Sample records for jugular vein compression

  1. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadhel, Ehab

    2015-08-20

    Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow's triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy.

  2. MR Elastography Can Be Used to Measure Brain Stiffness Changes as a Result of Altered Cranial Venous Drainage During Jugular Compression.

    PubMed

    Hatt, A; Cheng, S; Tan, K; Sinkus, R; Bilston, L E

    2015-10-01

    Compressing the internal jugular veins can reverse ventriculomegaly in the syndrome of inappropriately low pressure acute hydrocephalus, and it has been suggested that this works by "stiffening" the brain tissue. Jugular compression may also alter blood and CSF flow in other conditions. We aimed to understand the effect of jugular compression on brain tissue stiffness and CSF flow. The head and neck of 9 healthy volunteers were studied with and without jugular compression. Brain stiffness (shear modulus) was measured by using MR elastography. Phase-contrast MR imaging was used to measure CSF flow in the cerebral aqueduct and blood flow in the neck. The shear moduli of the brain tissue increased with the percentage of blood draining through the internal jugular veins during venous compression. Peak velocity of caudally directed CSF in the aqueduct increased significantly with jugular compression (P < .001). The mean jugular venous flow rate, amplitude, and vessel area were significantly reduced with jugular compression, while cranial arterial flow parameters were unaffected. Jugular compression influences cerebral CSF hydrodynamics in healthy subjects and can increase brain tissue stiffness, but the magnitude of the stiffening depends on the percentage of cranial blood draining through the internal jugular veins during compression—that is, subjects who maintain venous drainage through the internal jugular veins during jugular compression have stiffer brains than those who divert venous blood through alternative pathways. These methods may be useful for studying this phenomenon in patients with the syndrome of inappropriately low-pressure acute hydrocephalus and other conditions. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Venous compression syndrome of internal jugular veins prevalence in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mandolesi, Sandro; Niglio, Tarcisio; Orsini, Augusto; De Sio, Simone; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Dimitri; Fedele, Francesco; d'Alessandro, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the incidence of Venous Compression Syndrome (VCS) with full block of the flow of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency. We included 769 patients with MS and CCSVI (299 males, 470 females) and 210 controls without ms and ccsvi (92 males, 118 females). each subject was investigated by echo-color-doppler (ecd). morphological and hemodynamic ecd data were recorded by a computerized mem-net maps of epidemiological national observatory on ccsvi and they were analyzed by mem-net clinical analysis programs. VCS of IJVs occurs in 240 subjects affected by CCSVI and MS (31% of total) and in 12 controls (6% of total). The differences between the two groups are statistical significant (X² = 36.64, p<0.0001). Up to day there are no longitudinal studies that allow us to identify the WC of jugular and/or vertebral veins as etiology of a chronic neurodegenerative disease, but we note that Venous Compression Syndrome of IJVs is strongly associated with MS and CCSVI. Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency, Multiple Sclerosis, Venous Compression Syndrome.

  4. Flow Patterns in the Jugular Veins of Pulsatile Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Evan; Kefayati, Sarah; Amans, Matthew R.; Faraji, Farshid; Ballweber, Megan; Halbach, Van; Saloner, David

    2017-01-01

    Pulsatile Tinnitus (PT) is a pulse-synchronous sound heard in the absence of an external source. PT is often related to abnormal flow in vascular structures near the cochlea. One vascular territory implicated in PT is the internal jugular vein (IJV). Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on patient-specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), we investigated the flow within the IJV of seven subjects, four symptomatic and three asymptomatic of PT. We found that there were two extreme anatomic types classified by the shape and position of the jugular bulbs: elevated and rounded. PT patients had elevated jugular bulbs that led to a distinctive helical flow pattern within the proximal internal jugular vein. Asymptomatic subjects generally had rounded jugular bulbs that neatly redirected flow from the sigmoid sinus directly into the jugular vein. These two flow patterns were quantified by calculating the length-averaged streamline curvature of the flow within the proximal jugular vein: 130.3 ± 8.1 m-1 for geometries with rounded bulbs, 260.7 ± 29.4 m-1 for those with elevated bulbs (P < 0.005). Our results suggest that variations in the jugular bulb geometry lead to distinct flow patterns that are linked to PT, but further investigation is needed to determine if the vortex pattern is causal to sound generation. PMID:28057349

  5. Jugular veins in transient global amnesia: innocent bystanders.

    PubMed

    Baracchini, Claudio; Tonello, Simone; Farina, Filippo; Viaro, Federica; Atzori, Matteo; Ballotta, Enzo; Manara, Renzo

    2012-09-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) has been associated with an increased prevalence of internal jugular valve insufficiency and many patients report Valsalva-associated maneuvers before TGA onset. These findings have led to the assumption of hemodynamic alterations in intracranial veins inducing focal hippocampal ischemia. We investigated this hypothesis in patients with TGA and control subjects. Seventy-five patients with TGA and 75 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. Extracranial and transcranial high-resolution venous echo-color-Doppler sonography was performed blindly in all patients and control subjects. Blood flow direction and velocities were recorded at the internal jugular veins, basal veins of Rosenthal, and vein of Galen, both at rest and during Valsalva-associated maneuvers. Mean age of patients with TGA was 60.3±8.0 years (median, 60 years; range, 44-78 years); 44 (59%) were female (female/male ratio: 1.42). Internal jugular valve insufficiency (left, right, or bilateral) was found to be more frequent in patients with TGA than in control subjects: 53 (70.7%) versus 22 (29.3%; P<0.05). Blood flow velocities in the deep cerebral veins of patients with TGA did not differ from control subjects both at rest and during Valsalva-associated maneuvers. Intracranial venous reflux was neither observed in patients with TGA nor in control subjects despite unilateral or bilateral internal jugular valve insufficiency during prolonged and maximal Valsalva-associated maneuvers. This study, although confirming the association between TGA and internal jugular valve insufficiency, challenges the hypothesis that cerebral venous congestion plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of TGA.

  6. Long-axis view for ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement via the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Angel F; McEvoy, Matthew D; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    In modern practice, real-time ultrasound guidance is commonly employed for the placement of internal jugular vein catheters. With a new tool, such as ultrasound, comes the opportunity to refine and further optimize the ultrasound view during jugular vein catheterization. We describe jugular vein access techniques and use the long-axis view as an alternative to the commonly employed short-axis cross-section view for internal jugular vein access and cannulation. The long-axis ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein approach for internal jugular vein cannulation is a useful alternative technique that can provide better needle tip and guidewire visualization than the more traditional short-axis ultrasound view.

  7. Free Flap Survival Despite Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kiya, Koichiro; Seike, Shien; Hosokawa, Ko

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Microvascular free tissue transfer is one of the most common techniques of reconstruction for complex head and neck surgical defects. Generally, venous thrombosis is more likely to occur than arterial thrombosis in vascular anastomosis. Thus, recipient veins must be chosen carefully. Although the internal jugular vein is preferred as a recipient vein by many microsurgeons, internal jugular vein thrombosis is a potential complication, as shown in our report. Therefore, we consider that the external jugular vein still is an option as a recipient for venous anastomosis and that it is better to perform multiple vein anastomoses with 2 different venous systems, such as the internal and external jugular systems, than anastomoses within the same venous system. PMID:29464172

  8. Double external jugular vein and other rare venous variations of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Varsha; Saraswathi, Perumal; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Karthik, Jayakumar Sai

    2012-12-01

    Superficial veins of the head and neck are utilised for central venous cannulation, oral reconstruction and parenteral nutrition in debilitated patients. Clinical and sonological examinations of these veins may provide clues toward underlying cardiac pathology. Hence, although variations in these vessels are common, a sound knowledge of such variations becomes clinically important to surgeons, radiologists and interventional anaesthetists. We report a rare case of a left-sided double external jugular vein where the common facial vein continued as the second external jugular vein, and where there was a communicating channel between the internal jugular vein on the same side and the anterior jugular vein.

  9. Internal jugular vein blood flow in multiple sclerosis patients and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Di Donato, Orlando; Ragucci, Monica; Monti, Serena; Salvatore, Elena; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the Internal Jugular Veins dynamics using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in Multiple Sclerosis patients, clinically isolated syndrome patients and healthy controls. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography imaging of the Internal Jugular Vein was performed in fifty-eight patients with Multiple Sclerosis, seven clinically isolated syndrome patients and in thirteen healthy controls. Time-intensity curves were quantified using a semi-automated method and compared with clinical disease outcomes. Wash-out parameters were calculated and six Time-intensity curves shapes were created. Significantly reduction of wash-out rate in Internal Jugular Veins was detected in Multiple Sclerosis patients compared to healthy controls [22.2% (2.7%-65.9%) vs. 33.4% (16.2%-76.8%); P<0.005]. Internal Jugular Vein enhancement was heterogeneous in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and consisted of slow wash-out Time-intensity curves shapes, compared with almost only one type of Time-intensity curves shape in control subjects that correspond to fast enhancement and fast wash-out. The vein wash-in parameters were similar in Multiple Sclerosis group compared with controls. A significant correlation was found between Internal Jugular Vein wash-out and level of disability (R =  -0.402, p<0.05). Contrast enhanced ultrasonography of the Internal Jugular Vein with time intensity curve analysis revealed alterations of cerebral venous outflow in Multiple Sclerosis patients, however mechanisms that determine this condition remains unclear.

  10. Correlations between anomalies of jugular veins and areas of vascular drainage of head and neck.

    PubMed

    Vaida, Monica-Adriana; Niculescu, V; Motoc, A; Bolintineanu, S; Sargan, Izabella; Niculescu, M C

    2006-01-01

    The study conducted on 60 human cadavers preserved in formalin, in the Anatomy Laboratory of the "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, during 2000-2006, observed the internal and external jugular veins from the point of view of their origin, course and affluents. The morphological variability of the jugular veins (external jugular that receives as affluents the facial and lingual veins and drains into the internal jugular, draining the latter's territory--3.33%; internal jugular that receives the lingual, upper thyroid and facial veins, independent--13.33%, via the linguofacial trunk--50%, and via thyrolinguofacial trunk--33.33%) made possible the correlation of these anomalies with disorders in the ontogenetic development of the veins of the neck. Knowing the variants of origin, course and drainage area of jugular veins is important not only for the anatomist but also for the surgeon operating at this level.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Comparison of the Internal Jugular Vein and the Subclavian Vein as Access Sites for Central Venous Catheterization in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Camkiran Firat, Aynur; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Ozkan, Murat; Pirat, Arash

    2016-09-01

    To compare internal jugular vein and subclavian vein access for central venous catheterization in terms of success rate and complications. A 1:1 randomized controlled trial. Baskent University Medical Center. Pediatric patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Two hundred and eighty children undergoing central venous catheterization were randomly allocated to the internal jugular vein or subclavian vein group during a period of 18 months. The primary outcome was the first-attempt success rate of central venous catheterization through either approach. The secondary outcomes were the rates of infectious and mechanical complications. The central venous catheterization success rate at the first attempt was not significantly different between the subclavian vein (69%) and internal jugular vein (64%) groups (p = 0.448). However, the overall success rate was significantly higher through the subclavian vein (91%) than the internal jugular vein (82%) (p = 0.037). The overall frequency of mechanical complications was not significantly different between the internal jugular vein (25%) and subclavian vein (31%) (p = 0.456). However, the rate of arterial puncture was significantly higher with internal jugular vein (8% vs 2%; p = 0.03) and that of catheter malposition was significantly higher with subclavian vein (17% vs 1%; p < 0.001). The rates per 1,000 catheter days for both positive catheter-tip cultures (26.1% vs 3.6%; p < 0.001) and central-line bloodstream infection (6.9 vs 0; p < 0.001) were significantly higher with internal jugular vein. There were no significant differences between the groups in the length of ICU and hospital stays or in-hospital mortality rates (p > 0.05 for all). Central venous catheterization through the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein was not significantly different in terms of success at the first attempt. Although the types of mechanical complications were different, the overall rate was similar between internal jugular vein and

  12. Right Site, Wrong Route - Cannulating the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Paik, Peter; Arukala, Sanjay K; Sule, Anupam A

    2018-01-09

    Central venous catheters are placed in approximately five million patients annually in the US. The preferred site of insertion is one with fewer risks and easier access. Although the right internal jugular vein is preferred, on occasion, the left internal jugular may have to be accessed. A patient was admitted for septic shock, cerebrovascular accident, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. A central venous line was needed for antibiotic and vasopressor administration. Due to trauma from a fall to the right side and previously failed catheterization attempts at the left subclavian and femoral veins, the left internal jugular vein was accessed. On chest radiography for confirmation, the left internal jugular central venous catheter was seen projecting down the left paraspinal region. It did not take the expected course across the midline toward the right and into the superior vena cava (SVC). A review of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest with contrast done on a prior admission revealed a duplicated SVC on the left side that had not been reported in the original CT scan interpretation. A left-sided SVC is present in approximately 0.3% to 0.5% of the population, with 90% of these draining into the coronary sinus. During placements of central venous lines and pacemakers, irritation of the coronary sinus may result in hypotension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, or cardiac arrest. A widened mediastinum can be an indication of a duplicated SVC. When attempting a left internal jugular vein central venous catheter placement, it is important to be aware of venous anomalies in order to prevent complications.

  13. Achondroplasia in children: correlation of ventriculomegaly, size of foramen magnum and jugular foramina, and emissary vein enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Hergan, Benedikt; Carson, Kathryn A; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with diminished growth of the skull base secondary to defective enchondral bone formation. This leads to narrowing of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, which further leads to ventricular dilatation and prominence of the emissary veins. The primary goal of our study was to determine a correlation between the degree of ventricular dilatation, jugular foramina and foramen magnum narrowing, as well as emissary vein enlargement. Conventional T2-weighted MR images were evaluated for surface area of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, ventricular dilatation, and emissary veins enlargement in 16 achondroplasia patients and 16 age-matched controls. Ratios were calculated for the individual parameters using median values from age-matched control groups to avoid age as a confounder. Compared to age-matched controls, in children with achondroplasia, the surface area of the foramen magnum (median 0.50 cm(2), range 0.23-1.37 cm(2) vs. 3.14 cm(2), 1.83-6.68 cm(2), p < 0.001) and jugular foramina (median 0.02 cm(2), range 0-0.10 cm(2) vs. 0.21 cm(2), 0.03-0.61 cm(2), p < 0.001) were smaller, whereas ventricular dilatation (0.28, 0.24-0.4 vs. 0.26, 0.21-0.28, p < 0.001) and enlargement of emissary veins (6, 0-11 vs. 0, p < 0.001) were higher. Amongst the patients, Spearman correlation and multiple regression analysis did not reveal correlation for severity between the individual parameters. Our study suggests that in children with achondroplasia, (1) the variation in ventricular dilatation may be related to an unquantifiable interdependent relationship of emissary vein enlargement, venous channel narrowing, and foramen magnum compression and (2) stable ventricular size facilitated by interdependent factors likely obviates the need for ventricular shunt placement.

  14. Ultrasound guidance for internal jugular vein cannulation: Continuing Professional Development.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Christian; Lavallée, Catherine; Denault, André

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this continuing professional development module is to describe the role of ultrasound for central venous catheterization and to specify its benefits and limitations. Although ultrasound techniques are useful for all central venous access sites, the focus of this module is on the internal jugular vein approach. In recent years, several studies were published on the benefits of ultrasound use for central venous catheterization. This technique has evolved rapidly due to improvements in the equipment and technology available. Ultrasound helps to detect the anatomical variants of the internal jugular vein. The typical anterolateral position of the internal jugular vein with respect to the carotid is found in only 9-92% of cases. Ultrasound guidance reduces the rate of mechanical, infectious, and thrombotic complications by 57%, and it also reduces the failure rate by 86%. Cost-benefit analyses show that the cost of ultrasound equipment is compensated by the decrease in the expenses associated with the treatment of complications. In this article, we will review the history of ultrasound guidance as well as the reasons that account for its superiority over the classical anatomical landmark technique. We will describe the equipment needed for central venous catheterization as well as the various methods to visualize with ultrasound. To improve patient safety, we recommend the use of ultrasound for central venous catheterization using the internal jugular approach.

  15. Patterns and Rates of Supplementary Venous Drainage to the Internal Jugular Veins.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Ishfaq, Muhammad Fawad; Herial, Nabeel A; Khan, Asif A; Suri, M Fareed K

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have found supplemental venous drainage channels in addition to bilateral internal jugular veins for cerebral venous efflux. We performed this study to characterize the supplemental venous outflow patterns in a consecutive series of patients undergoing detailed cerebral angiography with venous phase imaging. The venographic phase of the arteriogram was reviewed to identify and classify supplemental cerebral venous drainage into anterior (cavernous venous sinus draining into pterygoid plexus and retromandibular vein) and posterior drainage pattern. The posterior drainage pattern was further divided into plexiform pattern (with sigmoid venous sinus draining into the paravertebral venous plexus), and solitary vein pattern (dominant single draining deep cervical vein) drainage. The posterior plexiform pattern was further divided into 2 groups: posterior plexiform with or without prominent solitary vein. Supplemental venous drainage was seen ipsilateral to internal jugular vein in 76 (43.7%) of 174 venous drainages (87 patients) analyzed. The patterns were anterior (n = 23, 13.2%), posterior plexiform without prominent solitary vein (n = 40, 23%), posterior plexiform with prominent solitary vein (n = 62, 35.6%), and posterior solitary vein alone (n = 3, 1.7%); occipital emissary veins and/or transosseous veins were seen in 1 supplemental venous drainage. Concurrent ipsilateral anterior and posterior supplemental drainage was seen in 6 of 174 venous drainages analyzed. We provide an assessment of patterns and rates of supplementary venous drainage to internal jugular veins to improve our understanding of anatomical and physiological aspects of cerebral venous drainage. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Chang-zhi; Zou, Hua; Luo, Ren-zhong

    2013-08-01

    Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p <0.05). The degree of dilation of the post-treatment jugular vein also decreased significantly (p <0.05). Paediatric vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.

  17. Syncopal episode as the presenting symptom of jugular vein thrombosis in pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Zaher O; Haberman, Shoshana

    2007-06-01

    Jugular vein thrombosis has been reported to occur in pregnant women who conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A 28-year-old woman at 17 weeks' gestation presented to the emergency room with a syncopal episode. She reported no arm pain or swelling, no neck pain or swelling, and no dyspnea or difficulty swallowing. Doppler sonography of the neck vasculature revealed acute bilateral internal jugular vein thromboses. Thrombophilia workup was normal. Intravenous anticoagulation with heparin was initiated, and the patient was discharged on low-molecular-weight heparin. Though rare, jugular vein thrombosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of syncopal episodes even in women who conceive without ART.

  18. The search for valved conduit tissue grafts for adults (>22 mm): an ultrasonographic study of jugular vein diameters of horses and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzwald, Colin C; Jenni, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural heterologous valved conduits with a diameter greater than 22 mm that can be used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in adults are not commercially available. The purpose of this study was to measure by ultrasonography the maximum diameter of the distended jugular veins of horses and cattle, respectively, to identify a population of animals that would be suitable for post-mortem collection of jugular veins at sizes greater than 22 mm. Methods The study population included 60 Warmblood horses, 25 Freiberger horses, 20 Brown Swiss cows, and 20 Holstein cows (including 10 Holstein and 10 Red Holstein). The maximum cross-sectional diameter of the distended jugular veins was measured at a location half-way between the mandibular angle and the thoracic inlet. The thoracic circumference (heart girth length) was used as a surrogate of body size. The jugular vein diameters of the different populations were compared by analysis of variance and the association between heart girth length and jugular vein diameter was determined in each of the four study populations by linear regression analysis. Results There was considerable individual variation of jugular vein diameters within each of the four study populations. There was no statistically significant relationship between thoracic circumference and jugular vein diameter in any of the populations. The jugular vein diameters of Brown Swiss cows were significantly larger than those of any of the other populations. Warmblood horses had significantly larger jugular vein diameters compared to Freiberger horses. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the production of bovine or equine xenografts with diameters of greater than 22 mm would be feasible. Differences between species and breeds need to be considered. However, prediction of the jugular vein diameter based on breed and heart girth length in an individual animal is inaccurate. PMID:19678940

  19. Ultrasonographic finding of internal jugular vein during anti-G straining maneuver: is it associated with gravity-induced loss of consciousness?

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Sul, Jin Gon; Yi, Kyung Sik; Seo, Jeong-Min; Chung, Ki Young

    2010-07-01

    Gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is caused by loss of cerebral blood flow during high +Gz (head-to-foot inertial forces). The resistance of the jugular vein is a significant factor in decrease in cerebral blood flow. Ultrasonography of thoracic inlet veins, including internal jugular vein, is feasible to visualize the internal jugular vein and hemodynamic information. Anti-gravity straining maneuver (AGSM) was widely recognized as one of the important factors in preventing G-LOC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the ultrasonographic shape and size of internal jugular vein during AGSM and G-LOC. 47 trainee pilots who participated in human centrifuge education program were enrolled. They were all men, and their mean age was 23.9 +/- 1.38 years. Questionnaire sheets were used to collect information about well-being sensation, smoking, drinking, height, and weight. Using ultrasonography, we monitored shape and size of internal jugular vein during AGSM. After ultrasonographic examination, 47 subjects underwent human centrifuge on the same day. The protocol of human centrifuge training was maximal 6G with sustaining time of 30 s. G-LOC occurred to ten out of 47 subjects in human centrifuge. To find presumptive variable associated with G-LOC, we performed logistic regression analysis. Concave contour and smaller cross-sectional area of internal jugular vein during AGSM were associated with G-LOC.

  20. The cephalic and external jugular veins: important alternative recipient vessels in left-sided microvascular breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Casey, William J; Rebecca, Alanna M; Smith, Anthony A; Craft, Randall O; Buchel, Edward W

    2007-01-01

    The internal mammary and thoracodorsal vessels are the standard recipient sites in microsurgical breast reconstruction. We review our series of venous outflow alternatives when these vessels are inadequate or unusable. A retrospective review of all free breast reconstructions was performed from July 2003 through December 2005. Outcomes were measured with regard to re-exploration, flap failure, and fat necrosis, with attention to the timing and side of reconstruction, as well as the presence or absence of radiation therapy. A total of 141 free breast reconstructions were performed during the study period. In seven cases (5%), alternative venous outflow vessels were selected (cephalic or external jugular vein). Nine anastamotic complications occurred, all of which involved the left internal mammary group (statistically significant for venous thrombosis, P = 0.0063) and three flaps failed. All cephalic and external jugular veins remained patent with no flap failures or fat necrosis within this group. The cephalic vein and external jugular vein are excellent alternatives for venous outflow in free breast reconstruction if neither the internal mammary nor thoracodorsal veins are sufficient, especially in left-sided reconstruction. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Single-stick tunneled central venous access using the jugular veins in infants weighing less than 5 kg.

    PubMed

    Lindquester, Will S; Hawkins, C Matthew; Monroe, Eric J; Gill, Anne E; Shivaram, Giridhar M; Seidel, F Glen; Lungren, Matthew P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the demonstrated feasibility of the single-stick technique in the femoral vein, its use in neonates and infants for placing central lines in internal and external jugular veins has not been reported. Describe and assess the safety and efficacy of tunneled jugular central venous catheter placement performed under ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic guidance in neonates and infants weighing <5 kg using the single-stick technique at three tertiary pediatric hospitals. Thirty-three children weighing less than 5 kg received tunneled central venous access in either internal or external jugular veins using the single-stick technique. Patient history, procedural records and clinical follow-up documents were retrospectively reviewed. Complication rates were compared to those of 41 patients receiving single-stick femoral central lines. Technical complications occurred during one (3.0%) jugular placement with the patient having a failed right-side attempt with subsequent successful left-side placement. The catheters did not last the entire course of treatment in three (9.1%) patients with jugular lines. One patient had the catheter removed due to concern for infection, one catheter was accidentally removed during dressing changes, and one catheter was displaced and subsequently exchanged. Of patients receiving femoral central lines, 1 (2.4%) had a technical complication and 5 catheters (12.2%) did not last the entire course of treatment. The placement of tunneled central venous catheters in neonates/infants <5 kg is safe and technically feasible using the internal/external jugular vein via the single-stick technique. By theoretically reducing the risks of catheter infection by avoiding the diaper area and thrombosis by using larger veins, it may be preferable in certain patient populations.

  2. Percutaneous Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeum, Chung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan; Nah, Myong Yun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ko, Jung Hee; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul

    2001-01-01

    Objectives The present study was aimed at evaluating the clinical experiences in the internal jugular venous catheterization for hemodialysis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data on internal jugular venous catheterization at Chonnam National University Hospital from May 2000 to Februrary 2001. Results There were 132 uremic patients with a total of 150 attempts of internal jugular cannulation. Overall success rate was 90.9% with average puncture trials of 2.3±2.1. 124 (82.7%) of the catheterization attempts were made on the right side and 26 (17.3%) were made on the left. The catheters were left in place from 2 to 87 days with an average of 19.5±15.3 days per catheter. The dialysis sessions per catheter were from 2 to 58 with an average of 11.3±6.8. The mean blood flow during hemodialysis immediately after catheterization was 213.4±42.2 ml/min. Thirty two (21.3%) patients had early complications. These included carotid artery puncture (11.3%), local bleeding (4.7%), local pain (3.3%), neck hematoma (0.7%) and malposition of the catheter (1.3%). Seventeen (11.3%) patients had late complications. These included fever or infection (11.3%), inadequate blood flow rate (3.3%) and inadvertent withdrawal (2.0%). There was no catheter-related mortality. Conclusions Our experiences revealed that the internal jugular vein catheterization is relatively safe and efficient for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. PMID:11855153

  3. Internal jugular and vertebral vein volume flow in patients with clinically isolated syndrome or mild multiple sclerosis and healthy controls: results from a prospective sonographer-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Brian; Chambers, Jayne; Churilov, Leonid; Cameron, Heather; Macdonell, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated internal jugular vein and vertebral vein volume flow using ultrasound, in patients with clinically isolated syndrome or mild multiple sclerosis and controls, to determine whether volume flow was different between the two groups. In patients and controls, internal jugular vein volume flow increased from superior to inferior segments, consistent with recruitment from collateral veins. Internal jugular vein and vertebral vein volume flow were greater on the right in supine and sitting positions. Internal jugular vein volume flow was higher in the supine posture. Vertebral vein volume flow was higher in the sitting posture. Regression analyses of cube root transformed volume flow data, adjusted for supine/sitting, right/left and internal jugular vein/vertebral vein, revealed no significant difference in volume flow in patients compared to controls. Our findings further refute the concept of venous obstruction as a causal factor in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Control volume flow data may provide useful normative reference values. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Horner syndrome after unsuccessful venous port implantation by cannulation of the right internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Łukasz R; Duda, Krzysztof; Mizianty, Marek; Wilczek, Małgorzata; Bieda, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Horner syndrome is a rare but likely underdiagnosed complication of internal jugular vein cannulation. We present a case of a young woman undergoing chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic disease for whom venous port implantation was attempted due to poor peripheral vein access. Despite ultrasound guidance, the procedure was unsuccessful and complicated by a local haematoma, causing compression of the sympathetic nerves with Horner syndrome. The symptoms subsided within 3 weeks without treatment. The possible pathomechanisms of Horner syndrome after central venous cannulation are presented with suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Special emphasis must be placed on excluding carotid artery dissection because it carries the risk of subsequent cerebral vascular incidents. In the event of a carotid dissection, a multidisciplinary team must choose a pharmacological (antiplatelet drugs/anticoagulation) or interventional approach. Even with ultrasonography, central venous cannulation is not free of serious risks. In case of anisocoria following an uneventful procedure, diagnostic imaging of the vascular structures in the neck is mandatory for the exclusion of potentially serious complications, such as carotid dissection or venous thrombosis.

  5. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  6. Patient Factors But Not the Use of Novel Anticoagulants or Warfarin Are Associated With Internal Jugular Vein Access-Site Hematoma After Right Heart Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Dasa, Osama; Shafiq, Qaiser; Ruzieh, Mohammed; Alhazmi, Luai; Al-Dabbas, Maen; Ammari, Zaid; Khouri, Samer; Moukarbel, George

    2017-12-01

    Right heart catheterization (RHC) is routinely performed to assess hemodynamics. Generally, anticoagulants are held prior to the procedure. At our center, anticoagulants are continued and ultrasound guidance is always used for internal jugular vein access. A micropuncture access kit is used to place a 5 or 6 Fr sheath using the modified Seldinger technique. Manual compression is applied for 10-15 min and the patient is observed for at least 2 hours after the procedure. In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the risk of bleeding complications associated with RHC via the internal jugular vein in patients with and without full anticoagulation. Our catheterization laboratory database was searched for adult patients who underwent RHC by a single operator between January 2012 and December 2015. A total of 571 patients were included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics, labs, relevant invasive hemodynamics, co-morbid conditions, and incidence of access-site hematoma are presented. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed using IBM SPSS v. 23.0 software. Statistically significant associations with access-site hematoma were observed with body mass index (P=.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.1), right atrial pressure (P=.03; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9), and dialysis dependence (P<.01; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). There was no association of access-site hematoma with the use of anticoagulants (P>.99). The incidence of internal jugular vein access-site hematoma is small when using careful access techniques for RHC even with the continued use of novel oral anticoagulants and warfarin. Patient characteristics and co-morbid conditions are related to bleeding complications.

  7. A Randomized Parallel Study for Simulated Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation Using Simple Needle Guide Device

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-14

    Doctors Attending a Central Line Insertion Training Courses for New Residents of a University Hospital From March 2017 to June 2017; Physicians Who Had Less Than 10 Ultrasound Guided Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation Participate in This Study

  8. Internal to external jugular vein bypass allowing for simultaneous bilateral radical neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Moustafa; Saman, Masoud; Ducic, Yadranko

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the role of internal jugular vein (IJV) to external jugular vein (EJV) bypass grafting in the setting of bilateral radical neck dissection with IJV sacrifice. The study group consisted of eight patients who underwent bilateral radical neck dissection with IJV sacrifice. Demographic and oncologic parameters were defined for each patient, including age, gender, and pathology. Patients were monitored and evaluated for potential effects of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Doppler ultrasonic evaluation was performed to assess patency of the site of anastamoses. In all, six patients underwent unilateral bypass grafting, whereas two patients underwent bilateral bypass grafts. Average age at time of surgery was 68.2 (range 56-71). Postoperatively, no sequelae of increased ICP were noted. Follow-up ultrasonic evaluation revealed patent vessels in all patients. We presently report on the use of EJV-to-IJV bypass grafting for all patients undergoing bilateral radical neck dissection for extensive neck disease. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Iliopsoas abscess as a complication of tunneled jugular vein catheterization in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Iliopsoas abscess is a rare complication in hemodialysis patients that is mainly due to adjacent catheterization, local acupuncture, discitis, and bacteremia. Herein, we report a 47-year-old woman undergoing regular hemodialysis via a catheter in the internal jugular vein who presented with low back pain and dyspnea. A heart murmur suggested the presence of catheter-related endocarditis, and this was confirmed by an echocardiogram and a blood culture of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A computed tomography indicated a pulmonary embolism and an incidental finding of iliopsoas abscess. Following surgical intervention and intravenous daptomycin, the patient experienced full recovery and a return to usual activities. This case indicates that an iliopsoas abscess can be related to a jugular vein catheter, which is apparently facilitated by infective endocarditis. The possibility of iliopsoas abscess should be considered when a hemodialysis patient presents with severe low back pain, even when there is no history of adjacent mechanical intervention. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. VENOUS SAMPLING FOR CUSHING DISEASE: COMPARISON OF INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUS SAMPLING.

    PubMed

    Radvany, Martin G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gallia, Gary L; Wand, Gary S; Salvatori, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to detect many adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard to differentiate Cushing disease (CD) from ectopic ACTH secretion syndrome (EAS). Some authors have suggested internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) as an alternative to IPSS. We simultaneously compared IJVS to IPSS in 30 consecutive patients referred for ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome and equivocal MRI exams. Five sites were simultaneously sampled in each patient (right and left IPS, right and left IJV, and femoral vein) before and after the administration of corticotrophin-releasing hormone or desmopressin. The test was considered consistent with CD when the IPS to peripheral ratio was >2 at baseline or >3 after stimulus and the IJV to peripheral ratio was >1.7 at baseline or >2 after stimulus. In 27 of 30 patients, IPSS results were consistent with a central source of ACTH. Two of the other 3 patients had EAS (one lung carcinoid and one occult), and 1 patient had pathology-proven CD. The sensitivity of IPSS was 96.4%. Only 64.2% of these patients had results meeting criteria for a central source of ACTH by IJVS criteria. Twenty patients with centralizing IPPS have undergone pituitary surgery. Of these, the central origin of excessive ACTH was confirmed with certainty in 16 patients. Among these 16 patients, the IPSS sensitivity was 93.8%, whereas 5 patients had false-negative IJVS (68.7% sensitivity). These results do not support the routine use of IJVS in establishing if the pituitary is the source of excessive ACTH. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CRH = corticotrophin-releasing hormone CS = Cushing syndrome DDAVP = desmopressin EAS = ectopic ACTH secretion IJVS = internal jugular vein sampling IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling JVS = jugular venous sampling MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Central Venous Catheter Placement in the Left Internal Jugular Vein Complicated by Perforation of the Left Brachiocephalic Vein and Massive Hemothorax: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Lindsay R; Patel, Priyesh R; Pesa, Nicholas L

    2017-07-01

    An elderly male presented for emergent repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. For anticipated volume resuscitation, vasopressor administration, and hemodynamic monitoring, a large-bore central venous catheter was placed in the left internal jugular vein under ultrasound guidance before surgical incision. Initially, there were no readily apparent signs of venous perforation. However, a massive left hemothorax developed because of perforation of the brachiocephalic vein and violation of the pleural space. This case report discusses both prevention and management of such a complication.

  12. Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients

    PubMed Central

    Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Labropoulos, Nicolaos; De Groot, Eric; Patrianakos, Alexandros P; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Poularas, John; Samonis, George; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis A; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Karabinis, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Central venous cannulation is crucial in the management of the critical care patient. This study was designed to evaluate whether real-time ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein is superior to the standard landmark method. Methods In this randomised study, 450 critical care patients who underwent real-time ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein were prospectively compared with 450 critical care patients in whom the landmark technique was used. Randomisation was performed by means of a computer-generated random-numbers table, and patients were stratified with regard to age, gender, and body mass index. Results There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, or side of cannulation (left or right) or in the presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation such as prior catheterisation, limited sites for access attempts, previous difficulties during catheterisation, previous mechanical complication, known vascular abnormality, untreated coagulopathy, skeletal deformity, and cannulation during cardiac arrest between the two groups of patients. Furthermore, the physicians who performed the procedures had comparable experience in the placement of central venous catheters (p = non-significant). Cannulation of the internal jugular vein was achieved in all patients by using ultrasound and in 425 of the patients (94.4%) by using the landmark technique (p < 0.001). Average access time (skin to vein) and number of attempts were significantly reduced in the ultrasound group of patients compared with the landmark group (p < 0.001). In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 10.6% of patients, haematoma in 8.4%, haemothorax in 1.7%, pneumothorax in 2.4%, and central venous catheter-associated blood stream infection in 16%, which were all significantly increased compared with the ultrasound group (p < 0.001). Conclusion The present data suggest that ultrasound

  13. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  14. A descriptive comparison of ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation of the internal jugular vein to landmark-based subclavian vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Theodoro, Daniel; Bausano, Brian; Lewis, Lawrence; Evanoff, Bradley; Kollef, Marin

    2010-04-01

    The safest site for central venous cannulation (CVC) remains debated. Many emergency physicians (EPs) advocate the ultrasound-guided internal jugular (USIJ) approach because of data supporting its efficiency. However, a number of physicians prefer, and are most comfortable with, the subclavian (SC) vein approach. The purpose of this study was to describe adverse event rates among operators using the USIJ approach, and the landmark SC vein approach without US. This was a prospective observational trial of patients undergoing CVC of the SC or internal jugular veins in the emergency department (ED). Physicians performing the procedures did not undergo standardized training in either technique. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse events defined as hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and failure to cannulate. Physicians recorded the anatomical site of cannulation, US assistance, indications, and acute complications. Variables of interest were collected from the pharmacy and ED record. Physician experience was based on a self-reported survey. The authors followed outcomes of central line insertion until device removal or patient discharge. Physicians attempted 236 USIJ and 132 SC cannulations on 333 patients. The overall adverse event rate was 22% with failure to cannulate being the most common. Adverse events occurred in 19% of USIJ attempts, compared to 29% of non-US-guided SC attempts. Among highly experienced operators, CVCs placed at the SC site resulted in more adverse events than those performed using USIJ (relative risk [RR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 3.39). While limited by observational design, our results suggest that the USIJ technique may result in fewer adverse events compared to the landmark SC approach.

  15. Malignant Jugular Paraganglioma: Unusual Presentation on 68Ga DOTANOC PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Shukla, Jaya; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Panda, Naresh K

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic jugular paraganglioma are rare tumors and account for less than 1% of the cases of head and neck tumors. We report a 40-year-old woman of jugular paraganglioma, presenting with right-sided neck swelling, hearing loss, and pulsatile tinnitus. Contrast-enhanced CT temporal bone revealed a mass in the right jugular foramina and extending inferiorly to internal jugular vein. Ga DOTANOC PET/CT was performed, which revealed somatostatin receptor expressing lesion in the right internal jugular vein and extension into sigmoid sinus and additional metastatic focus in the sacrum.

  16. Selective propensity of bovine jugular vein material to bacterial adhesions: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Zakaria; Galmiche, Louise; Lebeaux, David; Villemain, Olivier; Brugada, Georgia; Patel, Mehul; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe; Boudjemline, Younes

    2015-11-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) using Melody valve made of bovine jugular vein is safe and effective. However, infective endocarditis has been reported for unclear reasons. We sought to assess the impact of valvular substrates on selective bacterial adhesion. Three valved stents (Melody valve, homemade stents with bovine and porcine pericardium) were tested in-vitro for bacterial adhesion using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis strains. Bacterial adhesion was higher on bovine jugular venous wall for S. aureus and on Melody valvular leaflets for S. sanguinis in control groups and significantly increased in traumatized Melody valvular leaflets with both bacteria (traumatized vs non traumatized: p=0.05). Bacterial adhesion was lower on bovine pericardial leaflets. Selective adhesion of S. aureus and S. sanguinis pathogenic strains to Melody valve tissue was noted on healthy tissue and increased after implantation procedural steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Monorail Technique to Overcome Difficult Anatomical Course During Implantation of Central Venous Port via the Left Internal Jugular Vein

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Eu Hyun, E-mail: doorihyun6@gmail.com; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong

    PurposeThe study aimed to introduce a monorail technique to overcome difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.MethodsFrom 2007 to 2016, a total of 9346 patients were referred for implantable port insertion in our interventional unit, among which 79 cases were requested to insert on the left side. Our monorail technique was applied only when the technical challenge of the catheter tip entering the azygos vein instead of the superior vena cava occurred (n = 7). The technique consists of puncturing at the distal tip of the port catheter with a 21-gauge micropuncture needle and advancing a 0.018-in.more » hair-wire to guide and provide support for pre-assembled port.ResultsThe monorail technique was performed in seven patients and all but one case were technically successful, showing a technical success rate of 85.7%. There were no immediate or delayed complications.ConclusionsThe monorail technique is helpful to overcome the difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.« less

  18. The Monorail Technique to Overcome Difficult Anatomical Course During Implantation of Central Venous Port via the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eu Hyun; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu; Choi, Byung Gil

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to introduce a monorail technique to overcome difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion. From 2007 to 2016, a total of 9346 patients were referred for implantable port insertion in our interventional unit, among which 79 cases were requested to insert on the left side. Our monorail technique was applied only when the technical challenge of the catheter tip entering the azygos vein instead of the superior vena cava occurred (n = 7). The technique consists of puncturing at the distal tip of the port catheter with a 21-gauge micropuncture needle and advancing a 0.018-in. hair-wire to guide and provide support for pre-assembled port. The monorail technique was performed in seven patients and all but one case were technically successful, showing a technical success rate of 85.7%. There were no immediate or delayed complications. The monorail technique is helpful to overcome the difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.

