girls than in their male peers. (Author/RL)

  11. The Effect of Congenital Deafness on Duration Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalska, Joanna; Szelag, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Congenital deafness provides the opportunity to study how atypical sensory and language experiences affect different aspects of information processing, e.g., time perception. Methods: Using two methods of temporal estimation, reproduction (Exp. 1) and production (Exp. 2), the effect of deafness on duration judgment was investigated…

  12. College Students' Judgment of Others Based on Described Eating Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca; Young, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: The literature available on attitudes toward eating patterns and people choosing various foods suggests the possible importance of "moral" judgments and desirable personality characteristics associated with the described eating patterns. Purpose: This study was designed to replicate and extend a 1993 study of college students'…

  13. 42 CFR 422.684 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 422.684 Section 422.684 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations...

  14. 42 CFR 423.662 - Prehearing and summary judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing and summary judgment. 423.662 Section 423.662 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Medicare...

  15. 40 CFR 135.5 - Service of proposed consent judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 135.5 Section 135.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS Prior Notice Under the Clean Water Act § 135.5 Service of proposed... violator under section 505(a)(1) of the Act shall serve a copy of a proposed consent judgment, signed...

  16. Judgments of Learning Depend on How Learners Interpret Study Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Nussinson, Ravit; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    In self-paced learning, when the regulation of study effort is goal driven (e.g., allocated to different items according to their relative importance), judgments of learning (JOLs) increase with study time. When regulation is data driven (e.g., determined by the ease of committing the item to memory), JOLs decrease with study time (Koriat,…

  17. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  18. Judgments about Work and the Features of Young Adults’ Jobs *

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Monserud, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study revisits the relationship between adolescent judgments about work and later job characteristics, tackling the twin temporal dimensions of age and history. Drawing on 15 consecutive cohorts of high school seniors, we examine 1) whether adolescents' judgments about work become more strongly predictive of the characteristics of their jobs as they move through their twenties, and 2) whether the relationship between adolescents' judgments about work and their later job characteristics has weakened across cohorts of high school seniors between 1976 and 1990. Findings indicate a limited role of history; the larger life course story of these findings is tied to age. Adolescent judgments about work, measured in the senior year of high school, became more predictive of earnings with age during this period of the life course. They were also most predictive of the level of intrinsic job characteristics at the oldest age we examined, but the pattern was not one of progressive strengthening with age as it was for earnings. PMID:20802796

  19. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  20. Perceptions of Teacher Characteristics and Student Judgments of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1988-01-01

    Uses a seven point Likert scale to examine the relationship between perceived teacher attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness and student judgment of teacher effectiveness. Correlations suggest that a more accurate view of teaching may be as an instance of social influence process. Urges further research to identify those cues that infer…

  1. Bases of Preservice Art Teachers' Reflective Art Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Villeneuve, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates the bases used to support judgments of artworks by preservice art teachers at two large universities. Bases art teachers might use to judge artwork range from personal preferences, to cultural expectations, to criteria drawn from values of various artworlds. The 26 preservice teachers in this study used a…

  2. Children's Metacognitive Judgments in an Eyewitness Identification Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keast, Amber; Brewer, Neil; Wells, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined children's metacognitive monitoring of recognition judgments within an eyewitness identification paradigm. A confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration approach was used to examine patterns of calibration, over-/underconfidence, and resolution. In Experiment 1, children (n=619, mean age=11 years 10 months) and adults (n=600)…

  3. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  4. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  5. Children's Metamemorial Judgments in an Event Recall Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; von der Linden, Nicole; Schneider, Wolfgang; Howie, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in which two different indicators of metacognitive monitoring were investigated in a complex everyday memory task. In the first phase of each experiment, 8- and 10-year-olds as well as adults were shown a short event (video) and gave judgments of learning, that is, rated their certainty that they would later be able to…

  6. Legitimating "Second-Hand" Symptoms: Observer Judgments of Illness Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, J. A.

    Three studies were conducted to examine factors which affect lay observers' judgments about peers who express illness complaints. In the first study, brief scenarios describing a hypothetical patient suffering from a sore throat were presented to 118 college students. The results revealed that subjects were less likely to regard the patient's sore…

  7. Discrepancies between Judgment and Choice of Action in Moral Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Tassy, Sébastien; Oullier, Olivier; Mancini, Julien; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. Two hundred and forty participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (“Is it acceptable to…”) or reporting the choice of action they would make (“Would you do…”). We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially) different psychological processes. PMID:23720645

  8. 32 CFR 644.119 - Procedure after final judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedure after final judgment. 644.119 Section 644.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Condemnation Proceedings § 644.119 Procedure...

  9. 32 CFR 644.119 - Procedure after final judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure after final judgment. 644.119 Section 644.119 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Condemnation Proceedings § 644.119 Procedure...

  10. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  11. Evolving Judgments of Terror Risks: Foresight, Hindsight, and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischhoff, Baruch; Gonzalez, Roxana M.; Lerner, Jennifer S.; Small, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the evolution of cognitive and emotional responses to terror risks for a nationally representative sample of Americans between late 2001 and late 2002. Respondents' risk judgments changed in ways consistent with their reported personal experiences. However, they did not recognize these changes, producing hindsight bias in…

  12. Professional Judgment in Need Analysis. NASFAA Monograph Series Number VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The application of professional judgment in reviewing and, if necessary, adjusting the results of need analyses in student financial aid is discussed. Specifically, guidelines and alternatives are provided that may be exercised in determining a family's reasonable ability to provide for postsecondary educational expenses. The following topics are…

  13. Detestable or Marvelous? Neuroanatomical Correlates of Character Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Katie E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Kovach, Christopher K.; Anderson, Steven W.; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    As we learn new information about the social and moral behaviors of other people, we form and update character judgments of them, and this can profoundly influence how we regard and act towards others. In the study reported here, we capitalized on two interesting neurological patient populations where this process of complex "moral updating" may…

  14. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  15. The effect of sad facial expressions on weight judgment

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Trent D.; Hass, Norah C.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight) of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes toward obese persons. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged. PMID:25914669

  16. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  17. 29 CFR 101.15 - Compliance with court judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with court judgment. 101.15 Section 101.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.15 Compliance...

  18. 29 CFR 101.15 - Compliance with court judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with court judgment. 101.15 Section 101.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.15 Compliance...

  19. 29 CFR 101.15 - Compliance with court judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance with court judgment. 101.15 Section 101.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.15 Compliance...

  20. 29 CFR 101.15 - Compliance with court judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with court judgment. 101.15 Section 101.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD STATEMENTS OF PROCEDURES Unfair Labor Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.15 Compliance...

  1. Studying Mental Health Counselor Clinical Judgment: A Response to Falvey and Colleagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Spengler, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews material related to American Mental Health Counselors Association Clinical Judgment Project. Recommendations include invoking more sensitive analyses of clinical judgment process, establishing defensible diagnostic and treatment criteria, attending to threats to statistical conclusion validity, and increasing attention to counselor…

  2. 31 CFR 256.30 - When does the Judgment Fund pay interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE JUDGMENT FUND AND UNDER PRIVATE RELIEF BILLS Interest and Litigation Costs § 256.30 When does the...-16 (Civil Rights Act of 1991). In addition, post-judgment interest is paid on awards eligible...

  3. 31 CFR 256.30 - When does the Judgment Fund pay interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE JUDGMENT FUND AND UNDER PRIVATE RELIEF BILLS Interest and Litigation Costs § 256.30 When does the...-16 (Civil Rights Act of 1991). In addition, post-judgment interest is paid on awards eligible...

  4. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  5. The context of clinical judgment: the effect of resource availability on judgments of amenability to treatment in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, E P; Reppucci, N D

    1988-08-01

    One-hundred sixty-eight mental health, welfare, and juvenile court personnel from six different locales within a state rated (a) the "amenability to treatment" of four case vignettes involving juvenile offenders and (b) the effectiveness of a variety of services for youth. Locales were chosen as either low, medium, or high along a continuum of service availability, and the effects of resource availability and agency type on these judgments were examined. These factors had significant effects on both types of judgments, but the directions of the effects were not uniform. Personnel in both high and low resource conditions showed relatively lower ratings of amenability on the vignettes and significant positive correlations between the ratings of service effectiveness and the treatability of the vignette youth. The medium resource personnel in all three agencies showed a negative correlation between these ratings, thus portraying youth as more workable but services as not maximally effective. In general, the results are interpreted as evidence that clinical judgment is systematically affected more by contextual factors than assumed and that this fact bears consideration in formulating the proper role for clinical judgment in juvenile justice.

  6. Beyond Judgment Bias: How Students' Ethnicity and Academic Profile Consistency Influence Teachers' Tracking Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Sabine; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Klapproth, Florian; Böhmer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to tracking, we investigated whether teachers' tracking judgments are biased by the immigrant backgrounds of the students and how teachers'…

  7. The Effect of Metacomprehension Judgment Task on Comprehension Monitoring and Metacognitive Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Kurby, Christopher A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated differences in the processes underlying two types of metacomprehension judgments: judgments of difficulty and predictions of performance (JOD vs. POP). An experiment was conducted to assess whether these two types of judgments aligned with different types of processing cues, and whether their accuracy correlated with…

  8. Simultaneous Over- and Underconfidence: The Role of Error in Judgment Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erev, Ido; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Revision-of-opinion literature has generally found subjective probability judgments to be conservative (underconfident), whereas calibration literature has generally found judgment to be overconfident. Reanalysis of three previous studies shows how such data can coexist and reveals the effects of methodology on judgment interpretations. (SLD)

  9. Comparison of Clinician Judgments and Measurements of Swallow Response Time: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnell, Michael P.; Rogus, Nicole M.

    2005-01-01

    Practicing clinicians frequently offer judgments about aspects of swallowing physiology rather than performing actual measurements. Little is known about the accuracy of those judgments. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore agreement of clinicians' judgments of pharyngeal swallow response time (PSRT) with temporal measurements of…

  10. 40 CFR 1068.5 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 1068.5 Section 1068.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.5 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) You must use good engineering judgment for decisions related to any requirements under this chapter. This includes...

  11. 40 CFR 1068.5 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 1068.5 Section 1068.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.5 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) You must use good engineering judgment for decisions related to any requirements under this chapter. This includes...

  12. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  13. 48 CFR 49.108-5 - Recognition of judgments and arbitration awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... judgments and arbitration awards. (a) When a subcontractor obtains a final judgment against a prime contractor, the TCO shall, for the purposes of settling the prime contract, treat the amount of the judgment... terminated portion of the prime contract, if— (1) The prime contractor has made reasonable efforts to...

  14. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  15. 26 CFR 301.7406-1 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 301.7406-1 Section 301.7406-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7406-1 Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and...

  16. 26 CFR 301.7406-1 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 301.7406-1 Section 301.7406-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7406-1 Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and...

  17. 27 CFR 70.193 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 70.193 Section 70.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs,...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7406-1 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 301.7406-1 Section 301.7406-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7406-1 Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and...

  19. 27 CFR 70.193 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 70.193 Section 70.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs,...

  20. 27 CFR 70.193 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 70.193 Section 70.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs,...

  1. 27 CFR 70.193 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 70.193 Section 70.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs,...

  2. 26 CFR 301.7406-1 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 301.7406-1 Section 301.7406-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7406-1 Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and...

  3. 27 CFR 70.193 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 70.193 Section 70.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and moneys recovered or received for taxes, costs,...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7406-1 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. 301.7406-1 Section 301.7406-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the United States § 301.7406-1 Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered. All judgments and...

  5. The Effect of Information Analysis Automation Display Content on Human Judgment Performance in Noisy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein

    2014-01-01

    Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance. PMID:24847184

  6. Judgments of Vocal Quality, Speech Fluency, and Confidence of Southern Black and White Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Ruth Beckey

    Comparative judgments of vocal quality, speech fluency, and confidence of black and white speakers in southern universities were tested to determine the interrelationships of (1) perception of vocal quality and judgment of confidence in the voice, (2) quality and fluency, and (3) speech fluency and judgment of confidence, and to ascertain the…

  7. 40 CFR 1068.5 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 1068.5 Section 1068.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.5 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) You must use good engineering judgment for decisions related to any requirements under...

  8. 40 CFR 1068.5 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 1068.5 Section 1068.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.5 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) You must use good engineering judgment for decisions related to any requirements under...

  9. 40 CFR 1068.5 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 1068.5 Section 1068.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Applicability and Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.5 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) You must use good engineering judgment for decisions related to any requirements under...

  10. The Scope of Our Affective Influences: When and How Naturally Occurring Positive, Negative, and Neutral Affects Alter Judgment.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L

    2016-03-01

    To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance.

  11. [The effect of interpersonal dependency on judgment of gaze direction].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Miwako; Sawa, Kosuke; Takata, Natsuko; Okubo, Matia

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal dependency on judgments of gaze direction of individuals with different facial expressions. Based on interpersonal dependency scores, 46 participants were divided into two groups (high interpersonal dependency and low interpersonal dependency). Participants judged the gaze direction of photographs of faces with angry, neutral or happy expressions. Relative to the low interpersonal dependency group, the high interpersonal dependency group was more accurate in the judgments of gaze direction. This tendency was more salient for the happy and neutral expressions than for the angry expressions. Since people with high interpersonal dependency are highly motivated to seek support from others, this result suggests that they are sensitive to signals with pro-social information such as the gaze direction of others with positive attitudes.

  12. Exemplar effects in categorization and multiple-cue judgment.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Peter; Olsson, Henrik; Olsson, Anna-Carin

    2003-03-01

    Categorization and multiple-cue judgment are similar tasks, but the influential models in the two areas are different in terms of the computations, processes, and neural substrates that they imply. In categorization, exemplar memory is often emphasized, whereas multiple-cue judgment generally is interpreted in terms of integration of cues that have been abstracted in training. In 3 experiments the authors investigated whether these conclusions derive from genuine differences in the processes or are accidental to the different research methods. The results revealed large individual differences and a shift from exemplar memory to cue abstraction when the criterion is changed from a binary to a continuous variable, especially for a probabilistic criterion. People appear to switch between qualitatively distinct processes in the 2 tasks. PMID:12656301

  13. The contact principle and utilitarian moral judgments in young children.

    PubMed

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-03-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years advocated intervention in contrast to another situation with the reverse cost/benefit ratio. This course of action was seen as acceptable by most children only when it did not require the agent to have physical contact with the victim and the victim's harm was intended to produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Overall, the children's responses were remarkably similar to those reported in adult studies. These findings document the extent to which some constraints on moral judgment are present in early human development. PMID:20136922

  14. Influence of Graphical METARS on Pilots' Weather Judgment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Joseph T.; Latorella, Kara A.; Baldwin, Carryl L.

    2005-01-01

    VFR flight into IMC conditions accounts for over 10% of general aviation fatalities each year. Recent research suggests that pilots may not properly assess weather conditions. New graphical weather information systems (GWISs) may positively or negatively influence pilot weather-related judgments. Since GWIS information is not always current it may not be veritical. In the current investigation twenty-four GA pilots made visibility and ceiling estimates of simulated weather conditions either with or without a GWIS display. Pilots generally overestimated weather conditions and their judgments were influenced by the GWIS. The results revealed an interaction between ceiling and visibility that suggests a new model for understanding VFR flight into IMC. The current results suggest an important area for future research into understanding pilots decisions to continue into deteriorating weather conditions. Results are discussed in terms of advancing aviation decision making models for understanding VFR into IMC flight, and the design of GWIS symbology to foster accurate assessments.

  15. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics.

  16. A comparison of spatial frequency tuning for judgments of eye gaze and facial identity.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2015-07-01

    Humans use the direction of eye gaze and facial identity to make important social judgments. We carried out the first measurements of spatial frequency (SF) tuning for judgments of eye gaze, and compared SF tuning for judgments of facial identity and eye gaze. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated between leftward and rightward shifts of gaze, or between two male faces or two female faces. Faces were masked with visual noise that blocked one of 10 SF bands. For each task and masking SF, we measured contrast thresholds for human observers, and used an ideal observer to measure the amount of visual information available to perform the task. As in previous research, low to mid SFs were most important for judgments of facial identity. Mid to high SFs were most important for judgments of eye gaze, and the highest SF important for these judgments was higher than that for identity. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated horizontal and vertical shifts of gaze. The highest SF important for judgments of gaze did not differ between the horizontal and vertical axes. However, SFs above and below this value were more important for judgments of vertical shifts of gaze than for horizontal shifts of gaze. These results suggest that the visual system relies on higher SFs for judgments of eye gaze than for judgments of facial identity, and that SF tuning is broader for judgments of vertical shifts of gaze than for horizontal shifts of gaze.

  17. Measuring the fit between human judgments and automated alerting algorithms: a study of collision detection.

    PubMed

    Bisantz, Ann M; Pritchett, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies for assessing human judgment in complex domains are important for the design of both displays that inform judgment and automated systems that suggest judgments. This paper uses the n-system lens model to evaluate the impact of displays on human judgment and to explicitly assess the similarity between human judgments and a set of potential judgment algorithms for use in automated systems. First, the need for and concepts underlying judgment analysis are outlined. Then the n-system lens model and its parameters are formally described. This model is then used to examine a previously conducted study of aircraft collision detection that had been analyzed using standard analysis of variance methods. Our analysis found the same main effects as did the earlier analysis. However, n-system lens model analysis was able to provide greater insight into the information relied upon for judgments and the impact of displays on judgment. Additionally, the analysis was able to identify attributes of human judgments that were--and were not--similar to judgments produced by automated systems. Potential applications of this research include automated aid design and operator training.

  18. Men's Sexual Faithfulness Judgments May Contain a Kernel of Truth.

    PubMed

    Leivers, Samantha; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms enabling men to identify women likely to engage in extra-pair copulations (EPCs) would be advantageous in avoiding cuckoldry. Men's judgments of female sexual faithfulness often show high consensus, but accuracy appears poor. We examined whether accuracy of these judgments made to images of women could be improved through i) employing a forced choice task, in which men were asked to select the more faithful of two women and/or ii) providing men with full person images. In Experiment 1, men rated 34 women, for whom we had self-reported EPC behavior, on faithfulness, trustworthiness or attractiveness from either face or full person photographs. They then completed a forced choice task, selecting the more faithful of two woman from 17 pairs of images, each containing one woman who had reported no EPCs and one who had reported two or more EPCs. Men were unable to rate faithfulness with any accuracy, replicating previous findings. However, when asked to choose the more faithful of two women, they performed significantly above chance, although the ability to judge faithfulness at above-chance levels did not generalize to all pairs of women. Although there was no significant difference in accuracy for face and full person image pairs, only judgments from faces were significantly above chance. In Experiment 2, we showed that this accuracy for faces was repeatable in a new sample of men. We also showed that individual variation in accuracy was unrelated to variation in preferences for faithfulness in a long-term partner. Overall, these results show that men's judgments of faithfulness made from faces of unfamiliar women may contain a kernel of truth.