  19. Extra Luminal Entrapment of Guide Wire; A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Placement in Right Internal Jugular Vein.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Md Abu Masud; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Shailesh; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-10-01

    Central venous Catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure for venous access. It is associated with several complications. We report a rare case of extra luminal entrapment of guide wire during CVC placement in right jugular vein. We report a case of 28 years old female patient presented in our emergency with history of entrapped guide wire in right side of neck during CVC. X-ray showed coiling of guide wire in neck. CT Angiography showed guide wire coursing in between common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (IJV), closely abutting the wall of both vessels. The guide wire was coiled with end coursing behind the esophageal wall. Guide wire was removed under fluoroscopic guide manipulation under local anesthesia. We want to emphasize that even though CVC placement is common and simple procedure, serious complication can occur in hands of untrained operator. The procedure should be performed under supervision, if done by trainee. Force should never be applied to advance the guide wire if resistance is encountered.

  20. Rare malposition following left jugular vein catheterization: Case reports and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhangsuo; Wang, Changan; Liu, Dongwei; Yuan, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients requiring chronic hemodialysis via a tunneled cuffed catheter is increasing. The right internal jugular vein (IJV) is generally the preferred site of percutaneous insertion. In certain situations, for example, in patients with a history of multiple access failures, catheterization of the left IJV is an important option. In this report, we present two rare cases of catheter malposition after left IJV catheterization; catheter adjustments, with the help of chest radiographs, resulted in a positive outcome in both cases. These cases exemplify the difficulties associated with left IJV catheterization, of which there are few reports in the published literature.

  1. Changes in Plasma Progesterone Levels in the Caudal Vena Cava and the Jugular Vein and Luteinizing Hormone Secretion Pattern After Feeding in Lactating and Non-lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Natsumi; NAGAI, Kiyosuke; TANAKA, Tomomi; KAMOMAE, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present study was designed to assess progesterone profiles at the secreted (caudal vena cava) and circulating levels (jugular vein) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion pattern in lactating and non-lactating cows with reference to feeding. Four lactating and four non-lactating cycling Holstein cows were examined. Blood samples were collected simultaneously from the caudal vena cava (via a catheter inserted from the coccygeal vein) and the jugular vein every 15 min for 12 h (0500–1700 h) during the functional luteal phase. Cows were fed 50% of the daily diet 6 h after the start of blood sampling. During the 12-h sampling period, mean progesterone concentrations in the caudal vena cava did not differ between lactating and non-lactating cows (49.0 ± 2.9 and 53.3 ± 3.7 ng/ml; mean ± SE), whereas mean progesterone concentrations in the jugular vein in lactating cows were higher than those in non-lactating cows (6.4 ± 0.1 and 5.6 ± 0.1 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Lactating cows had a higher frequency of LH pulses than non-lactating cows (7.0 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 0.9 pulses/12 h, P<0.05). The influence of feeding was not observed on LH profiles but was observed on progesterone profiles in both veins. Progesterone concentrations in the caudal vena cava increased after feeding in both groups. Progesterone concentrations in the jugular vein decreased after feeding in lactating cows but not in non-lactating cows. These results indicate the difference in feeding-related changes in progesterone dynamics between lactating and non-lactating cows. PMID:23171608

  2. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  3. Effective use of flow-spoiled FBI and time-SLIP methods in the diagnostic study of an aberrant vessel of the head and neck: "left jugular venous steal by the right jugular vein".

    PubMed

    Kogure, Taroh; Kogure, Kyuya; Iizuka, Mitsumasa; Ino, Azusa; Ishii, Masako

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) is now commonly used in routine magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies of the head and neck. However, there are limits to its diagnostic abilities in the clinical field and, in some instances, a more invasive supplementary examination may be required. We incidentally discovered a patient with an aberrant vessel of the head and neck that ran alongside the left carotid artery and contained a constant, slowly pulsating efferent blood flow. 3D-TOF and carotid ultrasonography could not determine the nature and origin of this vessel. Additional studies using flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (flow-spoiled FBI) and time spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) methods were effective in determining that the vessel was the left jugular vein, and that the continuous venous reflux was a result of a venous steal by the right jugular vein. We show that by combining different MRA techniques we can effectively achieve diagnosis without resorting to more invasive examinations. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. [Thrombophlebitis in the central vein catheter (AVA3Xi) custody to the internal jugular vein: a case report].

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Toru; Ogura, Takahiro; Inamura, Rie; Kazama, Tomiei

    2012-06-01

    The central vein catheter-related infection and thrombosis are comparatively frequent and may cause a serious complication. AVA3Xi was taken into custody to the internal jugular vein, and the patient suffured from thrombophlebitis on the seventh day after the operation. A 73-year-old woman 151 cm tall and weighing 50 kg was scheduled for pancreatoduodenectomy under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia (operating time 9 hours and 21 minutes, anesthetizing time 12 hours and 1 minute). The past history of the thrombosis was not present, and it was especially unquestionable for the trap including the preoperative testing and the central venous catheter insertion. The time course after the operation was also good. But the patient claimed the stiffness of the cervix on the postoperative seventh day; fever and shivering were also accompanied. S. epidermidis was identified by the blood culture. Thrombophlebitis was diagnosed with CT. It is necessary to choose an appropriate catheter and endeavor for the prevention and early detection of the blood clot formation to prevent catheter-related infection and thrombosis with cooperation with the surgeon.

  5. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  6. Constitutive modeling of jugular vein-derived venous valve leaflet tissues.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Nayyan; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow

    2017-11-01

    Venous valve tissues, though used in vein reconstruction surgeries and bioprosthetic valves with moderate success, have not been extensively studied with respect to their structure. Their inherent anisotropic, non-linear behavior combined with severe diseases which affect veins, such as chronic venous insufficiency, warrant understanding the structure and material behavior of these tissues. Hence, before any bioprosthetic grafts may be used in place of tissues, it is of the utmost importance to understand the mechanical and structural properties of these tissues as this may lead to higher success rates for valve replacement surgeries. The longevity of the bioprosthetics may also increase if the manufactured grafts behave the same as native valves. Building on the scant information about the uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of jugular venous valves and wall tissues from previous studies, the current focus of our investigation lies in understanding the material behavior by establishing a phenomenological strain energy-based constitutive relation for the tissues. We used bovine veins to study the behavior of valve leaflet tissue and adjoining wall tissue (from the proximal and distal ends of the veins) under different biaxial testing protocols. We looked at the behavior of numerical partial derivatives of the strain energy to select a suitable functional form for the strain energy for wall and valve tissues. Using this strain energy descriptor, we determined the Cauchy stress and compared it with experimental results under additional sets of displacement-controlled biaxial testing protocols to find material specific model parameters by the Powell's method algorithm. Results show that whereas wall tissue strain energy can be explained using a polynomial non-linear function, the valve tissue, due to higher non-linearities, requires an exponential function. This study may provide useful information for the primary stages of bioprosthetic designs and replacement

  7. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I

    2014-01-01

    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome due to Bladder Distention Caused by Urethral Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Akiko; Kondo, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of iliac vein compression syndrome caused by urethral calculus. A 71-year-old man had a history of urethral stenosis. He complained of bilateral leg edema and dysuria for 1 week. Physical examination revealed bilateral distention of the superficial epigastric veins, so obstruction of both common iliac veins or the inferior vena cava was suspected. Plain abdominal computed tomography showed a calculus in the pendulous urethra, distention of the bladder (as well as the right renal pelvis and ureter), and compression of the bilateral common iliac veins by the distended bladder. Iliac vein compression syndrome was diagnosed. Bilateral iliac vein compression due to bladder distention (secondary to neurogenic bladder, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or urethral calculus as in this case) is an infrequent cause of acute bilateral leg edema. Detecting distention of the superficial epigastric veins provides a clue for diagnosis of this syndrome. PMID:25802794

  9. [Prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis of central veins in hemodialysis after a tunneled jugular catheter].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients.

  10. Neck Collar with Mild Jugular Vein Compression Ameliorates Brain Activation Changes during a Working Memory Task after a Season of High School Football.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Leach, James; Maloney, Thomas; Altaye, Mekibib; Smith, David; Gubanich, Paul J; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher A; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-08-15

    Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurological deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression designed to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through "slosh" mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task. Participants were recruited from local high school football teams with 27 and 25 athletes assigned to the non-collar and collar group, respectively. A standard N-Back task was used to engage working memory in the fMRI at both pre- and post-season. The two study groups experienced similar head impact frequency and magnitude during the season (all p > 0.05). fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal response (a reflection of the neuronal activity level) during the working memory task increased significantly from pre- to post-season in the non-collar group (corrected p < 0.05), but not in the collar group. Areas displaying less activation change in the collar group (corrected p < 0.05) included the precuneus, inferior parietal cortex, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, BOLD response in the non-collar group increased significantly in direct association with the total number of impacts and total g-force (p < 0.05). Our data provide initial neuroimaging evidence for the effect of repetitive head impacts on the working memory related brain activity, as well as a potential protective effect that resulted from the use of the purported brain slosh reducing neck collar in contact sports.

  11. Observations on the bony bridging of the jugular foramen in man.

    PubMed

    Dodo, Y

    1986-02-01

    The anatomical nature and pattern of incidence of bony bridging of the jugular foramen was investigated using 64 fetal crania aged nine months to term and 222 adult crania of Japanese. In addition, the region of the jugular foramen of an adult cadaver was carefully dissected in order to clarify the relationship between the cranial nerves passing through the jugular foramen and the intrajugular processes of the jugular foramen. The general conclusions concerning the anatomical nature of the bony bridging of the jugular foramen were as follows. (1) The intrajugular process of the temporal bone is situated posterior to the triangular depression (as described in Gray's Anatomy) of the petrous part. (2) The bony bridging of the jugular foramen is established by the contact of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone with the bony process of the occipital bone projecting either from just above the hypoglossal canal (Type I) or from posterior to the hypoglossal canal (Type III). (3) If both the processes of the occipital bone reach the intrajugular process of the temporal bone simultaneously, the jugular foramen is divided into three compartments. (4) In the case of Type I bridging, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, while the posterolateral compartment gives passage to the vagus nerve, the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (5) In the case of Type II bridging, the anteromedial compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. (6) When tripartite division of the jugular foramen occurs, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the middle compartment contains the vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. Concerning the pattern of incidence of jugular foramen bridging in the Japanese fetal and adult cranial series, this is similar to that of the bony

  12. Observations on the bony bridging of the jugular foramen in man.

    PubMed Central

    Dodo, Y

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical nature and pattern of incidence of bony bridging of the jugular foramen was investigated using 64 fetal crania aged nine months to term and 222 adult crania of Japanese. In addition, the region of the jugular foramen of an adult cadaver was carefully dissected in order to clarify the relationship between the cranial nerves passing through the jugular foramen and the intrajugular processes of the jugular foramen. The general conclusions concerning the anatomical nature of the bony bridging of the jugular foramen were as follows. (1) The intrajugular process of the temporal bone is situated posterior to the triangular depression (as described in Gray's Anatomy) of the petrous part. (2) The bony bridging of the jugular foramen is established by the contact of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone with the bony process of the occipital bone projecting either from just above the hypoglossal canal (Type I) or from posterior to the hypoglossal canal (Type III). (3) If both the processes of the occipital bone reach the intrajugular process of the temporal bone simultaneously, the jugular foramen is divided into three compartments. (4) In the case of Type I bridging, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, while the posterolateral compartment gives passage to the vagus nerve, the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (5) In the case of Type II bridging, the anteromedial compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. (6) When tripartite division of the jugular foramen occurs, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the middle compartment contains the vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. Concerning the pattern of incidence of jugular foramen bridging in the Japanese fetal and adult cranial series, this is similar to that of the bony

  13. A survey of the use of ultrasound guidance in internal jugular venous cannulation.

    PubMed

    McGrattan, T; Duffty, J; Green, J S; O'Donnell, N

    2008-11-01

    It has been that suggested the use of two dimensional (2D) ultrasound to facilitate placement of central venous cannulae in the internal jugular vein improves patient safety and reduces complications. Since the introduction of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence Technology Appraisal Guideline Number 49 in 2002, promoting the use of ultrasound in placement of internal jugular venous cannulae, utilisation of ultrasound has increased throughout the United Kingdom. We report the findings of a postal survey of 2000 senior anaesthetists in the United Kingdom which enquired about their use of ultrasound for internal jugular vein cannulae placement. Only 27% use 2D ultrasound as their first choice technique, although 35% use it as their first choice when teaching. There was no significant difference in practice between those working within a sub specialty in anaesthesia. There continues to be discrepancies between the application of the guideline and how senior anaesthetists both site and teach the placement of internal jugular vein central venous cannulae.

  14. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy - Case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B

    2014-12-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  15. The progestin levonorgestrel induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rabbit jugular vein via inhibition of calcium entry and protein kinase C: role of cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Herkert, Olaf; Kuhl, Herbert; Busse, Rudi; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2000-01-01

    The progestin and oestrogen component of oral contraceptives have been involved in the development of venous thromboembolic events in women. In the present study we determined the vasoactive effects of sex steroids used in oral contraceptives in isolated preconstricted rabbit jugular veins in the presence of diclofenac and examined the underlying mechanisms.The natural hormone progesterone, the synthetic progestins levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel, gestodene and chlormadinone acetate, and the synthetic estrogen 17 α-ethinyloestradiol induced concentration-dependent relaxations of endothelium-intact veins constricted with U46619. Levonorgestrel also inhibited constrictions evoked by either a high potassium (K+) solution or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the absence and presence of extracellular calcium (Ca2+). In addition, levonorgestrel depressed contractions evoked by Ca2+ and reduced 45Ca2+ influx in depolarized veins.Relaxations to levonorgestrel in U46619-constricted veins were neither affected by the presence of the endothelium nor by the inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, NS2028, but were significantly improved either by the selective cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or in the absence of diclofenac, and decreased by the protein kinase A inhibitor, Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. Rolipram also potentiated relaxations to levonorgestrel in PMA-constricted veins in the presence, but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Levonorgestrel increased levels of cyclic AMP and inhibited PMA-induced activation of protein kinase C in veins.These findings indicate that levonorgestrel caused endothelium-independent relaxations of jugular veins via inhibition of Ca2+ entry and of protein kinase C activation. In addition, the cyclic AMP effector pathway contributes to the levonorgestrel-induced relaxation possibly by depressing Ca2+ entry. PMID:10952682

  16. The internal jugular vein maintains its regional anatomy and patency after carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Khatri, V P; Wagner-Sevy, S; Espinosa, M H; Fisher, J B

    2001-02-01

    To validate the authors' published surface landmarks for gaining percutaneous access to the internal jugular vein (IJV), and to determine whether these surface landmarks were altered after neck surgery. Carotid puncture and pneumothorax continue to be the most frequent mechanical complications of percutaneous IJV venipuncture, particularly when the anterior or posterior approaches are used. The authors' modified technique of IJV venipuncture was associated with a 0.6% complication rate; notably, there were no instances of carotid artery puncture. Determining the accuracy of this method using duplex ultrasound would enhance the technique's applicability and safety. The authors also hypothesized that previous neck surgery would alter the regional anatomy in relation to these surface landmarks for IJV venipuncture. The authors prospectively evaluated 417 IJVs in 209 consecutive patients undergoing carotid duplex imaging before and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients who had undergone CEA were enrolled to investigate the effect of neck surgery on IJV anatomy. The opposite, nonoperated side of the neck served as a control for each patient. The position of the IJV in relation to the surface landmarks, the mobility of the IJV on neck rotation, and the size, patency, and relation of the IJV to the carotid artery were evaluated. Overall accuracy of the surface landmarks for locating the IJV percutaneously was 99% for the control group and 95% for the CEA group. With neck rotation, the IJV was located in a more lateral position in relation to the landmarks that would significantly reduce its accessibility. After neck rotation, it was also noted that the carotid artery moved behind the jugular vein in 85% of the patients in both groups. The mean size of the vein and its patency were similar in both groups. Duplex imaging validated the accuracy of the surface landmarks for IJV cannulation and documented the adverse effects of neck rotation. IJV anatomy is not altered

  17. The Internal Jugular Vein Maintains its Regional Anatomy and Patency After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Vijay P.; Wagner-Sevy, Sam; Espinosa, Manuel H.; Fisher, Jay B.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To validate the authors’ published surface landmarks for gaining percutaneous access to the internal jugular vein (IJV), and to determine whether these surface landmarks were altered after neck surgery. Summary Background Data Carotid puncture and pneumothorax continue to be the most frequent mechanical complications of percutaneous IJV venipuncture, particularly when the anterior or posterior approaches are used. The authors’ modified technique of IJV venipuncture was associated with a 0.6% complication rate; notably, there were no instances of carotid artery puncture. Determining the accuracy of this method using duplex ultrasound would enhance the technique’s applicability and safety. The authors also hypothesized that previous neck surgery would alter the regional anatomy in relation to these surface landmarks for IJV venipuncture. Methods The authors prospectively evaluated 417 IJVs in 209 consecutive patients undergoing carotid duplex imaging before and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients who had undergone CEA were enrolled to investigate the effect of neck surgery on IJV anatomy. The opposite, nonoperated side of the neck served as a control for each patient. The position of the IJV in relation to the surface landmarks, the mobility of the IJV on neck rotation, and the size, patency, and relation of the IJV to the carotid artery were evaluated. Results Overall accuracy of the surface landmarks for locating the IJV percutaneously was 99% for the control group and 95% for the CEA group. With neck rotation, the IJV was located in a more lateral position in relation to the landmarks that would significantly reduce its accessibility. After neck rotation, it was also noted that the carotid artery moved behind the jugular vein in 85% of the patients in both groups. The mean size of the vein and its patency were similar in both groups. Conclusions Duplex imaging validated the accuracy of the surface landmarks for IJV cannulation and

  18. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F

    2015-01-09

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  19. Compressed sensing approach for wrist vein biometrics.

    PubMed

    Lantsov, Aleksey; Ryabko, Maxim; Shchekin, Aleksey

    2018-04-01

    The work describes features of the compressed sensing (CS) approach utilized for development of a wearable system for wrist vein recognition with single-pixel detection; we consider this system useful for biometrics authentication purposes. The CS approach implies use of a spatial light modulation (SLM) which, in our case, can be performed differently-with a liquid crystal display or diffusely scattering medium. We show that compressed sensing combined with above-mentioned means of SLM allows us to avoid using an optical system-a limiting factor for wearable devices. The trade-off between the 2 different SLM approaches regarding issues of practical implementation of CS approach for wrist vein recognition purposes is discussed. A possible solution of a misalignment problem-a typical issue for imaging systems based upon 2D arrays of photodiodes-is also proposed. Proposed design of the wearable device for wrist vein recognition is based upon single-pixel detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The origin of mean arterial and jugular venous blood pressures in giraffes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Graham; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan; Keegan, D James

    2006-07-01

    Using a mechanical model of the giraffe neck and head circulation consisting of a rigid, ascending, 'carotid' limb, a 'cranial' circulation that could be rigid or collapsible, and a descending, 'jugular' limb that also could be rigid or collapsible, we have analyzed the origin of the high arterial and venous pressures in giraffe, and whether blood flow is assisted by a siphon. When the tubes were rigid and the 'jugular' limb exit was lower than the 'carotid' limb entrance a siphon operated, 'carotid' hydrostatic pressures became more negative, and flow was 3.3 l min(-1) but ceased when the 'cranial' and 'jugular' limbs were collapsible or when the 'jugular' limb was opened to the atmosphere. Pumping water through the model produced positive pressures in the 'carotid' limb similar to those found in giraffe. Applying an external 'tissue' pressure to the 'jugular' tube during pump flow produced the typical pressures found in the jugular vein in giraffe. Constriction of the lowest, 'jugular cuff', portion of the 'jugular' limb showed that the cuff may augment the orthostatic reflex during head raising. Except when all tubes were rigid, pressures were unaffected by a siphon. We conclude that mean arterial blood pressure in giraffes is a consequence of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the column of blood in the neck, that tissue pressure around the collapsible jugular vein produces the known jugular pressures, and that a siphon does not assist flow through the cranial circulation.

  1. Utility of capillary microsampling for rat pharmacokinetic studies: Comparison of tail-vein bleed to jugular vein cannula sampling.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Walter; Luo, Yongyi; Ho, Stacy; Sun, Wei; Shen, Liduo; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zhongtao; Guo, Yang; Snow, Gregory; O'Shea, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Serial sampling methods have been used for rat pharmacokinetic (PK) studies for over 20 years. Currently, it is still common to take 200-250 μL of blood at each timepoint when performing a PK study in rats and using serial sampling. While several techniques have been employed for collecting blood samples from rats, there is only limited published data to compare these methods. Recently, microsampling (≤ 50 μL) techniques have been reported as an alternative process for collecting blood samples from rats. In this report, five compounds were dosed orally into rats. For three proprietary compounds, jugular vein cannula (JVC) sampling was used to collect whole blood and plasma samples and capillary microsampling (CMS) was used to collect blood samples from the tail vein of the same animal. For the two other compounds, marketed drugs fluoxetine and glipizide, JVC sampling was used to collect both whole blood and blood CMS samples while tail-vein sampling from the same rats was also used to collect both whole blood and blood CMS samples. For the three proprietary compounds, the blood AUC as well as the blood concentration-time profile that were obtained from the tail vein were different from those obtained via JVC sampling. For fluoxetine, the blood total exposure (AUC) was not statistically different when comparing tail-vein sampling to JVC sampling, however the blood concentration-time profile that was obtained from the tail vein was different than the one obtained from JVC sampling. For glipizide, the blood AUC and concentration-time profile were not statistically different when comparing the tail-vein sampling to the JVC sampling. For both fluoxetine and glipizide, the blood concentration profiles obtained from CMS were equivalent to the blood concentration profiles obtained from the standard whole blood sampling, collected at the same sampling site. The data in this report provide strong evidence that blood CMS is a valuable small volume blood sampling approach

  2. Ultrasound of Jugular Veins for Assessment of Acute Dyspnea in Emergency Departments and for the Assessment of Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tzadok, Batsheva; Shapira, Shay; Tal-Or, Eran

    2018-05-01

    When a patient arrives at the emergency department (ED) presenting with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), it is possible to reach a definitive diagnosis through many different venues, including medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, chest X-ray, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become a mainstream tool for diagnosis and treatment in the field of emergency medicine, as well as in various other departments in the hospital setting. Currently, the main methods of diagnosis of ADHF using POCUS are pleural B-lines and inferior vena cava (IVC) width and respiratory variation. To examine the potential use and benefits of bedside ultrasound of the jugular veins in the evaluation of dyspneic patients for identification of ADHF. A blood BNP level was drawn from each participant at time of recruitment. The area and size of the internal jugular vein (IJV) during inspiration and expiration were examined. Our results showed that the respiratory area change of the IJVs had a specificity and sensitivity of nearly 70% accuracy rate in indentifying ADHF in our ED. Ultrasound of the IJV may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of ADHF because it is easy to measure and requires little skill. It is also not affected by patient body habitus.

  3. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  4. An Hybrid 2-Stage Technique to Treat a Post-Traumatic Internal Carotid-Jugular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Massara, Mafalda; Barillà, David; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Volpe, Alberto; Cutrupi, Andrea; Alberti, Antonino; Volpe, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Penetrating wounds of the neck involving the carotid arteries can lead to 2 possible and important late sequelae: pseudoaneurysm formation and arteriovenous fistula (AVF), if an artery and the adjacent jugular vein are simultaneously lacerated. Traumatic AVF of the neck are rare complications and if untreated may cause congestive heart failure, cerebral ischemia, thromboembolism, or even rupture complications. Current treatment options for carotid-jugular AVF include operative repair, detachable balloon, coiling, or stenting. We present a hybrid 2-stage technique to treat an internal carotid-jugular vein fistula in a young woman, based first on carotid stenting to reduce the bleeding and reestablish an adequate cerebral perfusion, followed by stent removal and safe vessels surgical reconstruction through carotid-to-carotid bypass and vein repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Application of right jugular vessels to build extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treating the critically ill children].

    PubMed

    Yan, X G; Lu, Z J; Zheng, J C; Zhang, W W; Lu, G P; Jia, B

    2016-07-01

    To summarize the experience in applying a technique of inserting a cannula through right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery to build extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill children. The data of critically ill patients received ECMO support through right internal jugular vein and common carotid artery between December 2011 and December 2015 from Children's Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed retrospectively.The data included diagnosis, age, body weight, time of cannula and ECMO running, complication and prognosis. In total 28 patients received ECMO support, 3 patients of post-cardiac surgery with transthoracic cannula were excluded.Twenty-five patients inserted cannula through neck vessels were enrolled, 15 boys and 10 girls, the median age was 1.8 years (range, 1 d-13 years), the median weight was 12.0 (2.8-50.0) kg.All the cannula sites were right internal jugular vein and right common carotid artery, before cannula use 5 patients had been inserted central vein tube and 3 patients with blood filter tube in right internal jugular vein, in one case cannula was applied during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.V-A ECMO had been built for all the cases successfully, the median operation time was (45±26) min.The pump flow was 80-150 ml/(kg·min), the median duration of ECMO support was 153(14-567) h. Sixteen (64%) patients weaned off ECMO successfully, 15(60%) survived to hospital discharge.About the complication of cannula, six patients developed cannula site bleeding, and two patients required re-fixation of cannula, one patient's external jugular vein had been hurt and sutured for bleeding. Application of right jugular vessels to build ECMO is easy and safe for treating the sick children. The skill should be proficient to assure ECMO run and reduce the complications.

  6. Internal jugular thrombophlebitis caused by dermal infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Suzuki, Makoto; Nemoto, Naohiko; Hara, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Go; Otsuka, Takenori; Moroi, Masao; Nakamura, Masato; Sugi, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with complaints of fever and pain and itching of his left neck with atopic dermatitis and abrasion. These symptoms had persisted for two days and dullness and fever developed, but the patient did not consult a physician. On the following day, he had a fever of 40°C and redness and swelling of the left neck. He visited a local clinic and was hospitalized with suspected cellulitis. A thrombus was detected in the internal jugular vein on MRI, and he was referred to our hospital. Neck ultrasonography showed the presence of an immovable thrombus in the area from the left internal jugular vein to the left brachiocephalic peripheral vein. Blood analysis indicated a major inflammatory response and juvenile idiopathic thrombophlebitis was suspected. A filter was carefully inserted into the superior vena cava, and anticoagulant therapy and medication with antibiotics led to remission. We present this case as a rare example of a condition mimicking Lemierre syndrome that was caused by dermal infection, and we include a review of the literature.

  7. How to deal with atrial septal defect closure from right internal jugular vein: Role of venous-arterial circuit for sizing and over-the-wire device implantation.

    PubMed

    Butera, Gianfranco; Lovin, Nicusor; Basile, Domenica Paola

    2017-01-01

    Secundum atrial septum defect (ASD) is the most common congenital heart disease. It is usually treated by a transcatheter approach using a femoral venous access. In case of bilateral femoral vein occlusion, the internal jugular venous approach for ASD closure is an option, in particular in cases where ASD balloon occlusion test and sizing is needed. Here, we report on a new technique for ASD closure using a venous-arterial circuit from the right internal jugular vein to the femoral artery. Two patients (females, 4 and 10 years of age) had occlusion of both femoral veins because of a previous history of pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum, for which they underwent percutaneous radiofrequency perforation and balloon angioplasty. These subjects needed balloon occlusion test of a residual ASD to size the hole and to check for hemodynamic suitability to ASD closure. After performing a venous-arterial circuit, a 24 mm St Jude ASD sizing balloon catheter was advanced over the circuit and the defect closed for 15 min to check hemodynamics and size the defect. ASD was closed is hemodinamically suitable. This technique was safe and reliable. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-01-01

    Background Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. Methods A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. Results With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p<0.05) but not in the collar group (p>0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Discussion Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. Trial registration number NCT02696200. PMID:27307271

  9. Locating the optimal internal jugular target site for central venous line placement.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Chris R; Murtagh, Kevin R; Mills, Jaime; Deitte, Lori A; Rice, Mark J; Tighe, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Historically, the placement of internal jugular central venous lines has been accomplished by using external landmarks to help identify target-rich locations in order to steer clear of dangerous structures. This paradigm is largely being displaced, as ultrasound has become routine practice, raising new considerations regarding target locations and risk mitigation. Most human anatomy texts depict the internal jugular vein as a straight columnar structure that exits the cranial vault the same size that it enters the thoracic cavity. We dispute the notion that the internal jugulars are cylindrical columns that symmetrically descend into the thoracic cavity, and purport that they are asymmetric conical structures. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate 100 consecutive adult chest and neck computed tomography exams that were imaged at an inpatient hospital. We measured the internal jugular on the left and right sides at three different levels to look for differences in size as the internal jugular descends into the thoracic cavity. We revealed that as the internal jugular descends into the thorax, the area of the vessel increases and geometrically resembles a conical structure. We also reconfirmed that the left internal jugular is smaller than the right internal jugular. Understanding that the largest target area for central venous line placement is the lower portion of the right internal jugular vein will help to better target vascular access for central line placement. This is the first study the authors are aware of that depicts the internal jugular as a conical structure as opposed to the commonly depicted symmetrical columnar structure frequently illustrated in anatomy textbooks. This target area does come with additional risk, as the closer you get to the thoracic cavity, the greater the chances for lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful treatment of deep vein thrombosis caused by iliac vein compression syndrome with a single-dose direct oral anti-coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Naoya; Sueta, Daisuke; Kanemaru, Yusuke; Takashio, Seiji; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Hanatani, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Hisanori; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Although vein stenting is popular for treatment for venous thromboembolism due to mechanical compression, some cases are forced to avoid inserting align agents because of immunodeficiency. An 82-year-old man with left extremity redness and swelling presented to a hospital for a medical evaluation. The patient was immunodeficient because of the adverse effects of his treatment for Castleman's disease. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a venous thromboembolism in inferior vena cava and the left lower extremity. Magnetic resonance venography showed that the iliac artery was compressing the iliac vein. We were reluctant to place a stent in the iliac vein has because of the patient's immunodeficient status. Three months of treatment using single-dose edoxaban (30 mg daily) resulted in complete resolution of the thrombus. This is the first report demonstrating that single-dose edoxaban without acute-phase parenteral anticoagulation is effective in the treatment of iliac vein compression. A single-dose direct oral anti-coagulant without acute-phase parenteral anticoagulation is effective for mechanical compression.

  11. Single jugular vein cannulated rats may not be suitable for intravenous pharmacokinetic screening of high logP compounds.

    PubMed

    Gaud, Nilesh; Kumar, Anoop; Matta, Muralikrishna; Kole, Prashant; Sridhar, Srikanth; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Holenarsipur, Vinay K

    2017-03-01

    Rat is commonly used for pharmacokinetic screening during pharmaceutical lead optimization. To handle the large number of compounds, rats with a single jugular vein cannulation are commonly utilized for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies, where the same cannula is used both for dose administration and blood sampling. We demonstrate that the single cannula method is not suitable for all compounds, especially for high logP compounds. We propose an alternative dual cannulation technique in which two cannulas are placed in the same jugular vein, thus avoiding an additional surgery. Compounds were administered orally or via intravenous infusion to compare PK parameters, including bioavailability, using both procedures. For itraconazole and amiodarone, known to bind to the cannula, the measured plasma exposures were substantially higher in the single cannulated rats than those from dual cannulated rats. Area under the plasma concentration time curve differed by 79% and 74% for itraconazole and amiodarone, respectively. When compared to the single cannulation approach, clearance, volume of distribution and bioavailability determined by dual cannulation were 39%, 60% and 38% higher for itraconazole, and 46%, 34% and 42% higher for amiodarone, respectively. In contrast, all pharmacokinetic parameters were similar between single and dual-cannulated rats for the hydrophilic compound atenolol. Based on these results, we recommend the use of dual cannulated rats for intravenous pharmacokinetic studies when testing a series of hydrophobic compounds that may be prone to non-specific binding to the cannula. If single cannulated model is selected for pharmacokinetic screening, we recommend a bridging study with dual cannulated rats with representative compounds of a given chemical series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Concurrent Angioplasty Balloon Placement for Stent Delivery through Jugular Venous Bulb for Treating Cerebral Venous Sinus Stenosis. Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Khan, Asif A; Capistrant, Rachel; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Xie, Kevin; Suri, M Fareed K

    2016-10-01

    To report upon technique of concurrent placement of angioplasty balloon at the internal jugular vein and sigmoid venous sinus junction to facilitate stent delivery in two patients in whom stent delivery past the jugular bulb was not possible. A 21-year-old woman and a 41-year-old woman with worsening headaches, visual obscuration or diplopia were treated for pseudotumor cerebri associated with transverse venous stenosis. Both patients had undergone primary angioplasty, which resulted in improvement in clinical symptoms followed by the recurrence of symptoms with restenosis at the site of angioplasty. After multiple attempts at stent delivery through jugular venous bulb were unsuccessful, a second guide catheter was placed in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein through contralateral femoral venous approach. A 6 mm × 20 mm (left) or 5 × 15 mm (right) angioplasty balloon was placed across the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction and partially inflated until the inflation and relative straightening of the junction was observed. In both patients, the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction was successfully traversed by the stent delivery system in a parallel alignment to inflated balloon. Balloon mounted stent was deployed at the site of restenosis with near complete resolution of lumen narrowing delivery and improvement in clinical symptoms. We report a technique for realignment and diameter change with concurrent placement and partial inflation of angioplasty balloon at the jugular venous bulb to facilitate stent delivery into the sigmoid and transverse venous sinuses in circumstances where multiple attempts at stent delivery are unsuccessful.

  13. Internal jugular vein thrombosis associated with venous hypoplasia and protein S deficiency revealed by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Gun; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Heezoo; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Mi Kyoung

    2011-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman, who had no thrombotic risk factors and past history except congenital scoliosis, underwent central venous catheterization (CVC) before correction of the scoliosis. When internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization using the anatomical landmark technique failed, CVC under ultrasound guidance was tried. As a consequence, thrombosis and hypoplasia of the right IJV were incidentally detected by ultrasonography. Central venous catheters were then successfully placed in other veins under ultrasound guidance. Also, after examinations to rule out the possibility of pulmonary embolism and to clarify the causes of the IJV thrombosis, the patient was found to have protein S deficiency. CVC under ultrasound guidance should be recommended to prevent the failure of cannulation and complications such as thromboembolism in patients who could possibly have anomalies of vessels as a result of anatomical deformities caused by severe scoliosis, even if patients do not have thrombotic risk factors such as a history of central catheter insertion or intravenous drug abuse, cancer, advanced age, cerebral infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction. Also, if venous thrombosis is found in patients without predisposing risk factors, one should ascertain the cause of the hypercoagulable state, for example protein S deficiency, and perform appropriate treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

  14. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-10-01

    Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p<0.05) but not in the collar group (p>0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. NCT02696200. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Comparison of subcutaneous central venous port via jugular and subclavian access in 347 patients at a single center

    PubMed Central

    ARIBAŞ, BILGIN KADRI; ARDA, KEMAL; ARIBAŞ, ÖZGE; ÇILEDAĞ, NAZAN; YOLOĞLU, ZEYNEL; AKTAŞ, ELIF; SEBER, TURGUT; KAVAK, ŞEYHMUS; COŞAR, YUSUF; KAYGUSUZ, HIDIR; TEKIN, EKREM

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether patency times, including complications of subcutaneous venous chest port insertion using ultrasonography (US) guidance, differ between jugular and subclavian venous access. Between December 2008 and July 2010, subcutaneous venous chest ports were placed in 347 patients by an experienced team. All single-lumen port catheters were placed into jugular and subclavian veins under US and fluoroscopy guidance. Patency times and complication rates of ports via these routes were compared and the variables were age, gender, access, site of malignancy and coagulation parameters. The success of the jugular and subclavian groups was compared by univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the multivariable Cox regression test. A total of 15 patients underwent port removal due to complications. As a rate per 100 catheter days, ports were explanted in 7 (0.0092) due to thrombosis, 4 (0.0053) for catheter malposition, one each (0.0013) of port reservoir flip-over, bleeding, port pocket infection, skin necrosis and incision dehiscence, for a total of 15 patients (0.0197). Patency times were not different in the jugular and subclavian veins. Factors were not significant, with the exception of platelet count. There was no significant difference in patency times, including complications, between jugular vein access and subclavian vein access using US. This should be considered when selecting the access method. PMID:23170125

  16. Successful Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Vein Compression (May-Thurner) Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oguzkurt, Levent, E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Tercan, Fahri; Sener, Mesut

    2006-06-15

    A 10-year-old boy presented to our clinic with left lower extremity swelling present for 1 year with deterioration of symptoms during the prior month. Laboratory investigation for deep vein thrombosis was negative. Venography and computed tomography scan of the pelvis showed compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. A diagnosis of iliac vein compression syndrome was made. After venography, endovascular treatment was planned. The stenosis did not respond to balloon dilatation and a 12 mm Wallstent was placed with successful outcome. The patient's symptoms improved but did not resolve completely, probably due to amore » chronically occluded left superficial femoral vein that did not respond to endovascular recanalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome with stent placement in a pediatric patient.« less

  17. Long-term follow-up of saphenous vein, internal jugular vein, and knitted Dacron patches for carotid artery endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, G R; Kalish, J A; Lee, A M; Adelman, M A; Riles, T S; Landis, R

    2001-05-01

    To determine whether choice of material used for patch closure following carotid artery endarterectomy (CAE) influences rates of early or late restenosis, stroke, and death, 274 consecutive CAEs were retrospectively reviewed. Saphenous vein (SV) was used in 159 (58.0%) procedures; everted, double-thickness jugular vein (JV) was used in 25 (9.1%); and knitted Dacron (KD) was used in 90 (32.9%). Primary closure was not used in this series. There were four perioperative strokes: two (1.3%) in SV, one (4%) in JV, and one (1.1%) in KD (NS). Follow-up was obtained on 263 (96%) operated arteries (mean 41.5 months). Duplex scan results were available for 236 (89.7%) of these arteries (mean follow-up time 33.7 months). There were three (2%) late strokes in SV and two (2.2%) in KD (NS). In long-term follow-up, one patient (0.7%) in SV and two (2.4%) in KD developed > 80% stenosis (NS). One patient (0.7%) in SV, one (5.3%) in JV, and one (1.2%) in KD had total occlusion of the operated vessel (NS). Three procedures (2.2%) in SV, 1 (5.3%) in JV, and 7 (8.5%) in KD demonstrated moderate stenosis (50-79%) (NS). Three-year follow-up shows that choice of patch material does not affect early or late stroke rate, stroke-related death rate, rate of high-grade (> 80%) restenosis, or rate of total occlusion. There is a higher incidence of moderate stenosis in KD. Although our results and a review of the literature do not indicate that these patients are at increased risk for symptoms or progression of stenosis, they should be followed by duplex scanning to ensure that this is the case.

  18. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie

    2017-10-01

    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600 °C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  19. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  20. Life-threatening hemothorax due to azygos vein rupture after chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Euiseok; Jeong, WonJoon; Lee, JunWan; Kim, SeungWhan

    2014-11-01

    Hemothorax is not an uncommon cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR)–related complication. But hemothorax related to azygos vein injury (AVI) is a rare condition following blunt chest trauma, with no report of CPR-related AVI in the literature. We present a case of azygosve in rupture in a middle-aged woman after repeated chest compression during 1 hour of CPR. She eventually presented with massive hemothorax due to azygos vein rupture diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). When faced with a patient with massive hemothorax after chest compression, azygos vein rupture should be considered as a complication.