  19. Social responses to expressive suppression: The role of personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Tackman, Allison M; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Why do people who suppress their emotion-expressive behavior have difficulty forming close, supportive relationships? Previous studies have found that suppression disrupts the dynamics of social interactions and existing relationships. We evaluated a complementary hypothesis: that suppression functions as a behavioral cue leading others to form negative personality impressions of suppressors, even at zero-acquaintance. In 2 studies, participants reported personality judgments and other impressions of targets who either suppressed or expressed their emotion-expressive behavior in response to amusing or sad film clips. In findings replicated across studies, targets who suppressed either amusement or sadness were judged as less extraverted, less agreeable, and more interpersonally avoidant and anxious than targets who expressed emotions, and participants were less interested in affiliating with suppressors compared with expressers. Effects were amplified when targets suppressed amusement (compared with sadness) and when participants knew the emotional context (compared with when they did not) and, thus, could form expectations about what emotions targets should be showing. Extraversion and agreeableness judgments mediated the effect of suppression on participants' disinterest in affiliating. In Study 2, which extended Study 1 in several ways, effects were pronounced for the enthusiasm aspect of extraversion and the compassion aspect of agreeableness. We also found evidence that judgments of suppressors do not simply fall between neutral and fully expressing targets; rather, judgments of suppressors are qualitatively different. We discuss implications for understanding the social consequences of emotion regulation-in particular, how beyond disrupting relationships, suppression may prevent some relationships from even forming in the first place.

  20. Men's Sexual Faithfulness Judgments May Contain a Kernel of Truth.

    PubMed

    Leivers, Samantha; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms enabling men to identify women likely to engage in extra-pair copulations (EPCs) would be advantageous in avoiding cuckoldry. Men's judgments of female sexual faithfulness often show high consensus, but accuracy appears poor. We examined whether accuracy of these judgments made to images of women could be improved through i) employing a forced choice task, in which men were asked to select the more faithful of two women and/or ii) providing men with full person images. In Experiment 1, men rated 34 women, for whom we had self-reported EPC behavior, on faithfulness, trustworthiness or attractiveness from either face or full person photographs. They then completed a forced choice task, selecting the more faithful of two woman from 17 pairs of images, each containing one woman who had reported no EPCs and one who had reported two or more EPCs. Men were unable to rate faithfulness with any accuracy, replicating previous findings. However, when asked to choose the more faithful of two women, they performed significantly above chance, although the ability to judge faithfulness at above-chance levels did not generalize to all pairs of women. Although there was no significant difference in accuracy for face and full person image pairs, only judgments from faces were significantly above chance. In Experiment 2, we showed that this accuracy for faces was repeatable in a new sample of men. We also showed that individual variation in accuracy was unrelated to variation in preferences for faithfulness in a long-term partner. Overall, these results show that men's judgments of faithfulness made from faces of unfamiliar women may contain a kernel of truth. PMID:26244776

  1. Neonatal Candidiasis: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel K.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Gantz, Marie G.; Walsh, Michele C.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Das, Abhik; Shankaran, Seetha; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Auten, Kathy J.; Miller, Nancy A.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Finer, Neil N.; Duara, Shahnaz; Schibler, Kurt; Chapman, Rachel L.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Phelps, Dale L.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Bell, Edward F.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Goldberg, Ronald N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Invasive candidiasis is a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in extremely low-birth-weight (<1000 g) infants. We quantify risk factors predicting infection in high-risk premature infants and compare clinical judgment with a prediction model of invasive candidiasis. METHODS The study involved a prospective observational cohort of infants <1000 g birth weight at 19 centers of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. At each sepsis evaluation, clinical information was recorded, cultures obtained, and clinicians prospectively recorded their estimate of the probability of invasive candidiasis. Two models were generated with invasive candidiasis as their outcome: 1) potentially modifiable risk factors and 2) a clinical model at time of blood culture to predict candidiasis. RESULTS Invasive candidiasis occurred in 137/1515 (9.0%) infants and was documented by positive culture from ≥ 1 of these sources: blood (n=96), cerebrospinal fluid (n=9), urine obtained by catheterization (n=52), or other sterile body fluid (n=10). Mortality was not different from infants who had positive blood culture compared to those with isolated positive urine culture. Incidence varied from 2–28% at the 13 centers enrolling ≥ 50 infants. Potentially modifiable risk factors (model 1) included central catheter, broad-spectrum antibiotics (e.g., third-generation cephalosporins), intravenous lipid emulsion, endotracheal tube, and antenatal antibiotics. The clinical prediction model (model 2) had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79, and was superior to clinician judgment (0.70) in predicting subsequent invasive candidiasis. Performance of clinical judgment did not vary significantly with level of training. CONCLUSION Prior antibiotics, presence of a central catheter, endotracheal tube, and center were strongly associated with invasive candidiasis. Modeling was more accurate in predicting invasive candidiasis than clinical judgment. PMID

  2. Social responses to expressive suppression: The role of personality judgments.

    PubMed

    Tackman, Allison M; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Why do people who suppress their emotion-expressive behavior have difficulty forming close, supportive relationships? Previous studies have found that suppression disrupts the dynamics of social interactions and existing relationships. We evaluated a complementary hypothesis: that suppression functions as a behavioral cue leading others to form negative personality impressions of suppressors, even at zero-acquaintance. In 2 studies, participants reported personality judgments and other impressions of targets who either suppressed or expressed their emotion-expressive behavior in response to amusing or sad film clips. In findings replicated across studies, targets who suppressed either amusement or sadness were judged as less extraverted, less agreeable, and more interpersonally avoidant and anxious than targets who expressed emotions, and participants were less interested in affiliating with suppressors compared with expressers. Effects were amplified when targets suppressed amusement (compared with sadness) and when participants knew the emotional context (compared with when they did not) and, thus, could form expectations about what emotions targets should be showing. Extraversion and agreeableness judgments mediated the effect of suppression on participants' disinterest in affiliating. In Study 2, which extended Study 1 in several ways, effects were pronounced for the enthusiasm aspect of extraversion and the compassion aspect of agreeableness. We also found evidence that judgments of suppressors do not simply fall between neutral and fully expressing targets; rather, judgments of suppressors are qualitatively different. We discuss implications for understanding the social consequences of emotion regulation-in particular, how beyond disrupting relationships, suppression may prevent some relationships from even forming in the first place. PMID:26280841

  3. Time to Decide? Simplicity and Congruity in Comparative Judgment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    What is the relationship between magnitude judgments relying on directly available characteristics versus probabilistic cues? Question frame was manipulated in a comparative judgment task previously assumed to involve inference across a probabilistic mental model (e.g., “Which city is largest”—the “larger” question—vs. “Which city is smallest”—the “smaller” question). Participants identified either the largest or smallest city (Experiments 1a and 2) or the richest or poorest person (Experiment 1b) in a 3-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) task (Experiment 1) or a 2-AFC task (Experiment 2). Response times revealed an interaction between question frame and the number of options recognized. When participants were asked the smaller question, response times were shorter when none of the options were recognized. The opposite pattern was found when participants were asked the larger question: response time was shorter when all options were recognized. These task–stimuli congruity results in judgment under uncertainty are consistent with, and predicted by, theories of magnitude comparison, which make use of deductive inferences from declarative knowledge. PMID:25068857

  4. Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

    PubMed

    Lord, C G; Lepper, M R; Preston, E

    1984-12-01

    It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment. PMID:6527215

  5. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  6. Sight over sound in the judgment of music performance

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Chia-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Social judgments are made on the basis of both visual and auditory information, with consequential implications for our decisions. To examine the impact of visual information on expert judgment and its predictive validity for performance outcomes, this set of seven experiments in the domain of music offers a conservative test of the relative influence of vision versus audition. People consistently report that sound is the most important source of information in evaluating performance in music. However, the findings demonstrate that people actually depend primarily on visual information when making judgments about music performance. People reliably select the actual winners of live music competitions based on silent video recordings, but neither musical novices nor professional musicians were able to identify the winners based on sound recordings or recordings with both video and sound. The results highlight our natural, automatic, and nonconscious dependence on visual cues. The dominance of visual information emerges to the degree that it is overweighted relative to auditory information, even when sound is consciously valued as the core domain content. PMID:23959902

  7. Numerosity judgments for tactile stimuli distributed over the body surface.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A large body of research now supports the claim that two different and dissociable processes are involved in making numerosity judgments regarding visual stimuli: subitising (fast and nearly errorless) for up to 4 stimuli, and counting (slow and error-prone) when more than 4 stimuli are presented. We studied tactile numerosity judgments for combinations of 1-7 vibrotactile stimuli presented simultaneously over the body surface. In experiment 1, the stimuli were presented once, while in experiment 2 conditions of single presentation and repeated presentation of the stimulus were compared. Neither experiment provided any evidence for a discontinuity in the slope of either the RT or error data suggesting that subitisation does not occur for tactile stimuli. By systematically varying the intensity of the vibrotactile stimuli in experiment 3, we were able to demonstrate that participants were not simply using the 'global intensity' of the whole tactile display to make their tactile numerosity judgments, but were, instead, using information concerning the number of tactors activated. The results of the three experiments reported here are discussed in relation to current theories of counting and subitising, and potential implications for the design of tactile user interfaces are highlighted. PMID:16583769

  8. Correlating human color similarity judgments and colorimetric representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertan, Constantin C.; Ciuc, Mihai; Stoica, A.; Zamfir, Marta; Buzuloiu, Vasile V.; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine

    2003-10-01

    A color similarity test was conducted on the 24 color patches of a Gretag Macbeth color checker. Color similarities were measured either by distances between standard colorimetric representations (such as RGB, Lab or spectral reflectance curves) or by human observer judgments. In each case, the dissimilarity matrix was processed by a classical, metric, multidimensional scaling algorithm, in order to produce a visually-interpretable two-dimensional plot of color dissimilarity. The analysis of the plots produces some interesting conclusions. First, the plots produced by the Lab, RGB and spectral representations exhibit very evident variation axes according to the luminance and basic chromatic differences (red-green, blue-yellow). This behavior (trivial for the Lab representation) suggests that the color similarity measurement by chromatic differences is implicitly embedded in the RGB and spectral representations. The color dissimilarity plots associated to the human judgments (for any individual, as well as for an "average" observer) exhibit a different organization, which mixes hue, saturation and luminance (HSV). According to these plots, the human similarity judgment is not entirely HSV-based. We prove that it is possible to obtain the same color dissimilarity plots if a fuzzy color model is assumed. The fuzzy color model provides similarity coefficients (similarity degrees) between pairs of colors, based on their inter-distance, according to an imposed "color confusion" control parameter, which seems to be relevant for the human vision.

  9. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  10. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy. PMID:26580228

  11. Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration) controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients–especially those with low numeracy–misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy–a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about healthrelevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension. PMID:26236247

  12. Effects of processing fluency on comparative performance judgments.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Meier, Beat; Ruch-Monachon, Marie-Antoinette; Tiberini, Mara

    2006-11-01

    Research has shown that performance predictions are biased by the impact of processing fluency. However, existing data are inconclusive with regard to comparative judgments of performance. In five experiments, participants in an easy condition gave more favorable comparative judgments than participants in a difficult condition. Participants judged their performance more favorably if they named colors of non-color words rather than non-matching color words (Experiment 1), if they had to generate six words of a category rather than 12 words (Experiment 2), if they had to run in place for 15 s rather than 2 min (Experiment 3), but the latter result holds only true if participants were not active in sports (Experiment 4). When 67% of the items in a recognition test were old words, participants thought that their recognition performance was better than when 33% of the items were old words, although recognition performance did not differ between groups (Experiment 5). We discuss this result in the light of recent theories about effects of processing fluency on judgments.

  13. First- and Second-Order Metacognitive Judgments of Semantic Memory Reports: The Influence of Personality Traits and Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buratti, Sandra; Allwood, Carl Martin; Kleitman, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    In learning contexts, people need to make realistic confidence judgments about their memory performance. The present study investigated whether second-order judgments of first-order confidence judgments could help people improve their confidence judgments of semantic memory information. Furthermore, we assessed whether different personality and…

  14. What are judgment skills in health literacy? A psycho-cognitive perspective of judgment and decision-making research

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to summarize current research relating to psychological processes involved in judgment and decision-making (JDM) and identify which processes can be incorporated and used in the construct of health literacy (HL) in order to enrich its conceptualization and to provide more information about people’s preferences. Methods The literature review was aimed at identifying comprehensive research in the field; therefore appropriate databases were searched for English language articles dated from 1998 to 2015. Results Several psychological processes have been found to be constituents of JDM and potentially incorporated in the definition of HL: cognition, self-regulation, emotion, reasoning-thinking, and social perception. Conclusion HL research can benefit from this JDM literature overview, first, by elaborating on the idea that judgment is multidimensional and constituted by several specific processes, and second, by using the results to implement the definition of “judgment skills”. Moreover, this review can favor the development of new instruments that can measure HL. Practical implications Future researchers in HL should work together with researchers in psychological sciences not only to investigate the processes behind JDM in-depth but also to create effective opportunities to improve HL in all patients, to promote good decisions, and orient patients’ preferences in all health contexts. PMID:26648700

  15. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs. PMID:25285384

  16. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    PubMed

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  17. The role of emotions for moral judgments depends on the type of emotion and moral scenario.

    PubMed

    Ugazio, Giuseppe; Lamm, Claus; Singer, Tania

    2012-06-01

    Emotions seem to play a critical role in moral judgment. However, the way in which emotions exert their influence on moral judgments is still poorly understood. This study proposes a novel theoretical approach suggesting that emotions influence moral judgments based on their motivational dimension. We tested the effects of two types of induced emotions with equal valence but with different motivational implications (anger and disgust), and four types of moral scenarios (disgust-related, impersonal, personal, and beliefs) on moral judgments. We hypothesized and found that approach motivation associated with anger would make moral judgments more permissible, while disgust, associated with withdrawal motivation, would make them less permissible. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the type of scenario: the induced emotions only affected moral judgments concerning impersonal and personal scenarios, while we observed no effects for the other scenarios. These findings suggest that emotions can play an important role in moral judgment, but that their specific effects depend upon the type of emotion induced. Furthermore, induced emotion effects were more prevalent for moral decisions in personal and impersonal scenarios, possibly because these require the performance of an action rather than making an abstract judgment. We conclude that the effects of induced emotions on moral judgments can be predicted by taking their motivational dimension into account. This finding has important implications for moral psychology, as it points toward a previously overlooked mechanism linking emotions to moral judgments.

  18. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mario; Masip, David; Todorov, Alexander; Vitria, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance) can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a) derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b) predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations) and classification rules (4 rules) suggest that a) prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b) the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c) for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  19. Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800 ms) or short (50 ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

  20. Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-08-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

  1. The mere exposure effect is differentially sensitive to different judgment tasks.

    PubMed

    Seamon, J G; McKenna, P A; Binder, N

    1998-03-01

    The mere exposure effect is the increase in positive affect that results from the repeated exposure to previously novel stimuli. We sought to determine if judgments other than affective preference could reliably produce a mere exposure effect for two-dimensional random shapes. In two experiments, we found that brighter and darker judgments did not differentiate target from distracter shapes, liking judgments led to target selection greater than chance, and disliking judgments led to distracter selection greater than chance. These results for brighter, darker, and liking judgments were obtained regardless of whether shape recognition was greater (Experiment 1) or not greater (Experiment 2) than chance. Effects of prior exposure to novel shapes were reliably observed only for affective judgment tasks. These results are inconsistent with general predictions made by the nonspecific activation hypothesis, but not the affective primacy or perceptual fluency hypotheses which were discussed in terms of cognitive neuroscience research.

  2. How Large Is the Role of Emotion in Judgments of Moral Dilemmas?

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Moral dilemmas often pose dramatic and gut-wrenching emotional choices. It is now widely accepted that emotions are not simply experienced alongside people's judgments about moral dilemmas, but that our affective processes play a central role in determining those judgments. However, much of the evidence purporting to demonstrate the connection between people's emotional responses and their judgments about moral dilemmas has recently been called into question. In the present studies, we reexamined the role of emotion in people's judgments about moral dilemmas using a validated self-report measure of emotion. We measured participants' specific emotional responses to moral dilemmas and, although we found that moral dilemmas evoked strong emotional responses, we found that these responses were only weakly correlated with participants' moral judgments. We argue that the purportedly strong connection between emotion and judgments of moral dilemmas may have been overestimated. PMID:27385365

  3. How Large Is the Role of Emotion in Judgments of Moral Dilemmas?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Moral dilemmas often pose dramatic and gut-wrenching emotional choices. It is now widely accepted that emotions are not simply experienced alongside people’s judgments about moral dilemmas, but that our affective processes play a central role in determining those judgments. However, much of the evidence purporting to demonstrate the connection between people’s emotional responses and their judgments about moral dilemmas has recently been called into question. In the present studies, we reexamined the role of emotion in people’s judgments about moral dilemmas using a validated self-report measure of emotion. We measured participants’ specific emotional responses to moral dilemmas and, although we found that moral dilemmas evoked strong emotional responses, we found that these responses were only weakly correlated with participants’ moral judgments. We argue that the purportedly strong connection between emotion and judgments of moral dilemmas may have been overestimated. PMID:27385365

  4. Simultaneous assimilation and contrast effects in judgments of self and others.

    PubMed

    Biernat, M; Manis, M; Kobrynowicz, D

    1997-08-01

    Judgments of self and referent others tend to be positively related, as evident in the false consensus effect, but others may also be contrasted from the self, as noted in the false uniqueness literature. In 3 studies that examined the domains of attitudes and traits, evidence of both assimilative and contrastive associations between self- and other-judgements were noted, depending on the form of judgment (objective vs. subjective) and the relevant judgment scale anchor (self vs. others). When self-judgments were made first, objective appraisals of reference groups were contrasted from subjective self-appraisals (after controlling for individual differences in participants' behavioral reports). When judgments of others were made first, objective self-ratings were contrasted from subjective other-judgments. Implications for the false consensus literature and the shifting standards model (M. Biernat, M. Manis, & T. E. Nelson, 1991) are discussed. PMID:9248048

  5. Similarity Judgments: From Classical to Complex Vector Psychological Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barque Duran, Albert; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Yearsley, James M.; Hampton, James A.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    This chapter reviews progress with applications of quantum theory in understanding human similarity judgments. We first motivate and subsequently describe the quantum similarity model (QSM), which was proposed by Pothos, Busemeyer and Trueblood (2013), primarily as a way to cover the empirical findings reported in Tversky (1977). We then show how the QSM encompasses Tversky's (1977) results, specifically in relation to violations of symmetry, violations of the triangle inequality and the diagnosticity effect. We next consider a list of challenges of the QSM and open issues for further research.