  1. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar, E-mail: prabathmondel@gmail.com; Anand, Sunanda, E-mail: sunandaanand@gmail.com; Limaye, Uday S., E-mail: uslkem@gmail.com

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinicalmore » presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.« less

  2. Adult Mouse Venous Hypertension Model: Common Carotid Artery to External Jugular Vein Anastomosis.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Tai; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Ana; Walker, Espen J.; Young, William L.; Su, Hua; Lawton, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the pathophysiology of brain arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas has improved thanks to animal models. A rat model creating an artificial fistula between the common carotid artery (CCA) and the external jugular vein (EJV) has been widely described and proved technically feasible. This construct provokes a consistent cerebral venous hypertension (CVH), and therefore has helped studying the contribution of venous hypertension to formation, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of brain AVMs and dural AVFs. Equivalent mice models have been only scarcely described and have shown trouble with stenosis of the fistula. An established murine model would allow the study of not only pathophysiology but also potential genetic therapies for these cerebrovascular diseases. We present a model of arteriovenous fistula that produces a durable intracranial venous hypertension in the mouse. Microsurgical anastomosis of the murine CCA and EJV can be difficult due to diminutive anatomy and frequently result in a non-patent fistula. In this step-by-step protocol we address all the important challenges encountered during this procedure. Avoiding excessive retraction of the vein during the exposure, using 11-0 sutures instead of 10-0, and making a carefully planned end-to-side anastomosis are some of the critical steps. Although this method requires advanced microsurgical skills and a longer learning curve that the equivalent in the rat, it can be consistently developed. This novel model has been designed to integrate transgenic mouse techniques with a previously well-established experimental system that has proved useful to study brain AVMs and dural AVFs. By opening the possibility of using transgenic mice, a broader spectrum of valid models can be achieved and genetic treatments can also be tested. The experimental construct could also be further adapted to the study of other cerebrovascular diseases related with venous hypertension such as migraine

  3. Graduated compression stockings to prevent deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Linda; Lamont, Sue

    This article describes the correct use and length of graduated elastic compression stockings to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in general surgical patients. The authors aim to establish whether above or below knee stockings are more effective in the prevention of DVTs, discuss anti-embolic prophylaxis and offer advice on the appropriate management of patients.

  4. Ligation of the Jugular Veins Does Not Result in Brain Inflammation or Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Pulli, Benjamin; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Ueno, Takuya; Waterman, Peter; Truelove, Jessica; Oklu, Rahmi; Chen, John W.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative hypothesis has been proposed implicating chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a potential cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis in a controlled animal model. Animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care committee. The jugular veins in SJL mice were ligated bilaterally (n = 20), and the mice were observed for up to six months after ligation. Sham-operated mice (n = 15) and mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (n = 8) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. The animals were evaluated using CT venography and 99mTc-exametazime to assess for structural and hemodynamic changes. Imaging was performed to evaluate for signs of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neuroinflammation. Flow cytometry and histopathology were performed to assess inflammatory cell populations and demyelination. There were both structural changes (stenosis, collaterals) in the jugular venous drainage and hemodynamic disturbances in the brain on Tc99m-exametazime scintigraphy (p = 0.024). In the JVL mice, gadolinium MRI and immunofluorescence imaging for barrier molecules did not reveal evidence of BBB breakdown (p = 0.58). Myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase, and protease molecular imaging did not reveal signs of increased neuroinflammation (all p>0.05). Flow cytometry and histopathology also did not reveal increase in inflammatory cell infiltration or population shifts. No evidence of demyelination was found, and the mice remained without clinical signs. Despite the structural and hemodynamic changes, we did not identify changes in the BBB permeability, neuroinflammation, demyelination, or clinical signs in the JVL group compared to the sham group. Therefore, our murine model does not support CCSVI as a cause of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:22457780

  5. Prediction of the biomechanical effects of compression therapy on deep veins using finite element modelling.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Badel, Pierre; Lun, Bertrand; Rastel, Didier; Avril, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    Clinicians generally assume that Medical Compression Stockings (MCS) work by reducing vein luminal diameter and, in this way, help to prevent blood pooling. Conflicting results have been reported however in the case of lower leg deep veins which call into question this hypothesis. The purpose of this contribution is to study the biomechanical response of the main lower leg deep veins to elastic compression and muscle contraction with the objective of improving our current understanding of the mechanism by which MCS convey their benefits. The development of a finite-element model of a slice of the lower leg from MR images is detailed. Analysis of the finite-element model shows that the contribution of the MCS to the deep vein diameter reduction is rather small, and in fact negligible, compared to that of the contracting muscle (3 and 9% decrease in the vein cross-sectional area with a grade II compression stocking in the supine and standing positions respectively, while complete collapse was obtained at the end of muscle activation). A more accurate representation of the muscle activation is eventually proposed to study the effect of muscle contraction on a vein wall. The impact on the venous blood draining is discussed.

  6. Puncture point-traction method: A novel method applied for right internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    WU, TIANLIANG; ZANG, HONGCHENG

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound probe and advancement of the needle during real-time ultrasound-assisted guidance of catheterization of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) tend to collapse the vein, which reduces the success rate of the procedure. We have developed a novel puncture point-traction method (PPTM) to facilitate RIJV cannulation. The present study examined whether this method facilitated the performance of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients. In this study, 120 patients were randomly assigned to a group in which PPTM was performed (PPTM group, n=60) or a group in which it was not performed (non-PPTM group, n=60). One patient was excluded because of internal carotid artery puncture and 119 patients remained for analysis. The cross-sectional area (CSA), anteroposterior diameter (AD) and transverse diameter (TD) of the RIJV at the cricoid cartilage level following the induction of anesthesia and during catheterization were measured, and the number with obvious loss of resistance (NOLR), the number with easy aspiration of blood into syringe (NEABS) during advancement of the needle, and the number of first-pass punctures (NFPP) during catheterization were determined. In the non-PPTM group, the CSA was smaller during catheterization compared with that following the induction of anesthesia (P<0.01). In the PPTM group compared with the non-PPTM group during catheterization, the CSA was larger (P<0.01) and the AD (P<0.01) and TD (P<0.05) were wider; NOLR (P<0.01), NEABS (P<0.01) and NFPP (P<0.01) increased significantly. The findings from this study confirmed that the PPTM facilitated catheterization of the RIJV and improved the success rate of RIJV catheterization in anesthetized patients in the supine position. PMID:27347054

  7. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided placement of central venous port systems via the right internal jugular vein in elderly oncologic patients: our single-center experience and protocol.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Alfonso; Mauriello, Claudio; Ferronetti, Antonio; Marte, Gianpaolo; Di Maio, Vittorio; Ciorra, Guido; Esposito, Maria Grazia; Giuliano, Maria Elena; Fregola, Giovanni; Barra, Luigi; Cuzzovaglia, Salvatore; Bottino, Vincenzo; Maida, Pietro

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound-guidance has become the routine method for internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization reducing dramatically failure and complication rates for central venous port (CVP) placement. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided IJV CVP placement in elderly oncologic patients. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 101 elderly oncological patients underwent right IJV CVP placement under ultrasound-guidance. The length of catheter introduction ranged from 18 to 21 cm. Intraoperative fluoroscopy (IF) was always performed intraoperatively. Chest X-ray (CXR) was always performed 30 min after the end of the procedure. The morbidity rate was 1.98%; two arterial punctures were reported with one self-limiting hematoma. Two patients (1.98%) had catheter misplacements, recognized by intraoperative IF. No patients (0%) experienced pneumothorax (PNX), confirmed at CXR. Patients were all discharged at maximum 6 h from the procedure. The risk of catheter misplacement, PNX, and arterial/nerve puncture remains present with this technique. Lower rates of catheter misplacement have been reported after right IJV puncture, probably for its straight vertical course. Our results are in accordance with literature (1 counter-lateral subclavian vein and 1 counter-lateral internal jugular vein misplacements). All misplacements were detected intraoperatively. The PNX rates after cannulation of the IJV vary between 0.0 and 0.5%. We had no PNX occurrence. Ultrasonography (US) has improved safety and effectiveness of port system placements. While routine post-procedural CXR seems avoidable, IF should be considered mandatory.

  8. New treatment of vertigo caused by jugular bulb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hitier, Martin; Barbier, Charlotte; Marie-Aude, Thenint; Moreau, Sylvain; Courtheoux, Patrick; Patron, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Jugular bulb abnormalities can induce tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Vertigo can be very disabling and may need surgical treatments with risk of hearing loss, major bleeding or facial palsy. Hence, we have developed a new treatment for vertigo caused by jugular bulb anomalies, using an endovascular technique. Three patients presented with severe vertigos mostly induced by high venous pressure. One patient showed downbeat vertical nystagmus during the Valsalva maneuver. The temporal-bone computed tomography scan showed a high rising jugular bulb or a jugular bulb diverticulum with dehiscence and compression of the vestibular aqueduct in all cases. We plugged the upper part of the bulb with coils, and we used a stent to maintain the coils and preserving the venous permeability. After 12- to 24-month follow-up, those patients experienced no more vertigo, allowing return to work. The 3-month arteriographs showed good permeability of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb through the stent, with complete obstruction of the upper part of the bulb in all cases. Disabling vertigo induced by jugular bulb abnormalities can be effectively treated by an endovascular technique. This technique is minimally invasive with a probable greater benefit/risk ratio compare with surgery. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    PubMed

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  10. Comparison of the diameter, cross-sectional area, and position of the left and right internal jugular vein and carotid artery in adults using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bos, Michaël J; van Loon, Rick F H J; Heywood, Luke; Morse, Mitchell P; van Zundert, André A J

    2016-08-01

    Central venous access is indicated for transduction of central venous pressure and the administration of inotropes in the perioperative period. The right internal jugular vein (RIJV) is cannulated preferentially over the left internal jugular vein (LIJV). Cannulation of the LIJV is associated with a higher complication rate and a perceived increased level of difficulty when compared with cannulation of the RIJV. Possible explanations for the higher complication rate include a smaller diameter and more anterior position relative to the corresponding carotid artery (CA) of the LIJV compared with the RIJV. In this study, the RIJV and LIJV were examined in mechanically ventilated patients to determine the validity of these possible explanations. A prospective, nonrandomized cohort study. The operating room of a major teaching hospital. One hundred fifty-one patients scheduled for elective heart surgery. Ultrasound examination of the RIJV and LIJV at the level of the cricoid cartilage with a 12-MHz linear transducer in 151 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated patients in the Trendelenburg position. In 72% of patients, the RIJV was dominant over the LIJV. The diameter and cross-sectional area of the RIJV was larger than the LIJV (P < .001). An anterior position of the LIJV in relation to the left CA was detected more often when compared with the RIJV and right CA (15.1% vs 5.4%, P = .01). This study confirms the smaller diameter and increased frequency of anterior positioning relative to the corresponding CA of the LIJV when compared with the RIJV. This validates them as possible explanations for the higher complication rate of LIJV cannulation compared with RIJV cannulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy-Guided Placement of Central Venous Ports via Internal Jugular Vein: Retrospective Analysis of 1254 Port Implantations at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Se Jin; Chung, Jin Wook; An, Sang Bu; Yin, Yong Hu; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the technical success and complication rates of the radiologic placement of central venous ports via the internal jugular vein. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1254 central venous ports implanted at our institution between August 2002 and October 2009. All procedures were guided by using ultrasound and fluoroscopy. Catheter maintenance days, technical success rates, peri-procedural, as well as early and late complication rates were evaluated based on the interventional radiologic reports and patient medical records. Results A total of 433386 catheter maintenance days (mean, 350 days; range 0-1165 days) were recorded. The technical success rate was 99.9% and a total of 61 complications occurred (5%), resulting in a post-procedural complication rate of 0.129 of 1000 catheter days. Among them, peri-procedural complications within 24 hours occurred in five patients (0.4%). There were 56 post-procedural complications including 24 (1.9%, 0.055 of 1000 catheter days) early and 32 (2.6%, 0.074 of 1000 catheter days) late complications including, infection (0.6%, 0.018 of 10000 catheter days), thrombotic malfunction (1.4%, 0.040 of 1000 catheter days), nonthrombotic malfunction (0.9%, 0.025 of 1000 catheter days), venous thrombosis (0.5%, 0.014 of 1000 catheter days), as well as wound problems (1.1%, 0.032 of 1000 catheter days). Thirty six CVPs (3%) were removed due to complications. Bloodstream infections and venous thrombosis were the two main adverse events prolonging hospitalization (mean 13 days and 5 days, respectively). Conclusion Radiologic placement of a central venous port via the internal jugular vein is safe and efficient as evidenced by its high technical success rate and a very low complication rate. PMID:22563269

  12. Success Rate and Complications of Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization With and Without Ultrasonography Guide

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results: Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). Conclusions: The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications. PMID:25741514

  13. Success rate and complications of internal jugular vein catheterization with and without ultrasonography guide.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Faraji, Mehrdad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Asjodi, Gholamreza

    2014-12-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure in emergency departments (EDs). Despite existence of ultrasonography (US) devices in every ED, CVC is done using anatomical landmarks in many EDs in Iran. This study aimed to compare the traditional landmark method vs. US-guided method of CVC placement in terms of complications and success rate. In this randomized controlled trial, patients who were candidate for internal jugular vein catheterization, and referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital ED were randomly allocated into US-guided CVC and anatomical landmarks guided CVC groups. Central vein access time, number of attempts, success rate, and complications in each group were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Fisher exact tests along with Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. Out of 100 patients, 56 were male and 44 were female. No significant differences were found between the US-guided and traditional landmark methods of CVC insertion in terms of age, gender, BMI, and site of catheter insertion. The mean access time was significantly lower in the US-guided group (37.12 ± 17.33 s vs. 63.42 ± 35.19 s, P < 0.001). The mean number of attempts was also significantly lower in the US-guided group (1.12 ± 0.3 vs. 1.58 ± 0.64 times, P < 0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients in the US-guided group were catheterized in the first attempt, while 50% of patients in the traditional landmark group were catheterized in the second or more attempts (P < 0.001). The success rate was 100% in the US-guided group, while it was 88% in the landmark group (P = 0.013). Moreover, the rate of complications was significantly lower in the US-guided group (4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). The US-guided method for CVC placement was superior to the traditional landmark method in terms of access time, number of attempts, success rate, and fewer complications.

  14. Medial gastrocnemius vein aneurysm development after compressive trauma in the knee.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Francesco; Candia, Silvia; Scialpi, Renzo; Piccinin, Alfredo; Bruni, Antonio; Morettini, Giuseppe; Loreni, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Venous aneurysms are uncommon. They can involve both superficial and deep venous systems. We hereby present a unique case of gastrocnemius venous aneurysm developed after compressive knee trauma. Report A large venous aneurysm in the left popliteal fossa was detected by chance in a 44-year-old woman one month after a compressive trauma to the posterior surface of the knee. Magnetic resonance-imaging of the same knee had documented normal venous anatomy one year earlier. The venous aneurysm involved the medial gastrocnemius vein near its confluence in the popliteal vein and was surgically resected. Histopathology evidenced a true venous aneurysm. The patient was discharged under oral anticoagulation for three months. At one year follow-up, neither complications nor new venous aneurysm development was detected. Conclusions An accurate evaluation of the venous system is always mandatory after limb traumas which may lead to post-traumatic venous pseudo-aneurysms, as well as more rarely, true venous aneurysms in the lower extremities.

  15. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause. PMID:26251803

  16. Brain Slump Caused by Jugular Venous Stenoses Treated by Stenting: A Hypothesis to Link Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Nicholas; Trivedi, Rikin; Greenwood, Richard; Pickard, John

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, of which brain slump is an extreme expression, is caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leak. The reason the leak develops in the first place, however, is unknown, and some cases can be very difficult to manage. We describe a patient with severe symptoms of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and brain slump documented by magnetic resonance imaging whose clinical syndrome and structural brain anomaly resolved completely after treatment directed exclusively at improving cranial venous outflow. Diagnostics included computed tomography (CT) venography, catheter venography, and jugular venoplasty. CT venography showed narrowing of both internal jugular veins below the skull base. Catheter venography confirmed that these were associated with pressure gradients. Jugular venoplasty performed on two separate occasions as a clinical test gave temporary respite. Lasting remission (2 years of follow-up) was achieved by stenting the dominant internal jugular vein. These findings and this outcome suggest a mechanism for the development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that would link it to idiopathic intracranial hypertension and have cranial venous outflow obstruction as the underlying cause.

  17. Efficacy of graduated compression stockings for an additional 3 weeks after sclerotherapy treatment of reticular and telangiectatic leg veins.

    PubMed

    Nootheti, Pavan K; Cadag, Kristian M; Magpantay, Angela; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2009-01-01

    Sclerotherapy with post-treatment graduated compression remains the criterion standard for treating lower leg telangiectatic, reticular, and varicose veins, but the optimal duration for that postsclerotherapy compression is unknown. To determine whether 3 weeks of additional graduated compression with Class I compression stockings (20-30 mmHg) improves efficacy when used immediately after 1 week of Class II (30-40 mmHg) graduated compression stockings. Twenty-nine patients with reticular or telangiectatic leg veins were treated with sclerotherapy; one leg was assigned to wear Class II compression stocking for 1 week only, and the contralateral leg was assigned an additional 3 weeks of Class I graduated compression stocking. Postsclerotherapy pigmentation and bruising was significantly less with the addition of 3 weeks of Class I graduated compression stockings.

  18. Internal jugular vein sampling in adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a comparison with inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Dana; Huston, John; Young, William F; Carpenter, Paul C; Wermers, Robert A; Bonelli, Frank S; Powell, Claudia C

    2004-04-01

    Distinguishing between pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) and occult ectopic ACTH syndrome can be extremely difficult. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling has been shown to have the highest diagnostic accuracy in this subtype evaluation. Internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) has been reported as a potentially safer invasive alternative, but data are limited. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of bilateral IJVS and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) in patients with ACTH-dependent CS. We prospectively collected blood samples from the inferior petrosal sinus and internal jugular vein of consecutive patients with ACTH-dependent CS. The study group included 35 patients: 32 with pituitary-dependent CS (positive immunohistochemical findings for ACTH pituitary tumour or biochemical cure after pituitary surgery) and three with histologically proven ectopic ACTH syndrome. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling and bilateral IJVS were performed simultaneously before and after administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and ratios of central-to-peripheral ACTH concentrations were calculated. The basal IJVS central-to-peripheral ACTH ratios were diagnostic for pituitary-dependent CS (> 2) in 15 patients (46.9%), as were basal inferior petrosal sinus sampling central-to-peripheral ACTH ratios in 29 patients (90.6%). The post-CRH IJVS central-to-peripheral ACTH ratios were diagnostic for pituitary-dependent disease (> 3) in 24 patients (75%), as were post-CRH inferior petrosal sinus sampling central-to-peripheral ACTH ratios in 28 patients (87.5%). In the three patients with ectopic ACTH CS, the IJVS and inferior petrosal sinus sampling pre- and post-CRH ACTH ratios were correctly negative. The overall sensitivity of combined pre- or post-CRH was 81.3% for IJVS and 93.8% for inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Because of the difference between mean ratios in the two techniques, new criteria for IJVS were

  19. Hemodynamic effects of spiral ePTFE prosthesis compared with standard arteriovenous graft in a carotid to jugular vein porcine model.

    PubMed

    Jahrome, Ommid K; Hoefer, Imo; Houston, Graeme J; Stonebridge, Peter A; Blankestijn, Peter J; Moll, Frans L; de Borst, Gert J

    2011-01-01

    The primary patency rate of arteriovenous (AV) grafts is limited by distal venous anastomosis stenosis or occlusion due to intimal hyperplasia associated with distal graft turbulence. The normal blood flow in native arteries is spiral laminar flow. Standard vascular grafts do not produce spiral laminar flow at the distal anastomosis. Vascular grafts which induce a spiral laminar flow distally result in lower turbulence, particularly near the vessel wall. This initial study compares the hemodynamic effects of a spiral flow-inducing graft and a standard graft in a new AV carotid to jugular vein crossover graft porcine model. Four spiral flow grafts and 4 control grafts were implanted from the carotid artery to the contralateral jugular vein in 4 pigs. Two animals were terminated after 48 hours and 2 at 14 days. Graft patency was assessed by selective catheter digital angiography, and the flow pattern was assessed by intraoperative flow probe and color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) measurements. The spiral grafts were also assessed at enhanced flow rates using an external roller pump to simulate increased flow rates that may occur during dialysis using a standard dialysis needle cannulation. The method increased the flow rate through the graft by 660 ml/min. The graft distal anastomotic appearances were evaluated by explant histopathology. All grafts were patent at explantation with no complications. All anastomoses were found to be wide open and showed no significant angiographic stenosis at the distal anastomosis in both spiral and control grafts. CDU examinations showed a spiral flow pattern in the spiral graft and double helix pattern in the control graft. No gross histopathological effects were seen in either spiral or control grafts. This porcine model is robust and allows hemodynamic flow assessment up to 14 days postimplantation. The spiral flow-inducing grafts produced and maintained spiral flow at baseline and enhanced flow rates during dialysis needle

  20. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  1. Reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a bovine jugular vein graft fixed with a naturally occurring crosslinking agent (genipin) in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; Tsai, C C; Liang, H C; Sung, H W

    2001-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a newly developed biologic valved conduit fixed with genipin used to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract in a canine model. Fresh bovine jugular veins with a retained native valve procured from a slaughterhouse were used as raw materials to fabricate the valved conduits. A naturally occurring crosslinking agent, genipin, was used to fix the procured jugular veins. The glutaraldehyde-fixed counterpart was used as a control. A canine model was used in the study. Echocardiography revealed that the motion of the valvular leaflets in both the glutaraldehyde- and genipin-fixed conduits was satisfactory. The transvalvular pressure gradients of both studied groups were minimal. No endothelium-like cells were observed on the luminal surface of the conduit and the valvular leaflet for the glutaraldehyde-fixed group throughout the entire course of the study. In contrast, endothelium-like cells were observed on the entire surface of the genipin-fixed valved conduit retrieved at 6 months postoperatively in all the cases studied. There was no evidence of luminal fibrous peel in any the valved conduits studied. Degradation of valvular leaflet in one of the glutaraldehyde-fixed conduits was observed. In this particular case, thrombus formation was also observed on the surface of the valvular leaflet. On the other hand, no apparent degradation or thrombus formation was observed on the surfaces of the genipin-fixed valvular leaflet and conduit. A significantly more severe inflammatory reaction was observed for the glutaraldehyde-fixed conduit than for its genipin-fixed counterpart throughout the entire course of the study. The calcium contents of the samples before implantation and those retrieved at distinct implantation duration were minimal for both the glutaraldehyde- and genipin-fixed tissues. Although further studies are necessary, the genipin-fixed valved conduit appears to have great potential in helping mitigate the

  2. Effects of four different positive airway pressures on right internal jugular vein catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinghe; Xiao, Wangpin; An, Erdan; Zhou, Hongmei; Yan, Min

    2012-05-01

    The right internal jugular vein (RIJV) is often used for central venous catheterisation in patients undergoing major surgery. The efficacy of this route correlates with the diameter of the vein which can be influenced by airway pressure. To investigate four positive airway pressures (PAPs) in mechanically ventilated patients and to determine the most suitable of these for RIJV catheterisation. Prospective, randomised, controlled study. Two Chinese medical centres. Two hundred and forty patients scheduled for gastrointestinal tract surgery under general anaesthesia (male-to-female ratio, 135 : 105; American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status class, I-III; age range, 19-81 years); patients were excluded from the study if they had a history of haematological disease, external neck injury, RIJV catheterisation, severe cardiovascular disease, RIJV thrombosis, injection-site infection, pneumothorax and pulmonary bulla. They were randomised into four groups of 60, each to undergo RIJV catheterisation at a PAP of 0 (1 cmH2O = 0.098 kPa, group A); 15 (group B); 20 (group C); and 25 cmH2O (group D). Primary outcomes were central venous pressure (CVP) and RIJV cross-sectional area which were measured before and during PAP; the number of catheterisations completed in 30 s; the number of first pass punctures; heart rate and mean arterial pressure which were monitored continuously; and the incidence of complications which included local haematoma, pneumothorax and internal carotid artery (ICA) puncture. Two patients were excluded following ICA puncture, leaving 238 for analysis. In groups C and D, the CVP and the cross-sectional area of RIJV were significantly larger; the number completing catheterisation within 30 s and the number of first pass punctures increased significantly and was comparable between these two groups. Compared with groups A and B, the incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were significantly increased in groups C and D. The incidence of local

  3. Incidental Anatomic Finding of Celiacomesenteric Trunk Associated with 'Nutcracker Phenomenon,' or Compression of the Left Renal Vein.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joshua; Hage, Anthony N; Diljak, Stephan; Long, Benjamin D; Marcusa, Daniel P; Stribley, John M; Brzezinski, David W; Eliason, Jonathan

    2017-12-15

    BACKGROUND Celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) is a very rare anatomic finding in which the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) originate from the abdominal aorta through a common trunk. Clinical associations with CMT include arterial aneurysm, thrombosis, and celiac artery compression. However, an association between CMT and abdominal venous congestion caused by left renal vein compression, or 'nutcracker phenomenon,' has not been previously reported. CASE REPORT A 91-year-old woman, who died from a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), underwent a cadaveric examination at our medical school. On examination of the abdomen, there was an incidental finding of CMT. The arterial and venous diameters were measured, and vascular histopathology was undertaken. The vascular anatomy was consistent with CMT type 1-b. Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) (left renal vein compression) was seen anatomically as dilatation and engorgement of the left renal vein, relative to the right renal vein (10.77±0.13 mm vs. 4.49±0.56 mm, respectively), and dilatation and engorgement of the left ovarian vein, relative to the right ovarian vein (4.37±0.15 mm vs. 1.06±0.09 mm, respectively) with left ovarian varicocele. The aortoceliac angle (ACA) and the aortomesenteric angle (AMA) approached zero degrees. CONCLUSIONS We have described a rare anatomic finding of CMT that created an acute AMA and NCP. Awareness of this rare association between CMT and NCP by clinicians, vascular surgeons, and radiologists may be of value in the future evaluation and surgical management of patients who present clinically with 'nutcracker syndrome.'

  4. Preoperative ultrasonographic findings of internal jugular veins and carotid arteries in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Kim, Gaab Soo; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Jeong Bo; Lee, Jeong Jin; Ko, Justin Sangwook

    2016-08-01

    Hemodialysis via the internal jugular vein (IJV) has been widely used for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, as they have a higher risk of arterial diseases. We investigated the ultrasonographic findings of the IJV and carotid artery (CA) in recipients of kidney transplantation (KT) and identified factors influencing IJV/CA abnormalities. We enrolled 120 adult KT recipients. Patients in group A (n = 57) had a history of IJV hemodialysis, while those in group B (n = 63) were not yet on dialysis or undergoing dialysis methods not involving the IJV. The day before surgery, we evaluated the state of the IJV and CA using ultrasonography. We followed patients with IJV stenosis for six months after KT. Ultrasonography revealed that four patients (7%) in group A had IJV abnormalities, while no patients in group B had abnormalities (P = 0.118). Of the four patients with abnormalities, one with 57.4% stenosis normalized during follow- up. However, another patient with 90.1% stenosis progressed to occlusion, while the two patients with total occlusion remained the same. Twenty patients in group A (n = 11) and B (n = 9) had several CA abnormalities (P = 0.462). Upon multivariate analysis with stepwise selection, height and age were significantly correlated with IJV stenosis (P = 0.043, odds ratio = 0.9) and CA abnormality (P = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.1), respectively. IJV abnormalities (especially with a history of IJV hemodialysis) and CA abnormalities may be present in ESRD patients. Therefore, we recommend ultrasonographic evaluation before catheterization.

  5. Cross-sectional area variations of internal jugular veins during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a prospective diagnostic controlled study with duplex ultrasound investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Normally, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been studied using echo-colour Doppler (ECD). Subjects are examined in the supine and sitting positions, in accordance with a static protocol without rotation of the head. A dynamic approach, to assess venous sizes with different degrees of head rotation, has only been performed to improve jugular venous catheterisation. These echographic studies have suggested that head rotation to the contralateral side increases the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in supine subjects. Our goal was to evaluate the behaviour of CSA of the IJVs during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with CCSVI, compared to healthy controls (HCs). Methods The IJVs of 313 MS patients with CCSVI (male 43.8%, male/female 137/176; mean age 45 years old, range 19–77 years) and 298 HCs, matched by gender (male 43.6%, male/female 130/168) and age (mean age 46 years old, range 20–79 years), were compared using ECD. Their CSAs were evaluated with the subjects seated in a tiltable chair, first in the supine position at the level of the cricoid cartilage, with the head in a neutral position, and then after contralateral rotation to 90° from midline. Results Significant differences between the jugular CSAs before and after head rotation were observed only in the MS patients for the IJVs with wall collapse (F[6,1215] = 6414.57, p < 0.001), showing on longitudinal scans a typical “hourglass” aspect that we defined as “miopragic”. No significant difference was found in the distribution of these miopragic veins with regard to MS duration. There was a strong association between the CCSVI scores and the complexity of jugular morphological types (Χ2 [9, N = 313] = 75.183, p < 0.001). Wall miopragia was mainly observed in MS patients with SP (59.3%) and PP (70.0%) clinical forms, compared to RR (48.3%) forms (p = 0.015). Conclusion A dynamic ECD

  6. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  7. Efficacy of gradual pressure-decline compressing stockings in Asian patients with lower leg varicose veins: analysis by general measurements and magnetic resonance image.

    PubMed

    Leung, T K; Lin, J M; Chu, C L; Wu, Y S; Chao, Y J

    2012-12-01

    Most applications of gradual pressure-decline compressing stockings (GPDCS) are used in the United States and Western European countries, with over a decade of clinical experiments. Up to know, there is no standard establishment of gradual pressure-decline compressing stockings for Asian patients with venous insufficiency and varicose vein formations. We collected data on volunteer candidates of varicose vein for general measurements and assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by non-contrast enhanced MRV techniques, and for post processing data analysis. Clinical use of GPCDS provide a mild to moderate improvement in the varicose vein conditions of patients with deep venous insufficiency by improving their deep vein circulation, by general measurements; recording major symptoms and complaint; comfort and stretching/flexibility to the candidates after using GPDCS; and area changes/flow velocity changes/available hemoglobin changes in deep veins monitored by MRI. The benefits and data collected in these results may help in developing compression stockings standards in Taiwanese and Asian countries, and to establishing criterias for product sizes, compression levels, and related parameters.

  8. Calcification resistance for photooxidatively crosslinked acellular bovine jugular vein conduits in right-side heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei-Dong; Wang, An-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Tie-Hui; Lei, Guang-Yan; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of decellularization plus photooxidative crosslinking and ethanol pretreatment on bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Photooxidatively crosslinked acellular (PCA) bovine jugular vein conduits (BJVCs) and their photooxidized controls (n = 5 each) were sterilized in a graded concentration of ethanol solutions for 4 h, and used to reconstruct dog right ventricular outflow tracts. At 1-year implantation, echocardiography showed similar hemodynamic performance, but obvious calcification for the photooxidized BJVC walls. Further histological examination showed intense calcium deposition colocalized with slightly degraded elastic fibers in the photooxidized BJVC walls, with sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the valves and other areas of walls. But PCA BJVCs had apparent degradation of elastic fibers in the walls, with only sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the walls and valves. Content assay demonstrated comparable calcium content for the two groups at preimplantation, whereas less calcium for the PCA group in the walls and similar calcium in the valvular leaflets compared with the photooxidized group at 1-year retrieval. Elastin content assay presented the conduit walls of PCA group had less elastin content at preimplantation, but similar content at 1-year retrieval compared with the photooxidized group. Phospholipid analysis showed phospholipid extraction by ethanol for the PCA group was more efficacious than the photooxidized group. These results indicate that PCA BJVCs resist calcification in right-side heart implantation owing to decellularization, further photooxidative crosslinking, and subsequent phospholipid extraction by ethanol at preimplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of the jugular bulb: a radiologic study.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, David R; Eubig, Jan; McGill, Megan; Babb, James S; Pramanik, Bidyut K; Lalwani, Anil K

    2011-10-01

    Jugular bulb (JB) abnormalities such as JB diverticulum and high-riding JBs of the temporal bone can erode into the inner ear and present with hearing loss, vestibular disturbance, and pulsatile tinnitus. Their cause and potential to progress remain to be studied. This comprehensive radiologic study investigates the postnatal development of the venous system from transverse sinus to internal jugular vein (IJV). Academic medical center. PATIENTS, INTERVENTION, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Measurements of the transverse and sigmoid sinus, the JB, IJV, and carotid artery were made from computed tomographic scans of the neck with intravenous contrast in infants (n = 5), children (n = 13), adults (n = 35), and the elderly (n = 15). Jugular bulbs were not detected in patients younger than 2 years, enlarged in adulthood, and remained stable in the elderly. The venous system was larger in men than in women. From transverse sinus to IJV, the greatest variation in size was just proximal and distal to the JB with greater symmetry observed as blood returned to the heart. Right-sided venous dominance was most common occurring in 70% to 80% of cases. The JB is a dynamic structure that forms after 2 years, and its size stabilizes in adulthood. The determinants in its exact position and size are multifactorial and may be related to blood flow. Improved understanding of this structure's development may help to better understand the cause of the high-riding JB and JB diverticulum, both of which may cause clinical symptoms.

  10. Head rotation during internal jugular vein cannulation and the risk of carotid artery puncture.

    PubMed

    Sulek, C A; Gravenstein, N; Blackshear, R H; Weiss, L

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a prospective laboratory study to examine the effect of head position on the relative positions of the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein (IJV). Volunteers (n = 12) from departmental staff, 18-60 yr of age, who had never undergone cannulation of the IJV underwent imaging of their IJV and carotid artery. With the subject in a 15 degrees Trendelenburg position, two-dimensional ultrasound images of the IJV and the carotid artery were obtained on the left and right sides of the neck at 2 and 4 cm from the clavicle along the lateral border of the sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at 0 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees of head rotation from the midline. The percent overlap of the carotid artery and IJV increased significantly at 40 degrees and 80 degrees head rotation to both the right and left (P < 0.05). Data from 2 and 4 cm above the clavicle did not differ and were pooled. The percent overlap was larger on the left than the right only with 80 degrees of head rotation (P < 0.05). The increased overlap of carotid artery and IJV with head rotation > 40 degrees increases the risk of inadvertent puncture of the carotid artery associated with the common occurrence of transfixion of the IJV before it is identified during needle withdrawal. The IJV frequently collapses with needle insertion. This may result in puncture of the posterior wall of the vessel, and thus of the carotid artery when the two vessels overlap. To decrease this risk, the head should be kept in as neutral a position as possible, that is < 40 degrees rotation, during IJV cannulation.

  11. Study of tibial nerve regeneration in Wistar rats in primary neurorrhaphy with and without gap, wrapped in vein segments.

    PubMed

    Bastos Dos Santos, Ewerton; Fernandes, Marcela; Gomes Dos Santos, João Baptista; Mattioli Leite, Vilnei; Valente, Sandra Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    This study compared nerve regeneration in Wistar rats, using epineural neurorrhaphy with a gap of 1.0 mm and without a gap, both wrapped with jugular vein tubes. Motor neurons in the spinal cord between L3 and S1 were used for the count, marked by exposure of the tibial nerve to Fluoro-Gold (FG). The tibial nerves on both sides were cut and sutured, with a gap on one side and no gap in the other. The sutures were wrapped with a jugular vein. Four months after surgery the tibial nerves were exposed to Fluoro-Gold and the motor neuron count performed in the spinal cord. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired Wilcoxon test. There was a statistical difference between the groups with and without gap in relation to the motor neuron count (p=0.013). The epineural neurorraphy without gap wrapped with jugular vein showed better results for nerve regeneration than the same procedure with gap. Experimental Study .

  12. [Mesenteric-cava shunt's results with autologous jugular vein graft in children with pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Leal, N; López Santamaría, M; Gámez, M; Murcia, J; Andolfi, G; Berrocal, T; Frauca, E; Jara, P; Tovar, J

    2002-07-01

    Presinusoidal portal hypertension (PPH) in children evaluates without functional hepatic damage, and with the time, trends to compensate through the creation of spontaneous portosystemic shunts. Nevertheless, some patients suffer episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) that because of its frequency or severity, force to propose the change of surgical treatment. To evaluate the results of the mesocaval shunt (MCS) with autologous jugular vein in children with PPH. Among the 32 children with PPH treated in our Hospital in the last 7 years, 10 had episodes of GIB that forced to perform a surgical shunt. The types of shunt were distal splenorenal in 3 patients and mesocaval in 7. These 7 cases are the material of this study. The origin of the PPH was a cavernomatosis transformation of the portal vein in 6 cases and a congenital hepatic fibrosis in 1. Before the surgery the average number of episodes of GIB was 9 (range 2-15); all the patients needed transfusion of blood products and variceal sclerosis. In 2 cases a tamponade with the Sengtaken balloon was required and 5 patients were treated with somatostatin and propranolol. The Doppler ultrasounds revealed and intense hepatofugal collateral circulation in all the cases. The initial flow through the shunt was adequate in all the patients except one who required a percutaneous balloon dilatation. Only this patient has suffered an episode of GIB. The hyperesplenism signs disappeared or improved in all the seven cases and the collateral circulation was significantly reduced. The pressure in the splenic territory decreased around 50% in the 4 patients that was measured. There were no cases of encephalopasty and only one child with congenital hepatic fibrosis shows signs of mild hepatic disfunction. The medium follow up post-shunt is 32 months (range 8 m-6 years). The MCS prevents the GIB in the PPH not responsive to the conservative treatment; its effectiveness is related with an adequate permeability though the graft

  13. Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Keir, Graham; Marshall, M Blair

    2017-02-01

    We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidental Anatomic Finding of Celiacomesenteric Trunk Associated with ‘Nutcracker Phenomenon,’ or Compression of the Left Renal Vein

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joshua; Hage, Anthony N.; Diljak, Stephan; Long, Benjamin D.; Marcusa, Daniel P.; Brzezinski, David W.; Eliason, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 91 Final Diagnosis: Nutcracker syndrome • celiacomesenteric trunk Symptoms: Dyspepsia • dysphagia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) is a very rare anatomic finding in which the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) originate from the abdominal aorta through a common trunk. Clinical associations with CMT include arterial aneurysm, thrombosis, and celiac artery compression. However, an association between CMT and abdominal venous congestion caused by left renal vein compression, or ‘nutcracker phenomenon,’ has not been previously reported. Case Report: A 91-year-old woman, who died from a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), underwent a cadaveric examination at our medical school. On examination of the abdomen, there was an incidental finding of CMT. The arterial and venous diameters were measured, and vascular histopathology was undertaken. The vascular anatomy was consistent with CMT type 1-b. Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) (left renal vein compression) was seen anatomically as dilatation and engorgement of the left renal vein, relative to the right renal vein (10.77±0.13 mm vs. 4.49±0.56 mm, respectively), and dilatation and engorgement of the left ovarian vein, relative to the right ovarian vein (4.37±0.15 mm vs. 1.06±0.09 mm, respectively) with left ovarian varicocele. The aortoceliac angle (ACA) and the aortomesenteric angle (AMA) approached zero degrees. Conclusions: We have described a rare anatomic finding of CMT that created an acute AMA and NCP. Awareness of this rare association between CMT and NCP by clinicians, vascular surgeons, and radiologists may be of value in the future evaluation and surgical management of patients who present clinically with ‘nutcracker syndrome.’ PMID:29242494

  15. Study of tibial nerve regeneration in Wistar rats in primary neurorrhaphy with and without gap, wrapped in vein segments

    PubMed Central

    Bastos dos Santos, Ewerton; Fernandes, Marcela; Gomes dos Santos, João Baptista; Mattioli Leite, Vilnei; Valente, Sandra Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study compared nerve regeneration in Wistar rats, using epineural neurorrhaphy with a gap of 1.0 mm and without a gap, both wrapped with jugular vein tubes. Motor neurons in the spinal cord between L3 and S1 were used for the count, marked by exposure of the tibial nerve to Fluoro-Gold (FG). Method The tibial nerves on both sides were cut and sutured, with a gap on one side and no gap in the other. The sutures were wrapped with a jugular vein. Four months after surgery the tibial nerves were exposed to Fluoro-Gold and the motor neuron count performed in the spinal cord. Results The results were statistically analyzed by the paired Wilcoxon test. There was a statistical difference between the groups with and without gap in relation to the motor neuron count (p=0.013). Conclusion The epineural neurorraphy without gap wrapped with jugular vein showed better results for nerve regeneration than the same procedure with gap. Level of Evidence: Experimental Study. PMID:24453597

  16. TrapEase inferior vena cava filter placement: use of the subclavian vein.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick A; Aburahma, Ali F; Hass, Stephen M; Hofeldt, Matthew J; Zimmerman, William B; Deel, John T; Deluca, John A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the safety and technical success of TrapEase inferior vena cava filter placement via the subclavian vein. As of yet, no reports in the literature have specifically investigated the use of the subclavian vein as a route for deploying TrapEase vena cava filters. Retrospective chart review was conducted of 135 patients with attempted TrapEase inferior vena cava filter placement over a 2-year period. In a majority of cases, the choice of subclavian vein approach was based primarily on surgeon preference. Other circumstances for subclavian vein deployment included cervical immobilization secondary to trauma, desire for concomitant placement of a subclavian long-term central venous access catheter, and patient body habitus limiting exposure to the internal jugular vein. One hundred and thirty-five filters were placed over this 2-year period. The internal jugular vein approach was used in 56 patients, the femoral vein approach in 39 patients, and the subclavian vein approach in 40 patients. Thirty-nine of the 40 TrapEase filter placements using the subclavian vein were successful. Twenty-six were deployed through the right subclavian vein and 14 through the left subclavian vein. The single failed subclavian deployment was due to the inability to pass the guidewire adequately into the inferior vena cava after successful cannulation of the right subclavian vein. The average deployment time for subclavian vein placement was 26 minutes when TrapEase filter placement was the only procedure performed. No insertional complications were encountered, specifically no pneumothoraces confirmed by chest radiography or fluoroscopy. The subclavian vein provides an alternative site of access for the TrapEase inferior vena cava filter. This route is comparable to other alternative methods evaluated both in average deployment time and complication occurrence. Furthermore, the subclavian vein route is valuable in patients with limited central access

  17. Spontaneous ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome and deep vein thrombosis in a non pregnant woman: case report.