  6. The development of moral judgments concerning capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Kohlberg, L; Elfenbein, D

    1975-07-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of the development of moral judgment in American males indicate that the most mature stages evince moral condemnation of the death penalty. The authors conclude that American moral standards are evolving towards a view of execution as unjust punishment. They contend that a theory of punishment based on the highest stage of moral reasoning is more valid than lower-stage justifications for capital punishment, and that it provides a rational basis for asserting the immorality--and unconstitutionality--of capital punishment, irrespective of uncertainties as to the deterrent efficacy of the death penalty.

  7. Time-to-Passage Judgments under Violations of Various Constancy Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Hecht, Heiko; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Time-to-passage (TTP) derivations typically assume constant translational velocities and consistent object orientation. In our first study, we examined the impact of acceleration, and observer roll and heading (relative to track vector) on TTP judgments. Judgments reflected an insensitivity to acceleration; roll did not affect performance, but the decoupling of observer heading and track vector did. Our second study examined the effect of multi-axis target rotation on TTP and time-to-contact judgments.

  8. On criminalisation and pathology: a commentary on the Supreme Court judgment on Section 377.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Alok

    2014-01-01

    The judgment delivered last week by the Supreme Court of India, upholding the constitutionality of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), overturns a judgment by the Delhi High Court in 2009 that decriminalised sexual activity between two consenting adults. This judgment has unleashed a veritable firestorm of protest in the public space. There has been a heated and vitriolic debate on this issue in the print and social media, as well as television, with public opinion, in the main, being critical of the judgment. PMID:24509100

  9. Punishment and sympathy judgments: is the quality of mercy strained in Asperger's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Channon, Shelley; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle; Lagnado, David

    2010-10-01

    This study examined reasoning about wrongdoing in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched healthy controls in relation to car accident scenarios. The two groups made similar judgments with respect to degree of driver negligence for both fines imposed and sympathy ratings. They also made similar judgments of fines in relation to the type of justification given for the drivers' actions. However, the AS group differentiated more in sympathy judgments relating to good and poor justifications. The AS group thus appeared to show preserved judgment with respect to compensation and sympathy for the victim and fines for the driver, but expressed less sympathy towards drivers with poor justifications for their actions.

  10. Critical thinking and clinical judgment of professional nurses in a career mobility program.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, G A; Smith, J N; Printz, V; Gronseth, D

    1993-01-01

    This study's purpose was to establish the impact of a Career Advancement Program on critical thinking and clinical judgment of Registered Nurses. Findings of the study suggest that critical thinking and clinical judgment are not influenced by patterns of upward mobility. Additionally, an analysis did not indicate significant predictors in education, specialty area, or years of nursing experience related to scores. Whereas this study questions the efficacy of career mobility programs on critical thinking and clinical judgment, it does not measure the impact of career advancement programs on other key outcome variables. The study suggests nurse educators emphasize critical thinking and clinical judgment rather than transmission of information in educational offerings.

  11. The curious anomaly of skewed judgment distributions and systematic error in the wisdom of crowds.

    PubMed

    Nash, Ulrik W

    2014-01-01

    Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ) model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem. PMID:25406078

  12. The Curious Anomaly of Skewed Judgment Distributions and Systematic Error in the Wisdom of Crowds

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Ulrik W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ) model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem. PMID:25406078

  13. Time-to-Passage Judgments in Nonconstant Optical Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Hecht, Heiko

    1995-01-01

    The time until an approaching object will pass an observer (time to passage, or TTP) is optically specified by a global flow field even in the absence of local expansion or size cues. Kaiser and Mowafy have demonstrated that observers are in fact sensitive to this global flow information. The present studies investigate two factors that are usually ignored in work related to TTP: (1) non-constant motion functions and (2) concomitant eye rotation. Non-constant velocities violate an assumption of some TTP derivations, and eye rotations may complicate heading extraction. Such factors have practical significance, for example, in the case of a pilot accelerating an aircraft or executing a roll. In our studies, a flow field of constant-sized stars was presented monocularly on a large screen. TIP judgments had to be made on the basis of one target star. The flow field varied in its acceleration pattern and its roll component. Observers did not appear to utilize acceleration information. In particular, TTP with decelerating motion were consistently underestimated. TTP judgments were fairly robust with respect to roll, even when roll axis and track vector were decoupled. However, substantial decoupling between heading and track vector led to a decrement in performance, in both the presence and the absence of roll.

  14. Multisensory Self-Motion Compensation During Object Trajectory Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Dokka, Kalpana; MacNeilage, Paul R.; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2015-01-01

    Judging object trajectory during self-motion is a fundamental ability for mobile organisms interacting with their environment. This fundamental ability requires the nervous system to compensate for the visual consequences of self-motion in order to make accurate judgments, but the mechanisms of this compensation are poorly understood. We comprehensively examined both the accuracy and precision of observers' ability to judge object trajectory in the world when self-motion was defined by vestibular, visual, or combined visual–vestibular cues. Without decision feedback, subjects demonstrated no compensation for self-motion that was defined solely by vestibular cues, partial compensation (47%) for visually defined self-motion, and significantly greater compensation (58%) during combined visual–vestibular self-motion. With decision feedback, subjects learned to accurately judge object trajectory in the world, and this generalized to novel self-motion speeds. Across conditions, greater compensation for self-motion was associated with decreased precision of object trajectory judgments, indicating that self-motion compensation comes at the cost of reduced discriminability. Our findings suggest that the brain can flexibly represent object trajectory relative to either the observer or the world, but a world-centered representation comes at the cost of decreased precision due to the inclusion of noisy self-motion signals. PMID:24062317

  15. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  16. Trial order and retention interval in human predictive judgment.

    PubMed

    Stout, Steven C; Amundson, Jeffrey C; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-12-01

    The influences of order of trial type and retention interval on human predictive judgments were assessed for a cue that was reinforced on half of its training presentations. Subjects observed 10 cue-outcome presentations (i.e., reinforced trials) and 10 cue-alone presentations (i.e., nonreinforced trials) in one of three different orders: all nonreinforced trials followed by all reinforced trials(latent inhibition), reinforced and nonreinforced trials interspersed (partial reinforcement), or al lreinforced trials followed by all nonreinforced trials (extinction). Ratings were based mainly on the most recent event type (i.e., a recency effect) when the test occurred immediately after training but were based mainly on initial event types (i.e., a primacy effect) when the test occurred after a 48-h delay. The subjects tested both immediately and with a long retention interval did not exhibit this shift to primacy (i.e., the recency effect persisted). These results demonstrate noncatastrophic forgetting and the flexible use of trial order information in predictive judgments.

  17. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension.

    PubMed

    Farbood, Morwaread M; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1-4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments. PMID:24416024

  18. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension

    PubMed Central

    Farbood, Morwaread M.; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1–4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments. PMID:24416024

  19. Hedonic judgments of chemical compounds are correlated with molecular size.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant is positively correlated with its hedonic character. This correlation was confirmed in the present study, but further basic molecular features affecting pleasantness were identified by means of multiple linear regression for the compounds contained in five chemical sets. For three of them, hedonic judgments are available in the literature. For a further two chemical sets, hedonic scores were estimated from odor character descriptions based on numerical profiles. Generally speaking, fairly similar equations were obtained for the prediction of hedonic judgments in the five chemical sets, with R(2) values ranging from 0.46 to 0.71. The results suggest that larger molecules containing oxygen are more likely to be perceived as pleasant, while the opposite applies to carboxylic acids and sulfur compounds.

  20. Aging and the impact of irrelevant information on social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to specifically examine whether older adults are more susceptible to the negative impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social judgments. Young (ages 20-44), middle-aged (ages 45-63), and older (ages 65-85) adults were presented with descriptions of people consisting of positive and negative traits that varied in relevance to specific occupations. They were asked to either form a general impression based on these traits or to evaluate the person's fitness for the specified occupation. In both studies, evaluative content of the descriptions (i.e., the number of positive minus number of negative traits) was a significant predictor of subjective evaluations. Of prime importance, adults of all ages were similarly able to selectively process relevant versus irrelevant information when occupational fitness evaluations required them to focus on a subset of information in the descriptions. Participants also adjusted the specific types of information used in making judgments, with the relative importance of agentic traits and negative information being greater when making occupation evaluations than when forming impressions. The results suggest that age differences in the processing evaluative information are minimal, and that the availability of well-established knowledge structures can help older adults effectively control the impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social inferences. PMID:25244474

  1. Aging and the impact of irrelevant information on social judgments.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to specifically examine whether older adults are more susceptible to the negative impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social judgments. Young (ages 20-44), middle-aged (ages 45-63), and older (ages 65-85) adults were presented with descriptions of people consisting of positive and negative traits that varied in relevance to specific occupations. They were asked to either form a general impression based on these traits or to evaluate the person's fitness for the specified occupation. In both studies, evaluative content of the descriptions (i.e., the number of positive minus number of negative traits) was a significant predictor of subjective evaluations. Of prime importance, adults of all ages were similarly able to selectively process relevant versus irrelevant information when occupational fitness evaluations required them to focus on a subset of information in the descriptions. Participants also adjusted the specific types of information used in making judgments, with the relative importance of agentic traits and negative information being greater when making occupation evaluations than when forming impressions. The results suggest that age differences in the processing evaluative information are minimal, and that the availability of well-established knowledge structures can help older adults effectively control the impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social inferences.

  2. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed.

  3. Space vehicle approach velocity judgments under simulated visual space conditions.

    PubMed

    Haines, R F

    1989-02-01

    There were 35 volunteers who responded when they first perceived an increase in apparent size of a collimated, two-dimensional perspective image of an Orbiter vehicle. The variables of interest included the presence (or absence) of a fixed reticle within the field of view (FOV), background starfield velocity, initial range to the vehicle and vehicle closure velocity. It was found that: 1) increasing vehicle approach velocity yielded a very small (but significant) effect of faster detection of vehicle movement, nevertheless, response variability was relatively large; 2) including the fixed reticle in the FOV produced significantly slower detection of vehicle radial movement, however this occurred only at the largest range and the magnitude of the effect was only about 15% of the one sigma value; and 3) increasing background star velocity during this judgment led to slower detection of vehicle movement. While statistically significant, this effect was small and occurred primarily at the largest range. A possible explanation for the last two findings is that other static and dynamic objects within the visual field may compete for available attention which otherwise would be available for judging image expansion; thus, the target's retinal image has to expand more than otherwise for its movement to be detected. This study also showed that the Proximity Operations Research Mockup at NASA/Ames can be used effectively to investigate a variety of visual judgment questions related to future space operations. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:2930426

  4. Space vehicle approach velocity judgments under simulated visual space conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    There were 35 volunteers who responded when they first perceived an increase in apparent size of a collimated, two-dimensional perspective image of an Orbiter vehicle. The variables of interest included the presence (or absence) of a fixed reticle within the field of view (FOV), background starfield velocity, initial range to the vehicle and vehicle closure velocity. It was found that: 1) increasing vehicle approach velocity yielded a very small (but significant) effect of faster detection of vehicle movement, nevertheless, response variability was relatively large; 2) including the fixed reticle in the FOV produced significantly slower detection of vehicle radial movement, however this occurred only at the largest range and the magnitude of the effect was only about 15% of the one sigma value; and 3) increasing background star velocity during this judgment led to slower detection of vehicle movement. While statistically significant, this effect was small and occurred primarily at the largest range. A possible explanation for the last two findings is that other static and dynamic objects within the visual field may compete for available attention which otherwise would be available for judging image expansion; thus, the target's retinal image has to expand more than otherwise for its movement to be detected. This study also showed that the Proximity Operations Research Mockup at NASA/Ames can be used effectively to investigate a variety of visual judgment questions related to future space operations. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and possible underlying mechanisms.

  5. Aging and the Impact of Irrelevant Information on Social Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Thomas M.; Smith, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to specifically examine whether older adults are more susceptible to the negative impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social judgments. Young (ages 20 – 44), middle-aged (ages 45 – 63), and older (ages 65 – 85) adults were presented with descriptions of people consisting of positive and negative traits that varied in relevance to specific occupations. They were asked to either form a general impression based on these traits or to evaluate the person’s fitness for the specified occupation. In both studies, evaluative content of the descriptions (i.e., the number of positive minus number of negative traits) was a significant predictor of subjective evaluations. Of prime importance, adults of all ages were similarly able to selectively process relevant versus irrelevant information when occupational fitness evaluations required them to focus on a subset of information in the descriptions. Participants also adjusted the specific types of information used in making judgments, with the relative importance of agentic traits and negative information being greater when making occupation evaluations than when forming impressions. The results suggest that age differences in the processing evaluative information are minimal, and that the availability of well-established knowledge structures can help older adults effectively control the impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social inferences. PMID:25244474

  6. How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

  7. Visual Causality Judgments Correlate with the Phase of Alpha Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Santos, Karin Moreira; Reyes, Marcelo Bussotti; Caetano, Marcelo Salvador; Claessens, Peter M E

    2015-10-01

    The detection of causality is essential for our understanding of whether distinct events relate. A central requirement for the sensation of causality is temporal contiguity: As the interval between events increases, causality ratings decrease; for intervals longer than approximately 100 msec, the events start to appear independent. It has been suggested that this effect might be due to perception relying on discrete processing. According to this view, two events may be judged as sequential or simultaneous depending on their temporal relationship within a discrete neuronal process. To assess if alpha oscillations underlie this discrete neuronal process, we investigated how these oscillations modulate the judgment of causality. We used the classic launching effect with concurrent recording of EEG signal. In each trial, a disk moved horizontally toward a second disk at the center of the screen and stopped when they touched each other. After a delay that varied between 0 and 400 msec after contact, the right disk began to move. Participants were instructed to judge whether or not they had a feeling that the first disk caused the movement of the second disk. We found that frontocentral alpha phase significantly biased causality estimates. Moreover, we found that alpha phase was concentrated around different angles for trials in which participants judged events as causally related versus not causally related. We conclude that alpha phase plays a key role in biasing causality judgments.

  8. A multi-factor Rasch scale for artistic judgment.

    PubMed

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus

    2002-01-01

    Measurement properties are reported for a combined scale of abstract and figurative artistic judgment aptitude items. Abstract items are synthetic, rule-based images from Visual Designs Test which implements a statistical algorithm to control design complexity and redundancy, and figurative items are canvas paintings in five styles, Fauvism, Post-Impressionism, Surrealism, Renaissance, and Baroque especially created for this research. The paintings integrate syntactic structure from VDT Abstract designs with thematic content for each style at four levels of complexity while controlling redundancy. Trained test administrators collected preference for synthetic abstract designs and authentic figurative art from 462 examinees in Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation testing offices in Boston, New York, Chicago, and Dallas. The Rasch model replicated measurement properties for VDT Abstract items and identified an item hierarchy that was statistically invariant between genders and generally stable across age for new, authentic figurative items. Further examination of the figurative item hierarchy revealed that complexity interacts with style and meaning. Sound measurement properties for a combined VDT Abstract and Figurative scale shows promise for a comprehensive artistic judgment construct. PMID:12486307

  9. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension.

    PubMed

    Farbood, Morwaread M; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1-4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments.

  10. Moral asymmetries in judgments of agency withstand ludicrous causal deviance

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Swiney, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Americans have been shown to attribute greater intentionality to immoral than to amoral actions in cases of causal deviance, that is, cases where a goal is satisfied in a way that deviates from initially planned means (e.g., a gunman wants to hit a target and his hand slips, but the bullet ricochets off a rock into the target). However, past research has yet to assess whether this asymmetry persists in cases of extreme causal deviance. Here, we manipulated the level of mild to extreme causal deviance of an immoral versus amoral act. The asymmetry in attributions of intentionality was observed at all but the most extreme level of causal deviance, and, as we hypothesized, was mediated by attributions of blame/credit and judgments of action performance. These findings are discussed as they support a multiple-concepts interpretation of the asymmetry, wherein blame renders a naïve concept of intentional action (the outcome matches the intention) more salient than a composite concept (the outcome matches the intention and was brought about by planned means), and in terms of their implications for cross-cultural research on judgments of agency. PMID:26441755

  11. Optimal sampling of visual information for lightness judgments

    PubMed Central

    Toscani, Matteo; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2013-01-01

    The variable resolution and limited processing capacity of the human visual system requires us to sample the world with eye movements and attentive processes. Here we show that where observers look can strongly modulate their reports of simple surface attributes, such as lightness. When observers matched the color of natural objects they based their judgments on the brightest parts of the objects; at the same time, they tended to fixate points with above-average luminance. When we forced participants to fixate a specific point on the object using a gaze-contingent display setup, the matched lightness was higher when observers fixated bright regions. This finding indicates a causal link between the luminance of the fixated region and the lightness match for the whole object. Simulations with rendered physical lighting show that higher values in an object’s luminance distribution are particularly informative about reflectance. This sampling strategy is an efficient and simple heuristic for the visual system to achieve accurate and invariant judgments of lightness. PMID:23776251

  12. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  13. Development of a moral judgment measure for veterinary education.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians increasingly face animal ethics issues, conflicts, and dilemmas, both in practice and in policy, such as the tension between clients' and animals' interests. Little has been done to measure the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical judgments to prevent and address these issues or to identify the effectiveness of strategies to build this capacity. The objectives of this study were, first, to develop a test to identify the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical decisions in relation to animal ethics issues and, second, to assess students' perceptions of the usefulness of three methods for the development of ethical decision making. The Veterinary Defining Issues Test (VetDIT) was piloted with 88 first-year veterinary students at an Australian university. The veterinary students were at a variety of reasoning stages in their use of the Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP) reasoning methods in relation to both human ethics and animal ethics issues and operated at a higher level of reasoning for animal than human ethics. Thirty-eight students assessed three methods for developing ethical decision-making skills and identified these as being helpful in clarifying their positions, clarifying others' positions, increasing awareness of the complexity of making ethical decisions, using ethical frameworks and principles, and improving moral reasoning skills, with two methods identified as most helpful. These methods and the VetDIT have the potential to be used as tools for development and assessment of moral judgment in veterinary education to address animal ethics issues.

  14. Phase reset affects auditory-visual simultaneity judgment.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Jun; Kakimoto, Yuta; Araki, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    We continuously receive the external information from multiple sensors simultaneously. The brain must judge a source event of these sensory informations and integrate them. It is thought that judging the simultaneity of such multisensory stimuli is an important cue when we discriminate whether the stimuli are derived from one event or not. Although previous studies have investigated the correspondence between an auditory-visual (AV) simultaneity perceptions and the neural responses, there are still few studies of this. Electrophysiological studies have reported that ongoing oscillations in human cortex affect perception. Especially, the phase resetting of ongoing oscillations has been examined as it plays an important role in multisensory integration. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of phase resetting for the judgment of AV simultaneity judgement tasks. The subjects were successively presented with auditory and visual stimuli with intervals that were controlled as [Formula: see text] and they were asked to report whether they perceived them simultaneously or not. We investigated the effects of the phase of ongoing oscillations on simultaneity judgments with AV stimuli with SOAs in which the detection rate of asynchrony was 50 %. It was found that phase resetting at the beta frequency band in the brain area that related to the modality of the following stimulus occurred after preceding stimulus onset only when the subjects perceived AV stimuli as simultaneous. This result suggested that beta phase resetting occurred in areas that are related to the subsequent stimulus, supporting perception multisensory stimuli as simultaneous.