    PubMed

    Attia, Leila; Azzabi, Samira; Ben Hassine, Lamia; Chachia, Abdelatif; Koubâa, Abdelhamid; Khalfallah, Narjes

    2007-12-01

    To assess aetiological factors and complications in a patient with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and internal jugular vein thrombosis. A 27-year-old non pregnant woman with bilateral ovarian masses who had underwent laparotomy for suspicion of malignant tumor. The pathological examination disclosed malignancy and the diagnosis of OHSS were confirmed. The postoperative evolution was complicated by internal jugular, subclavian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. All biological parameters were negative. The evolution was good. The incidence of thromboembolism in women with OHSS is low and the typical finding is deep venous thrombosis in the neck area. Preventive measure of OHSS is very important, and the patients must be treated timely and correctly once OHSS occurs.

  18. The bovine jugular vein: a totally integrated valved conduit to repair the right ventricular outflow.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Thierry; Berdat, Pascal; Pavlovic, Mladen; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre

    2002-07-01

    Current techniques to correct valvular anomalies of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) include repair and replacement of the pulmonary valve. However, the performance of currently used conduits has been less than ideal because of unfavorable hemodynamics and mid- to long-term complications. An early experience with a totally integrated Contegra valved conduit derived from a bovine jugular vein is reported; this conduit has the advantage that there is no discontinuity between its lumen and the valve it incorporates. Between October 1999 and October 2001, a total of 22 Contegra valved conduits (12-22 mm) was implanted in 21 children aged <5 years, and in one patient aged 21 years. Diagnosis included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 13), pulmonary atresia (n = 3), double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis (PS) (n = 3), transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect and PS (n = 2) and truncus arteriosus (n = 1). In 15 of these patients, distal and proximal anastomoses were performed on the beating heart. There was no mortality and no valved-conduit-related early morbidity. Intraoperative invasive assessment demonstrated excellent hemodynamic characteristics: mean peak pressure increase was 8.5+/-6.3 mmHg (varying between 4 mmHg in the 20-mm conduit and 18 mmHg in the 14-mm conduit). These values were confirmed by pre-discharge transthoracic pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Because of endocarditis, one conduit was explanted after 11 months and replaced with a pulmonary homograft. Two patients required reintervention. The Contegra valved conduit is an excellent immediate substitute in the treatment of RVOT lesion when a pulmonary valve has to be inserted. Both systolic and diastolic valve functions are promising. Further data are required to confirm the favorable hemodynamics, as well as the durability and efficacy of this conduit in the long term.

  19. Adaptation of the main peripheral artery and vein to long term confinement (Mars 500).

    PubMed

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition.

  20. Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)

    PubMed Central

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition. PMID:24475025

  1. [Extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedocus caused by cavernomatosis of the portal vein. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Carpani, M; Guma, C I; Casal, M A

    1982-01-01

    The extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedochus by a cavernomatosis of the portal vein, is an unusual pathology. The present case begun clinically as an obstructive jaundice, assuming that the vascular origin of the compression increased the litiasic biliary disease. The percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was the diagnostic method that suggested a double illness of the biliary system. The surgery and the pathology certificated the diagnosis. The correct treatment once confirmed the obstructive trial, must be: the extraction of the biliary gallstones and the bile-digestive derivation (preferently the hepatic-jejunum anastomosis in Y of Roux).

  2. Mild Jugular Compression Collar Ameliorated Changes in Brain Activation of Working Memory after One Soccer Season in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Dudley, Jonathan; Barber Foss, Kim D; Ellis, Jonathan D; Thomas, Staci; Galloway, Ryan T; DiCesare, Christopher A; Leach, James L; Adams, Janet; Maloney, Thomas; Gadd, Brooke; Smith, David; Epstein, Jeff N; Grooms, Dustin R; Logan, Kelsey; Howell, David R; Altaye, Mekibib; Myer, Gregory D

    2018-06-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that repetitive subconcussive head impacts, even after only one sport season, may lead to pre- to post-season structural and functional alterations in male high school football athletes. However, data on female athletes are limited. In the current investigation, we aimed to (1) assess the longitudinal pre- to post-season changes in functional MRI (fMRI) of working memory and working memory performance, (2) quantify the association between the pre- to post-season change in fMRI of working memory and the exposure to head impact and working memory performance, and (3) assess whether wearing a neck collar designed to reduce intracranial slosh via mild compression of the jugular veins can ameliorate the changes in fMRI brain activation observed in the female high school athletes who did not wear collars after a full soccer season. A total of 48 female high school soccer athletes (age range: 14.00-17.97 years) were included in the study. These athletes were assigned to the non-collar group (n = 21) or to the collar group (n = 27). All athletes undewent MRI at both pre-season and post-season. In each session, a fMRI verbal N-Back task was used to engage working memory. A significant pre- to post-season increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was demonstrated when performing the N-back working memory task in the non-collar group but not in the collar group, despite the comparable exposure to head impacts during the season between the two groups. The collar group demonstrated significantly smaller pre- to post-season change in fMRI BOLD signal than the non-collar group, suggesting a potential protective effect from the collar device. Significant correlations were also found between the pre- to post-season increase in fMRI brain activation and the decrease in task accuracy in the non-collar group, indicating an association between the compensatory mechanism in underlying neurophysiology and the alteration

  3. The Contegra bovine valved jugular vein conduit for pediatric RVOT reconstruction: 4 years experience with 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Thomas; Boethig, Dietmar; Goerg, Reiner; Thies, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Porcine xenografts for pediatric right ventricular outflow tractus (RVOT) reconstruction lack durability, homografts lack availability. The Contegra is a valve bearing bovine jugular vein. It is tear resistant, well pliable, and permits RVOT reconstruction without further foreign material. The 108 Contegras implanted in Bad Oeynhausen from May 1999 until January 2003 represent the largest single-center Contegra experience. The study gives the preliminary results from a controlled prospective multicenter trial aiming at FDA admission. The patients' diagnoses were truncus arteriosus (27%), double outlet right ventricle (14%), tetralogy of Fallot (48%), transposition of great arteries (6%), rare complex malformation (2%), and Ross procedure (1%). Fifty-eight were female. Age: 2 days to 20.1 years, mean: 4.3 +/- 5.2, median: 1.8 years. Thirty-three had primary implantations, 38 previous repairs, 37 conduit exchange. Total follow-up time: 227.7 years, mean: 2.1. About 848 echos were evaluated. Early mortality: 7.4% (8 patients); 1 late death. None was Contegra-related. Echocardiographic controls showed no relevant average valvular gradient development. Trace and mild-grade insufficiency is frequent, without tendency to increase. Average insufficiency is between trace and mild unless RV pressure remains under 100 mmHg. Average individual right/left ventricle length ratios did not increase over time. We saw no relevant conduit dilatation and no leaflet calcification. Pulmonary artery stenoses had mainly extrinsic reasons. At 4 years, freedom- from- event rates were: reoperation for Conduit inflow or valvular degeneration: 100%; reoperation for pulmonary artery branch stenoses (n = 10) 86%, explantation (n = 4): 92%. Survival: 91.7%. Contegra is worth being considered as an alternative to homografts.

  4. Percutaneous Vein Occlusion with Small Intestinal Submucosa: An Experimental Pilot Study in Swine and Sheep

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Hoppe, Hanno; Pavcnik, Dusan, E-mail: pavcnikd@ohsu.edu

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility, outcomes, and amount of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) material needed for embolization of jugular vein (JV) in a swine and sheep model. Our hypothesis was that SIS would cause vein occlusion. Materials and Methods. The external JVs (EJV) in swine (n = 6) and JVs in sheep (n = 6) were occluded with SIS fan-folded compressed strips. After percutaneous puncture of the peripheral portion of the EJV or JV, a TIPS set was used to exit their lumen centrally through the skin. The SIS strips were delivered into themore » isolated venous segment with a pull-through technique via a 10-Fr sheath. Follow-up venograms were done immediately after placement and at the time of sacrifice at 1 or 3 months. Gross examinations focused on the EJV or JV and their surrounding structures. Specimens were evaluated by histology. Results. SIS strip(s) placement was successful in all cases, with immediate vein occlusion seen in 23 of 24 veins (95.8%). All EJVs treated with two strips and all JVs treated with three or four strips remained closed on 1- and 3-month follow-up venograms. Two EJVs treated with one strip and one JV treated with two strips were partially patent on venograms at 1 and 3 months. There has been one skin inflammatory reaction. Necropsies revealed excluded EJV or JV segments with SIS incorporation into the vein wall. Histology demonstrated various stages of SIS remodeling with fibrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, capillaries, and inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We conclude that EJV and JV ablation with SIS strips using percutaneous exit catheterization is feasible and effective in animal models. Further exploration of SIS as vein ablation material is recommended.« less

  5. Innominate Vein Stenosis in Association with Ipsilateral Hyperdynamic Brachiobasilic Fistula Causing Ipsilateral Limb and Hemifacial Swelling.

    PubMed

    Narendra, J B; Sreenivas, J; Karthikeyan, V S; Nagaraja, N H

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old hypertensive woman with a hyperdynamic, left brachiobasilic dialysis fistula presented with a long history of throbbing in her head and swelling of the left side of the face. Tight stenosis of left brachiocephalic vein was found to be causing retrograde flow into the left jugular vein which normalized after dilatation and stenting with resolution of all the symptoms and patient is asymptomatic for 1 year.

  6. External jugular venous pressure as an alternative to conventional central venous pressure in right lobe donor hepatectomies.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohamed Hussein; Soliman, Hossam El Deen; Morad, Wessam Saber

    2011-12-01

    Many centers have adopted central vein cannulation both for central venous pressure monitoring and fluid administration for right hepatectomy in living-liver donors. However, use of central venous catheters is associated with adverse events that are hazardous to patients and expensive to treat. This study sought to examine the use of external jugular venous pressure as an alternative to conventional central venous pressure in right lobe donor hepatectomies Forty ASA grade I adult living liver-donors without a known history of significant cardiac or pulmonary diseases were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Paired measurement of venous pressures (external jugular venous pressure and internal jugular venous pressure) were taken at the following times: after induction of anesthesia, 30 minutes after skin incision, during right lobe mobilization (every 15 minutes), during hepatic transaction (every 15 minutes), after right lobe resection (every 15 minutes), and after abdominal closure. Paired measurements were equal in 47.5%, 53.5%, 61.5%, 46.3%, and 52.5% for after induction, after skin incision, right lobe mobilization, right lobe transection, after resection, and before abdominal closure periods. However, all measurements were within acceptable limits of bias measurements (± 2 mm Hg). Central venous pressure catheter placement can be avoided and replaced by a less-invasive method such as external jugular venous pressure (which gave an acceptable estimate of central venous pressure in all phases of right lobe resection) in living-donor liver transplant and allowed equivalent monitor even during fluid restriction phases.

  7. Use of intraoperative venography to guide the distal portion of a ventriculoatrial shunt past an obstruction in the central veins: technical case report.

    PubMed

    Momin, Eric N; Recinos, Pablo F; Coon, Alexander L; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2010-06-01

    Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunting is commonly used to treat hydrocephalus when ventriculoperitoneal shunting has failed. Placement of a VA shunt in patients with narrowing or occlusion of the central veins presents considerable difficulty because few imaging modalities exist to safely and reliably insert a guidewire or atrial catheter past the occlusion. We report the use of intraoperative venography to guide the placement of the distal portion of a VA shunt in a patient with a valve blocking the left brachiocephalic vein. A 42-year-old man with pseudotumor cerebri and a left ventriculoperitoneal shunt presented with severe headaches. He was diagnosed with partial distal shunt obstruction. Because of a history of failed attempts at ventriculoperitoneal shunting, conversion to a VA shunt via the left internal jugular vein was planned. Surgery was performed by using the standard technique until resistance was encountered when inserting a guidewire into the internal jugular vein. Intraoperative venography of the central veins was performed, which showed a large valve blocking progression of the guidewire in the left brachiocephalic vein. Using fluoroscopic guidance, a 0.035-inch guidewire was successfully directed through the vein past the obstruction and exchanged for a peel-away introducer. The distal shunt catheter was then inserted, and the correct position in the atrium was confirmed fluoroscopically. When obstruction of the central veins is found during a VA shunting procedure, intraoperative venography is a useful method to aid in the placement of the atrial catheter through the central veins.

  8. Effect of sequential pneumatic compression therapy on venous blood velocity, refilling time, pain and quality of life in women with varicose veins: a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Yamany, Abeer; Hamdy, Bassant

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sequential pneumatic compression therapy on venous blood flow, refilling time, pain level, and quality of life in women with varicose veins. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight females with varicose veins were selected and randomly allocated to a control group, and experimental group. Maximum and mean venous blood velocities, the refilling time, pain by visual analog scale and quality of life by Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire were measured in all patients before and after six weeks of treatment. Both groups received lower extremity exercises; in addition, patients in the experimental group received sequential pneumatic compression therapy for 30 minutes daily, five days a week for six weeks. [Results] All measured parameters improved significantly in both groups, comparison of post treatment measurements between groups showed that the maximum and mean blood flow velocity, the pain level, and quality of life were significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. On the other hand there was no significant difference between groups for refilling time. [Conclusion] Sequential pneumatic compression therapy with the applied parameters was an effective modality for increasing venous blood flow, reducing pain, and improving quality of women life with varicose veins. PMID:27512247

  9. Anatomy of the inferior petro-occipital vein and its relation to the base of the skull: application to surgical and endovascular procedures of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-07-01

    Although the inferior petro-occipital vein has been recently used for vascular access to the cavernous sinus, few detailed descriptions of its anatomy are in the literature. We aimed to investigate the morphology and relationships of this vessel. Twelve latex-injected cadaveric heads (24 sides) were dissected to identify the inferior petro-occipital vein and anatomic details documented. The petro-occipital vein was identified on 83.3% of sides. Generally this vein united the internal carotid venous plexus to the superior jugular bulb. However, on 10% of sides, the anterior part of this vein communicated directly with the cavernous sinus, and on 15%, the posterior vein drained into the inferior petrosal sinus at its termination into the superior jugular bulb. The petro-occipital vein was separated from the overlying inferior petrosal sinus by a thin plate of bone. On 40% of sides, small venous connections were found between these two venous structures. The vein was usually larger if a nondominant transverse sinus was present. The overlying inferior petrosal sinus was smaller in diameter when an underlying inferior petro-occipital vein was present. On 20% of sides, the posterior aspect of the vein communicated with the hypoglossal canal veins. On three sides, diploic veins from the clivus drained into the inferior petro-occipital vein. The inferior petro-occipital vein is present in most humans. This primarily extracranial vessel communicates with intracranial venous sinuses and should be considered an emissary vein. Knowledge of this vessel's exact anatomy may be useful to cranial base surgeons and endovascular specialists. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Moderate hypothermia suppresses jugular venous superoxide anion radical, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Koda, Yoichi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kaneda, Kotaro; Todani, Masaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Shitara, Masaki; Izumi, Tomonori; Kasaoka, Shunji; Yuasa, Makoto; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of moderate hypothermia (MH) on generation of jugular venous superoxide radical (O2-.), oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (FBI/R) rats. Twenty-one Wistar rats were allocated to a control group (n=7, 37 degrees C), a pre-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C before ischemia), and a post-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C after reperfusion). MH was induced before induction of ischemia in the pre-MH group and just after reperfusion in the post-MH group. Forebrain ischemia was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries with hemorrhagic hypotension for 10 min, followed by reperfusion. O(2)(-)(.) in the jugular vein was measured from the produced current using a novel O2-. sensor. The O2-. current showed a gradual increase during forebrain ischemia in the control and post-MH groups but was attenuated in the pre-MH group. Following reperfusion, the current showed a marked increase in the control group but was strongly attenuated in the pre- and post-MH groups. Concentrations of malondialdehyde, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the brain and plasma 120 min after reperfusion in the pre- and post-MH groups were significantly lower than those in the control group, except for plasma HMGB1 in the post-MH group. In conclusion, MH suppressed O2-. measured in the jugular vein, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in FBI/R rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline on hormone secretion and blood flow from the thyroid vein in sheep with exteriorized thyroids.

    PubMed

    Falconer, I R

    1967-02-01

    1. Emotional stimulus to the sheep has previously been shown to cause increased thyroid hormone secretion; the influence of adrenaline and noradrenaline in this process has been investigated.2. Sheep bearing exteriorized thyroid glands on carotid artery-jugular vein loops were used. Thyroid vein blood was collected through a cannula in the jugular vein within the loop, and blood flow was measured by a plethysmographic technique.3. (131)I (50 muc) was injected intramuscularly (I.M.) into the sheep, and 4-7 days later the concentration of total and protein bound (131)I in thyroid vein blood was measured in samples taken every 10 min for 4 hr. Intracarotid injections of 1 mug, I.V. injections of 5 mug, or I.V. infusions at 10 mug/min for 10 min, of adrenaline or noradrenaline were administered 1.5 hr after commencement of sampling. Blood flow from the thyroid was measured in similar experiments.4. No significant changes in thyroid hormone secretion could be attributed to adrenaline or noradrenaline, and it was concluded that circulating catecholamines do not influence the release of thyroid hormone observed after brief emotional stimulus in the sheep.

  12. Resection of a Large Innominate Vein Aneurysm in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Bartline, Peter B; McKellar, Stephen H; Kinikini, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Venous aneurysms are exceedingly rare manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). There are only a handful of cases reported, and no prior cases describing treatment of mediastinal venous aneurysms in this patient population exist. A 58-year-old woman with NF1 presented with a right neck mass. The mass had recently doubled in size and was associated with cough, hoarseness of voice, and pain. Her pertinent medical history included untreated obstructive sleep apnea, severe pulmonary hypertension, and a recent hospital admission for pneumonia. On physical examination, numerous cutaneous neurofibromas were noted. The mass encompassed her right neck and supraclavicular area with marked respiratory variation. Computed tomography showed a complex 7-cm venous aneurysm including her right innominate, internal jugular, and subclavian veins. Surgical approach involved median sternotomy with right cervical extension and a right infraclavicular counter incision. Extracorporeal circulation was established through the left groin. Ligation of the right internal jugular vein was required. The aneurysm was completely excised, and venous reconstruction consisted of cryopreserved femoral vein anastomosed to right innominate and infraclavicular subclavian veins. Intraoperatively, her preexisting pulmonary hypertension resulted in acute right heart failure requiring placement of a right ventricular assist device (RVAD). She subsequently returned to the operating room for RVAD weaning and sternal closure. Her postoperative course was lengthy; however, many of her aneurysm-related symptoms resolved. This case represents management of the only innominate vein aneurysm in the setting of NF1 described in the literature. Vascular reconstruction is possible, however difficult. Careful preoperative planning and use of extracorporeal circulation was necessary in this case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endovascular Approach to Glomus Jugulare Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Damian; Ślusarczyk, Wojciech; Przybyłko, Nikodem; Hofman, Mariusz; Jamróz, Tomasz; Suszyński, Krzysztof; Baron, Jan; Kwiek, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Paragangliomas are benign neuroendocrine tumors derived from the glomus cells of the vegetative nervous system. Typically, they are located in the region of the jugular bulb and middle ear. The optimal management is controversial and can include surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and embolization. We report the endovascular approach to three patients harboring glomus jugulare paragangliomas. In all cases incomplete occlusion of the lesions was achieved and recanalization in the follow-up period was revealed. Two patients presented no clinical improvement and the remaining one experienced a transient withdrawal of tinnitus. It is technically difficult to achieve complete obliteration of glomus jugulare tumors with the use of embolization and the subtotal occlusion poses a high risk of revascularization and is not beneficial in terms of alleviating clinical symptoms.

  14. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference

  15. Femoral vs jugular venous catheterization and risk of nosocomial events in adults requiring acute renal replacement therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Thirion, Marina; Mégarbane, Bruno; Souweine, Bertrand; Ouchikhe, Abdelali; Polito, Andrea; Forel, Jean-Marie; Marqué, Sophie; Misset, Benoît; Airapetian, Norair; Daurel, Claire; Mira, Jean-Paul; Ramakers, Michel; du Cheyron, Damien; Le Coutour, Xavier; Daubin, Cédric; Charbonneau, Pierre

    2008-05-28

    Based on concerns about the risk of infection, the jugular site is often preferred over the femoral site for short-term dialysis vascular access. To determine whether jugular catheterization decreases the risk of nosocomial complications compared with femoral catheterization. A concealed, randomized, multicenter, evaluator-blinded, parallel-group trial (the Cathedia Study) of 750 patients from a network of 9 tertiary care university medical centers and 3 general hospitals in France conducted between May 2004 and May 2007. The severely ill, bed-bound adults had a body mass index (BMI) of less than 45 and required a first catheter insertion for renal replacement therapy. Patients were randomized to receive jugular or femoral vein catheterization by operators experienced in placement at both sites. Rates of infectious complications, defined as catheter colonization on removal (primary end point), and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Patient and catheter characteristics, including duration of catheterization, were similar in both groups. More hematomas occurred in the jugular group than in the femoral group (13/366 patients [3.6%] vs 4/370 patients [1.1%], respectively; P = .03). The risk of catheter colonization at removal did not differ significantly between the femoral and jugular groups (incidence of 40.8 vs 35.7 per 1000 catheter-days; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-1.16; P = .31). A prespecified subgroup analysis demonstrated significant qualitative heterogeneity by BMI (P for the interaction term < .001). Jugular catheterization significantly increased incidence of catheter colonization vs femoral catheterization (45.4 vs 23.7 per 1000 catheter-days; HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.13-3.91; P = .017) in the lowest tercile (BMI <24.2), whereas jugular catheterization significantly decreased this incidence (24.5 vs 50.9 per 1000 catheter-days; HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.69; P < .001) in the highest tercile (BMI >28.4). The rate of catheter

  16. Endovascular Approach to Glomus Jugulare Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kocur, Damian; Ślusarczyk, Wojciech; Przybyłko, Nikodem; Hofman, Mariusz; Jamróz, Tomasz; Suszyński, Krzysztof; Baron, Jan; Kwiek, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Paragangliomas are benign neuroendocrine tumors derived from the glomus cells of the vegetative nervous system. Typically, they are located in the region of the jugular bulb and middle ear. The optimal management is controversial and can include surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and embolization. Case Report We report the endovascular approach to three patients harboring glomus jugulare paragangliomas. In all cases incomplete occlusion of the lesions was achieved and recanalization in the follow-up period was revealed. Two patients presented no clinical improvement and the remaining one experienced a transient withdrawal of tinnitus. Conclusions It is technically difficult to achieve complete obliteration of glomus jugulare tumors with the use of embolization and the subtotal occlusion poses a high risk of revascularization and is not beneficial in terms of alleviating clinical symptoms. PMID:28685005

  17. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data whenmore » Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was <25%. Bias was assessed using the Egger funnel plot test. Results: Across all studies, 97% of patients achieved tumor control, and 95% of patients achieved clinical control. Eight studies reported a mean or median follow-up time of >36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.« less

  18. Neurological sequelae from brachiocephalic vein stenosis.

    PubMed

    Herzig, David W; Stemer, Andrew B; Bell, Randy S; Liu, Ai-Hsi; Armonda, Rocco A; Bank, William O

    2013-05-01

    Stenosis of central veins (brachiocephalic vein [BCV] and superior vena cava) occurs in 30% of hemodialysis patients, rarely producing intracranial pathology. The authors present the first cases of BCV stenosis causing perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and myoclonic epilepsy. In the first case, a 73-year-old man on hemodialysis presented with headache and blurry vision, and was admitted with presumed idiopathic intracranial hypertension after negative CT studies and confirmatory lumbar puncture. The patient mildly improved until hospital Day 3, when he experienced a seizure; emergency CT scans showed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography failed to find any vascular abnormality, but demonstrated venous congestion. A fistulogram found left BCV occlusion with jugular reflux. The occlusion could not be reopened percutaneously and required open fistula ligation. Postoperatively, symptoms resolved and the patient remained intact at 7-month follow-up. In the second case, a 67-year-old woman on hemodialysis presented with right arm weakness and myoclonic jerks. Admission MRI revealed subcortical edema and a possible dural arteriovenous fistula. Cerebral angiography showed venous engorgement, but no vascular malformation. A fistulogram found left BCV stenosis with jugular reflux, which was immediately reversed with angioplasty and stent placement. Postprocedure the patient was seizure free, and her strength improved. Seven months later the patient presented in myoclonic status epilepticus, and a fistulogram revealed stent occlusion. Angioplasty successfully reopened the stent and she returned to baseline; she was seizure free at 4-month follow-up. Central venous stenosis is common with hemodialysis, but rarely presents with neurological findings. Prompt recognition and endovascular intervention can restore normal venous drainage and resolve symptoms.

  19. Contemporary management of jugular paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Haynes, David S; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-04-01

    Jugular paragangliomas are generally benign slow-growing tumors that can cause pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, and cranial nerves neuropathy. Progressive growth can also lead to intracranial extension. Historically, the treatment of choice for these lesions has been gross total resection. However, over the last 15 years, many groups have adopted less invasive management strategies including stereotactic radiation therapy, subtotal resection, and primary observation in order to reduce treatment-associated morbidity. The focus of this article is to review the modern management of jugular paraganglioma, highlighting the evolving treatment paradigm at the Otology Group of Vanderbilt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine and 3-hydroxy-N-methylpyridinium in the rat: dose-dependent effects after portal vein administration.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H E; Bourne, G R; Calvey, T N; Muir, K T

    1975-01-01

    1 The elimination kinectis of [14C]-pyridostigmine iodine and [14-C-methyl]-3-hydroxypyridinium bromide (3-OH NMP) have been studied in the rat. 2 For pyridostigmine, at a given dose level, the fraction of the dose eliminated unchanged was reduced and the metabolite fraction was increased after portal vein administration when compared to jugular vein administration. This indicates that pyridostigmine is subject to metabolism during the first passage through the liver. 3 When doses of pyridostigmine 1.25 mumol/kg and higher were injected via the portal vein, the proportion excreted in urine as unchanged drug remained constant; in contrast, the percentage of the dose eliminated as the metabolite was significantly reduced. This indicates that a dose-dependent process is involved in the urinary excretion of 3-OH NMP. 4 This conclusion was supported by studies involving the portal and systemic venous injection of 3-OH NMP at different dose levels. After 4 h, approximately85% of the lowest dose was eliminated unchanged in ug this period. The proportion of the dose eliminated in urine was not related to the route of administration. 5 After the injection of pyridostigmine into the jugular vein, the initial rate of drug excretion fell rapidly for approximately 10 min; in contrast, after injection into the portal vein, the rate of excretion of the drug rose to a maximum at 30 minutes. This suggests that the hepatoportal system behaves as a distinct region during the distribution of this drug. PMID:173444

  1. Investigation of adverse events associated with an off-label use of arterial stents and CE-marked iliac vein stents in the iliac vein: insights into developing a better iliac vein stent.

    PubMed

    Shida, Takuya; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    2018-06-01

    We analyzed the adverse events associated with an off-label use of arterial stents and CE-marked iliac vein stents for the treatment of iliac venous thromboembolism and investigated their relationships with the anatomical features of the iliac vein, to gain insights into the development of a better iliac vein stent. Reports of adverse events following the use of stents in the iliac vein were retrieved from the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database that contain suspected device-associated complications reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Data from 2006 to 2016 were investigated. The literature analysis was also conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science focusing on English articles published up to 4 October 2016. The analysis of 88 adverse events from the MAUDE database and 182 articles from the literature revealed that a higher number of adverse events had been reported following the use of arterial stents in the iliac vein compared to CE-marked iliac vein stents. While stent migration and shortening were reported only for the arterial stents, stent fracture and compression occurred regardless of the stent type, even though a vein does not pulsate. A study of the anatomical features of the iliac vein implies that bending, compression, and kink loads are applied to the iliac vein stents in vivo. For designing, developing, and pre-clinical testing of stents intended for use in the iliac vein, the above mechanical load environments induced by the anatomical features should be considered.

  2. Cyanoacrylate closure of incompetent great, small and accessory saphenous veins without the use of post-procedure compression: Initial outcomes of a post-market evaluation of the VenaSeal System (the WAVES Study).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kathleen; Ferris, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Cyanoacrylate closure of the great saphenous vein with the VenaSeal™ Closure System is a relatively new modality. Studies have been limited to moderate-sized great saphenous veins and some have mandated postoperative compression stockings. We report the results of a prospective study of cyanoacrylate closure for the treatment of great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins up to 20 mm in diameter. Methods Fifty subjects with symptomatic great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins incompetence were each treated at a single session. Compression stockings were not used post-procedure. Subjects returned to clinic at week 1 and again at one month. Post-procedure evaluations were performed at seven days and one month and included numerical pain rating score, revised venous clinical severity score, the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire score, and time to return to work and normal activities. Duplex ultrasound was performed at each visit. Findings Procedural pain was mild (numerical pain rating scale 2.2 ± 1.8). All treated veins (48 great saphenous vein, 14 accessory saphenous veins, and 8 small saphenous veins) had complete closure by duplex ultrasound at seven days and one month. Mean time to return to work and normal activities was 0.2 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 4.1 days, respectively. The revised venous clinical severity score was improved to 1.8 ± 1.4 ( p < .001) and Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire score to 8.9 ± 6.6 ( p < .001) at one month. Phlebitis in the treatment area or side branches occurred in 10 subjects (20%) and completely resolved in all but one subject (2%) by one month; 98% of subjects were "completely" or "somewhat" satisfied, and 2% "unsatisfied" with the procedure at one month, despite the protocol disallowance of concomitant side branch treatment. Conclusions Cyanoacrylate closure is safe and effective for the treatment of one or more

  3. A Systematic Review of Infective Endocarditis in Patients With Bovine Jugular Vein Valves Compared With Other Valve Types.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Cote, Anita T; Hosking, Martin C K; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits and valves, comparing bovine jugular vein (BJV) valves with all others. Recent evidence suggests that the incidence of IE is higher in patients with congenital heart disease who have undergone implantation of BJV valves in the pulmonary position compared with other valves. Systematic searches of published research were conducted using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL) and citations cross-referenced current to April 2016. Included studies met the following criteria: patients had undergone right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit or percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, and investigators reported on the type of conduit or valve implanted, method of intervention (surgery or catheter based), IE incidence, and follow-up time. Fifty studies (Levels of Evidence: 2 to 4) were identified involving 7,063 patients. The median cumulative incidence of IE was higher for BJV compared with other valves (5.4% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.0001) during a median follow-up period of 24.0 and 35.5 months, respectively (p = 0.03). For patients with BJV valves, the incidence of IE was not different between surgical and catheter-based valve implantation (p = 0.83). There was a higher incidence of endocarditis with BJV valves than other types of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduits. There was no difference in the incidence of endocarditis between catheter-based bovine valves and surgically implanted bovine valves, suggesting that the substrate for future infection is related to the tissue rather than the method of implantation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  5. Late-onset renal vein thrombosis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Jessica L.; Rosenthal, Stanton J.; Yarlagadda, Sri G.; Jones, Jill A.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Kumer, Sean C.; Kaplan, Bruce; Deas, Shenequa L.; Nawabi, Atta M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Renal vein thrombosis, a rare complication of renal transplantation, often causes graft loss. Diagnosis includes ultrasound with Doppler, and it is often treated with anticoagulation or mechanical thrombectomy. Success is improved with early diagnosis and institution of treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report here the case of a 29 year-old female with sudden development of very late-onset renal vein thrombosis after simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant. This resolved initially with thrombectomy, stenting and anticoagulation, but thrombosis recurred, necessitating operative intervention. Intraoperatively the renal vein was discovered to be compressed by a large ovarian cyst. DISCUSSION Compression of the renal vein by a lymphocele or hematoma is a known cause of thrombosis, but this is the first documented case of compression and thrombosis due to an ovarian cyst. CONCLUSION Early detection and treatment of renal vein thrombosis is paramount to restoring renal allograft function. Any woman of childbearing age may have thrombosis due to compression by an ovarian cyst, and screening for this possibility may improve long-term graft function in this population. PMID:25528029

  6. Late-onset renal vein thrombosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jessica L; Rosenthal, Stanton J; Yarlagadda, Sri G; Jones, Jill A; Schmitt, Timothy M; Kumer, Sean C; Kaplan, Bruce; Deas, Shenequa L; Nawabi, Atta M

    2015-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis, a rare complication of renal transplantation, often causes graft loss. Diagnosis includes ultrasound with Doppler, and it is often treated with anticoagulation or mechanical thrombectomy. Success is improved with early diagnosis and institution of treatment. We report here the case of a 29 year-old female with sudden development of very late-onset renal vein thrombosis after simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant. This resolved initially with thrombectomy, stenting and anticoagulation, but thrombosis recurred, necessitating operative intervention. Intraoperatively the renal vein was discovered to be compressed by a large ovarian cyst. Compression of the renal vein by a lymphocele or hematoma is a known cause of thrombosis, but this is the first documented case of compression and thrombosis due to an ovarian cyst. Early detection and treatment of renal vein thrombosis is paramount to restoring renal allograft function. Any woman of childbearing age may have thrombosis due to compression by an ovarian cyst, and screening for this possibility may improve long-term graft function in this population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The keys to successful TIPS in patients with portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, S; Espejo, J J; Pérez-Montilla, M E; Zurera, L J; González-Galilea, Á

    Portal vein thrombosis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation involves a high risk of bleeding secondary to portal hypertension, so placing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) has become an alternative treatment for portal vein thrombosis. Three strategies for TIPS placement have been reported: 1) portal recanalization and conventional implantation of the TIPS through the jugular vein; 2) portal recanalization through percutaneous transhepatic/transsplenic) access; and (3) insertion of the TIPS between the suprahepatic vein and a periportal collateral vessel without portal recanalization. We describe different materials that can be used as fluoroscopic targets for the TIPS needle and for portal recanalization. This article aims to show the success of TIPS implantation using different combinations of the techniques listed above, which is a good treatment alternative in these patients whose clinical condition makes them difficult to manage, and to show that portal vein thrombosis/cavernous transformation should not be considered a contraindication for TIPS. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Brightness of venous blood in South American camelids: implications for jugular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To compare the brightness of South American camelid venous blood to that of Equidae. Prospective clinical evaluation. Twelve South American camelids (eight llamas, four alpacas), eight horses and ponies (control group). Appropriately sized catheters were placed in the jugular vein of each animal under local anaesthesia. The blood spilt before the catheter was capped was caught on a white tile. A sample of blood was drawn for blood-gas analysis. The brightness of the blood (both on the tile and in the syringe) was matched to a colour chart (1 = darkest red, 8 = brightest red) by a single observer under bright light conditions. Packed cell volume (PCV) and partial pressure of oxygen (PvO(2)) in the blood were also measured on the syringe blood. Normally distributed data were compared using a two tailed t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Camelid venous blood was significantly brighter red than that of horses and ponies both on the white tile (p = 0.0003) and in the syringe (p = 0.0001). PCV was significantly lower in camelids (32 +/- 4%) compared with horses (37 +/- 5%). Partial pressure of oxygen values were similar between groups. Jugular venous blood in alpacas and llamas is significantly brighter red than that of horses. Colour should not be used as a sole determinant of venous or arterial catheterization in this species.

  9. Effect of Compression Devices on Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Among Adult Trauma Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mona; Ahmed, Azza; Mohamed, Warda Yousef; El-Sayed Abu Abduo, Somaya

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in Americans up to 44 years old each year. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a significant condition occurring in trauma, and prophylaxis is essential to the appropriate management of trauma patients. The incidence of DVT varies in trauma patients, depending on patients' risk factors, modality of prophylaxis, and methods of detection. However, compression devices and arteriovenous (A-V) foot pumps prophylaxis are recommended in trauma patients, but the efficacy and optimal use of it is not well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of compression devices in preventing DVT among adult trauma patients. We searched through PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for eligible studies published from 1990 until June 2014. Reviewers identified all randomized controlled trials that satisfied the study criteria, and the quality of included studies was assessed by Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five randomized controlled trials were included with a total of 1072 patients. Sequential compression devices significantly reduced the incidence of DVT in trauma patients. Also, foot pumps were more effective in reducing incidence of DVT compared with sequential compression devices. Sequential compression devices and foot pumps reduced the incidence of DVT in trauma patients. However, the evidence is limited to a small sample size and did not take into account other confounding variables that may affect the incidence of DVT in trauma patients. Future randomized controlled trials with larger probability samples to investigate the optimal use of mechanical prophylaxis in trauma patients are needed.

  10. Cavernous Transformation of Portal Vein Secondary to Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Radhames; Park, Yoojin; Shazad, Ghulamullah; A.Garcia, Christine; Cohen, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    There are few reported cases of cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) in adults. We present a case of a 58 year-old male who was found to have this complication due to portal vein thrombosis (PVT). A 58-year old African American male with chronic alcohol and tobacco use presented with a 25-day history of weakness, generalized malaise, nausea and vomiting associated with progressively worsening anorexia and weight loss. The patient was admitted for severe anemia in conjunction with abnormal liver function tests and electrolyte abnormalities, and to rule out end stage liver disease or hepatic malignancy. The work-up for anemia showed no significant colon abnormalities, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, or liver abnormalities but could not rule out malignancy. An esophageogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was suspicious for a mass compressing the stomach and small bowel. After further work-up, the hepatic mass has been diagnosed as a cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV), a very rare complication of portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein (CTPV) is a rare and incurable complication of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) that should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of a hepatic mass. Keywords Cavernous transformation of the portal vein; Portal vein thrombosis; Portal hypertension; Hyperbilirubinemia; Hepatic mass PMID:22383935

  11. Selecting a treatment for primary varicose veins.

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, J; Lewis, E W; Allen, P T

    1985-01-01

    The treatment of varicose veins includes injection/compression sclerotherapy and surgical stripping or ligation or both. Surgery appears to be favoured when the saphenous system is involved or when the patient is 35 to 64 years old or presents with ankle edema or flare. On the other hand, sclerotherapy has been found to be more effective in patients with dilated superficial veins or incompetent perforating veins in the lower legs and to be more acceptable and less expensive than surgical treatment. PMID:3891060

  12. Feasibility of the Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography as a Surface Probe for Puncturing and Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yi; Ou, Mengchan; Yu, Hai

    2018-02-01

    To compare the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe as a surface probe with the vascular probe for guiding internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. Prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study. University hospital. One hundred cardiac surgery patients, including 50 adult and 50 pediatric patients. Patients in the TEE probe group received right IJV catheterization using the TEE probe, while the vascular probe group used the vascular probe for catheterization. The puncture time, first-attempt success rate, quality of the imaging with needle tip positioning, wire positioning, and catheter positioning were recorded. The incidence of complication or any adverse event also was observed. Adult patients: In the vascular probe group, the success rate for first attempt IJV catheterization was 24/25 (96%), while in the TEE probe group, the success rate for first attempt IJV catheterization was 25/25 (100%). There was no statistical difference in the puncture time, image quality, needle tip positioning, wire positioning, and catheter positioning between groups (p > 0.05). Pediatric patients: The success rate for first-attempt IJV catheterization was 100% in both groups, and there were no statistical differences in the puncture time, image quality, and positioning between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). No complications or adverse events were observed in either group. The TEE probe, used as a surface probe, can be used to guide IJV puncturing and catheterization in cardiac surgery patients with favorable feasibility and safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound-guided transhepatic puncture of the hepatic veins for TIPS placement.