  15. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

  16. Hedonic Judgments of Chemical Compounds Are Correlated with Molecular Size

    PubMed Central

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Different psychophysical works have reported that, when a wide range of odors is assessed, the hedonic dimension is the most salient. Hence, pleasantness is the most basic attribute of odor perception. Recent studies suggest that the molecular size of a given odorant is positively correlated with its hedonic character. This correlation was confirmed in the present study, but further basic molecular features affecting pleasantness were identified by means of multiple linear regression for the compounds contained in five chemical sets. For three of them, hedonic judgments are available in the literature. For a further two chemical sets, hedonic scores were estimated from odor character descriptions based on numerical profiles. Generally speaking, fairly similar equations were obtained for the prediction of hedonic judgments in the five chemical sets, with R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.71. The results suggest that larger molecules containing oxygen are more likely to be perceived as pleasant, while the opposite applies to carboxylic acids and sulfur compounds. PMID:22163815

  17. Knowing the crowd within: Metacognitive limits on combining multiple judgments.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how decision-makers use multiple opportunities to judge a quantity. Decision-makers undervalue the benefit of combining their own judgment with an advisor's, but theories disagree about whether this bias would apply to combining several of one's own judgments. Participants estimated percentage answers to general knowledge questions (e.g., What percent of the world's population uses the Internet?) on two occasions. In a final decision phase, they selected their first, second, or average estimate to report for each question. We manipulated the cues available for this final decision. Given cues to general theories (the labels first guess, second guess, average), participants mostly averaged, but no more frequently on trials where the average was most accurate. Given item-specific cues (numerical values of the options), metacognitive accuracy was at chance. Given both cues, participants mostly averaged and switched strategies based on whichever yielded the most accurate value on a given trial. These results indicate that underappreciation of averaging estimates does not stem only from social differences between the self and an advisor and that combining general and item-specific cues benefits metacognition.

  18. Clinical Judgmental Biases: The Moderating Roles of Counselor Cognitive Complexity and Counselor Client Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Paul M.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Study of 119 counseling psychologists revealed that counselor individual differences in cognitive complexity, but not preferences for client problems, moderated cognitive processes that lead to bias in clinical judgment. Counseling psychologists with lower cognitive complexity were more likely to form biased clinical judgments than were those with…

  19. Calibration in Goal Setting: Examining the Nature of Judgments of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadwin, Allyson F.; Webster, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of confidence judgments associated with personal goal setting during undergraduate studying episodes. Calibration was examined between paired judgments of confidence and self-evaluations of goal attainment made over nine consecutive weeks. Participants were 170 students enrolled in a first-year undergraduate course…

  20. The Effect of Attribute Order on Judgment in Chinese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Nader T.; Lee, Yih Hwai

    2004-01-01

    The authors found that the order of attribute presentation had a stronger effect on judgment in English than in Chinese. In Experiment 1, with a sample of 102 female and 63 male bilingual Singaporeans, the authors found that participants' memory-based judgments showed a stronger primacy effect in English than in Chinese that was mediated by recall…

  1. Do Contributors to Intellect Explain the Moral Judgment Abilities of Gifted Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryberry, W. Pitt; Barger, Brian

    2008-01-01

    To assess reaction time and attributional complexity as factors contributing to the relatively high moral judgment of gifted youth, a sample of 30 gifted youth and 30 college students responded to a computerized measure of moral judgment development, which also indexed reaction time. Additionally, participants completed a measurement of…

  2. Does ADHD in Adults Affect the Relative Accuracy of Metamemory Judgments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knouse, Laura E.; Paradise, Matthew J.; Dunlosky, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Prior research suggests that individuals with ADHD overestimate their performance across domains despite performing more poorly in these domains. The authors introduce measures of accuracy from the larger realm of judgment and decision making--namely, relative accuracy and calibration--to the study of self-evaluative judgment accuracy…

  3. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering judgment in making all decisions called for under this subpart, including but not limited to... overlooked, that the decision was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational... judgment to manufacturers' decisions. 86.1851-01 Section 86.1851-01 Protection of Environment...

  4. Random Error in Judgment: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Dougherty, Michael R.; Rivadeneira, A. Walkyria; Wallsten, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of confidence judgments have embraced the role random error plays in influencing responses. An important next step is to identify the source(s) of these random effects. To do so, we used the stochastic judgment model (SJM) to distinguish the contribution of encoding and retrieval processes. In particular, we investigated whether dividing…

  5. Sex and Age Differences in Adolescents' Value Judgments of Historically Important Events: Theory, Stereotypes and Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined how younger and older adolescents differed in their value judgments of historically important events. Subjects (n=154) between the ages of 11 and 27 listed 10 most important events to United States since 1900. Three most frequently cited events were World Wars I and II and Vietnam. Age was much better predictor of value judgments than…

  6. A Model for Stochastic Drift in Memory Strength to Account for Judgments of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Jonsson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that judgments of learning (JOLs) made immediately after encoding have a low correlation with actual cued-recall performance, whereas the correlation is high for delayed judgments. In this article, the authors propose a formal theory describing the stochastic drift of memory strength over the retention interval to…

  7. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  8. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  9. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  10. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  11. An Integrative Model of Scholastic Judgments: Pupils' Characteristics, Class Context, Halo Effect and Internal Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoit; Pansu, Pascal; Bressoux, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a model that integrates some of the determinants of scholastic judgment. The model is based on the assumption that a teacher's judgment in a particular discipline is influenced by different variables: the pupil's actual performance in the discipline, his/her actual performance in other disciplines (halo effect), the average…

  12. Moral Judgment: Differences Between City, Kibbutz, and Israeli Arab Preadolescents on the Realistic-Relativistic Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Preadolescents in three subcultures--city, kibbutz, and Israeli Arabs--were compared on the realistic-relativistic dimension of moral judgment. City children were more relativistic in their judgment. The results were explained in light of Wright's theory of moral behavior and attributed to the differences in socialization pattern in the three…

  13. Adolescents Educated in Israel and in the Soviet Union: Differences in Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Moral judgments of Israeli and Soviet educated adolescents who had recently arrived in Israel were compared on a relativistic-realistic dimension, using a specially designed instrument - the Morality Shifting in Adolescence Questionnaire. Soviety educated adolescents were significantly more realistically oriented in moral judgment and in both…

  14. Perceptual Judgments of Accented Speech by Listeners from Different First Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Okim; Vo, Son Ca Thanh; Moran, Meghan Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Research in second language speech has often focused on listeners' accent judgment and factors that affect their perception. However, the topic of listeners' application of specific sound categories in their own perceptual judgments has not been widely investigated. The current study explored how listeners from diverse language backgrounds weighed…

  15. Enough Skill to Kill: Intentionality Judgments and the Moral Valence of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmo, Steve; Malle, Bertram F.

    2010-01-01

    Extant models of moral judgment assume that an action's intentionality precedes assignments of blame. Knobe (2003b) challenged this fundamental order and proposed instead that the badness or blameworthiness of an action directs (and thus unduly biases) people's intentionality judgments. His and other researchers' studies suggested that blameworthy…

  16. Information Integration in Multiple Cue Judgment: A Division of Labor Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juslin, Peter; Karlsson, Linnea; Olsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that judgment is constrained to additive integration of information. The authors propose an explanation of why serial and additive cognitive integration can produce accurate multiple cue judgment both in additive and non-additive environments in terms of an adaptive division of labor between multiple representations.…

  17. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  18. Implicit Personality Theory and Social Judgment: Effects of Familiarity with a Target Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonk, Roos; Heiser, Willem J.

    1991-01-01

    A study involving 11 male and 11 female inhabitants of Leiden (Netherlands) tested the hypothesis that a subject's judgments of the personality of unfamiliar target persons correspond better with the subject's Implicit Personality Theory than do judgments of the personality of familiar persons. The results confirm the hypothesis. (TJH)

  19. What Constrains the Accuracy of Metacomprehension Judgments? Testing the Transfer-Appropriate-Monitoring and Accessibility Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlosky, J.; Rawson, K.A.; Middleton, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two hypotheses-transfer appropriate monitoring (TAM) and the accessibility hypothesis-that explain why the accuracy of metacomprehension judgments is commonly low. In 2 experiments, participants read six expository texts, made global judgments about how well they would perform on a test over each text, and made term-specific judgments…

  20. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  1. Are You Sure the Library Is That Way? Metacognitive Monitoring of Spatial Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christopher A.; Carlson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined how people recall the locations of objects in spatial layouts. However, little is known about how people monitor the accuracy of judgments based on those memories. The goal of the present experiments was to examine the effect of reference frame characteristics on metacognitive accuracy for spatial judgments. Reference…

  2. Does Ethnicity Matter? The Impact of Stereotypical Expectations on In-Service Teachers' Judgments of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority students face many disadvantages in school, which might be due in part to teachers' stereotypical expectations and attitudes. Dual process theories of impression and judgment formation specify person information that confirms or disconfirms stereotypical expectations as determinants of how judgments are formed. While…

  3. Teacher Judgment of Reading Achievement: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Analyses were conducted, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) database, to compare teachers' judgment of reading skill with direct measures of reading performance for kindergarten, first grade, and third grade students. Teacher judgments of kindergarten students' reading skill significantly predicted first and…