    PubMed

    Gazzera, C; Fonio, P; Gallesio, C; Camerano, F; Doriguzzi Breatta, A; Righi, D; Veltri, A; Gandini, G

    2013-04-01

    This retrospective analysis was carried out to assess the feasibility and results of transjugular intrahepatic portal systemic shunt (TIPS) performed with ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous puncture of the hepatic veins. Over a period of 3 years, 153 patients were treated with TIPS at our centre. In eight cases, a percutaneous puncture of the middle (n=7) or right (n=1) hepatic vein was required because the hepatic vein ostium was not accessible. Indications for TIPS were bleeding (n=1), Budd-Chiari syndrome (n=1), ascites (n=2), reduced portal flow (n=1) and incomplete portal thrombosis (n=3). A 0.018-in. guidewire was anterogradely introduced into the hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava (IVC) through a 21-gauge needle. In the meantime, a 25-mm snare-loop catheter was introduced through the jugular access to retrieve the guidewire, achieving through-andthrough access. Then, a Rosch-Uchida set was used to place the TIPS with the traditional technique. Technical success was achieved in all patients. There was one case of stent thrombosis. One patient died of pulmonary oedema. Three patients were eligible for liver transplantation, whereas the others were excluded due to shunt thrombosis (n=1) and previous nonhepatic neoplasms (n=3). The percutaneous approach to hepatic veins is rapid and safe and may be useful for avoiding traumatic liver injuries.

  14. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  15. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru; Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization.more » We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.« less

  16. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Urakov, A. L.; Nigmatullina, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient's exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  17. Iliac Vein Interrogation Augments Venous Ulcer Healing in Patients Who Have Failed Standard Compression Therapy along with Pathological Venous Closure.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Albeir Y; Broce, Mike; Yacoub, Michael; AbuRahma, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of venous ulcers is demanding for patients, as well as clinicians, and the investigation of underlying venous hypertension is the cornerstone of therapy. We propose that occult iliac vein stenosis should be ruled out by iliac vein interrogation (IVI) in patients with advanced venous stasis. We conducted a systematic retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients who presented with CEAP (clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological) 6 venous disease. All patients had great saphenous vein ablation, compressive treatment, wound care (including Unna boot compression), and perforator closure using ablation therapy. Iliac vein stenosis was defined as ≥50% stenosis in cross-sectional surface area on intravascular ultrasound. Primary outcomes include time of venous ulcer healing and/or measurable change in the Venous Clinical Severity Score. Twenty-two patients with CEAP 6 venous disease met the inclusion criteria (active ulcers >1.5 cm in diameter). The average age and body mass index were 62.2 ± 9.2 years and 41.7 ± 16.7, respectively. The majority were female (72.7%) with common comorbidities, such as hyperlipidemia (54.5%), hypertension (36.4%), and diabetes mellitus (27.3%). Twenty-nine ulcers with an average diameter of 3.4 ± 1.9 cm and a depth of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm were treated. The majority of the ulcers occurred on the left limb (n = 17, 58.6%). Average perforator venous reflux was 3.6 ± 0.8 sec, while common femoral reflux was 1.8 ± 1.6. The majority (n = 19, 64.5%) of the perforator veins were located at the base of the ulcer, while the remainder (n = 10, 34.5%) were within 2 cm from the base. Of the 13 patients who underwent IVI, 8 patients (61.5%) had stenosis >50% that was corrected with iliac vein angioplasty and stenting (IVAS). There was a strong trend toward shorter healing time in the IVI group (7.9 ± 9.5 weeks) than for patients in the no iliac vein interrogation (NIVI) group (20.2 ± 15

  18. Small interfering RNA targeting nuclear factor kappa B to prevent vein graft stenosis in rat models.

    PubMed

    Meng, X B; Bi, X L; Zhao, H L; Feng, J B; Zhang, J P; Song, G M; Sun, W Y; Bi, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in vein graft stenosis. Inflammatory injury, especially nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) gene activation, is highly involved in stenosis progression. We examined whether neointimal hyperplasia and vein graft stenosis could be inhibited by silencing the NF-κB gene with small interference RNA (siRNA). Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal vein group, a vein graft group, a scrambled siRNA group, and an NF-κB siRNA group. We performed reverse interpositional grafting of the autologous external jugular vein to the abdominal aorta. Vein grafts were treated with liposome and gel complexes containing NF-κB siRNA or scrambled siRNA. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NF-κB p65 in vessel tissues were evaluated after surgery for content of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular wall thickness. NF-κB siRNA treated vein graft showed less neointimal formation and fewer positive PCNA cells (P < .05). In addition there were lower levels of, NF-κB p65 protein and of inflammatory mediators (P < .05) compared with the vein graft group. Our study suggested that siRNA transfection suppressed NF-κB expression, reduced inflammatory factors, lessened neointimal proliferation, and suppressed PCNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Sisini, Francesco; Toro, Eleuterio; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) provides valuable information about cardiac haemodynamics and filling pressures and is an indirect estimate of the central venous pressure (CVP). Recently it has been proven that JVP can be obtained by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV on each sonogram of an ultrasound B-mode sonogram sequence. It has also been proven that during its pulsation the IJV is distended and hence that the pressure gradient drives the IJV haemodynamics. If this is true, then it will imply the following: (i) the blood velocity in the IJV is a periodic function of the time with period equal to the cardiac period and (ii) the instantaneous blood velocity is given by a time function that can be derived from a flow-dynamics theory that uses the instantaneous pressure gradient as a parameter. The aim of the present study is to confirm the hypothesis that JVP regulates the IJV blood flow and that pressure waves are transmitted from the heart toward the brain through the IJV wall. PMID:26783380

  20. Control of distension of varicose veins achieved by leg bandages, as used after injection sclerotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Fentem, P H; Goddard, M; Gooden, B A; Yeung, C K

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the pressures routinely produced by bandaging for compression sclerotherapy of varicose veins are adequate to maintain the superfical veins almost empty of blood. The results suggest that well-applied bandages can provide sufficient support to combat the high distending pressures found in varicose veins. The large variation among different surgeons, however, indicates that any clinical assessment of compression sclerotherapy should include measurement of the pressure at which the bandages are applied. PMID:974569

  1. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bakar, Bulent, E-mail: bulentbanrs@yahoo.com; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenousmore » communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.« less

  2. Application and comparison of different implanted ports in malignant tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Cai, Yonghua; Gan, Xiaoqin; Ye, Xinmei; Ling, Jiayu; Kang, Liang; Ye, Junwen; Zhang, Xingwei; Zhang, Jianwei; Cai, Yue; Hu, Huabin; Huang, Meijin; Deng, Yanhong

    2016-09-23

    The current study aims to compare the application and convenience of the upper arm port with the other two methods of implanted ports in the jugular vein and the subclavian vein in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Currently, the standard of practice is placement of central venous access via an internal jugular vein approach. Perioperative time, postoperative complications, and postoperative comfort level in patients receiving an implanted venous port in the upper arm were retrospectively compared to those in the jugular vein and the subclavian vein from April 2013 to November 2014. Three hundred thirty-four patients are recruited for this analysis, consisting of 107 in the upper arm vein group, 70 in the jugular vein group, and 167 in the subclavian vein group. The occurrence of catheter misplacement in the upper arm vein is higher than that in the other two groups (13.1 vs. 2.9 vs. 5.4 %, respectively, P = 0.02), while the other complications in the perioperative period were not significantly different. The occurrence of transfusion obstacle of the upper arm vein group is significantly lower than that of the jugular and subclavian groups (0.9 vs. 7.1 vs. 7.2 %, P = 0.01). The occurrence of thrombus is also lower than that of other two groups (0.9 vs. 4.3 vs. 3.6 %, P = 0.03). Regarding the postoperative comfort, the influences of appearance (0 vs. 7.1 vs. 2.9 %, P = 0.006) and sleep (0.9 vs. 4.2 vs. 10.7 %, P = 0.003) are significantly better than those of the jugular and subclavian vein groups. Compared to the jugular and the subclavian vein groups, the implanted venous port in the upper arm vein has fewer complications and more convenience and comfort, and might be a superior novel choice for patients requiring long-term chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition.

  3. Evaluation of the portal vein after duodenoduodenostomy for congenital duodenal stenosis associated with the preduodenal superior mesenteric vein, situs inversus, polysplenia, and malrotation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshida, Tatusyuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Nakahira, Masashi; Nishigaki, Kyoichi; Kawahira, Yoichi; Ueno, Takayoshi

    2007-02-01

    A male infant weighting 2970 g with total situs inversus, polysplenia, malrotation, duodenal stenosis, and complex cardiac anomalies, was admitted to our hospital. At 4 days of age, he underwent surgery that revealed a blood vessel passing over the duodenum from the mesenterium to the porta hepatis. A loose overbridging duodenoduodenostomy was performed to prevent compression of the vessel. The cardiac anomalies were corrected, and he could eat unrestricted diets. At the age of 1 year and 3 months, a 3-dimensional computed tomographic scan demonstrated that the vessel on the duodenum was the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), and it formed the portal vein with the splenic vein at the porta hepatis. Further, the scan revealed no compression of the SMV at the anastomosis. Doppler ultrasonography revealed a normal portal blood flow of 118.6 mL/min. This report describes the junction between the SMV and the splenic vein in a patient who had the SMV passing over the duodenum from the mesenterium. Correctly, patients previously diagnosed with a preduodenal portal vein could have a preduodenal SMV. The loose overbridging duodenoduodenostomy had advantages not only in passage of the anastomosis but also in maintenance of the portal blood flow for the congenital duodenal obstruction with the preduodenal SMV.

  4. Effect of a venotonic agent on the main arteries and veins during a 5 day HDT.

    PubMed

    Roumy, J; Herault, S; Tobal, N; Besnard, S; Arbeille, P

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiac, arterial and venous effect of a venotonic drug (Cirkan "Ck") administrated orally daily to 6 subjects in HDT position during 5 days. These subjects underwent a second 5d HDT without Ck treatment one month later. Pre and post HDT the subjects were submitted to a stand test. The cardiovascular parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. The Cirkan treatment contributed to reduce the increase in cerebral resistance, and to maintain the lower limb resistance at a higher level than on controls. It reduces the vein section at the extremities (Jugular, femoral) and in the central vein system connected to the right heart (sub hepatics). On the other hand it increases the portal vein section which means that the blood stagnation at the splanchnic level is increased. Despite these arterial and venous significant modifications the clinical and ECG and Blood pressure response to the Stand test was similar in both groups. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The reversibility of reduced cortical vein compliance in normal-pressure hydrocephalus following shunt insertion.

    PubMed

    Bateman, G A

    2003-02-01

    Superficial cortical venous compression secondary to alterations in craniospinal compliance is implicated in the pathogenesis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). A reduction in the pulsation in the outflow of the cortical veins would be expected to occur following compression of these veins and this has been shown in NPH. If cortical vein compression is a causative factor in NPH, it would be expected that cortical vein compliance as measured by pulsatility would be significantly altered by a curative procedure i.e. shunt tube insertion. My purpose is to compare the blood flow pulsatility characteristics in a group of patients with NPH before and after shunt tube insertion. I initially studied 18 subjects without pathology with MRI flow quantification studies of the cerebral arteries and veins to define the range of normality. The main study involved 18 patients with idiopathic dementia and mild leukoaraiosis who served as controls and seven patients with NPH studied before and after shunt insertion. Arterial, superior sagittal and straight sinus pulsatility was not significantly different between the patients with idiopathic dementia and those NPH patients before or after shunting. Cortical vein pulsatility before shunting in the patients with NPH was 43% lower than in those with idiopathic dementia ( P=0.006). Following shunting, cortical vein pulsatility increased by 186% ( P=0.007). There is thus reduced compliance in cortical veins in NPH which is significantly increased in patients who respond to insertion of a shunt tube. These findings suggest that reversible elevation in cortical vein pressure and reversal of the normal absorption pathway for cerebrospinal fluid may be behind the pathophysiology of NPH.

  6. Giant Intrahepatic Portal Vein Aneurysm: Leave it or Treat it?

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagdeesh S; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2017-03-01

    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare vascular dilatation of the portal vein. It is a rare vascular anomaly representing less than 3% of all visceral aneurysms and is not well understood. Usually, PVA are incidental findings, are asymptomatic, and clinical symptoms are proportionally related to size. Patients present with nonspecific epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding with underlying portal hypertension. PVA may be associated with various complications such as biliary tract compression, portal vein thrombosis/rupture, duodenal compression, gastrointestinal bleeding, and inferior vena cava obstruction. Differential diagnoses of portal vein aneurysms are solid, cystic, and hypervascular abdominal masses, and it is important that the radiologists be aware of their multi-modality appearance; hence, the aim of this article was to provide an overview of the available literature to better simplify various aspects of this rare entity and diagnostic appearance on different modality with available treatment options. In our case, a 55-year-old male patient came to the gastroenterology OPD for further management of pancreatitis with portal hypertension and biliary obstruction with plastic stents in CBD and PD for the same. In this article, we have reported a case of largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and its management by endovascular technique. As per our knowledge, this is the largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and first case where the endovascular technique was used for the treatment of the same.

  7. Clinical Significance of an Unusual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, M. Senthil; Sudha, R.; Bhargavan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The infrahyoid muscles are involved in vocalisation and swallowing; among these, the sternothyroid muscle is derived from the common primitive sheet. The improper differentiation of this muscle may therefore result in morphological variations. We report an unusual variation found during the dissection of a 65-year-old male cadaver at the Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Madagadipet, Pondicherry, India, in 2015. An anomalous belly of the right sternothyroid muscle was observed between the internal jugular (IJ) vein and the internal carotid artery with an additional insertion into the tympanic plate and petrous part of the temporal bone and the presence of a levator glandulae thyroideae muscle. The anomalous muscle may compress the IJ vein if it is related to the neurovascular structures of neck; hence, knowledge of variations of the infrahyoid muscles can aid in the evaluation of IJ vein compression among patients with idiopathic symptoms resulting from venous congestion. PMID:28003898

  8. Isolated Deep Venous Thrombosis: Implications for 2-Point Compression Ultrasonography of the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wes; Thom, Christopher; Fields, J Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Two-point compression ultrasonography focuses on the evaluation of common femoral and popliteal veins for complete compressibility. The presence of isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins should prompt modification of 2-point compression technique. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of deep venous thrombi isolated to lower-extremity veins other than the common femoral and popliteal veins in emergency department (ED) patients with clinically suspected deep venous thrombosis. This was a retrospective study of all adult ED patients who received a lower-extremity venous duplex ultrasonographic examination for evaluation of deep venous thrombosis during a 6-year period. The ultrasonographic protocol included B-mode, color-flow, and spectral Doppler scanning of the common femoral, femoral, deep femoral, popliteal, and calf veins. Deep venous thrombosis was detected in 362 of 2,451 patients (14.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.3% to 16.1%). Thrombus confined to the common femoral vein alone was found in 5 of 362 cases (1.4%; 95% CI 0.2% to 2.6%). Isolated femoral vein thrombus was identified in 20 of 362 patients (5.5%; 95% CI 3.2% to 7.9%). Isolated deep femoral vein thrombus was found in 3 of 362 cases (0.8%; 95% CI -0.1% to 1.8%). Thrombus in the popliteal vein alone was identified in 53 of 362 cases (14.6%; 95% CI 11% to 18.2%). In our study, 6.3% of ED patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis had isolated thrombi in proximal veins other than common femoral and popliteal veins. Our study results support the addition of femoral and deep femoral vein evaluation to standard compression ultrasonography of the common femoral and popliteal vein, assuming that this does not have a deleterious effect on specificity. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation using fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Xia; Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Feng

    2017-11-01

    To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated. Two fetuses were born, and neonatal MRI was performed. One fetus was terminated. A characteristic dilated structure in the midline of the brain presented in each fetus. The arteriovenous fistula led to anatomical brain changes such as in the hydrocephalus, dilated feeding vessels (one or more), jugular vein, and/or superior vena cava. Substantial brachiocephalic vessel dilation was observed in two fetuses. Following parturition, one baby had neonatal asphyxia and sinus thrombosis, and MRI revealed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Cardiomegaly was detected in all three cases. With a large field of view, fetal MRI can observe brain VGAM, as well as the heart and affected large vessels. It can determine hydrocephalus, ischemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and sinus thrombosis. Providing such information on the infant's entire body can aid clinicians in determining the most appropriate treatment. 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1535-1539. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Reproducibility of cerebrospinal venous blood flow and vessel anatomy with the use of phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction and contrast-enhanced MRA.

    PubMed

    Schrauben, E M; Johnson, K M; Huston, J; Del Rio, A M; Reeder, S B; Field, A; Wieben, O

    2014-05-01

    The chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis raises interest in cerebrospinal venous blood flow imaging, which is more complex and less established than in arteries. For accurate assessment of venous flow in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency diagnosis and research, we must account for physiologic changes in flow patterns. This study examines day-to-day flow variability in cerebrospinal veins by use of 4D MR flow and contrast-enhanced MRA under typical, uncontrolled conditions in healthy individuals. Ten healthy volunteers were scanned in a test-retest fashion by use of a 4D flow MR imaging technique and contrast-enhanced MRA. Flow parameters obtained from phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction and contrast-enhanced MRA scoring measurements in the head, neck, and chest veins were analyzed for internal consistency and interscan reproducibility. Internal consistency was satisfied at the torcular herophili, with an input-output difference of 2.2%. Percentages of variations in flow were 20.3%, internal jugular vein; 20.4%, azygos vein; 6.8%, transverse sinus; and 5.1%, common carotid artery. Retrograde flow was found in the lower internal jugular vein (4.8%) and azygos vein (7.2%). Contrast-enhanced MRA interscan κ values for the internal jugular vein (left: 0.474, right: 0.366) and azygos vein (-0.053) showed poor interscan agreement. Phase contrast-vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction blood flow measurements are reliable and highly reproducible in intracranial veins and in the common carotid artery but not in veins of the neck (internal jugular vein) and chest (azygos vein) because of normal physiologic variation. Retrograde flow normally may be observed in the lower internal jugular vein and azygos vein. Low interrater agreement in contrast-enhanced MRA scans was observed. These findings have important implications for imaging diagnosis and experimental research of chronic cerebrospinal venous

  11. Preventing intimal thickening of vein grafts in vein artery bypass using STAT-3 siRNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in neointimal formation which leads to restenosis of vein graft in venous bypass. STAT-3 is a transcription factor associated with cell proliferation. We hypothesized that silencing of STAT-3 by siRNA will inhibit proliferation of VSMCs and attenuate intimal thickening. Methods Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in vitro by applying tissue piece inoculation methods. VSMCs were transfected with STAT 3 siRNA using lipofectamine 2000. In vitro proliferation of VSMC was quantified by the MTT assay, while in vivo assessment was performed in a venous transplantation model. In vivo delivery of STAT-3 siRNA plasmid or scramble plasmid was performed by admixing with liposomes 2000 and transfected into the vein graft by bioprotein gel applied onto the adventitia. Rat jugular vein-carotid artery bypass was performed. On day 3 and7 after grafting, the vein grafts were extracted, and analyzed morphologically by haematoxylin eosin (H&E), and assessed by immunohistochemistry for expression of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Western-blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. Cell apoptosis in vein grafts was detected by TUNEL assay. Results MTT assay shows that the proliferation of VSMCs in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group was inhibited. On day 7 after operation, a reduced number of Ki-67 and PCNA positive cells were observed in the neointima of the vein graft in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group as compared to the scramble control. The PCNA index in the control group (31.3 ± 4.7) was higher than that in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group (23.3 ± 2.8) (P < 0.05) on 7d. The neointima in the experimental group(0.45 ± 0.04 μm) was thinner than that in the control group(0.86 ± 0.05 μm) (P < 0.05).Compared with the control group, the protein and mRNA levels in the experimental

  12. Patterns of chronic venous insufficiency in the dural sinuses and extracranial draining veins and their relationship with white matter hyperintensities for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Manju; Xu, Haibo; Wang, Yuhui; Zhong, Yi; Xia, Shuang; Utriainen, David; Wang, Tao; Haacke, E Mark

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) remains one of those neurodegenerative diseases for which the cause remains unknown. Many clinically diagnosed cases of IPD are associated with cerebrovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of transverse sinus and extracranial venous abnormalities in IPD patients and their relationship with brain WMHs. Twenty-three IPD patients and 23 age-matched normal controls were recruited in this study. They had conventional neurologic magnetic resonance structural and angiographic scans and, for blood flow, quantification of the extracranial vessels. Venous structures were evaluated with two-dimensional time of flight; flow was evaluated with two-dimensional phase contrast; and WMH volume was quantified with T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. The IPD and normal subjects were classified by both the magnetic resonance time-of-flight and phase contrast images into four categories: (1) complete or local missing transverse sinus and internal jugular veins on the time-of-flight images; (2) low flow in the transverse sinus and stenotic internal jugular veins; (3) reduced flow in the internal jugular veins; and (4) normal flow and no stenosis. Broken into the four categories with categories 1 to 3 combined, a significant difference in the distribution of the IPD patients and normal controls (χ(2) = 7.7; P < .01) was observed. Venous abnormalities (categories 1, 2, and 3) were seen in 57% of IPD subjects and in only 30% of controls. In IPD subjects, category type correlated with both flow abnormalities and WMHs. From this preliminary study, we conclude that a major fraction of IPD patients appear to have abnormal venous anatomy and flow on the left side of the brain and neck and that the flow abnormalities appear to correlate with WMH volume. Studies with a larger sample size are still needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular

  13. Ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced mri of the breast using compressed sensing: breast cancer diagnosis based on separate visualization of breast arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Natsuko; Kataoka, Masako; Kanao, Shotaro; Sagawa, Hajime; Iima, Mami; Nickel, Marcel Dominik; Toi, Masakazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced (UF-DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with compressed sensing (CS) for the separate identification of breast arteries/veins and perform temporal evaluations of breast arteries and veins with a focus on the association with ipsilateral cancers. Our Institutional Review Board approved this study with retrospective design. Twenty-five female patients who underwent UF-DCE MRI at 3T were included. UF-DCE MRI consisting of 20 continuous frames was acquired using a prototype 3D gradient-echo volumetric interpolated breath-hold sequence including a CS reconstruction: temporal resolution, 3.65 sec/frame; spatial resolution, 0.9 × 1.3 × 2.5 mm. Two readers analyzed 19 maximum intensity projection images reconstructed from subtracted images, separately identified breast arteries/veins and the earliest frame in which they were respectively visualized, and calculated the time interval between arterial and venous visualization (A-V interval) for each breast. In total, 49 breasts including 31 lesions (breast cancer, 16; benign lesion, 15) were identified. In 39 of the 49 breasts (breasts with cancers, 16; breasts with benign lesions, 10; breasts with no lesions, 13), both breast arteries and veins were separately identified. The A-V intervals for breasts with cancers were significantly shorter than those for breasts with benign lesions (P = 0.043) and no lesions (P = 0.007). UF-DCE MRI using CS enables the separate identification of breast arteries/veins. Temporal evaluations calculating the time interval between arterial and venous visualization might be helpful in the differentiation of ipsilateral breast cancers from benign lesions. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:97-104. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Accuracy of screening compression ultrasonography and clinical examination for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, K. Sue; Anderson, David R.; Gross, Michael; Petrie, David; Leighton, Ross; Stanish, William; Alexander, David; Mitchell, Michael; Mason, William; Flemming, Bruce; Fairhurst-Vaughan, Marlene; Gent, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Objective To determine whether compression ultrasonography or clinical examination should be considered as screening tests for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving warfarin prophylaxis postoperatively. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A single tertiary care orthopedic centre. Patients One hundred and eleven patients who underwent elective total hip or knee arthroplasty were enrolled. Postoperatively the warfarin dose was adjusted daily to maintain the international normalized ratio between 1.8 and 2.5. Eighty-six patients successfully completed the study protocol. Intervention Before they were discharged from hospital, patients were assessed for DVT by clinical examination, bilateral compression ultrasonography of the proximal venous system and bilateral contrast venography. Results DVT was found in 29 patients (34%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 24% to 45%), and 6 patients (7%; 95% CI 3% to 15%) had proximal DVT. DVT developed in 18 (40%) of 45 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and in 11 (27%) of 41 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. The sensitivity of compression ultrasonography for the diagnosis of proximal DVT was 83% (95% CI 36% to 99%) and the specificity was 98% (95% CI 91% to 99%). The positive predictive value of compression ultrasonography was 71%. In contrast, clinical examination for DVT had a sensitivity of 11% (95% CI 2% to 28%) and a positive predictive value of 25%. Conclusions DVT is a common complication after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Compression ultrasonography appears to be a relatively accurate noninvasive test for diagnosing postoperative proximal DVT. In contrast, clinical examination is a very insensitive test. Whether routine use of screening compression ultrasonography will reduce the morbidity of venous thromboembolism after joint arthroplasty requires confirmation in a prospective trial involving long-term follow-up of patients

  15. [Atelocollagen-mediated small interfering RNA delivery for effective gene silencing in rat vein grafts].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue-feng; Dong, Nian-guo; Sun, Zong-quan; Su, Wei; Shi, Jia-wei

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using small interfering RNA targeting TF as a therapy for vein graft failure. External jugular vein to carotid artery interposition vein grafts, which were applied to a low flow condition, were made in 120 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 260 to 300 g. These rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 30 rats each group. Group A was atelocollagen-TF Stealth Select RNAi group. Group B was atelocollagen-TF Stealth RNAi group. Group C was atelocollagen group. Group D was control group. Small interfering RNA mixed with atelocollagen was administrated to the external wall of grafted veins. The TF protein expression of vein grafts was analyzed by Western blot at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postoperatively, and by immunochemistry at 3 d postoperatively. The proliferation index was determined at 14 d postoperatively. Neointimal hyperplasia was evaluated at 28 d postoperatively. BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo was used to confirm its stability and successful transfer into the vein graft wall at 3 and 7 d postoperatively for another group (n=12). Fluorescence of BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo could be detected in the graft wall even at 7 d postoperatively. Knockdown of the TF expression was achieved by perivascular application of siRNA using atelocollagen. Compared with control group, the intima thickness at 28 d after grafting was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was preceded by significant reduction of cell proliferation in siRNA-treated grafts at 14 d postoperatively (P < 0.05). The expression of TF in vein grafts can be effectively inhibited by specific siRNAs using a atelocollagen-based nonviral delivery approach in vivo, so that the neointimal thickening can be prevented. Transplants;

  16. Ultrasound Monitoring of Jugular Venous Pulse during Space Missions: Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Paolo; Sisini, Francesco; Menegatti, Erica; Taibi, Angelo; Gadda, Giacomo; Tavoni, Valentina; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Tessari, Mirko; Gianesini, Sergio; Gambaccini, Mauro

    2018-03-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) is one of the main parameters of cardiac function and is used by cardiologists in diagnosing heart failure. Its waveform comprises three positive waves (a, c and v) and two negative waves (x and y). Recently, it was found that JVP can be extrapolated from an ultrasound (US) video recording of the internal jugular vein (IJV), suggesting its application in space missions, on which US scanners are already widely used. To date, the feasibility of assessing JVP in microgravity (microG) has not been investigated. To verify the feasibility of JVP assessment in microG, we tested a protocol of self-performed B-mode ultrasound on the International Space Station (ISS). The protocol consisted of a video recording of IJV synchronized with electrocardiogram that produces a cross-sectional area time trace (JVP trace) (in cm 2 ). The scans were acquired in six experimental sessions; two pre-flight (BDC1 and -2), two in space (ISS1 and -2) and two post-flight (Houston PF1, Cologne PF2). We measured the mean and standard deviation of the JVP waves and the phase relationship between such waves and P and T waves on the electrocardiogram. We verified that such parameters had the same accuracy on Earth as they did under microG, and we compared their values. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of JVP trace in microgravity are higher than those on Earth. The sequence of (a, c, and v) ascents and (x and y) descents along the cardiac cycle in microG is the same as that on Earth. The cause-and-effect relationship between the P and T waves on the electrocardiogram and a and v waves, respectively, of JVP is also confirmed in microG. Our experiment indicated the feasibility of deriving a JVP trace from a B-mode US examination self-performed by an astronaut in microG. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated splenic vein thrombosis secondary to splenic metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Morozumi, Kyoei; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Sotome, Keiichi; Furukawa, Akio; Nakamaru, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoichi; Iri, Hisami

    2006-01-01

    A 49-year-old, previously healthy woman sought treatment for abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed ascending colon cancer. Computed tomography and angiography showed splenic metastasis and thrombosis extending from the splenic vein to the portal vein. She underwent right hemicolectomy, splenectomy, and distal pancreatomy. Histological findings showed no malignant cell in the splenic vein which was filled with organizing thrombus. We postulate the mechanism of splenic vein thrombosis in our case to be secondary to the extrinsic compression of the splenic vein by the splenic metastasis or by the inflammatory process produced by the splenic metastasis. In conclusion, we suggest that splenic metastasis should be added to the list of differential diagnosis which causes splenic vein thrombosis. In the absence of other sites of neoplastic disease, splenectomy seems to be the preferred therapy because it can be performed with low morbidity and harbors the potential for long-term survival. PMID:17072993

  18. Long Distance Endovascular Growth of Jugulotympanic Paraganglioma Evident in 68Ga-DOTATATE PET but Concealed on CT.

    PubMed

    Avramovic, Nemanja; Weckesser, Matthias; Velasco, Aglaé; Stenner, Markus; Noto, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman was referred to contrast-enhanced CT for evaluation of jugular vein thrombosis incidentally detected by ultrasound. Contrast-enhanced CT showed an enhanced tumor of the right skull base highly suspicious of jugulotympanic paraganglioma. However, the jugular veins showed a nearly symmetric contrast enhancement without clear evidence of thrombosis. Consecutive Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT depicted high tumor uptake, which comprised the entire internal jugular vein. Endovascular growth of paraganglioma might be missed on contrast-enhanced CT because of high vascularization of the lesion. Ga-DOTATATE PET is suited for accurate determination of tumor extent.

  19. [Semiotics of lesions of the cerebral venous collectors on application of noninvasive techniques of x-ray diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Semenov, S; Abalmasov, V

    2001-01-01

    The study included application of a complex of the noninvasive diagnostic techniques such as MR tomography, MR venography, duplex scanning of the internal jugular veins, and transcranial Doppler sonography. The authors provide a detailed description of the semiotics of the MR signs of cerebral venous collector lesion in patients with thrombosis, extravasal compression, aneurysms, and developmental anomalies. Present the quantitative ultrasound parameters of hemodynamics in the efferent vessels of the brain accessible to inspections describe the effect of spontaneous echo-opacification in the internal jugular veins, which is assumed to be a predictor of thrombosis. Intravenous injection of magnevist resulted in an appreciable refinement of visualization of small dural sinuses at MR venography thereby allowing for the diagnosis of their thrombosis. It is suggested that the use of the entire complex of the x-ray modalities under consideration may lead to a more complete and noninvasive evaluation of the nature of cerebral venous insufficiency and of the degree of hemodynamic significance. Moreover, this will make it possible to outline approaches to therapeutic or surgical correction of the disease.

  20. Effect of topical vapocoolant spray on response to arthrocentesis and intravenous catheterization in unsedated horses.

    PubMed

    Fjordbakk, Cathrine T; Haga, Henning A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of a commercially available topical vapocoolant spray in reducing responses to arthrocentesis of the middle carpal (MC) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and jugular vein catheterization in unsedated horses. 8 healthy research horses. Arthrocentesis of both MC and MCP joints and bilateral jugular vein catheterization were performed in each horse. Immediately prior to skin penetration, 1 randomly selected MC joint, MCP joint, and jugular vein were sprayed with a vapocoolant liquid (intervention product), and the contralateral MC joint, MCP joint, and jugular vein were sprayed with water (placebo). An observer blinded to the type of spray treatment used evaluated the horses' responses to needle or catheter placement procedures by use of a 6-point categorical scale and a 100-mm visual analog scale. Responses evaluated via the visual analog scale were significantly reduced after application of the intervention product, compared with responses after application of the placebo, for the MC and MCP joints; no difference in responses to jugular vein catheterization was detected between the 2 treatments. Vapocoolant spray was safe and effective in reducing horses' responses to arthrocentesis. The use of such products prior to joint injections may reduce procedural nociception and pain anticipation in unsedated horses and may improve the safety of personnel performing such procedures.

  1. One-step reconstruction of the right inferior hepatic veins using auto-venous grafts in living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Toru; Shirabe, Ken; Yoshiya, Shohei; Soejima, Yuji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Toshima, Takeo; Motomura, Takashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2013-07-01

    Reconstruction of the right inferior hepatic vein (RIHV) presents a major technical challenge in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using right lobe grafts. We studied 47 right lobe LDLT grafts with RIHV revascularization, comparing one-step reconstruction, performed post-May 2007 (n = 16), with direct anastomosis, performed pre-May 2007 (n = 31). In the one-step reconstruction technique, the internal jugular vein (n = 6), explanted portal vein (n = 5), inferior vena cava (n = 3), and shunt vessels (n = 2) were used as venous patch grafts for unifying the right hepatic vein, RIHVs, and middle hepatic vein tributaries. By 6 months after LDLT, there was no case of occlusion of the reconstructed RIHVs in the one-step reconstruction group, but a cumulative occlusion rate of 18.2 % in the direct anastomosis group. One-step reconstruction required a longer cold ischemic time (182 ± 40 vs. 115 ± 63, p < 0.001) and these patients had higher alanine transaminase values (142 ± 79 vs. 96 ± 46 IU/L, p = 0.024) on postoperative day POD 7. However, the 6-month short-term graft survival rates were 100 % with one-step reconstruction and 83.9 % with direct anastomosis, respectively. One-step reconstruction of the RIHVs using auto-venous grafts is an easy and feasible technique promoting successful right lobe LDLT.

  2. Fire in the vein: Heroin acidity and its proximal effect on users’ health

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Harris, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The loss of functioning veins (venous sclerosis) is a root cause of suffering for long-term heroin injectors. In addition to perpetual frustration and loss of pleasure/esteem, venous sclerosis leads to myriad medical consequences including skin infections, for example, abscess, and possibly elevated HIV/HCV risks due to injection into larger jugular and femoral veins. The etiology of venous sclerosis is unknown and users’ perceptions of cause/meaning unexplored. This commentary stems from our hypothesis that venous sclerosis is causally related to heroin acidity, which varies by heroin source-form and preparation. We report pilot study data on first ever in vivo measurements of heroin pH and as well as qualitative data on users’ concerns and perceptions regarding the caustic nature of heroin and its effects. Heroin pH testing in natural settings is feasible and a useful tool for further research. Our preliminary findings, for example, that different heroin source-forms and preparations have a two log difference in acidity, have potentially broad, vital and readily implementable harm reduction implications. PMID:26077143

  3. Fire in the vein: Heroin acidity and its proximal effect on users' health.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Harris, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    The loss of functioning veins (venous sclerosis) is a root cause of suffering for long-term heroin injectors. In addition to perpetual frustration and loss of pleasure/esteem, venous sclerosis leads to myriad medical consequences including skin infections, for example, abscess, and possibly elevated HIV/HCV risks due to injection into larger jugular and femoral veins. The etiology of venous sclerosis is unknown and users' perceptions of cause/meaning unexplored. This commentary stems from our hypothesis that venous sclerosis is causally related to heroin acidity, which varies by heroin source-form and preparation. We report pilot study data on first ever in vivo measurements of heroin pH and as well as qualitative data on users' concerns and perceptions regarding the caustic nature of heroin and its effects. Heroin pH testing in natural settings is feasible and a useful tool for further research. Our preliminary findings, for example, that different heroin source-forms and preparations have a two log difference in acidity, have potentially broad, vital and readily implementable harm reduction implications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Transcatheter closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus using jugular access in an infant.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Precylia; Assaidi, Anass; Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Fraisse, Alain

    2018-03-01

    Trans-catheter device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) via femoral route is the commonly used, safe and effective procedure. Trans-jugular approach has been successfully used in older children with interrupted inferior vena cava. We report a case of successful occlusion of PDA using Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) via trans-jugular approach following difficulties encountered in gaining femoral venous access. A 6-month-old male infant, weighing 8 kg was admitted for percutaneous catheter closure of PDA. Echocardiogram showed a 4.5 mm duct and left heart dilatation. Femoral venous access was not possible; therefore, we decided to use a trans-jugular approach. The duct was occluded using 8/6 mm ADO. Successful closure of the duct was confirmed with an aortogram. Post procedure echocardiogram showed no residual shunt across the duct. We highlight that trans-catheter closure of PDA using jugular venous access is safe and effective even in infants.

  5. Incidence of cranial nerve palsy after preoperative embolization of glomus jugulare tumors using Onyx.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Brandon G; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Jethanamest, Daniel; Angeli, Simon I; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad A

    2014-02-01

    The resection of glomus jugulare tumors can be challenging because of their inherent vascularity. Preoperative embolization has been advocated as a means of reducing operative times, blood loss, and surgical complications. However, the incidence of cranial neuropathy associated with the embolization of these tumors has not been established. The authors of this study describe their experience with cranial neuropathy following transarterial embolization of glomus jugulare tumors using ethylene vinyl alcohol (Onyx, eV3 Inc.). The authors retrospectively reviewed all cases of glomus jugulare tumors that had been treated with preoperative embolization using Onyx at their institution in the period from 2006 to 2012. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, grade and amount of Onyx used, degree of angiographic devascularization, and procedural complications were recorded. Over a 6-year period, 11 patients with glomus jugulare tumors underwent preoperative embolization with Onyx. All embolization procedures were completed in one session. The overall mean percent of tumor devascularization was 90.7%. No evidence of nontarget embolization was seen on postembolization angiograms. There were 2 cases (18%) of permanent cranial neuropathy attributed to the embolization procedures (facial nerve paralysis and lower cranial nerve dysfunction). Embolizing glomus jugulare tumors with Onyx can produce a dramatic reduction in tumor vascularity. However, the intimate anatomical relationship and overlapping blood supply between these tumors and cranial nerves may contribute to a high incidence of cranial neuropathy following Onyx embolization.

  6. Surgical management of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb.

    PubMed

    Tirakotai, W; Benes, L; Kappus, C; Sure, U; Farhoud, A; Bien, S; Bertalanffy, H

    2007-01-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas located in the vicinity of the jugular foramen are complex vascular malformations and belong to the most challenging skull base lesions to treat. The authors comprehensively analyze multiple features in a series of dural arteriovenous fistulas with transosseous arterial feeders involving the jugular bulb. Four patients who underwent surgery via the transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas around the jugular foramen were retrospectively reviewed. Previously, endovascular treatment was attempted in all patients. The success of the surgical treatment was examined with postoperative angiography. Complete obliteration of the dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) was achieved in three patients, and significant flow reduction in one individual. All patients had a good postoperative outcome, and only one experienced mild hypoglossal nerve palsy. Despite extensive bone drilling, an occipitocervical fusion was necessary in only one patient with bilateral lesions. The use of an individually tailored transcondylar approach to treat dural arteriovenous fistulas at the region of the jugular foramen is most effective. This approach allows for complete obliteration of the connecting arterial feeders, and removal of bony structures containing pathological vessels.

  7. [Thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins: a present-day view on conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Soroka, V V; Fomin, K N; Nokhrin, S P; Belousov, E Iu

    The article contains a review of the literature data concerning different variants of conservative treatment of patients suffering from lower limb deep vein thrombosis. This is accompanied and followed by demonstrating the manner of alterations in the views on using various anticoagulants, as well as analysing the attitude towards the place of compression therapy in treatment of patients with lower limb deep vein thrombosis.

  8. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy

  9. [Comparison of transverse short-axis classic and oblique long-axis "Syringe-Free" approaches for internal jugular venous catheterization under ultrasound guidance].

    PubMed

    Ince, Ilker; Arı, Muhammet Ali; Sulak, Muhammet Mustafa; Aksoy, Mehmet

    There are different ultrasound probe positions used for internal jugular venous catheter placement. Also, in-plane or out of plane needle approach may be used for catheterization. Transverse short-axis classic approach is the most popular performed approach in literature. "Syringe-Free" is a new described technique that is performed with oblique long-axis approach. We aimed to compare performance of these two approaches. This study was conducted as a prospective and randomized study. 80 patients were included the study and divided into two groups that were named Group C (transverse short-axis classic approach) and Group SF (oblique long-axis syringe-free approach) by a computer-generated randomization. The primary outcome was mean time that guidewire is seen in the internal jugular vein (performing time). The secondary outcomes were to compare number of needle pass, number of skin puncture and complications between two groups. Demographic and hemodynamic data were not significantly different. The mean performing time was 54.9±19.1s in Group C and 43.9±15.8s in Group SF. Significant differences were found between the groups (p=0.006). Mean number of needle pass was 3.2(±2.1) in Group C and 2.1(±1.6) in Group SF. There were statistically significant differences between two groups (p=0.002). The number of skin puncture was 1.6(±0.8) and 1.2(±0.5) in Group C and SF, respectively (p=0.027). "Syringe-Free" technique has lower performing time, number of needle pass and skin puncture. Also, it allows to follow progress of guide-wire under continuous ultrasound visualization and the procedure does not need assistance during catheter insertion. Namely, "Syringe-Free" is effective, safe and fast technique that may be used to place internal jugular venous catheter. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Mid-term sustained relief from headaches after balloon angioplasty of the internal jugular veins in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Giaquinta, Alessia; Veroux, Massimiliano; De Marco, Ester; Mociskyte, Dovile; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients frequently suffer from headaches and fatigue, and many reports have linked headaches with intracranial and/or extracranial venous obstruction. We therefore designed a study involving MS patients diagnosed with obstructive disease of internal jugular veins (IJVs), with the aim of evaluating the impact of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on headache and fatigue indicators. Methods 286 MS patients (175 relapsing remitting (RR), 75 secondary progressive (SP), and 36 primary progressive (PP)), diagnosed with obstructive disease of IJVs, underwent PTA of IJVs during the period 2011–2015. This included 113 headache positive patients (82 RR, 22 SP, and 9 PP) and 277 fatigue positive patients (167 RR, 74 SP, and 36 PP). Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were evaluated: before PTA; 3-months after PTA; and at final follow-up in 2017. Patients were evaluated with Doppler sonography of the IJVs at 1, 6 and 12 months after PTA and yearly thereafter. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using a combination of the Friedman test and Spearman correlation analysis. Results With the exception of the PP patients there were significant reductions (all p < 0.001) in the MIDAS and FSS scores in the 3-month following PTA. The improvement in MIDAS score following PTA was maintained throughout the follow-up period in both the RR (p < 0.001; mean of 3.55 years) and SP (p = 0.002; mean of 3.52 years) MS cohorts. With FSS, significant improvement was only observed at 2017 follow-up in the RR patients (p < 0.001; mean of 3.37 years). In the headache-positive patients, post-PTA MIDAS score was significantly negatively correlated with the change in the blood flow score in the left (r = -0.238, p = 0.031) and right (r = -0.250, p = 0.023) IJVs in the RR patients and left IJV (r = -0.727, p = 0.026) in the PP patients. In the fatigue-positive cohort, post-PTA FSS score was also

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Carotid-Internal Jugular Venous Fistula in a Bomb Blast Victim.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Tariq; Khan, Navedullah; Yousaf, K M; Yaqub, Maha Zainab Z.

    2017-02-01

    Carotid-internal jugular venous fistula is one of the rarest presentations among victims of bomb blast injuries. Treatment of such fistula is open surgery with high mortality and morbidity. Endovascular treatment with covered stent seems to have an optimal result with low complications. We present a case report of a bomb blast victim having carotid-jugular venous fistula with hemodynamic compromise. The patient was successfully managed with endovascular graft stent. There was an optimal result with no immediate and long-term complications.

  12. Zero-stress states of human pulmonary arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Yen, R T

    1998-09-01

    The zero-stress states of the pulmonary arteries and veins from order 3 to order 9 were determined in six normal human lungs within 15 h postmortem. The zero-stress state of each vessel was obtained by cutting the vessel transversely into a series of short rings, then cutting each ring radially, which caused the ring to spring open into a sector. Each sector was characterized by its opening angle. The mean opening angle varied between 92 and 163 degrees in the arterial tree and between 89 and 128 degrees in the venous tree. There was a tendency for opening angles to increase as the sizes of the arteries and veins increased. We computed the residual strains based on the experimental measurements and estimated the residual stresses according to Hooke's law. We found that the inner wall of a vessel at the state in which the internal pressure, external pressure, and longitudinal stress are all zero was under compression and the outer wall was in tension, and that the magnitude of compressive stress was greater than the magnitude of tensile stress.

  13. Non-contact hemodynamic imaging reveals the jugular venous pulse waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Hughson, Richard L.; Greaves, Danielle K.; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Leung, Jason; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = -0.73 ± 0.17), consistent with ultrasound findings. Pulsatile venous flow was observed over a spatially cohesive region of the neck. Critical inflection points (c, x, v, y waves) of the JVP were observed across all participants. The anatomical locations of the strongest pulsatile venous flow were consistent with major venous pathways identified through ultrasound.

  14. Non-contact hemodynamic imaging reveals the jugular venous pulse waveform

    PubMed Central

    Amelard, Robert; Hughson, Richard L.; Greaves, Danielle K.; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Leung, Jason; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = −0.73 ± 0.17), consistent with ultrasound findings. Pulsatile venous flow was observed over a spatially cohesive region of the neck. Critical inflection points (c, x, v, y waves) of the JVP were observed across all participants. The anatomical locations of the strongest pulsatile venous flow were consistent with major venous pathways identified through ultrasound. PMID:28065933

  15. Echocolor Doppler morpho-functional study of the jugulo-subclavian confluence in chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mandolesi, Sandro; d'Alessandro, Aldo; Desogus, Antonello Ignazio; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Zito, Annapaola; Stammegna, Immacolata; Niglio, Tarcisio; Orsini, Augusto; Mandolesi, Dimitri; d'Alessandro, Alessandro; Revelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the mean diameter of the confluence jugulo- subclavian, the impact of different types of jugular confluences and the correlation between the types of confluences and the Valsalva maneuver (jugular reflux) in subjects with Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis. We investigated by Echo-Color-Doppler (ECD) 103 subjects (67 F 36M) of mean age 45 ± 12 years (a minimum of 22 to a maximum of 79 years, with a median of 44 and a modal value 42 years), mean EDSS of 4.7 and average disease duration of 12 years. The 103 right jugular veins investigated had an average diameter of 8.4 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 4.0, maximum 14.9 mm; median 7.9; modal value 7.6 mm). Three form types were found: 56 cylindrical, 29 conical and 18 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients. The 103 left jugular investigated had an average diameter of 8.9 ± 2.4 mm (minimum 2.8, maximum 14.4 mm; median of 8.8; modal value 8.7 mm). The form types were found: 42 cylindrical, 45 conical and 16 funnel. Valsalva maneuver was positive in 30 patients. The mean diameter of the jugular veins was 8.7 mm. Internal jugular veins with cylindrical morphology have a diameter smaller than other forms; this difference is statistically significant. The different morphology of the jugular vein confluence does not increase the possibility of a reflux because the positive Valsalva maneuvers are not statistically significant when compared to the various types. CCSVI, EchoColorDoppler Map, Jugulo-Subclavian Confluence Diameter.

  16. Which blood oxygen can sensitively indicate shock severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Clinical shock-monitoring mainly depends on measuring oxygen saturations from SVC blood samples invasively. The golden standard indicator is the central internal jugular vein oxygenation (SjvO2). Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) also can monitor shock in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which oxygen saturation (cerebral venous oxygen saturation, ScvO2; tissue oxygen saturation of internal jugular area; tissue oxygen saturation of extremities areas) can monitor shock patient more sensitively and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to examine which one is most effective. In order to discuss the problem, we continuously detected 56 critical patients who may be into shock state using NIRS oximeter at prefrontal, internal jugular vein area and forearm, and chose 24 patients who were into shock and then out of shock from the 56 critical patients. Combined with the patients' condition, the pulse oxygen saturation is most sensitively to monitoring shock than the others, and the internal jugular vein area oxygen saturation is most effective.

  17. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography enables the detection of recurrent same-site deep vein thrombosis by illuminating recently formed, neutrophil-rich thrombus.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tetsuya; Truelove, Jessica; Tawakol, Ahmed; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Hucker, William J; MacNabb, Megan H; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Kessinger, Chase W; Jaff, Michael R; Henke, Peter K; Weissleder, Ralph; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2014-09-23

    Accurate detection of recurrent same-site deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a challenging clinical problem. Because DVT formation and resolution are associated with a preponderance of inflammatory cells, we investigated whether noninvasive (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging could identify inflamed, recently formed thrombi and thereby improve the diagnosis of recurrent DVT. We established a stasis-induced DVT model in murine jugular veins and also a novel model of recurrent stasis DVT in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=35) underwent ligation of the jugular vein to induce stasis DVT. FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) was performed at DVT time points of day 2, 4, 7, 14, or 2+16 (same-site recurrent DVT at day 2 overlying a primary DVT at day 16). Antibody-based neutrophil depletion was performed in a subset of mice before DVT formation and FDG-PET/CT. In a clinical study, 38 patients with lower extremity DVT or controls undergoing FDG-PET were analyzed. Stasis DVT demonstrated that the highest FDG signal occurred at day 2, followed by a time-dependent decrease (P<0.05). Histological analyses demonstrated that thrombus neutrophils (P<0.01), but not macrophages, correlated with thrombus PET signal intensity. Neutrophil depletion decreased FDG signals in day 2 DVT in comparison with controls (P=0.03). Recurrent DVT demonstrated significantly higher FDG uptake than organized day 14 DVT (P=0.03). The FDG DVT signal in patients also exhibited a time-dependent decrease (P<0.01). Noninvasive FDG-PET/CT identifies neutrophil-dependent thrombus inflammation in murine DVT, and demonstrates a time-dependent signal decrease in both murine and clinical DVT. FDG-PET/CT may offer a molecular imaging strategy to accurately diagnose recurrent DVT. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava by the Right Iliac Artery: A Rare Variant of May-Thurner Syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fretz, V.; Binkert, C. A., E-mail: Christoph.Binkert@ksw.c

    May-Thurner syndrome is known as compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac artery. We describe a case of an atypical compression of the inferior vena cava by the right common iliac artery secondary to a high aortic bifurcation. Despite an extensive collateral network, there was a significant venous gradient between the iliac veins and the inferior vena cava above the compression. After stenting the venous pressure gradient disappeared. Follow-up 4 months later revealed a good clinical response with a patent stent.

  19. Consensus for the Treatment of Varicose Vein with Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Jin Hyun; Kim, Woo-Shik; Jung, In Mok; Park, Ki-Hyuk; Lee, Taeseung; Kang, Jin Mo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the schematic protocol of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of varicose veins. Indication: anatomic or pathophysiologic indication includes venous diameter within 2–20 mm, reflux time ≥0.5 seconds and distance from the skin ≥5 mm or subfascial location. Access: it is recommended to access at or above the knee joint for great saphenous vein and above the mid-calf for small saphenous vein. Catheter placement: the catheter tip should be placed 2.0 cm inferior to the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction. Endovenous heat-induced thrombosis ≥class III should be treated with low-molecular weight heparin. Tumescent solution: the composition of solution can be variable (e.g., 2% lidocaine 20 mL+500 mL normal saline+bicarbonate 2.5 mL with/without epinephrine). Infiltration can be done from each direction. Ablation: two cycles’ ablation for the first proximal segment of saphenous vein and the segment with the incompetent perforators is recommended. The other segments should be ablated one time. During RF energy delivery, it is recommended to apply external compression. Concomitant procedure: It is recommended to do simultaneously ambulatory phlebectomy. For sclerotherapy, it is recommended to defer at least 2 weeks. Post-procedural management: post-procedural ambulation is encouraged to reduce the thrombotic complications. Compression stocking should be applied for at least 7 days. Minor daily activity is not limited, but strenuous activities should be avoided for 2 weeks. It is suggested to take showers after 24 hours and tub baths, swimming, or soaking in water after 2 weeks. PMID:26217628

  20. REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented Puncture for Re-Insertion of Dialysis Catheter in Nonpatent Central Veins (REBORN)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: toochowwei@gmail.com; Sayani, Raza; Lim, Elvin Yuan Ting

    PurposeTo describe a technique involving REcanalisation and Balloon-Oriented puncture for Re-insertion of dialysis catheter in Nonpatent central veins (REBORN) and to report long-term results.Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study of ten subjects in whom dialysis catheters were inserted using the REBORN technique from March 2012 to October 2014 and followed up till April 2016. Data on the duration of catheter usage, complications and reasons for removal were obtained. Seven patients had partially occluded lower internal jugular veins (IJV) recanalised in an antegrade fashion via a more cranial puncture. The balloon was then inflated at usual puncture site with anmore » 18G needle. The collapsed balloon was cannulated with a guide wire, and both balloon and guide wire were advanced together into the superior vena cava. This was followed by tunnelled catheter placement using standard techniques. Two patients had catheters placed in the subclavian vein using a similar antegrade technique, and one patient had catheter placed via the left IJV following retrograde recanalisation from a right femoral puncture.ResultsMean duration of catheter use was 278 days (range 32–503). Three catheters were removed due to matured arteriovenous accesses. Four patients had successful catheter change over the same subcutaneous track due to catheter malfunction. One catheter was removed after 7 months because of sepsis. No complications were reported.ConclusionThe REBORN technique allows for the preservation of central veins for future haemodialysis access, which can be challenging in patients requiring long-term dialysis.« less

  1. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options.

    PubMed

    MacKay, D

    2001-04-01

    Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

  2. Fast Track ultrasound protocol to detect acute complications after totally implantable venous access device placement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Yu; Lin, Feng-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Chia; Chou, Wei-Han; Lin, Wen-Ying; Sun, Wei-Zen; Lin, Chih-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The role of ultrasound examination in detection of postprocedure complications from totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) placement is still uncertain. In a cohort of 665 cancer outpatients, we assessed a quick ultrasound examination protocol in early detection of mechanical complications of catheterization. Immediately after TIVAD placement, an ultrasound examination and chest radiography were performed to detect hemothorax, pneumothorax, and catheter malposition. The two methods were compared. Of the 668 catheters inserted, 628 were placed into axillary veins and 40 into internal jugular veins. The ultrasound examination took 2.5 ± 1.1 min. No hemothorax was detected, and neither pneumothorax nor catheter malposition was evident among the 40 internal jugular vein cannulations. Ultrasound and chest radiography examinations of the 628 axillary vein cannulations detected five and four instances of pneumothorax, respectively. Ultrasound detected all six catheter malpositions into the internal jugular vein. However, ultrasound failed to detect two out of three malpositions in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein and one kinking inside the superior vena cava. Without revision surgery, the operating time was 34.1 ± 15.6 min. With revision surgery, the operating time was shorter when ultrasound detected catheter malposition than when chest radiography was used (96.8 ± 12.9 vs. 188.8 ± 10.3 min, p < 0.001). Postprocedure ultrasound examination is a quick and sensitive method to detect TIVAD-related pneumothorax. It also precisely detects catheter malposition to internal jugular vein thus reduces time needed for revision surgery while chest radiography remains necessary to confirm catheter final position.

  3. [Characteristics of Raman spectra of minerals in the veins of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Zhou, Ben-gang; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-cheng; Yi, Li; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yue-ju; Li, Jing; Chen, Zheng-wei; Du, Jian-guo

    2015-01-01

    Quartz in the veins at the Shenxigou section of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement, and the distribution of compressive stress in the fault zone was estimated by the frequency shifts of the 464 cm-1 vibrational mode of quartz grains in the veins. It was showed that the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins near the fault plane shifts by 3. 29 cm-1 , and the corresponding compressive stress is 368. 63 MPa, which is significantly lower than the stress accumulation on both sides due to multi-stage events. Stress accumulation increased with moving away from the fault plane in the footwall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins increasing, which can reach 494. 77 MPa at a distance of 21 m with a high offset of 4. 40 cm-1 of the 464 cm-1 peak. The compressive stress gets the maximum value of 519.87 MPa at a distance of 10 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins being 4. 62 cm-1, followed by a sudden drop in stress accumulation, and it drops to 359. 59 MPa at a distance of 17 m. Because of moving away from the foult plane at the edge of the foult zone, the stress drops to 359. 59 MPa with a small value of 464 cm-1 peak offset 3. 21 cm-1 at a distance of 27 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall due to the little effect by the fault activity. Therefore, the stress of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is partially released, but the rest of the stress distribution is uneven, and there is also a high stress accumulation in somewhere in the fault zone, which reflects that the mechanical properties of the rocks in the fault zone have a characteristic of unevenness in space.

  4. Endovascular management of recurrent stenosis following left renal vein transposition for the treatment of Nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baril, Donald T; Polanco, Patricio; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2011-04-01

    Nutcracker syndrome is an entity resulting from left renal vein compression by the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, leading to symptoms of left flank pain and hematuria. Conventional treatment has been surgical, commonly through transposition of the left renal vein to a more caudal location on the inferior vena cava. Additionally, endovascular approaches, primarily via renal vein stenting, have been described for treatment of this syndrome. We report the case of a patient with Nutcracker syndrome who underwent successful left renal vein transposition but then developed recurrent symptoms 10 months postoperatively and was successfully treated with angioplasty and stenting. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of longitudinal and transverse approaches to ultrasound-guided axillary vein cannulation by experienced operators.

    PubMed

    He, Yi-Zhou; Zhong, Ming; Wu, Wei; Song, Jie-Qiong; Zhu, Du-Ming

    2017-04-01

    The axillary vein is an easily accessible vessel that can be used for ultrasound-guided central vascular access and offers an alternative to the internal jugular and subclavian veins. The objective of this study was to identify which transducer orientation, longitudinal or transverse, is better for imaging the axillary vein with ultrasound. We analyzed 236 patients who had undergone central venous cannulation of axillary vein in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups, the longitudinal approach group (n=120) and transverse approach group (n=116). Recorded the one-attempt success rate, operation time, arterial puncture rate and pneumothorax rate. We perform chest radiography to confirm pneumothorax on all patients. We compared the one-attempt success rate, operation time, arterial puncture rate and pneumothorax rate between the two groups. The two groups were comparable with clinical characters of patients. The overall success rates of the longitudinal group and the transverse group were both 100%. The rate of one-attempt success in the longitudinal approach group is higher than the transverse approach group (91.7% vs. 82.8%, P=0.040). The transverse approach group had shorter operation time than the longitudinal group (184.7±8.1 vs. 287.5±19.6 seconds, P=0.000). The two groups had lower postoperative complications. Arterial puncture occurred in 1 of 120 longitudinal and 2 of 116 transverse attempts and this difference was no significant (P=0.541). No pneumothorax occurred in the two groups. The longitudinal approach during ultrasound-guided axillary vein cannulation is associated with greater one-attempt success rate compared with the transverse approach by experienced operators. The transverse approach has shorter operation time. The two groups have lower postoperative complications and are comparable with pneumothorax and arterial puncture.

  6. A comparison of longitudinal and transverse approaches to ultrasound-guided axillary vein cannulation by experienced operators

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi-Zhou; Zhong, Ming; Wu, Wei; Song, Jie-Qiong

    2017-01-01

    Background The axillary vein is an easily accessible vessel that can be used for ultrasound-guided central vascular access and offers an alternative to the internal jugular and subclavian veins. The objective of this study was to identify which transducer orientation, longitudinal or transverse, is better for imaging the axillary vein with ultrasound. Methods We analyzed 236 patients who had undergone central venous cannulation of axillary vein in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups, the longitudinal approach group (n=120) and transverse approach group (n=116). Recorded the one-attempt success rate, operation time, arterial puncture rate and pneumothorax rate. We perform chest radiography to confirm pneumothorax on all patients. We compared the one-attempt success rate, operation time, arterial puncture rate and pneumothorax rate between the two groups. Results The two groups were comparable with clinical characters of patients. The overall success rates of the longitudinal group and the transverse group were both 100%. The rate of one-attempt success in the longitudinal approach group is higher than the transverse approach group (91.7% vs. 82.8%, P=0.040). The transverse approach group had shorter operation time than the longitudinal group (184.7±8.1 vs. 287.5±19.6 seconds, P=0.000). The two groups had lower postoperative complications. Arterial puncture occurred in 1 of 120 longitudinal and 2 of 116 transverse attempts and this difference was no significant (P=0.541). No pneumothorax occurred in the two groups. Conclusions The longitudinal approach during ultrasound-guided axillary vein cannulation is associated with greater one-attempt success rate compared with the transverse approach by experienced operators. The transverse approach has shorter operation time. The two groups have lower postoperative complications and are comparable with pneumothorax and arterial puncture. PMID:28523170

  7. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1 in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while α-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27Kip1 and p16INKA remained unchanged, whereas p21Cip1 was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21Cip1 is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts. PMID:19563615

  8. A rare case of renal vein thrombosis due to urinary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jana, Tanima; Orlander, Philip R; Molony, Donald A

    2015-08-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is an uncommon condition in adults and may be caused by endothelial damage, stasis, or hypercoagulable states. RVT is commonly identified in patients with nephrotic syndrome or malignancy. We present the case of a 57-yearold man with no past medical history who presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, dysuria, and hematuria. Initial laboratory studies were consistent with acute kidney injury (AKI). Imaging revealed bladder distension, enlargement of the prostate, bilateral hydronephrosis, and left renal vein thrombosis extending into the inferior vena cava. His renal failure and presenting symptoms resolved with placement of a Foley catheter and ureteral stent. The patient was discharged on anticoagulation. Here, we report a rare case of RVT that appears to have occurred as a consequence of obstructive uropathy causing massive bladder distention resulting in compression of the renal vein.

  9. Percutaneous Image-Guided Aspiration and Sclerosis of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Femoral Vein

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, Jason M.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Bertges, Daniel J.

    2009-07-15

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease mainly seen in arteries. Seventeen cases have been reported in the world literature. We report the first known case of ACD successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided ethanol sclerosis. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass adherent to the wall of the common femoral vein. An ultrasound examination revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the leg, secondary to extrinsic compression of the common femoral vein. Three years prior to our procedure, the cyst was aspirated, which partially relieved the patient's symptoms. Over the following 3more » years the patient's symptoms worsened and a 10-cm discrepancy in thigh size developed, in addition to the deep venous thrombosis associated with lower-extremity edema. Using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopic control, the cyst was drained and then sclerosed with absolute ethanol. The patient's symptoms and leg swelling resolved completely within several weeks. Follow-up physical examination and duplex ultrasound 6 months following sclerosis demonstrated resolution of the symptoms and elimination of the extrinsic compression effect of the ACD on the common femoral vein.« less

  10. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of imipenem following regional limb perfusion using the saphenous and the cephalic veins in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Kelmer, G; Tatz, A J; Kdoshim, E; Britzi, M; Segev, G

    2017-10-01

    This prospective experimental study goal was to determine the pharmacokinetics of imipenem after intravenous regional limb perfusion (IV-RLP) in standing horses. Nine horses participated in the study; that was approved by the University Animal Care and Use Committee. One thoracic limb or one pelvic limb of each horse was randomly selected. After the veins were catheterized, an Esmarch bandage tourniquet was applied and the catheter was injected with a solution containing 500mg of imipenem. Synovial fluid samples were collected from the fetlock joint and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. All samples were analyzed for imipenem concentration using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Cmax of imipenem in the fetlock joint using the cephalic and the saphenous vein was 87 and 60μg⁄mL, respectively. The results indicate that by performing IV-RLP using the cephalic/saphenous, one can achieve imipenem concentrations in the fetlock joint that are well above the MIC of most susceptible pathogens including resistant bacteria such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, with selective; judicious use, RLP with imipenem can markedly increase treatment efficacy of severe distal limb infections in horses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aberrant sylvian vein: A newly described cause of pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Yu, Jingge; Zhao, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanjuan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-10-01

    We herein report a newly described cause of venous pulsatile tinnitus: protrusion of an aberrant sylvian vein into the tympanum. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of objective persistent pulsatile tinnitus in the right ear with no other complaints. The pulsatile tinnitus diminished with rotation of the head to the right side or by compression of the right cervical vascular structures. The frequency and intensity of the tinnitus were 125 Hz and 20 dB HL, respectively. Audiometry and otoscopic examination findings were normal. Radiologic examination showed that the right sylvian vein protruded into the tympanum through the dehiscent anterior cortical plate of the tympanum.

  12. Does acid-base equilibrium correlate with remnant liver volume during stepwise liver resection?

    PubMed

    Golriz, Mohammad; Abbasi, Sepehr; Fathi, Parham; Majlesara, Ali; Brenner, Thorsten; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2017-10-01

    Small for size and flow syndrome (SFSF) is one of the most challenging complications following extended hepatectomy (EH). After EH, hepatic artery flow decreases and portal vein flow increases per 100 g of remnant liver volume (RLV). This causes hypoxia followed by metabolic acidosis. A correlation between acidosis and posthepatectomy liver failure has been postulated but not studied systematically in a large animal model or clinical setting. In our study, we performed stepwise liver resections on nine pigs to defined SFSF limits as follows: step 1: segment II/III resection, step 2: segment IV resection, step 3: segment V/VIII resection (RLV: 75, 50, and 25%, respectively). Blood gas values were measured before and after each step using four catheters inserted into the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hepatic artery, and portal vein. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. EH correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Pco 2 values increased after 75% resection in the jugular vein. In contrast, arterial Po 2 increased after every resection, whereas the venous Po 2 decreased slightly. There were differences in venous [Formula: see text], BE in the hepatic artery, and Pco 2 in the jugular vein after 75% liver resection. Because 75% resection is the limit for SFSF, these noninvasive blood evaluations may be used to predict SFSF. Further studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate this correlation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to evaluate acid-base parameters in major central and hepatic vessels during stepwise liver resection. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. Extended hepatectomy correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Because 75% resection is the limit for small for size and flow

  13. Lemierre's syndrome (necrobacillosis)

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Marin, B.; Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome or postanginal septicaemia (necrobacillosis) is caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection with secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and frequent metastatic infections. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the most common pathogen isolated from the patients. The interval between the oropharyngeal infection and the onset of the septicaemia is usually short. The most common sites of septic embolisms are the lungs and joints, and other locations can be affected. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose the syndrome. Computed tomography of the neck with contrast is the most useful study to detect internal jugular vein thrombosis. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotic therapy and drainage of septic foci. The role of anticoagulation is controversial. Ligation or excision of the internal jugular vein may be needed in some cases.


Keywords: Lemierre's syndrome; Fusobacterium necrophorum; necrobacillosis; septicaemia; oropharynx PMID:10448489

  14. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47more » (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.« less

  15. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged <60 years and 18 (43/9%) patients were aged >60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  16. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... This causes the veins to swell, which can lead to varicose veins. Varicose veins are very common. You are more at risk if you are older, are female, have obesity, don't exercise, or have a family history of varicose veins. They can also be more ...

  17. Microvascular Decompression for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by Venous Compression: Novel Anatomic Classifications and Surgical Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Fu, Xianming; Ji, Ying; Ding, Wanhai; Deng, Dali; Wang, Yehan; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Chaoshi

    2018-05-01

    Microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve is the most effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. However, when encountering classical trigeminal neuralgia caused by venous compression, the procedure becomes much more difficult, and failure or recurrence because of incomplete decompression may become frequent. This study aimed to investigate the anatomic variation of the culprit veins and discuss the surgical strategy for different types. We performed a retrospective analysis of 64 consecutive cases in whom veins were considered as responsible vessels alone or combined with other adjacent arteries. The study classified culprit veins according to operative anatomy and designed personalized approaches and decompression management according to different forms of compressive veins. Curative effects were assessed by the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score and BNI facial numbness score. The most commonly encountered veins were the superior petrosal venous complex (SPVC), which was artificially divided into 4 types according to both venous tributary distribution and empty point site. We synthetically considered these factors and selected an approach to expose the trigeminal root entry zone, including the suprafloccular transhorizontal fissure approach and infratentorial supracerebellar approach. The methods of decompression consist of interposing and transposing by using Teflon, and sometimes with the aid of medical adhesive. Nerve combing (NC) of the trigeminal root was conducted in situations of extremely difficult neurovascular compression, instead of sacrificing veins. Pain completely disappeared in 51 patients, and the excellent outcome rate was 79.7%. There were 13 patients with pain relief treated with reoperation. Postoperative complications included 10 cases of facial numbness, 1 case of intracranial infection, and 1 case of high-frequency hearing loss. The accuracy recognition of anatomic variation of the SPVC is crucial for the

  18. Incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous tissue transfer.

    PubMed

    Konoeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Takashi; Hamahata, Atsumori; Ochi, Masakazu; Osada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuki; Kirita, Miho; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Background Breast reconstruction is associated with multiple risk factors for venous thromboembolism. However, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction is uncertain. Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction using autologous tissue transfer and to identify potential risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. Methods Thirty-five patients undergoing breast reconstruction were enrolled. We measured patients' preoperative characteristics including age, body mass index (kg/m 2 ), and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. The preoperative diameter of each venous segment in the deep veins was measured using duplex ultrasound. All patients received intermittent pneumatic pump and elastic compression stockings for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. Results Among the 35 patients evaluated, 11 (31.4%) were found to have deep vein thrombosis postoperatively, and one patient was found to have pulmonary embolism postoperatively. All instances of deep vein thrombosis developed in the calf and were asymptomatic. Ten of 11 patients underwent free flap transfer, and the remaining one patient received a latissimus dorsi pedicled flap. Deep vein thrombosis incidence did not significantly differ between patients with a free flap or pedicled flap (P = 0.13). Documented risk factors for deep vein thrombosis demonstrated no significant differences between patients with and without deep vein thrombosis. The diameter of the common femoral vein was significantly larger in patients who developed postoperative deep vein thrombosis than in those who did not ( P < 0.05). Conclusions The morbidity of deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent breast reconstruction using autologous tissue transfer was relatively high. Since only the diameter of the common femoral vein was predictive of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis, postoperative

  19. Impact of Ultrasound on Short Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement on Vein Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Holder, Max R; Stutzman, Sonja E; Olson, DaiWai M

    Approximately 90% of hospitalized patients have a short peripheral intravenous catheter (SPC) placed. Methods of inserting the catheter have evolved over time and now include the use of ultrasound (US)-guided procedures for placement. Little is known about the impact that US-guided procedures have on the vein. This study compared the rate of venous thrombosis in patients with and without US-guided catheter placement. This prospective, single-blind, observational study assessed for venous thrombosis in 153 veins from 135 patients. Veins were evaluated by a research nurse blinded to the method of placement between 48 and 72 hours after the SPC was placed. The Fisher exact test showed a significant difference between vessel compressibility and catheter insertion method (P = .0012). The proportion of noncompressible veins was significantly greater when US was used in comparison with freehand SPC insertion. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square value of 10.34 (P = .0013) showed that US insertion technique is associated with a higher likelihood of noncompressible veins. This pilot study provides compelling evidence that the use of US to assist with catheter placement is associated with a higher rate of noncompressible veins at day 2 or 3. Further studies are needed with a larger sample to determine the generalizability of the results from this pilot study.

  20. Advantage of vein grafts for anomalous origin of a right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Kansaku, Rei; Saitoh, Hirofumi; Eguchi, Shoji; Maruyama, Yukio; Ohtsuka, Hideaki; Higuchi, Kotaro

    2009-03-01

    A 66-year-old man with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery suffered from chest pain. The results of coronary angiography and multidetector computer tomography indicated that the proximal right coronary artery was intermittently compressed, causing the ischemia. Coronary artery bypass grafting was regarded as a reliable treatment compared with percutaneous coronary intervention or other surgeries. Because of plentiful flow of the right coronary artery, we decided to use a vein graft to avoid competitive flow. Postoperative coronary angiography revealed intact flow in both the native coronary artery and the vein graft 1 year after the surgery. The myocardial ischemia seen on scintigraphy and the chest pain had disappeared.

  1. Cost effectiveness of different central venous approaches for port placement and use in adult oncology patients: evidence from a randomized three-arm trial.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Roberto; Pozzi, Simonetta; Bonomo, Guido; Della Vigna, Paolo; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Radice, Davide; Rotmensz, Nicole; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Orsi, Franco

    2014-11-01

    No randomized trials have so far investigated the cost effectiveness of different methods for implantation and use of central venous ports in oncology patients. Overall, 403 patients eligible for receiving intravenous chemotherapy for solid tumours were randomly assigned to implantation of a single type of port, either through a percutaneous landmark access to the internal jugular vein, an ultrasound (US)-guided access to the subclavian vein, or a surgical cut-down access through the cephalic vein at the deltoid-pectoralis groove. Insertion and maintenance costs were estimated by obtaining the charges for an average implant and use, while the costs of the management of complications were analytically assessed. The total cost was defined as the purchase cost plus the insertion cost plus the maintenance cost plus the cost of treatment of the complications, if any. A total of 401 patients were evaluable-132 with the internal jugular vein, 136 with the subclavian vein and 133 with the cephalic vein access. No differences were found for the rate of early complications. The US-guided subclavian insertion site had significantly lower failures. Infections occurred in 1, 3, and 3 patients (internal jugular, subclavian, and cephalic access, respectively; p = 0.464), whereas venous thrombosis was observed in 15, 8, and 11 patients, respectively (p = 0.272). Mean cost for purchase, implantation, diagnosis and treatment of complications in each patient was 2,167.85 for subclavian US-guided, 2,335.87 for cephalic, and 2,384.10 for internal jugular access, respectively (p = 0.0001). US real-time guidance to the subclavian vein resulted in the most cost-effective method of central venous port placement and use.

  2. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  3. Rapamycin reduced pulmonary vascular remodelling by inhibiting cell proliferation via Akt/mTOR signalling pathway down-regulation in the carotid artery-jugular vein shunt pulmonary hypertension rat model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofan; Yao, Jianping; Yue, Yuan; Du, Shangming; Qin, Han; Hou, Jian; Wu, Zhongkai

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a common complication of congenital heart disease. However, effective treatments for PAH are rare. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of rapamycin on PAH in the carotid artery-jugular vein (CA-JV) shunt PAH rat model as well as the mechanism underlying these effects. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the following 3 groups: a control group, a CA-JV shunt group and a treatment group. Rapamycin (2 mg/kg/day) was administered to the treatment group, and placebo was administered to the CA-JV shunt group. Haemodynamic evaluations, pulmonary tissue samplings for morphometry and immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of rapamycin on PAH. Rapamycin attenuated the increase of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVSP: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.017; RV: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.022), as well as the intrapulmonary vessel thickening (thickness index: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.028; area index: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.014), induced by overcirculation of the pulmonary vasculature in the CA-JV shunt-induced PAH rat model. Rapamycin decreased the expression level of the indicated cell proliferation marker (α-smooth muscle actin) in the lung vessel and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway components (p-mTOR: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.004; p-Raptor: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000; p-S6K1: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000; p-Akt: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.001; p-Rheb: CA-JV vs CA-JV + rapamycin, P = 0.000) in pulmonary tissue. Rapamycin reduced pulmonary vascular remodelling by inhibiting cell proliferation via Akt/mTOR signalling pathway down-regulation in the CA-JV shunt-induced PAH model in rats. Thus, rapamycin may be a novel candidate drug for the treatment of

  4. Pelvic congestion syndrome and left renal compression syndrome - clinical features and therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Jeanneret, Christina; Beier, Konstantin; von Weymarn, Alexander; Traber, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the pelvic, gonadal and renal veins is important to understand pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) and left renal vein compression syndrome (LRCS), which is also known as the nutcracker syndrome. LRCS is related to PCS and to the presence of vulvar, vaginal and pudendal varicose veins. The diagnosis of the two syndromes is difficult, and usually achieved with CT- or phlebography. The gold standard is the intravenous pressure measurement using conventional phlebography. The definition of PCS is described as pelvic pain, aggravated in the standing position and lasting for more than 6 months. Pain in the left flank and microhaematuria is seen in patients with LRCS. Women with multiple pregnancies are at increased risk of developing varicose vein recurrences with pelvic drainage and ovarian vein reflux after crossectomy and stripping of the great saphenous vein. The therapeutic options are: conservative treatment (medroxyprogesteron) or interventional (coiling of the ovarian vein) or operative treatment (clipping of the ovarian vein). Controlled prospective trials are needed to find the best treatment.