  4. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  5. Reciprocal Associations between Young Children's Developing Moral Judgments and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Jambon, Marc; Conry-Murray, Clare; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between young children's developing theory of mind (ToM) and judgments of prototypical moral transgressions were examined 3 times across 1 year in 70 American middle class 2.5- to 4-year-olds. Separate path models controlling for cross-time stability in judgments, within-time associations, and children's age at Wave 1 indicated that…

  6. Parallels in Preschoolers' and Adults' Judgments about Ownership Rights and Bodily Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers' and adults' judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds (n = 70) and adults (n = 89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body…

  7. Moral Judgments of Chief Academic Officers at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Megan D.

    2012-01-01

    Chief Academic Officers (CAO) are leaders in institutions of higher education and have wide decision-making scope. Previous research has clearly demonstrated the need for leaders to engage in ethical decision-making. Moral judgments are an aspect of ethical decision-making, so it is important for CAOs to make moral judgments. This study examined…

  8. Is Grammar Spared in Autism Spectrum Disorder? Data from Judgments of Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization…

  9. Gaming as an Educational Strategy to Enhance Clinical Judgment and Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jodie

    2011-01-01

    Classroom lecture methods in nursing education are falling short of providing long-term retention of knowledge and do not enhance problem solving skills or clinical judgment at the bedside. This problem impacts the health care recipients because applied knowledge and an enhanced skill set can provide nurses with confident clinical judgment to…

  10. Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…

  11. Numeracy, Ratio Bias, and Denominator Neglect in Judgments of Risk and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    "Numeracy," so-called on analogy with literacy, is essential for making health and other social judgments in everyday life [Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (in press). The importance of mathematics in health and human judgment: Numeracy, risk communication, and medical decision making. "Learning and Individual Differences."]. Recent research on…

  12. 25 CFR 11.208 - May Individual Indian Money accounts be used for payment of judgments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Courts of Indian Offenses; Personnel; Administration § 11.208 May Individual Indian Money accounts be used for payment of judgments? (a) Any Court of... account of a defendant who has failed to satisfy a money judgment from the court to obtain payment of...

  13. 32 CFR 37.205 - What judgments must I make about the nature of the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? 37.205 Section 37.205 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... Investment Agreements § 37.205 What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? You must:...

  14. 32 CFR 37.205 - What judgments must I make about the nature of the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? 37.205 Section 37.205 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... Investment Agreements § 37.205 What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? You must:...

  15. 32 CFR 37.205 - What judgments must I make about the nature of the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? 37.205 Section 37.205 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... Investment Agreements § 37.205 What judgments must I make about the nature of the project? You must:...

  16. 40 CFR 59.603 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 59.603 Section 59.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Applicability § 59.603 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) In addition to other requirements and prohibitions set forth in this subpart, you must use good engineering...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1851-01 - Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of good engineering... Application of good engineering judgment to manufacturers' decisions. (a) The manufacturer shall exercise good engineering judgment in making all decisions called for under this subpart, including but not limited...

  18. 40 CFR 59.603 - How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engineering judgment? 59.603 Section 59.603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Applicability § 59.603 How must manufacturers apply good engineering judgment? (a) In addition to other requirements and prohibitions set forth in this subpart, you must use good engineering...

  19. Bible Knowledge and Moral Judgment: Knowing Scripture and Using Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between moral judgment and religious knowledge was investigated, with an analysis of the impact of academic skill on both domains. Fifty-six Bible college seniors completed measures of moral judgment (Defining Issues Test), Bible knowledge (Standardized Bible Content Test), and academic skill (Academic Profile). Results indicate…

  20. A Study on the Link between Moral Judgment Competences and Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samanci, Nilay Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have established a direct link between moral judgment competences and critical thinking skills, none has been found to reveal the nature of the link between these two skills in the national and international literature. The present study looked at biology and primary education teacher candidates' moral judgment and critical…

  1. Moral Judgment of Young Sex Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Stams, Geert Jan; Hendriks, Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in moral judgment between juvenile sex offenders with and without intellectual disabilities. The Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF) was used to assess moral judgment, and was extended with questions referring to general sexual situations and to the offenders' abuse victim(s). Juvenile sex offenders…

  2. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  3. The Impact of Higher Education on Moral Judgment Development. Project Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, James R.

    The document discusses the nature of moral judgment, reviews previous studies which link higher education to moral judgment, and presents results of a longitudinal study comparing college and non-college subjects. This project report from the Higher Education and Cognitive-Social Development Project at the University of Minnesota is presented in…

  4. Reactions to Stigmas among Canadian Students: Testing an Attribution-Affect-Help Judgment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    1998-01-01

    Tests Weiner's (Bernard) attribution-affect-help judgment model in the context of nine stigmas and ascribed each to either a controllable or uncontrollable factor. Finds that higher controllability was linked to greater anger and less pity, greater pity was predictive of a greater willingness to help, and anger did not predict help judgments. (CMK)

  5. 48 CFR 49.108-5 - Recognition of judgments and arbitration awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and arbitration awards. 49.108-5 Section 49.108-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... judgments and arbitration awards. (a) When a subcontractor obtains a final judgment against a prime... arbitration under any applicable law or contract provision, the TCO shall recognize the arbitration award...

  6. Social Utility, Social Desirability and Scholastic Judgments: Toward a Personological Model of Academic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoit; Pansu, Pascal; Bressoux, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to gain further insight into the determinants of scholastic judgments. On the basis of a previous study (Dompnier, Pansu, & Bressoux, 2006), we propose a model of the processes underlying teachers' judgments. In addition to taking into account some of these determinants, the proposed model grants to pupils' social…

  7. Punishment and Sympathy Judgments: Is the Quality of Mercy Strained in Asperger's Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channon, Shelley; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle; Lagnado, David

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about wrongdoing in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched healthy controls in relation to car accident scenarios. The two groups made similar judgments with respect to degree of driver negligence for both fines imposed and sympathy ratings. They also made similar judgments of fines in relation to the type…

  8. The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

    2007-01-01

    Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

  9. The Law of Categorical Judgment (Corrected) Extended: A Note on Rosner and Kochanski (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Kellen, David

    2012-01-01

    Rosner and Kochanski (2009) noticed an inconsistency in the mathematical statement of the Law of Categorical Judgment and derived "the valid equation, the Law of Categorical Judgment (Corrected)" (p. 125). The purpose of this comment is to point out that the law can be corrected in many different ways, leading to substantially different equations.…

  10. Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

  11. Syntax in a Native Language Still Continues to Develop in Adults: Honorification Judgment in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momo, Kanako; Sakai, Hiromu; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L.

    2008-01-01

    Native languages (L1s) are tacitly assumed to be complete and stable in adults. Here we report an unexpected individual variation in judgment of L1 regarding Japanese sentences including honorification, and further clarify its neural basis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By contrasting an honorification judgment task with a…

  12. The Implications of Arendt's Concept of Judgment for Humanistic Teaching in a Postmetaphysical Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Duck-Joo Kwak draws on Hannah Arendt's concept of judgment in exploring what it means to teach the humanities as a form of values education in a postmetaphysical age. Arendt's concept of judgment is closely related to Ciceronian humanism, which is concerned with the wisdom to choose one's company while appreciating this pursuit…

  13. Does Nationality Matter? The Impact of Stereotypical Expectations on Student Teachers' Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Sabine; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, Turkish students are overrepresented on lowest school tracks. Research has provided evidence that stereotypical expectations can color judgments. We experimentally investigated whether student information that strongly confirmed or disconfirmed Turkish stereotypical expectations led to student teachers' judgments that were biased…

  14. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  15. Explicit and Implicit Confidence Judgments and Developmental Differences in Metamemory: An Eye-Tracking Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Thomas; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, primary school children's ability to give accurate confidence judgments (CJ) was addressed, with a special focus on uncertainty monitoring. In order to investigate the effects of memory retrieval processes on monitoring judgments, item difficulty in a vocabulary learning task (Japanese symbols) was manipulated. Moreover, as a…

  16. "God Made Me a Girl": Sex-Category Constancy Judgments and Explanations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkrybalo, Joel; Ruble, Diane N.

    1999-01-01

    Studied children's sex-category constancy judgments and accompanying explanations over three years. Found that constancy improvements were linked to explanations based on operational reasoning. Lower constancy scores were linked to explanations emphasizing gender-role norms and external appearances. Judgment-explanation relationships were stronger…

  17. Defining the Correctness of a Diagnosis: Differential Judgments and Expert Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Steven L.; Brosenitsch, Teresa A.; Mahoney, John F.; Staszewski, James

    2010-01-01

    Approaches that use a simulated patient case to study and assess diagnostic reasoning usually use the correct diagnosis of the case as a measure of success and as an anchor for other measures. Commonly, the correctness of a diagnosis is determined by the judgment of one or more experts. In this study, the consistency of experts' judgments of the…

  18. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (See 31 CFR 285.5 for requirements for disbursing official offset of past-due delinquent, nontax debts... administrator of the Judgment Fund, Fiscal Service, in its capacity as disbursing official for the executive... Offset Program (TOP). This rule applies only to the setoff of Judgment Fund payments prior to...

  19. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts? 256.21 Section 256.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE OBTAINING PAYMENTS FROM THE JUDGMENT FUND...

  20. 31 CFR 256.21 - Are Judgment Fund payments offset to collect administrative debts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (See 31 CFR 285.5 for requirements for disbursing official offset of past-due delinquent, nontax debts... administrator of the Judgment Fund, FMS, in its capacity as disbursing official for the executive branch... Program (TOP). This rule applies only to the setoff of Judgment Fund payments prior to...