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  6. Indications for medical compression stockings in venous and lymphatic disorders: An evidence-based consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, Eberhard; Partsch, Hugo; Hafner, Juerg; Lattimer, Christopher; Mosti, Giovanni; Neumann, Martino; Urbanek, Tomasz; Huebner, Monika; Gaillard, Sylvain; Carpentier, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective Medical compression stockings are a standard, non-invasive treatment option for all venous and lymphatic diseases. The aim of this consensus document is to provide up-to-date recommendations and evidence grading on the indications for treatment, based on evidence accumulated during the past decade, under the auspices of the International Compression Club. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted and, using PRISMA guidelines, 51 relevant publications were selected for an evidence-based analysis of an initial 2407 unrefined results. Key search terms included: ‘acute', CEAP', ‘chronic', ‘compression stockings', ‘compression therapy', ‘lymph', ‘lymphatic disease', ‘vein' and ‘venous disease'. Evidence extracted from the publications was graded initially by the panel members individually and then refined at the consensus meeting. Results Based on the current evidence, 25 recommendations for chronic and acute venous disorders were made. Of these, 24 recommendations were graded as: Grade 1A (n = 4), 1B (n = 13), 1C (n = 2), 2B (n = 4) and 2C (n = 1). The panel members found moderately robust evidence for medical compression stockings in patients with venous symptoms and prevention and treatment of venous oedema. Robust evidence was found for prevention and treatment of venous leg ulcers. Recommendations for stocking-use after great saphenous vein interventions were limited to the first post-interventional week. No randomised clinical trials are available that document a prophylactic effect of medical compression stockings on the progression of chronic venous disease (CVD). In acute deep vein thrombosis, immediate compression is recommended to reduce pain and swelling. Despite conflicting results from a recent study to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome, medical compression stockings are still recommended. In thromboprophylaxis, the role of stockings in addition to anticoagulation is limited. For the maintenance phase

  7. Technical Nuances of Exposing Rat Common Carotid Arteries for Practicing Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Aklinski, Joseph; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-17

    Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCAs) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCAs have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCAs in preparation for a vascular anastomosis. Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision. The exposed length of the CCA was measured. Additionally, technical nuances of exposure and surgically relevant anatomic details were recorded. The CCAs were exposed from the sternoclavicular joint to their bifurcation (average length, 19.1 ± 2.8 mm). Tenets important for a safe and efficient exposure of the CCAs included 1) generous subcutaneous dissection to expose the external jugular veins (EJVs), 2) avoiding injury to or compression of the EJVs, 3) superior mobilization of the salivary glands, 4) division of internal jugular veins, 5) opening the carotid sheath at its midlevel and from medial to lateral, and 6) avoiding injury to the vagus nerve or sympathetic trunk. Using the principles introduced in this study, trainees may safely and efficiently expose rat CCAs in preparation for a bypass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravascular Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Walker, Q. David; Luo, Brooke; Kuhn, Cynthia; Simon, Sidney A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of calorie-containing sugars elicits appetitive behavioral responses and dopamine release in the ventral striatum, even in the absence of sweet-taste transduction machinery. However, it is unclear if such reward-related postingestive effects reflect preabsorptive or postabsorptive events. In support of the importance of postabsorptive glucose detection, we found that, in rat behavioral tests, high concentration glucose solutions administered in the jugular vein were sufficient to condition a side-bias. Additionally, a lower concentration glucose solution conditioned robust behavioral responses when administered in the hepatic-portal, but not the jugular vein. Furthermore, enteric administration of glucose at a concentration that is sufficient to elicit behavioral conditioning resulted in a glycemic profile similar to that observed after administration of the low concentration glucose solution in the hepatic-portal, but not jugular vein. Finally using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we found that, in accordance with behavioral findings, a low concentration glucose solution caused an increase in spontaneous dopamine release events in the nucleus accumbens shell when administered in the hepatic-portal, but not the jugular vein. These findings demonstrate that the postabsorptive effects of glucose are sufficient for the postingestive behavioral and dopaminergic reward-related responses that result from sugar consumption. Furthermore, glycemia levels in the hepatic-portal venous system contribute more significantly for this effect than systemic glycemia, arguing for the participation of an intra-abdominal visceral sensor for glucose. PMID:21980372

  9. Subtotal resection for management of large jugular paragangliomas with functional lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Carlson, Matthew L; Latuska, Richard F; Rivas, Alejandro; Bennett, Marc L; Netterville, James L; Haynes, David S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate tumor control following subtotal resection of advanced jugular paragangliomas in patients with functional lower cranial nerves and to investigate the utility of salvage radiotherapy for residual progressive disease. Case series with planned chart review. Tertiary academic referral center. Patients who presented with advanced jugular paragangliomas and functional lower cranial nerves were analyzed. Primary outcome measures included extent of resection, long-term tumor control, need for additional treatment, and postoperative lower cranial nerve function. Twelve patients (mean age, 46.2 years; 7 women, 58.3%) who met inclusion criteria were evaluated between 1999 and 2013. The mean postoperative residual tumor volume was 27.7% (range, 3.5%-75.0%) of the preoperative volume. When the residual tumor volume was less than 20% of the preoperative volume, no tumor growth occurred over an average of 44.6 months of follow-up (P < .01). Four tumors (33.3%) demonstrated serial growth at a mean of 23.5 months following resection, 2 of which were treated with salvage stereotactic radiotherapy providing control through the last recorded follow-up. No patient experienced permanent postoperative lower cranial neuropathy as a result of surgery. Subtotal resection of jugular paragangliomas with preservation of the lower cranial nerves is a viable management strategy. If more than 80% of the preoperative tumor volume is resected, the residual tumor seems less likely to grow. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  10. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Back, C; Thiesen, K L; Skovgaard, K; Edvinsson, L; Jensen, L T; Larsen, V A; Iversen, H K

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade has neuroprotective effects in animal stroke models, but no effects in clinical stroke trials. We evaluated cerebral and peripheral changes in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and stress responses in acute ischemic stroke patients. Blood from a jugular and cubital vein was collected within 48 h of stroke onset, after 24 and 48 h, and renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were measured. Post-stroke cubital vein samples were collected after 8 (4.7-10) months. The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post-stroke. No differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P < 0.05). Increased epinephrine and cortisol levels in the jugular vein blood may reflect a higher peripheral turnover. The observed changes in RAAS in the acute stroke phase are consistent with responses to increased blood pressure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Facial Nerve Paralysis after Onyx Embolization of a Jugular Paraganglioma: A Case Report with a Long-Term Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Odat, Haitham; Alawneh, Khaled; Al-Qudah, Mohannad

    2018-01-01

    Jugular paragangliomas are slow growing highly vascular tumors arising from jugular paraganglia. The gold standard of treatment is complete surgical resection. Pre-operative embolization of these highly vascular tumors is essential to reduce intra-operative bleeding, allow safe dissection, and decrease operative time and post-operative complications. Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has been widely used as permanent occluding material for vascular tumors of skull base because of its unique physical properties. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman who had left-sided facial nerve paralysis after Onyx embolization of jugular paraganglioma. The tumor was resected on the next day of embolization. The patient was followed up for 30 months with serial imaging studies and facial nerve assessment. The facial verve function improved from House–Brackmann grade V to grade II at the last visit. PMID:29518926

  12. Facial Nerve Paralysis after Onyx Embolization of a Jugular Paraganglioma: A Case Report with a Long-Term Follow Up.

    PubMed

    Odat, Haitham; Alawneh, Khaled; Al-Qudah, Mohannad

    2018-03-07

    Jugular paragangliomas are slow growing highly vascular tumors arising from jugular paraganglia. The gold standard of treatment is complete surgical resection. Pre-operative embolization of these highly vascular tumors is essential to reduce intra-operative bleeding, allow safe dissection, and decrease operative time and post-operative complications. Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has been widely used as permanent occluding material for vascular tumors of skull base because of its unique physical properties. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman who had left-sided facial nerve paralysis after Onyx embolization of jugular paraganglioma. The tumor was resected on the next day of embolization. The patient was followed up for 30 months with serial imaging studies and facial nerve assessment. The facial verve function improved from House-Brackmann grade V to grade II at the last visit.

  13. [Surgical treatment of varicose vein using the tumescent technique of local anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Bjelanović, Zoran; Leković, Ivan; Drasković, Miroljub; Misović, Sidor; Veljović, Milić

    2011-02-01

    Tumescent local anesthesia (TLA) is a technique for local and regional anesthesia of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue, using infiltration of large amounts of a diluted solution of local anesthetic. This technique is applied in plastic surgery, liposuction as well as in dermatology for the entire series of dermatocosmetic procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine efficiency of surgical treatment of varicose vein using TLA as an alternative method to a conventional treatment for varicose vein. Seventy-two patients with varicose vein were enrolled in the study. All of them were operated on applying TLA, from April 2008 to November 2009. TLA solution consisted of local anesthetics was used. TLA solutions used were: 1% prilocaine-chloride with adrenaline supplement, and 2% lidocaine-chloride and adrenaline in concentration of 0.1%-0.4%. Out of 72 patients, we stripped great saphenous vein from 60 patient and did varicectomy as well as ligation of insufficiently perforating veins. In 12 patients we did partial varicectomy and ligation of perforating veins. There were not any patients with the need for continued surgery, as well as bringing patient to the general anesthesia due to pain during the surgery. One patient came for postoperative opening wound in the groin, one for infection of the wound and one for the formation of seroma in the groin. There were not any allergic reactions or systemic complications in the operations as well as postoperative period. Postoperatively, all the patients were treated with compressive elastic bandage during the period of 6 weeks as well as anticoagulation prophylaxis in the duration of 5 days. Surgery of varicose veins with implementation of TLA is easy and safe method with very low percentage of complications and unwanted effects. It is a good alternative method to classic surgery of varicose veins. The economic aspect is a very important component because the cost of this method is significantly lower than that of a

  14. Serum levels of S100B from jugular bulb as a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with severe acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, María A; Rubio-Lopez, María I; San Martín, María; Padilla, Ana; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Llorca, Javier; Miñambres, Eduardo

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the correlation between protein S100B concentrations measured in the jugular bulb as well as at peripheral level and the prognostic usefulness of this marker. A prospective study of all patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute brain damage was carried out. Peripheral and jugular bulb blood samples were collected upon admission and every 24h for three days. The endpoints were brain death diagnosis and the Glasgow Outcome Scale score after 6months. A total of 83 patients were included. Jugular protein S100B levels were greater than systemic levels upon admission and also after 24 and 72h (mean difference>0). Jugular protein S100B levels showed acceptable precision in predicting brain death both upon admission [AUC 0.67 (95% CI 0.53-0.80)] and after 48h [AUC 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.89)]. Similar results were obtained regarding the capacity of jugular protein S100B levels upon admission to predict an unfavourable outcome (AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.79)). The gradient upon admission (jugular-peripheral levels) showed its capacity to predict the development of brain death [AUC 0.74 (95% CI 0.62-0.86)] and together with the Glasgow Coma Scale constituted the independent factors associated with the development of brain death. Regional protein S100B determinations are higher than systemic determinations, thus confirming the cerebral origin of protein S100B. The transcranial protein S100B gradient is correlated to the development of brain death. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Internal jugular vein aneurysm: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Abdulrahman M; Rayes, Nora; Bakarman, Khaled A

    2018-01-01

    Aneurysm is a localized dilatation of an artery of at least 1.5 times the normal diameter that occurs when part of an artery wall weakens or is injured, allowing it to widen abnormally. In practice, an arterial aneurysm is more common in comparison to a venous aneurysm. Because of the rare incidence of venous aneurysms, treatment guidelines are not clearly established and thus treatment strategies vary. This is a case of a 57-year-old Saudi woman, with no significant medical history, who presented to Prince Sultan Military Hospital complaining of swelling in the right side of the neck that started 3 years ago. The patient reported that the swelling enlarged with coughing and straining, but there was no pain, change in skin color, dysphagia, change in voice, neurological defect, shortness of breath, history of any trauma to the neck, surgical intervention, or any lump. The condition can be diagnosed via ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Despite the lack of guidelines, intervention was necessary because the patient was anxious regarding the increase in the size of the swelling, which she felt had a negative psychosocial impact. Moreover, because the sizable venous aneurysm harbored a mural thrombus that increased the risk of embolization and pulmonary embolism, surgery was offered.Indication for surgery includes pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns. Conservative management of the condition is described in the literature. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvements of deep vein reflux following radiofrequency ablation for saphenous vein incompetence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suh Min; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the changes of deep vein reflux after radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence. Method The data on 139 limbs which were treated with radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence were prospectively collected and reviewed. Results Deep vein reflux was present in 43 of 139 limbs (30.9%). There were no significant differences in the rate of successful closure, the incidence of procedure-related complications, and the improvements of symptoms and quality of life between the limbs with or without deep vein reflux. With a mean follow-up of 5.9 months, the peak reflux velocity and duration of reflux were improved in all limbs with deep vein reflux and it was completely corrected in 13 limbs (30.2%) after radiofrequency ablation. Conclusions The presence of deep vein reflux does not affect the treatment outcomes of radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence and is improved in all patients. Deep vein reflux is not a barrier to performing radiofrequency ablation.

  17. Technical considerations in continuous jugular venous oxygen saturation measurement.

    PubMed

    Dearden, N M; Midgley, S

    1993-01-01

    Fibreoptic reflection oximetry allows continuous in-vivo estimation of jugular venous oxygen saturation. In combination with pulse oximetry the oxygen extraction ratio SaO2-SjO2/SaO2 can be derived enabling identification of states of global luxury perfusion, normal coupling of global cerebral blood flow with global cerebral metabolism, global cerebral hypoperfusion and global cerebral ischemia. Several technical difficulties may arise affecting the accuracy of SjO2 recordings which must be recognised by the clinician before medical intervention is contemplated.

  18. Pull-Through Technique for Recanalization of Occluded Portosystemic Shunts (TIPS): Technical Note and Review of the Literature

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Guenther, Rolf W., E-mail: guenther@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction is an important problem after creation of shunts. Most commonly, TIPS recanalization is performed via the jugular vein approach. Occasionally it is difficult to cross the occlusion. We describe a hybrid technique for TIPS revision via a direct transhepatic access combined with a transjugular approach. In two cases, bare metal stents or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent grafts had been placed in TIPS tract previously, and they were completely obstructed. The tracts were inaccessible via the jugular vein route alone. In each case, after fluoroscopy or computed tomography-guided transhepatic puncture of the stented segment of themore » TIPS, a wire was threaded through the shunt and snared into the right jugular vein. The TIPS was revised by balloon angioplasty and additional in-stent placement of PTFE-covered stent grafts. The patients were discharged without any complications. Doppler sonography 6 weeks after TIPS revision confirmed patency in the TIPS tract and the disappearance of ascites. We conclude that this technique is feasible and useful, even in patients with previous PTFE-covered stent graft placement.« less

  19. Microsurgical Resection of Glomus Jugulare Tumors With Facial Nerve Reconstruction: 3-Dimensional Operative Video.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Duarte N C; de Oliveira, Jean Gonçalves; Borba, Luis A B

    2018-05-08

    Paragangliomas are tumors originating from the paraganglionic system (autonomic nervous system), mostly found at the region around the jugular bulb, for which reason they are also termed glomus jugulare tumors (GJT). Although these lesions appear to be histologically benign, clinically they present with great morbidity, especially due to invasion of nearby structures such as the lower cranial nerves. These are challenging tumors, as they need complex approaches and great knowledge of the skull base. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman, operated by the senior author, with a 1-year history of tinnitus, vertigo, and progressive hearing loss, that evolved with facial nerve palsy (House-Brackmann IV) 2 months before surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans demonstrated a typical lesion with intense flow voids at the jugular foramen region with invasion of the petrous and tympanic bone, carotid canal, and middle ear, and extending to the infratemporal fossa (type C2 of Fisch's classification for GJT). During the procedure the mastoid part of the facial nerve was identified involved by tumor and needed to be resected. We also describe the technique for nerve reconstruction, using an interposition graft from the great auricular nerve, harvested at the beginning of the surgery. We achieved total tumor resection with a remarkable postoperative course. The patient also presented with facial function after 6 months. The patient consented with publication of her images.

  20. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rebecca M D; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Bamigboye, Anthony A

    2015-10-19

    Pregnancy is presumed to be a major contributory factor in the increased incidence of varicose veins in women, which can in turn lead to venous insufficiency and leg oedema. The most common symptom of varicose veins and oedema is the substantial pain experienced, as well as night cramps, numbness, tingling, the legs may feel heavy, achy, and possibly be unsightly. Treatments for varicose veins are usually divided into three main groups: surgery, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Treatments of leg oedema comprise mostly symptom reduction rather than cure and use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. To assess any form of intervention used to relieve the symptoms associated with varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials of treatments for varicose veins or leg oedema, or both, in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included seven trials (involving 326 women). The trials were largely unclear for selection bias and high risk for performance and detection bias.Two studies were placebo-controlled trials. The first one compared a phlebotonic (rutoside) with placebo for the reduction in symptoms of varicose veins; the second study evaluated the efficacy of troxerutin in comparison to placebo among 30 pregnant women in their second trimester with symptomatic vulvar varicosities and venous insufficiency in their lower extremities. Data from this study were not in useable format, so were not included in the analysis. Two trials compared either compression stockings with resting in left lateral position or reflexology with rest for 15 minutes for the reduction of leg oedema. One trial compared standing water immersion for 20 minutes with sitting upright in a chair with legs elevated for 20

  1. Changes of jugular venous blood temperature associated with measurements of cerebral blood flow using the transcerebral double-indicator dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Mielck, F; Bräuer, A; Radke, O; Hanekop, G; Loesch, S; Friedrich, M; Hilgers, R; Sonntag, H

    2004-04-01

    The transcerebral double-indicator dilution technique is a recently developed method to measure global cerebral blood flow at bedside. It is based on bolus injection of ice-cold indocyanine green dye and simultaneous recording of resulting thermo- and dye-dilution curves in the aorta and the jugular bulb. However, with this method 40 mL of ice-cold solution is administered as a bolus. Therefore, this prospective clinical study was performed to elucidate the effects of repeated administration of indicator on absolute blood temperature and on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. The investigation was performed in nine male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Absolute blood temperature was measured in the jugular bulb and in the aorta before and after repeated measurements using the transcerebral double-indicator dilution technique. During the investigated time course, the blood temperature in the jugular bulb, compared to the aorta, was significantly higher with a mean difference of 0.21 degrees C. The administration of an ice-cold bolus reduced the mean blood temperature by 0.06 degrees C in the jugular bulb as well as in the aorta. After the transcerebral double-indicator dilution measurements a temperature recovery to baseline conditions was not observed during the investigated time period. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism did not change during the investigated time period. Repeated measurements with the transcerebral double-indicator dilution technique do not affect absolute jugular bulb blood temperatures negatively. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism measurements remain unaltered. However, accuracy and resolution of this technique is not high enough to detect the effect of minor changes of physiological variables.

  2. Compression Therapy: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A review is given on the different tools of compression therapy and their mode of action. Methods: Interface pressure and stiffness of compression devices, alone or in combination can be measured in vivo. Hemodynamic effects have been demonstrated by measuring venous volume and flow velocity using MRI, Duplex and radioisotopes, venous reflux and venous pumping function using plethysmography and phlebodynamometry. Oedema reduction can be measured by limb volumetry. Results: Compression stockings exerting a pressure of ~20 mmHg on the distal leg are able to increase venous blood flow velocity in the supine position and to prevent leg swelling after prolonged sitting and standing. In the upright position, an interface pressure of more than 50 mmHg is needed for intermittent occlusion of incompetent veins and for a reduction of ambulatory venous hypertension during walking. Such high intermittent interface pressure peaks exerting a “massaging effect” may rather be achieved by short stretch multilayer bandages than by elastic stockings. Conclusion: Compression is a cornerstone in the management of venous and lymphatic insufficiency. However, this treatment modality is still underestimated and deserves better understanding and improved educational programs, both for patients and medical staff. PMID:23641263

  3. Case report and systematic literature review of a novel etiology of sinistral portal hypertension presenting with UGI bleeding: Left gastric artery pseudoaneurysm compressing the splenic vein treated by embolization of the pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Seifeldin; Bortman, Jared; Orosey, Molly; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-03-01

    A novel case is reported of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension, caused by a left gastric artery (LGA) pseudoaneurysm (PA) compressing the splenic vein (SV) that was successfully treated with PA embolization. A 41-year-old man with previous medical history of recurrent, alcoholic pancreatitis presented with several episodes of hematemesis and abdominal pain for 48 hours. Physical examination revealed a soft abdomen, with no abdominal bruit, no pulsatile abdominal mass, and no stigmata of chronic liver disease. The hemoglobin declined acutely from 12.3 to 9.3 g/dL. Biochemical parameters of liver function and routine coagulation profile were entirely within normal limits. Abdominal CT revealed a 5-cm-wide peripancreatic mass compressing the stomach and constricting the SV. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed blood oozing from portal hypertensive gastropathy, small nonbleeding gastric cardial and fundal varices, gastric compression from the extrinsic mass, and no esophageal varices. MRCP and angiography showed that the mass was vascular, arose from the LGA, compressed the mid SV without SV thrombosis, and caused sinistral portal hypertension. At angiography, the PA was angioembolized and occluded. The patient has been asymptomatic with no further bleeding and a stable hemoglobin level during 8 weeks of follow-up. Literature review of the 14 reported cases of LGA PA revealed that this report of acute UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA constricting the SV is novel; one previously reported patient had severe anemia without acute UGI bleeding associated with sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA. A patient presented with UGI bleeding from sinistral portal hypertension from a LGA PA compressing the SV that was treated by angiographic obliteration of the PA which relieved the SV compression and arrested the UGI bleeding. Primary therapy for this syndrome should be addressed to obliterate the PA and not

  4. Mycotic Pseudoaneurysm of Internal Carotid Artery Secondary to Lemierre's Syndrome, How to Do It.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Filippo; Barillà, David; Pipitò, Narayana; Derone, Graziana; Cutrupi, Andrea; Barillà, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with internal carotid artery (ICA) mycotic pseudoaneurysm secondary to Lemierre's syndrome, urgently treated. A 75-year-old man presented to E.R. with a left swelling lesion of the neck and complaining left visions lost since that morning, fever, hypotension, and dyspnea. Since 15 days before developing symptoms, he had sore throat and odynophagia treated with a broad coverage of antibiotic therapy for presumed streptococcal pharyngitis. Preoperative computed tomography angiography images revealed a circular lesion, involving the common carotid artery, carotid bulb, and the proximal part of the internal and external carotid arteries. A pseudoaneurysm of the ICA was detected, and the jugular vein was compressed. A Cormier carotid vein graft bypass was performed. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare syndrome, but it is rarer the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to Lemierre's syndrome. Surgical treatment is safe and durable in patients with severe infection involving the neck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device is safe and results in proximal arteriovenous fistula enlargement.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanjay; Mitra, Amit; Arkans, Ed; Singh, Tej M

    2018-05-01

    Delays in arteriovenous fistula maturation can cause care delays and increased costs. Increased distention pressure and intermittent wall shear stress may dilate veins based on prior research. Early use of non-invasive devices may help assist clinical arteriovenous fistula dilation. This was an Institutional Review Board approved study. After arteriovenous fistula creation, a novel, intermittent pneumatic compression device (Fist Assist ® ) was applied 15 cm proximal to arteriovenous fistula enabling 60 mmHg of cyclic compression for 6 h daily for 30 days. Among the patients who completed 1 month follow-up, 30 (n = 30) arteriovenous fistula patients were in the study arm to test vein dilation with Fist Assist. Controls (n = 16) used a sham device. Vein size was measured and recorded at baseline and after 30 days by duplex measurement. Clinical results (percentage increase) were recorded and tested for significance. No patients experienced thrombosis or adverse effects. Patient compliance and satisfaction was high. After 1 month, the mean percentage increase in vein diameter in the Fist Assist treatment group was significantly larger (p = 0.026) than controls in the first 5 mm segment of the fistula after the anastomosis. All fistulas treated with Fist Assist are still functional with no reported thrombosis or extravasations. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device may assist in arteriovenous fistula dilation and are safe. Non-invasive devices like Fist Assist may have clinical utility to help fistulae development and decrease costs as they may eventually assist maturation.

  6. Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis with non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dronkers, C E A; Klok, F A; van Haren, G R; Gleditsch, J; Westerlund, E; Huisman, M V; Kroft, L J M

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) can be challenging. Compression ultrasonography is often inconclusive because of overlying anatomic structures that hamper compressing veins. Contrast venography is invasive and has a risk of contrast allergy. Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging (MRDTI) and Three Dimensional Turbo Spin-echo Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery (3D TSE-SPAIR) are both non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences that can visualize a thrombus directly by the visualization of methemoglobin, which is formed in a fresh blood clot. MRDTI has been proven to be accurate in diagnosing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the leg. The primary aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of diagnosing UEDVT with these MRI techniques. MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR were performed in 3 pilot patients who were already diagnosed with UEDVT by ultrasonography or contrast venography. In all patients, UEDVT diagnosis could be confirmed by MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR in all vein segments. In conclusion, this study showed that non-contrast MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR sequences may be feasible tests to diagnose UEDVT. However diagnostic accuracy and management studies have to be performed before these techniques can be routinely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the operation of the SCD Response intermittent compression system.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rh J; Griffiths, H; Woodcock, J P

    2002-01-01

    The work assessed the performance of the Kendall SCD Response intermittent pneumatic compression system for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, which claimed to set its cycle according to the blood flow characteristics of individual patient limbs. A series of tests measured the system response in various situations, including application to the limbs of healthy volunteers, and to false limbs. Practical experimentation and theoretical analysis were used to investigate influences on the system functioning other than blood flow. The system tested did not seem to perform as claimed, being unable to distinguish between real and fake limbs. The intervals between compressions were set to times unrealistic for venous refill, with temperature changes in the cuff the greatest influence on performance. Combining the functions of compression and the measurement of the effects of compression in the same air bladder makes temperature artefacts unavoidable and can cause significant errors in the inter-compression interval.

  8. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, prevents reduction of jugular bulb saturation during rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Iritakenishi, T; Hayashi, Y; Yamanaka, H; Kamibayashi, T; Ueda, K; Mashimo, T

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate cerebral oxygen balance during cardiopulmonary bypass may cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, augments cerebral blood flow by direct vasodilatation. We conducted a prospective, randomized study in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to clarify the clinical efficacy of milrinone in the imbalance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the rewarming period of cardiopulmonary bypass. This is a prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. After anesthesia, a 5.5 F fiberoptic oximeter catheter was inserted into the right jugular bulb retrogradely for monitoring the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SjO(2)). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving a continuous infusion of milrinone, 0.5 µg/kg/min during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and the other receiving saline as control. Milrinone significantly prevented the reduction of the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation at 10 minutes from the start of rewarming compared with the control group, but did not do so from 10 to 20 minutes after rewarming. Milrinone suppresses the reduction of SjO(2) and improves the balance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the early rewarming period of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  9. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein therapy

  10. The efficacy of the new SCD response compression system in the prevention of venous stasis.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, S K; Szendro, G; Griffin, M; Daskalopoulou, S S; Nicolaides, A N

    2000-11-01

    The current commercially available sequential intermittent pneumatic compression device used for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis has a constant cycle of 11 seconds' compression and 60 seconds' deflation. This deflation period ensures that the veins are filled before the subsequent cycle begins. It has been suggested that in some positions (eg, semirecumbent or sitting) and with different patients (eg, those with venous reflux), refilling of the veins may occur much earlier than 60 seconds, and thus a more frequent cycle may be more effective in expelling blood proximally. The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a new sequential compression system (the SCD Response Compression System), which has the ability to detect the change in the venous volume and to respond by initiating the subsequent cycle when the veins are substantially full. In an open controlled trial at an academic vascular laboratory, the SCD Response Compression System was tested against the existing SCD Sequel Compression System in 12 healthy volunteers who were in supine, semirecumbent, and sitting positions. The refilling time sensed by the device was compared with that determined from recordings of femoral vein flow velocity by the use of duplex ultrasound scan. The total volume of blood expelled per hour during compression was compared with that produced by the existing SCD system in the same volunteers and positions. The refilling time determined automatically by the SCD Response Compression System varied from 24 to 60 seconds in the subjects tested, demonstrating individual patient variation. The refilling time (mean +/- SD) in the sitting position was 40.6 +/- 10. 0 seconds, which was significantly longer (P <.001) than that measured in the supine and semirecumbent positions, 33.8 +/- 4.1 and 35.6 +/- 4.9 seconds, respectively. There was a linear relationship between the duplex scan-derived refill time (mean of 6 readings per leg) and the SCD Response device

  11. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    or worse as other chronic diseases such as back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a very common disease affecting adults – estimated to be the 7th most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a very strong familial predisposition to VV. The risk in offspring is 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither affected and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent affected. The prevalence of VV worldwide ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins RFA is an image-guided minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. RFA does not require an operating room or general anaesthesia and has been performed in an outpatient setting by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons and interventional radiologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, RFA works by destroying or ablating the refluxing vein segment using thermal energy delivered through a radiofrequency catheter. Prior to performing RFA, color-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective

  12. Haemorrhoids are associated with internal iliac vein reflux in up to one-third of women presenting with varicose veins associated with pelvic vein reflux.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J M; Dos Santos, S J; Harrison, C C; Price, B A; Whiteley, M S

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of haemorrhoids in women with pelvic vein reflux, identify which pelvic veins are associated with haemorrhoids and assess if extent of pelvic vein reflux influences the prevalence of haemorrhoids. Females presenting with leg varicose veins undergo duplex ultrasonography to assess all sources of venous reflux. Those with significant reflux arising from the pelvis are offered transvaginal duplex ultrasound (TVS) to evaluate reflux in the ovarian veins and internal Iliac veins and associated pelvic varices in the adnexa, vulvar/labial veins and haemorrhoids. Patterns and severity of reflux were evaluated. Between January 2010 and December 2012, 419 female patients with leg or vulvar varicose vein patterns arising from the pelvis underwent TVS. Haemorrhoids were identified on TVS via direct tributaries from the internal Iliac veins in 152/419 patients (36.3%) and absent in 267/419 (63.7%). The prevalence of the condition increased with the number of pelvic trunks involved. There is a strong association between haemorrhoids and internal Iliac vein reflux. Untreated reflux may be a cause of subsequent symptomatic haemorrhoids. Treatment with methods proven to work in conditions caused by pelvic vein incompetence, such as pelvic vein embolisation and foam sclerotherapy, could be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Deep vein thrombosis following prolonged kneeling: a case report.

    PubMed

    van Beeck, J Looringh; Versfeld, K; Ehrlich, R

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a fibreglass mould maker in the yacht building industry who developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after 6 weeks of working in a kneeling position. We propose that his prolonged kneeling combined with constrictive knee pad straps caused vascular compression, precipitating his DVT. A hypercoagulability diathesis was suspected but not confirmed. Operator and employer education, modified work practices and strapless knee pads are suggested as possible preventive measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Is the treatment of the small saphenous veins with foam sclerotherapy at risk of deep vein thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Gillet, J L; Lausecker, M; Sica, M; Guedes, J M; Allaert, F A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the deep vein thrombosis risk of the treatment of the small saphenous veins depending on the anatomical pattern of the veins. A multicenter, prospective and controlled study was carried out in which small saphenous vein trunks were treated with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. The anatomical pattern (saphenopopliteal junction, perforators) was assessed by Duplex ultrasound before the treatment. All patients were systematically checked by Duplex ultrasound 8 to 30 days after the procedure to identify a potential deep vein thrombosis. Three hundred and thirty-one small saphenous veins were treated in 22 phlebology clinics. No proximal deep vein thrombosis occurred. Two (0.6%) medial gastrocnemius veins thrombosis occurred in symptomatic patients. Five medial gastrocnemius veins thrombosis and four cases of extension of the small saphenous vein sclerosis into the popliteal vein, which all occurred when the small saphenous vein connected directly into the popliteal vein, were identified by systematic Duplex ultrasound examination in asymptomatic patients. Medial gastrocnemius veins thrombosis were more frequent (p = 0.02) in patients with medial gastrocnemius veins perforator. A common outlet or channel between the small saphenous vein and the medial gastrocnemius veins did not increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis after foam sclerotherapy of the small saphenous vein are very rare. Only 0.6% medial gastrocnemius veins thrombosis occurred in symptomatic patients. However, the anatomical pattern of the small saphenous vein should be taken into account and patients with medial gastrocnemius veins perforators and the small saphenous vein connected directly into the popliteal vein should be checked by Duplex ultrasound one or two weeks after the procedure. Recommendations based on our everyday practice and the findings of this study are suggested to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and

  15. Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Teenager with Unusual Infiltration Into the Jugular Foramen.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Yoko T; Yoon, Janet M; Malicki, Denise M; Khanna, Paritosh C; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that represents 1%-2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis with a loss of INI-1 staining in tumor cells. In this case report, we describe a teenager with an unusual presentation and pattern of infiltration of the tumor. A 13-year-old boy presented with a history over several months of progressive nausea, weight loss, and hoarseness of voice associated with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies on neurologic examination. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneously enhancing extra-axial neoplasm with extension and bony expansion of the jugular foramen. After near total resection, neuropathology demonstrated the absence of INI-1 expression consistent with a diagnosis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. This case highlights the diverse clinical presentation and infiltrative potential of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, thus expanding the differential diagnosis of extra-axial tumors invading the jugular foramen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thrombosis prevention in lower extremity arthroplasty: mobile compression device or pharmacological therapy.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Clifford W

    2014-11-01

    Venous thromboembolic (VTE) events, either deep vein thromboses (DVT) or pulmonary emboli (PE), are important complications in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty. Symptomatic VTE rates observed in total joint arthroplasty patients using the mobile compression device with home use capability were non-inferior to rates reported for pharmacological prophylaxis, including warfarin, enoxaparin, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran. Major bleeding in total hip arthroplasty was less using the mobile compression device than using low molecular weight heparin. A cost analysis demonstrated a cost savings based on decreased major bleeding. Use of a mobile compression device with or without aspirin for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty provides a non-inferior risk for developing VTE compared with current pharmacological protocols.

  17. A review of the hemodynamic effects of external leg and lower body compression.

    PubMed

    Helmi, M; Gommers, D; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-03-01

    External leg and lower body compression (ELC) has been used for decades in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis and the treatment of leg ischemia. Because of systemic effects, the methods have regained interest in anesthesia, surgery and critical care. This review intends to summarize hemodynamic effects and their mechanisms. Compilation of relevant literature published in English as full paper and retrieved from Medline. By compressing veins, venous stasis is diminished and venous return and arterial blood flow are increased. ELC has been suggested to improve systemic hemodynamics, in different clinical settings, such as postural hypotension, anesthesia, surgery, shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation. However, the hemodynamic alterations depend upon the magnitude, extent, cycle, duration and thus the modality of ELC, when applied in a static or intermittent fashion (by pneumatic inflation), respectively. ELC may help future research and optimizing treatment of hemodynamically unstable, surgical or critically ill patients, independent of plasma volume expansion.

  18. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and portal vein thrombosis in special situations: Need for a new classification.

    PubMed

    Wani, Zeeshan A; Bhat, Riyaz A; Bhadoria, Ajeet S; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized.

  19. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  20. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Severe Motor and Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities, and such patients are associated with a high risk for the complications of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report 8 patients (34.8%) with DVT among 23 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the superficial femoral and common femoral veins. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases with D-dimer above 5 µg/ml. Concerning sudden death in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularities of an underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT in patients with SMID. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for smooth medical care of SMID and compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as noninvasive examination, is very helpful. (*English translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2012; 23: 17-24) PMID:24386017

  2. A Case of Lemierre Syndrome Secondary to Otitis Media and Mastoiditis

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Aynur; Cam, Harun; Dadali, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Serdar; Özdek, Ali; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare clinical condition that generally develops secondary to oropharyngeal infection caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is an anaerobic bacteria. A 62-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus presented with internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus-transverse sinus thrombophlebitis, accompanying otitis media and mastoiditis that developed after an upper airway infection. Interestingly, there were air bubbles in both the internal jugular vein and transverse sinus. Vancomycin and meropenem were started and a right radical mastoidectomy was performed. The patient's clinical picture completely resolved in 14 days. High mortality and morbidity may be prevented with a prompt diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. PMID:25431696

  3. Transpulmonary thermodilution using femoral indicator injection: a prospective trial in patients with a femoral and a jugular central venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Advanced hemodynamic monitoring using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) is established for measurement of cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) and extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI). TPTD requires indicator injection via a central venous catheter (usually placed via the jugular or subclavian vein). However, superior vena cava access is often not feasible due to the clinical situation. This study investigates the conformity of TPTD using femoral access. Methods This prospective study involved an 18-month trial at a medical intensive care unit at a university hospital. Twenty-four patients with both a superior and an inferior vena cava catheter at the same time were enrolled in the study. Results TPTD-variables were calculated from TPTD curves after injection of the indicator bolus via jugular access (TPTDjug) and femoral access (TPTDfem). GEDVIfem and GEDVIjug were significantly correlated (rm = 0.88; P < 0.001), but significantly different (1,034 ± 275 vs. 793 ± 180 mL/m2; P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias of +241 mL/m2 (limits of agreement: -9 and +491 mL/m2). GEDVIfem, CIfem and ideal body weight were independently associated with the bias (GEDVIfem-GEDVIjug). A correction formula of GEDVIjug after femoral TPTD, was calculated. EVLWIfem and EVLWIjug were significantly correlated (rm = 0.93; P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of +0.83 mL/kg (limits of agreement: -2.61 and +4.28 mL/kg). Furthermore, CIfem and CIjug were significantly correlated (rm = 0.95; P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a bias of +0.29 L/min/m2 (limits of agreement -0.40 and +0.97 L/min/m2; percentage-error 16%). Conclusions TPTD after femoral injection of the thermo-bolus provides precise data on GEDVI with a high correlation, but a self-evident significant bias related to the augmented TPTD-volume. After correction of GEDVIfem using a correction formula, GEDVIfem shows high predictive capabilities

  4. [Efficacy, safety and comfort of compression therapy models in the immediate post-operative period after a greater saphenectomy. A prospective randomised study].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo; Luque, María Antonia; González-Ripoll, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    There is still controversy on the best compression therapy after performing a greater saphenectomy. The purpose of this study is to establish whether the use of a controlled compression stocking has the same level of safety and efficacy as a compression bandage in the immediate post-operative period after a greater saphenectomy. A prospective, randomised, open-labelled study, comparing three groups: a) a conventional compression bandage for one week, b) a conventional compression bandage replaced by a controlled tubular compression stocking at 5h of its putting in place, c) immediate direct use of the controlled tubular compression stocking, was conducted on fifty-five consecutive outpatients with a greater saphenectomy in one of their legs, and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The working hypothesis was that the controlled tubular compression stocking could replace, in terms of efficacy, safety and comfort, the usual controlled compression in the immediate post-operative period after saphenous vein stripping. The analysis variables were pain, control of bleeding, analgesics in the post-operative period, bruising, incapacity during the first week after the operation and comfort level. There were no statistically significant differences found between the three types of compressions studied as regards, safety, efficacy, comfort level, pain and analgesic consumption, but there was as regards the level of convenience in favour of the use of the stocking. The controlled tubular compression stocking can replace the compression bandage with more advantages after greater saphenous vein stripping in outpatients, having the same safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A model for the extended studies of hepatic hemodynamics and metabolism in swine.

    PubMed

    Drougas, J G; Barnard, S E; Wright, J K; Sika, M; Lopez, R R; Stokes, K A; Williams, P E; Pinson, C W

    1996-12-01

    To our knowledge postoperative hepatic hemodynamics and hepatic metabolism have not been fully studied on a long-term basis. Our goal was to develop a large animal model that would permit the measurement of hepatic blood flow (BF), perihepatic pressures (P), and hepatic metabolism in a long-term setting. Catheters were inserted into the jugular vein, carotid artery, pulmonary artery, hepatic vein, and portal vein (PV) of 27 commercially bred pigs; ultrasonic transit time flowmeter probes were placed around the hepatic artery and PV. Daily postoperative measurements of jugular vein P, carotid artery P, pulmonary artery P, hepatic vein P, and PVP, as well as hepatic artery BF and PVBF, were recorded for 20 days. Hepatic carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by arteriovenous difference techniques. Jugular vein P, pulmonary artery P, hepatic vein P, PVP, and heart rate reached steady-state values during the first week, with a mean +/- SEM of 1.0 +/- 0.3 mm Hg for jugular vein P, 21.4 +/- 2.1 mm Hg for pulmonary artery P, 4.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg for HVP, 7.8 +/- 0.5 mm Hg for PVP, and 116 +/- 4 beats per minute for heart rate. Mean carotid artery P increased from 65 +/- 3 mm Hg during surgery to 94 +/- 2 mm Hg on postoperative day 1 (P < 0.001) and to a mean 101 +/- 2 mm Hg thereafter. Total hepatic BF reached a steady-state value of 1,132 +/- 187 ml/min by postoperative day 7 (P = 0.19). Over week 1 hepatic artery BF measured as a percentage of total hepatic BF decreased from 35.0 +/- 3.0% to 15.5 +/- 2.7%, and PVBF increased from 65.0 +/- 3.0% to 84.5 +/- 2.7% (P < 0.005); both variables were steady thereafter. In the hemodynamic steady state the net hepatic balances of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and alanine in 5 pigs were 9.9 +/- 4.0, -4.2 +/- 0.4, -2.3 +/- 1.1, and -0.68 +/- 0.22 micromol/kg per min respectively. The net gut (portal-drained viscera) balances of glucose, lactate, alanine, and glycerol were -2.0 +/- 2.5, 1.1 +/- 0.5, 0.73 +/- 0.18, and -0.69 +/- 0

  6. Respiratory Synchronized Versus Intermittent Pneumatic Compression in Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism After Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Elbuluk, Ameer M; Kim, Kelvin Y; Chen, Kevin K; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Iorio, Richard

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of respiratory synchronized compression devices (RSCDs) versus nonsynchronized intermittent pneumatic compression devices (NSIPCDs) in preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty. A systematic literature review was conducted. Data regarding surgical procedure, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, mortality, and adverse events were abstracted. Compared with control groups, the risk ratio of deep vein thrombosis development was 0.51 with NSIPCDs and 0.47 with RSCDs. This review demonstrates that RSCDs may be marginally more effective at preventing VTE events than NSIPCDs. Furthermore, the addition of mechanical prophylaxis to any chemoprophylactic regimen increases VTE prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a Jugular Venipuncture Alpaca Model to Teach the Technique of Blood Sampling in Adult Alpacas.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marjolaine; Beauchamp, Guy; Nichols, Sylvain

    The effectiveness of teaching aids in veterinary medical education is not often assessed rigorously. The objective in the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available jugular venipuncture alpaca model as a complementary tool to teach veterinary students how to perform venipuncture in adult alpacas. We hypothesized that practicing on the model would allow veterinary students to draw blood in alpacas more rapidly with fewer attempts than students without previous practice on the model. Thirty-six third-year veterinary students were enrolled and randomly allocated to the model (group M; n=18) or the control group (group C; n=18). The venipuncture technique was taught to all students on day 0. Students in group M practiced on the model on day 2. On day 5, an evaluator blinded to group allocation evaluated the students' venipuncture skills during a practical examination using live alpacas. Success was defined as the aspiration of a 6-ml sample of blood. Measured outcomes included number of attempts required to achieve success (success score), total procedural time, and overall qualitative score. Success scores, total procedural time, and overall scores did not differ between groups. Use of restless alpacas reduced performance. The jugular venipuncture alpaca model failed to improve jugular venipuncture skills in this student population. Lack of movement represents a significant weakness of this training model.

  8. The safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glomus jugulare is a slowly growing, locally destructive tumor located in the skull base with difficult surgical access. The operative approach is, complicated by the fact that lesions may be both intra and extradural with engulfment of critical neurovascular structures. The tumor is frequently highly vascular, thus tumor resection entails a great deal of morbidity and not infrequent mortality. At timeslarge residual tumors are left behind. To decrease the morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was performed as an alternative in 13 patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods A retrospective review of 13 residual or unresectable glomus jagulare treated with GKS between 2004 and 2008.. Of these, 11 patients underwent GKS as the primary management and one case each was treated for postoperative residual disease and postembolization. The radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12-15 Gy. Results Post- gamma knife surgery and during the follow-up period twelve patients demonstrated neurological stability while clinical improvement was achieved in 5 patients. One case developed transient partial 7th nerve palsy that responded to medical treatment. In all patients radiographic MRI follow-up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in two cases and remained stable (local tumor control) in eleven patients. Conclusions Gamma knife surgery provids tumor control with a lowering of risk of developing a new cranial nerve injury in early follow-up period. This procedure can be safely used as a primary management tool in patients with glomus jugulare tumors, or in patients with recurrent tumors in this location. If long-term results with GKS are equally effective it will emerge as a good alternative to surgical resection. PMID:20819207

  9. Randomized comparison of three transducer orientation approaches for ultrasound guided internal jugular venous cannulation.

    PubMed

    Batllori, M; Urra, M; Uriarte, E; Romero, C; Pueyo, J; López-Olaondo, L; Cambra, K; Ibáñez, B

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided internal jugular venous access increases the rate of successful cannulation and reduces the incidence of complications, compared with the landmark technique. Three transducer orientation approaches have been proposed for this procedure: short-axis (SAX), long-axis (LAX) and oblique-axis (OAX). Our goal was to assess and compare the performance of these approaches. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in one teaching hospital. Patients aged 18 yr or above, who were undergoing ultrasound-guided internal jugular cannulation, were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: SAX, LAX and OAX group. The main outcome measure was successful cannulation on first needle pass. Incidence of mechanical complications was also registered. Restricted randomization was computer-generated. In total, 220 patients were analysed (SAX n=73, LAX n=75, OAX n=72). Cannulation was successful on first needle pass in 51 (69.9%) SAX patients, 39 (52%) LAX patients and 53 (73.6%) OAX patients. First needle pass failure was higher in the LAX group than in the OAX group (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.71-8.0, P=0.002). A higher mechanical complication rate was observed in the SAX group (15.1%) than in the OAX (6.9%) and LAX (4%) groups (P=0.047). As OAX showed a higher first needle pass success rate than LAX and a lower mechanical complications rate than SAX, we recommend it as the standard approach when performing ultrasound-guided internal jugular venous access. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm this conclusion. NCT 01966354. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An endovascular treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients - 6 month follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Kostecki, Jacek; Zaniewski, Maciej; Ziaja, Krzysztof; Urbanek, Tomasz; Kuczmik, Waclaw; Krzystanek, Ewa; Ziaja, Damian; Korzeniowski, Tomasz; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Hartel, Marcin; Swiat, Maciej; Sioma-Markowska, Urszula

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the mid-term results (6 month follow-up) of the endovascular treatment in patients with Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) were prospectively evaluated. Thirty-six patients with confirmed MS and CCSVI underwent endovascular treatment by the means of the uni- or bilateral jugular vein angioplasty with optional stent placement. All the patients completed 6 month follow-up. Their MS-related disability status and quality of life were evaluated 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively by means of the following scales: Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Heat Intolerance scale (HIS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). For patency and restenosis rate assessment, the control US duplex Doppler examination was used. Six months after the procedure, restenosis in post-PTA jugular veins was found in 33% of cases. Among 17 patients who underwent stent implantation into the jugular vein, restenosis or partial in-stent thrombosis was identified in 55% of the cases. At the 6 month follow-up appointment, there was no significant improvement in the EDSS or the ESS. The endovascular treatment of the CCSVI improved the quality of life according to the MSIS-29 scale but only up to 3 months after the procedure (with no differences in the 6 month follow-up assessment). Six months after the jugular vein angioplasty (with or without stent placement), a statistically significant improvement was observed only in the FSS and the HIS. The endovascular treatment in patients with MS and concomitant CCSVI did not have an influence on the patient's neurological condition; however, in the mid-term follow-up, an improvement in some quality-of-life parameters was observed.

  11. Transverse closure of mesenterico-portal vein after vein resection in pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Chua, T C; de Reuver, P R; Staerkle, R F; Neale, M L; Arena, J; Mittal, A; Shanbhag, S T; Gill, A J; Samra, J S

    2016-02-01

    Resection of the involved mesenteric-portal vein (MPV) is increasingly performed in pancreatoduodenectomy. The primary aim of this study is to assess the rate of R0 resection in transverse closure (TC) versus segmental resection with end-to-end (EE) closure and the secondary aims are to assess the short-term morbidity and long-term survival of TC versus EE. Patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy with MPV resection were identified from a prospectively database. The reconstruction technique were examined and categorized. Clinical, pathological, short-term and long-term survival outcomes were compared between groups. 110 patients underwent PD with MPV resection of which reconstruction was performed with an end-to-end technique in 92 patients (84%) and transverse closure technique in 18 patients (16%). Patients undergoing transverse closure tended to have had a shorter segment of vein resected (≤2 cm) compared to the end-to-end (83% vs. 43%; P = 0.004) with no difference in R0 rate. Short-term morbidity was similar. The median and 5-year survival was 30.0 months and 18% respectively for patients undergoing transverse closure and 28.6 months and 7% respectively for patients undergoing end-to-end reconstruction (P = 0.766). Without compromising the R0 rate, transverse closure to reconstruct the mesenteric-portal vein is shown to be feasible and safe in the setting when a short segment of vein resection is required during pancreatoduodenectomy. Synopsis - We describe a vein closure technique, transverse closure, which avoids the need for a graft, or re-implantation of the splenic vein when resection of the mesenteric-portal vein confluence is required during pancreatoduodenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  13. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    inferior vena cava to the right auricle. From the right auricle, the blood is passed into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blood...the rib and vertebrae is modeled with two beam elements. To create the subcoastal angle, vertical cartilaginous connections at the inferior edge of...brachiocephalic aorta, the aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, internal jugular veins, brachial veins, and superior vena cava . These vessels are modeled

  14. Effects of Moderate Hyperventilation on Jugular Bulb Gases under Propofol or Isoflurane Anesthesia during Supratentorial Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan; Li, Shu-Qin; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal ventilated status under total intravenous or inhalation anesthesia in neurosurgical patients with a supratentorial tumor has not been ascertained. The purpose of this study was to intraoperatively compare the effects of moderate hyperventilation on the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO2), cerebral oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in patients with a supratentorial tumor under different anesthetic regimens. Methods: Twenty adult patients suffered from supratentorial tumors were randomly assigned to receive a propofol infusion followed by isoflurane anesthesia after a 30-min stabilization period or isoflurane followed by propofol. The patients were randomized to one of the following two treatment sequences: hyperventilation followed by normoventilation or normoventilation followed by hyperventilation during isoflurane or propofol anesthesia, respectively. The ventilation and end-tidal CO2 tension were maintained at a constant level for 20 min. Radial arterial and jugular bulb catheters were inserted for the blood gas sampling. At the end of each study period, we measured the change in the arterial and jugular bulb blood gases. Results: The mean value of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO2) significantly decreased, and the oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) significantly increased under isoflurane or propofol anesthesia during hyperventilation compared with those during normoventilation (SjO2: t = −2.728, P = 0.011 or t = −3.504, P = 0.001; O2ER: t = 2.484, P = 0.020 or t = 2.892, P = 0.009). The SjO2 significantly decreased, and the O2ER significantly increased under propofol anesthesia compared with those values under isoflurane anesthesia during moderate hyperventilation (SjO2: t = −2.769, P = 0.012; O2ER: t = 2.719, P = 0.013). In the study, no significant changes in the SjO2 and the O2ER were observed under propofol compared with those values under isoflurane during

  15. Effects of Moderate Hyperventilation on Jugular Bulb Gases under Propofol or Isoflurane Anesthesia during Supratentorial Craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan; Li, Shu-Qin; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2015-05-20

    The optimal ventilated status under total intravenous or inhalation anesthesia in neurosurgical patients with a supratentorial tumor has not been ascertained. The purpose of this study was to intraoperatively compare the effects of moderate hyperventilation on the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO 2 ), cerebral oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) in patients with a supratentorial tumor under different anesthetic regimens. Twenty adult patients suffered from supratentorial tumors were randomly assigned to receive a propofol infusion followed by isoflurane anesthesia after a 30-min stabilization period or isoflurane followed by propofol. The patients were randomized to one of the following two treatment sequences: hyperventilation followed by normoventilation or normoventilation followed by hyperventilation during isoflurane or propofol anesthesia, respectively. The ventilation and end-tidal CO 2 tension were maintained at a constant level for 20 min. Radial arterial and jugular bulb catheters were inserted for the blood gas sampling. At the end of each study period, we measured the change in the arterial and jugular bulb blood gases. The mean value of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO 2 ) significantly decreased, and the oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER) significantly increased under isoflurane or propofol anesthesia during hyperventilation compared with those during normoventilation (SjO 2 : t = -2.728, P = 0.011 or t = -3.504, P = 0.001; O 2 ER: t = 2.484, P = 0.020 or t = 2.892, P = 0.009). The SjO 2 significantly decreased, and the O 2 ER significantly increased under propofol anesthesia compared with those values under isoflurane anesthesia during moderate hyperventilation (SjO 2 : t = -2.769, P = 0.012; O 2 ER: t = 2.719, P = 0.013). In the study, no significant changes in the SjO 2 and the O 2 ER were observed under propofol compared with those values under isoflurane during normoventilation. Our

  16. Hepatic vein transit time of second-generation ultrasound contrast agent: new tool in the assessment of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Luisa, Siciliani; Vitale, Giovanna; Sorbo, Anna Rita; Maurizio, Pompili; Lodovico, Rapaccini Gian

    2017-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that Doppler waveform of the hepatic vein (normally triphasic) is transformed into a biphasic or monophasic waveform in cirrhotic patients. The compressive mechanism of liver tissue has been considered up till now the cause of this change. Moreover, cirrhotics show, after USCA injection, a much earlier HVTT due to intrahepatic shunts. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the correlation between Doppler pattern of hepatic vein and HVTT of a second-generation USCA; we also correlated HVTT with the most common indexes of portal hypertension. We enrolled 38 participants: 33 cirrhotics and 5 healthy controls. Doppler shift signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. To characterize the hepatic vein pattern, we used the hepatic vein waveform index (HVWI). This index becomes >1 with the appearance of the triphasic waveform. We recorded a clip from 20 s before to 2 min after a peripheral intravenous bolus injection of 2.4 ml of USCA (sulfur hexafluoride).The time employed by USCA to cross the liver from the hepatic artery and portal vein to the hepatic vein was defined as HA-HVTT and PV-HVTT, respectively. Cirrhotics with low HVWI showed an earlier transit time; participants with higher HVWI had a longer transit time ( p  < 0.001). HVTT was earlier as MELD, Child-Pugh score and spleen diameter increased. Patients with ascites and varices of large size had significantly shorter transit times. Abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in cirrhotic patients could be due to intrahepatic shunts. HVTT could be useful in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension.

  17. Splenorenal shunt via magnetic compression technique: a feasibility study in canine and cadaver.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Li, Jianpeng; Lu, Jianwen; Zhu, Haoyang; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Hongke; Yang, Huan; Guo, Hongchang; Lv, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The concept of magnetic compression technique (MCT) has been accepted by surgeons to solve a variety of surgical problems. In this study, we attempted to explore the feasibility of a splenorenal shunt using MCT in canine and cadaver. The diameters of the splenic vein (SV), the left renal vein (LRV), and the vertical interval between them, were measured in computer tomography (CT) images obtained from 30 patients with portal hypertension and in 20 adult cadavers. The magnetic devices used for the splenorenal shunt were then manufactured based on the anatomic parameters measured above. The observation of the anatomical structure showed there were no special structural tissues or any important organs between SV and LRV. Then the magnetic compression splenorenal shunt procedure was performed in three dogs and five cadavers. Seven days later, the necrotic tissue between the two magnets was shed and the magnets were removed with the anchor wire. The feasibility of splenorenal shunt via MCT was successfully shown in both canine and cadaver, thus providing a theoretical support for future clinical application.

  18. Study Comparing Vein Integrity and Clinical Outcomes in Open Vein Harvesting and 2 Types of Endoscopic Vein Harvesting for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: The VICO Randomized Clinical Trial (Vein Integrity and Clinical Outcomes)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvaneswari; Critchley, William R.; Thompson, Alexander J.; Payne, Katherine; Morris, Julie; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer V.; Caress, Ann L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Current consensus statements maintain that endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) should be standard care in coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but vein quality and clinical outcomes have been questioned. The VICO trial (Vein Integrity and Clinical Outcomes) was designed to assess the impact of different vein harvesting methods on vessel damage and whether this contributes to clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods In this single-center, randomized clinical trial, patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with an internal mammary artery and with 1 to 4 vein grafts were recruited. All veins were harvested by a single experienced practitioner. We randomly allocated 300 patients into closed tunnel CO2 EVH (n=100), open tunnel CO2 EVH (n=100), and traditional open vein harvesting (n=100) groups. The primary end point was endothelial integrity and muscular damage of the harvested vein. Secondary end points included clinical outcomes (major adverse cardiac events), use of healthcare resources, and impact on health status (quality-adjusted life-years). Results The open vein harvesting group demonstrated marginally better endothelial integrity in random samples (85% versus 88% versus 93% for closed tunnel EVH, open tunnel EVH, and open vein harvesting; P<0.001). Closed tunnel EVH displayed the lowest longitudinal hypertrophy (1% versus 13.5% versus 3%; P=0.001). However, no differences in endothelial stretching were observed between groups (37% versus 37% versus 31%; P=0.62). Secondary clinical outcomes demonstrated no significant differences in composite major adverse cardiac event scores at each time point up to 48 months. The quality-adjusted life-year gain per patient was 0.11 (P<0.001) for closed tunnel EVH and 0.07 (P=0.003) for open tunnel EVH compared with open vein harvesting. The likelihood of being cost-effective, at a predefined threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, was 75% for closed tunnel EVH

  19. Surgical Access to Jejunal Veins for Local Thrombolysis and Stent Placement in Portal Vein Thrombosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schellhammer, Frank, E-mail: frank.schellhammer@med.uni-duesseldorf.d; Esch, Jan Schulte am; Hammerschlag, Sascha

    2008-07-15

    Portal vein thrombosis is an infrequent entity, which may cause high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of portal vein thrombosis due to benign stenosis following partial pancreatoduodenectomy with segmental replacement of the portal vein by a Gore-tex graft. Using a surgical access to jenunal veins, local thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation of thrombus, and stent placement were successfully performed.

  20. Usefulness of venous oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb for the diagnosis of brain death: report of 118 patients.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Regañón, Genaro; Miñambres, Eduardo; Holanda, Marisol; González-Herrera, Segundo; López-Espadas, Francisco; Garrido-Díaz, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    To assess the usefulness of venous oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO(2)) as a complementary test for the diagnosis of brain death. Prospective observational study. Polytrauma intensive care unit (ICU) of an acute-care teaching hospital in Santander, Spain. We studied 118 (44%) out of 270 patients with severe head injury and intracranial hemorrhage meeting criteria of brain death (lack of cardiac response to atropine, unresponsive apnea, and iso-electric EEG in the absence of shock, hypotension and treatment with muscle relaxants and/or central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs). At the moment at which clinical diagnosis of brain death was made and an iso-electric EEG was obtained, simultaneous oxygen saturation in central venous blood (right atrium) (SvO(2)) and jugular venous bulb (SjO(2)) samples was measured. The ratio between SvO(2) and SjO(2), expressed as CvjO(2) (the so-called central venous-jugular bulb oxygen saturation rate; CvjO(2) = SvO(2)/SjO(2)) was calculated. CvjO(2) less than 1 was obtained in 114 patients [mean (SD): 0.89 (0.02)], whereas CvjO(2) greater than 1 was obtained in only 4 (3.38%). In the group of 152 survivors, a single patient was discharged from the ICU in a vegetative state in which CvjO(2) was below 1. CvjO(2)as a complementary test for the diagnosis of brain death showed 96.6% sensitivity, 99.3% specificity, and 99.1% and 97.4% positive and negative predictive values, respectively. Central venous-jugular bulb oxygen saturation rate below 1 together with accepted clinical criteria (unresponsive coma with brainstem areflexia) provides non-invasive assessment of cerebral circulatory arrest that can help to suspect brain death.

  1. [Survey of nurses about compression therapy of acute deep venous thrombosis. Field study in Saxony-Anhalt].

    PubMed

    Thieme, Dorothea; Langer, Gero; Behrens, Johann

    2010-03-01

    In clinical practice, the compression therapy is an established method for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The aim of this study was to clarify the extent to which current guidelines and results of studies done in the field for the treatment of acute DVT--particularly compression therapy--are implemented in clinical practice. All hospitals in Saxony-Anhalt using primary diagnosis and therapy for DVT (n = 34) were informed about a survey in 2007 and the nursing staff of angiology and internistical wards in these hospitals was asked to take part. The collection of data was done with the help of a questionnaire that had been designed and tested for its validity in a specialised hospital. 510 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate of questionnaires was 69 percent. 79 percent of the nursing staff of internistical wards in Saxony-Anhalt and 94 percent of the nursing staff of angiology wards said that patients with acute DVT have initially received a compression bandage. Significant deficits were visible in transferring the knowledge of evidence-based medicine and nursing regarding techniques of compression bandage. The recommended Fischer-Bandage was only put on in exceptional cases in internistical wards (3 percent) and Angiology (2 percent). Compression stockings were not a suitable method into the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis of Angiology. 21 percent of the nursing staff of internistical wards said that they have initially applied compression stockings. The treatment of acute DVT is important in clinical practice. The compression bandage should be effectively put on the leg. The quality of care and long-term compliance of the patients could be increased this way, leading to prevention of post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and reduction the duration of patients stay in the clinics.

  2. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Surgery, Endothermal Ablation, Ultrasound-guided Foam Sclerotherapy and Compression Stockings for Symptomatic Varicose Veins.

    PubMed

    Marsden, G; Perry, M; Bradbury, A; Hickey, N; Kelley, K; Trender, H; Wonderling, D; Davies, A H

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of interventional treatment for varicose veins (VV) in the UK NHS, and to inform the national clinical guideline on VV, published by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. An economic analysis was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of surgery, endothermal ablation (ETA), ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS), and compression stockings (CS). The analysis was based on a Markov decision model, which was developed in consultation with members of the NICE guideline development group (GDG). The model had a 5-year time horizon, and took the perspective of the UK National Health Service. Clinical inputs were based on a network meta-analysis (NMA), informed by a systematic review of the clinical literature. Outcomes were expressed as costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All interventional treatments were found to be cost-effective compared with CS at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY gained. ETA was found to be the most cost-effective strategy overall, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £3,161 per QALY gained compared with UGFS. Surgery and CS were dominated by ETA. Interventional treatment for VV is cost-effective in the UK NHS. Specifically, based on current data, ETA is the most cost-effective treatment in people for whom it is suitable. The results of this research were used to inform recommendations within the NICE guideline on VV. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The predictive value of haemodynamic parameters for outcome of deep venous reconstructions in patients with chronic deep vein obstruction - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kurstjens, Rlm; de Wolf, Maf; Kleijnen, J; de Graaf, R; Wittens, Cha

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of haemodynamic parameters on success of stenting or bypass surgery in patients with non-thrombotic or post-thrombotic deep venous obstruction. Methods EMBASE, MEDLINE and trial registries were searched up to 5 February 2016. Studies needed to investigate stenting or bypass surgery in patients with post-thrombotic obstruction or stenting for non-thrombotic iliac vein compression. Haemodynamic data needed to be available with prognostic analysis for success of treatment. Two authors, independently, selected studies and extracted data with risk bias assessment using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Results Two studies using stenting and two using bypass surgery were included. Three investigated plethysmography, though results varied and confounding was not properly taken into account. Dorsal foot vein pressure and venous refill times appeared to be of influence in one study, though confounding by deep vein incompetence was likely. Another investigated femoral-central pressure gradients without finding statistical significance, though sample size was small without details on statistical methodology. Reduced femoral inflow was found to be a predictor for stent stenosis or occlusion in one study, though patients also received additional surgery to improve stent inflow. Data on prediction of haemodynamic parameters for stenting of non-thrombotic iliac vein compression were not available. Conclusions Data on the predictive value of haemodynamic parameters for success of treatment in deep venous obstructive disease are scant and of poor quality. Plethysmography does not seem to be of value in predicting outcome of stenting or bypass surgery in post-thrombotic disease. The relevance of pressure-related parameters is unclear. Reduced flow into the common femoral vein seems to be predictive for in-stent stenosis or occlusion. Further research into the predictive effect of haemodynamic parameters is

  4. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability.

  5. A CONTROLLED TECHNIQUE FOR VEIN STRIPPING

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Milton; Payne, Robert D.

    1953-01-01

    A number of difficulties encountered in vein stripping operations for varicose veins in the legs have been overcome by use of a technique evolved by adaptation and modifications of various reported methods. The stripping instrument is passed from below upward, the valves or branches offering less impediment to its passage in that direction. Inserting the tip of the instrument at the ankle through an incision in the vein while it is still in continuity is easier than introducing it into the end of a transected vein. Ligation of major superficial branches or subfascial division of communicating veins can be readily carried out while the stripper is still in place in the vein. Applying pressure bandages to the entire length of the leg before removing the stripper and the telescoped vein diminishes the chances of ecchymosis yet does not hinder withdrawal of the instrument and the vein. PMID:13106726

  6. Locating difficult veins for venepuncture and cannulation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sally Jane

    2017-02-15

    Vein location and assessment are essential to improve the success rates for vascular access. However, problems remain with first attempt success rates for peripheral cannulation and locating difficult veins. Practitioners may not be aware of developments in technology and aids to assist in the location and assessment of veins to achieve vascular access. This article provides an overview of two vein location aids that can be used to locate difficult veins: the IV-eye vein imager and the Vacuderm tourniquet. It discusses the patient factors that can increase the difficulty of vein assessment and location, and emphasises the importance of vessel health and preservation, and vein palpation. Practitioners should be experienced and skilled in the assessment of veins, and they are encouraged to revisit how they locate and assess veins.

  7. Improved extraction of ePTFE and medical adhesive modified defibrillation leads from the coronary sinus and great cardiac vein.

    PubMed

    Wilkoff, Bruce L; Belott, Peter H; Love, Charles J; Scheiner, Avram; Westlund, Randy; Rippy, Marian; Krishnan, Mohan; Norlander, Barry E; Steinhaus, Bruce; Emmanuel, Janson; Zeller, Peter J

    2005-03-01

    Permanent leads with shocking coils for defibrillation therapy are sometimes implanted in the coronary sinus (CS) and great cardiac vein (GCV). These shocking coils, as documented by pathologic examination of animal investigations, often become tightly encapsulated by fibrosis and can be very difficult to remove. One of three configurations of the Guidant model 7109 Perimeter coronary sinus shocking lead was implanted into the distal portion of the GCV of 24 sheep for up to 14 months. Group 1 had unmodified coils (control), group 2 had coils backfilled with medical adhesive (MA), and Group 3 had coils coated with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). Eighteen leads, three from each group at 6 and 14 months were transvenously extracted from the left jugular vein. The remaining six animals were not subject to extraction. All animals were euthanized for pathological and microscopic examination. All six of the control, three of the MA, and one of the ePTFE leads required the use of an electrosurgical dissection sheath (EDS) for extraction. Five control, two MA, and none of the ePTFE leads had significant fibrotic attachments to the shocking coils. Significant trauma was observed at necropsy for those leads requiring the use of the EDS for extraction. Tissue ingrowth is a major impediment to the removal of defibrillation leads implanted in the CS and GCV of sheep. Reduction of tissue ingrowth by coating the shocking coils with ePTFE or by backfilling with MA facilitates transvenous lead removal with reduced tissue trauma.

  8. Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity with portable vascular ultrasonography can accurately detect deep venous thrombosis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jonathan G; Lovato, Luis M; Jang, Timothy B

    2010-12-01

    Compression ultrasonography of the lower extremity is an established method of detecting proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis when performed by a certified operator in a vascular laboratory. Our objective is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of bedside 2-point compression ultrasonography performed in the emergency department (ED) with portable vascular ultrasonography for the detection of proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. We did this by directly comparing emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to lower extremity duplex ultrasonography performed by the Department of Radiology. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study and diagnostic test assessment of a convenience sample of ED patients with a suspected lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, conducted at a single-center, urban, academic ED. All physicians had a 10-minute training session before enrolling patients. ED compression ultrasonography occurred before Department of Radiology ultrasonography and involved identification of 2 specific points: the common femoral and popliteal vessels, with subsequent compression of the common femoral and popliteal veins. The study result was considered positive for proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis if either vein was incompressible or a thrombus was visualized. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with the final radiologist interpretation of the Department of Radiology ultrasonography as the criterion standard. A total of 47 physicians performed 199 2-point compression ultrasonographic examinations in the ED. Median number of examinations per physician was 2 (range 1 to 29 examinations; interquartile range 1 to 5 examinations). There were 45 proximal lower extremity deep venous thromboses observed on Department of Radiology evaluation, all correctly identified by ED 2-point compression ultrasonography. The 153 patients without proximal lower extremity deep venous thrombosis all had a negative ED compression

  9. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation of saphenous veins using the ClariVein: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Witte, Marianne E; Zeebregts, Clark J; de Borst, Gert Jan; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Boersma, Doeke

    2017-12-01

    Objective To systematically review all available English literature on mechanochemical endovenous ablation and to report on the anatomical, technical, and clinical success. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library on mechanochemical endovenous ablation for the treatment of insufficient great and/or small saphenous vein. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the MINORS score. The primary outcome measure was anatomical success, defined as closure of the treated vein on follow-up duplex ultrasound imaging. Secondary outcomes were technical and clinical success, and major complications defined as deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolisms or paresthesia. Results The literature search identified 759 records, of which 13 were included, describing 10 unique cohorts. A total of 1521 veins (1267 great saphenous vein and 254 small saphenous vein) were included, with cohort sizes ranging from 30 to 570 veins. The pooled anatomical success rate after short-term follow up was 92% (95% CI 90-94%) ( n = 1314 veins). After 6 and 12 months these numbers were 92% (95% CI 88-95%) ( n = 284) and 91% (95% CI 86-94%) ( n = 228), respectively. The long-term anatomical success rates at 2 and 3 years were 91% (95% CI 85-95%) ( n = 136) and 87% (95% CI 75-94%) ( n = 48), respectively. Major complications and especially nerve injury were very rare (≤ 0.2%). All studies were of moderate or good quality using the MINORS scoring scale. Conclusions Mechanochemical endovenous ablation using the ClariVein in combination with liquid sclerosant is associated with an anatomical success rate ranging from 87% to 92% and good clinical success. To date, no randomized controlled trials are available studying the anatomical success after mechanochemical ablation, compared to the endothermal ablation. The risk of major complications is very low after the procedure.

  10. A structural analysis of the Minas da Panasqueira vein network and related fracture generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    and tip lines, we try to sort out if a dominant σ2 propagation direction, typical for hydrofractures, exists within the vein network. By doing so, we can evaluate whether the subhorizontal vein network formed under a compressive stress regime, or was mainly dictated by the strength anisotropy of the rocks under near-isotropic stress conditions of σhmax ≡ σhmin. The regional dominance of subhorizontal aplites, pegmatites and hydrothermal veins, exploiting subhorizontal fracture networks, occurs over a wide area of more than 100 km2 along the Serra de Estrela granitic massif (Derré et al., 1986). This orientation contrasts with the more common vertical attitude of granite-related hydrothermal veins, observed throughout the Iberian massif. A detailed orientation analysis of the fracture sets should allow to explore the possible causes of this particular late orogenic, flat-lying fracture network related to the granitic intrusion. References Derré, C., Lecolle, M., Roger, G., Tavares de Freitas Carvalho, J., 1986. Tectonics, magmatism, hydrothermalism and sets of flat joints locally filled by Sn-W, aplite-pegmatite and quartz veins, southeastern border of the Serra de Estrela granitic massif (Beira Baixa, Portugal). Ore Geology Reviews 1, 43-56. Foxford, K. A., Nicholson, R., Polya, D. A., and Hebblethwaite, R. P. B., 2000. Extensional failure and hydraulic valving at Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal; evidence from vein spatial distributions, displacements and geometries. Journal of Structural Geology 22, 1065-1086.

  11. Femoral vein injury managed by in situ saphenous vein bypass : a case report.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Th; Kuhnle, M

    2014-01-01

    Injured veins of the lower limbs may cause massive haemorrhage requiring early control. Operative management of injured veins remains a controversial topic and reconstruction or ligation depends on venous and adjacent tissue damage. Nevertheless, venous reconstruction seems to reduce the complications of venous ligation. The case of a 33 year old women with a venous wound to the right groin is presented. Surgical management consisted of controlling the bleeding and venous revascularisation with an in situ saphenous vein bypass to substitute the injured femoral vein. The patient had an uneventful postoperative period without any complications. The case demonstrates this method of vascular venous repair is the preferable one. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana Ei-5: Minor Vein Architecture Adjustment Compensates for Low Vein Density in Support of Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jared J; Polutchko, Stephanie K; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

    2018-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana accession with naturally low vein density, Eifel-5 (Ei-5), was compared to Columbia-0 (Col-0) with respect to rosette growth, foliar vein architecture, photosynthesis, and transpiration. In addition to having to a lower vein density, Ei-5 grew more slowly, with significantly lower rates of rosette expansion, but had similar capacities for photosynthetic oxygen evolution on a leaf area basis compared to Col-0. The individual foliar minor veins were larger in Ei-5, with a greater number of vascular cells per vein, compared to Col-0. This compensation for low vein density resulted in similar values for the product of vein density × phloem cell number per minor vein in Ei-5 and Col-0, which suggests a similar capacity for foliar sugar export to support similar photosynthetic capacities per unit leaf area. In contrast, the product of vein density × xylem cell number per minor vein was significantly greater in Ei-5 compared to Col-0, and was associated not only with a higher ratio of water-transporting tracheary elements versus sugar-transporting sieve elements but also significantly higher foliar transpiration rates per leaf area in Ei-5. In contrast, previous studies in other systems had reported higher ratios of tracheary to sieve elements and higher transpiration rate to be associated with higher - rather than lower - vein densities. The Ei-5 accession thus further underscores the plasticity of the foliar vasculature by illustrating an example where a higher ratio of tracheary to sieve elements is associated with a lower vein density. Establishment of the Ei-5 accession, with a low vein density but an apparent overcapacity for water flux through the foliar xylem network, may have been facilitated by a higher level of precipitation in its habitat of origin compared to that of the Col-0 accession.

  13. Varicose Veins, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and Suggested Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Burkitt, Denis P.

    1972-01-01

    Current concepts on the aetiology of varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis, and haemorrhoids have been examined and, in the light of epidemiological evidence, found wanting. It is suggested that the fundamental cause of these disorders is faecal arrest which is the result of a low-residue diet. PMID:5032782

  14. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy. PMID:22737028

  15. Accelerated Decompression from Saturation at 132 Feet of Sea Water With Isobaric oxygenation at 60 Feet of Sea Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    catheterized with an external jugular catheter via the Seldinger technique and allowed to recover. Subjects were exposed to 132 feet of seawater (fsw) in...the external jugular vein of the animal was catheterized with a 16 gauge by 20.3 cm single lumen catheter (Braun Certofix; B. Braun Medical Inc... central cyanosis or the production of frothy white sputum. The onset of severe DCS (neurological or cardio-pulmonary dysfunction) and all behavioral

  16. Randomized Study Comparing the Effect of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation on Veins Using 2 Types of Endoscopic and Open Vein Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Bhuvaneswari; Critchley, William R; Nair, Janesh; Malagon, Ignacio; Carey, John; Barnard, James B; Waterworth, Paul D; Venkateswaran, Rajamiyer V; Fildes, James E; Caress, Ann L; Yonan, Nizar

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the use of carbon dioxide insufflation has any impact on integrity of long saphenous vein comparing 2 types of endoscopic vein harvesting and traditional open vein harvesting. A total of 301 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 control arm of open vein harvesting (n = 101), group 2 closed tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (n = 100) and Group 3 open tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting) (n = 100). Each group was assessed to determine the systemic level of partial arterial carbon dioxide, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and pH. Three blood samples were obtained at baseline, 10 minutes after start of endoscopic vein harvesting, and 10 minutes after the vein was retrieved. Vein samples were taken immediately after vein harvesting without further surgical handling to measure the histological level of endothelial damage. A modified validated endothelial scoring system was used to compare the extent of endothelial stretching and detachment. The level of end-tidal carbon dioxide was maintained in the open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting and open vein harvesting groups but increased significantly in the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P = 0.451, P = 0.385, and P < 0.001). Interestingly, partial arterial carbon dioxide also did not differ over time in the open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P = 0.241), whereas partial arterial carbon dioxide reduced significantly over time in the open vein harvesting group (P = 0.001). A profound increase in partial arterial carbon dioxide was observed in the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group (P < 0.001). Consistent with these patterns, only the closed tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting group demonstrated a sudden drop in pH over time (P < 0.001), whereas pH remained stable for both open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting and open vein harvesting groups (P = 0.105 and P

  17. Vein visualization: patient characteristic factors and efficacy of a new infrared vein finder technology.

    PubMed

    Chiao, F B; Resta-Flarer, F; Lesser, J; Ng, J; Ganz, A; Pino-Luey, D; Bennett, H; Perkins, C; Witek, B

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the patient characteristic factors that correlate with identification of i.v. cannulation sites with normal eyesight. We evaluated a new infrared vein finding (VF) technology device in identifying i.v. cannulation sites. Each subject underwent two observations: one using the conventional method (CM) of normal, unassisted eyesight and the other with the infrared VF device, VueTek's Veinsite™ (VF). A power analysis for moderate effect size (β=0.95) required 54 samples for within-subject differences. Patient characteristic profiles were obtained from 384 subjects (768 observations). Our sample population exhibited an overall average of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-6.2] veins using CM. As a whole, CM vein visualization were less effective among obese [4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3)], African-American [4.6 (95% CI 3.6-5.5 veins)], and Asian [5.1 (95% CI 4.1-6.0)] subjects. Next, the VF technology identified an average of 9.1 (95% CI 8.6-9.5) possible cannulation sites compared with CM [average of 5.8 (95% CI 5.4-6.2)]. Seventy-six obese subjects had an average of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3) and 8.2 (95% CI 7.4-9.1) veins viewable by CM and VF, respectively. In dark skin subjects, 9.1 (95% CI 8.3-9.9) veins were visible by VF compared with 5.4 (95% CI 4.8-6.0) with CM. African-American or Asian ethnicity, and obesity were associated with decreased vein visibility. The visibility of veins eligible for cannulation increased for all subgroups using a new infrared device.

  18. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... veins no longer work. Under the pressure of gravity these veins can continue to expand and, in ... flow from the legs toward the heart against gravity, while preventing reverse flow back down the legs. ...

  19. Changes in superior sagittal sinus blood velocities due to postural alterations and pressure on the head of the newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Cowan, F; Thoresen, M

    1985-06-01

    A pulsed Doppler bidirectional ultrasound system has been used to measure alterations in the blood velocities in the superior sagittal sinus of the healthy term newborn infant in response to unilateral and bilateral jugular venous occlusion. These maneuvers were performed with the baby lying in different positions: supine, prone, and on the side (both left and right), the neck flexed or extended, and with the head in the midline or turned 90 degrees to the side (both left and right). Transfontanel pressure was also measured in these positions during occlusions. Results show that turning the head effectively occludes the jugular vein on the side to which the head is turned and that occluding the other jugular vein does not force blood through this functional obstruction. The effect of different forms of external pressure to the head on the superior sagittal sinus velocities was also examined. Alterations in velocities were frequently profound although they varied considerably from baby to baby. This work shows how readily large fluctuations in cranial venous velocities and pressures can occur in the course of normal handling of babies.

  20. Effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression in reduction of risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients who have had a stroke (CLOTS 3): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M; Sandercock, P; Reid, J; Graham, C; Forbes, J; Murray, G

    2013-08-10

    Venous thromboembolism is a common, potentially avoidable cause of death and morbidity in patients in hospital, including those with stroke. In surgical patients, intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but no reliable evidence exists about its effectiveness in patients who have had a stroke. We assessed the effectiveness of IPC to reduce the risk of DVT in patients who have had a stroke. The CLOTS 3 trial is a multicentre parallel group randomised trial assessing IPC in immobile patients (ie, who cannot walk to the toilet without the help of another person) with acute stroke. We enrolled patients from day 0 to day 3 of admission and allocated them via a central randomisation system (ratio 1:1) to receive either IPC or no IPC. A technician who was masked to treatment allocation did a compression duplex ultrasound (CDU) of both legs at 7-10 days and, wherever practical, at 25-30 days after enrolment. Caregivers and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up for 6 months to determine survival and later symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The primary outcome was a DVT in the proximal veins detected on a screening CDU or any symptomatic DVT in the proximal veins, confirmed on imaging, within 30 days of randomisation. Patients were analysed according to their treatment allocation. ISRCTN93529999. Between Dec 8, 2008, and Sept 6, 2012, 2876 patients were enrolled in 94 centres in the UK. The included patients were broadly representative of immobile stroke patients admitted to hospital and had a median age of 76 years (IQR 67-84). The primary outcome occurred in 122 (8·5%) of 1438 patients allocated IPC and 174 (12·1%) of 1438 patients allocated no IPC; an absolute reduction in risk of 3·6% (95% CI 1·4-5·8). Excluding the 323 patients who died before any primary outcome and 41 without any screening CDU, the adjusted OR for the comparison of 122 of 1267 patients vs 174 of 1245 patients

  1. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    PubMed

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The relationship between magnetic anisotropy, rock-strength anisotropy and vein emplacement in gold-bearing metabasalts of Gadag (South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnu, C. S.; Lahiri, Sivaji; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study the importance of rock strength and its anisotropy in controlling vein emplacement is evaluated by integrating anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) with rock mechanics data from massive (visibly isotropic) metabasalts of Gadag region (Dharwar Craton, South India). Orientation of magnetic foliation (MF) is first recognized from AMS. Subsequently, rock mechanics tests viz. ultrasonic P-wave velocity (Vp), uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load strength (Is(50)) are done in cores extracted parallel and perpendicular to MF. Vp is found to be higher in direction parallel to MF than perpendicular to it. In contrast rock strength (UCS and Is(50)) is greater in direction perpendicular to MF, than parallel to it. This proves that rocks from the gold mineralized belt of Gadag have rock strength anisotropy. Orientation of MF in Gadag region is NW-SE, which is also the mean orientation of quartz veins. Previous studies indicate that emplacement of veins in the region took place during regional D3 (NW-SE shortening). Based on the present study, it is concluded that vein emplacement took place in NW-SE orientation because the rocks have strength anisotropy and are weaker in this direction (orientation of MF), which dilated to accommodate fluid flow. In addition, vein intensities are measured along three traverses and found to be variable. It is argued that since mineralization is favoured when the system gets saturated with fluid, variation in fluid flow could not have been responsible for variation in vein intensities in the study area. Since the rock strength of the different blocks investigated here is not uniform, it is envisaged that variation in rock strength played an important role in controlling the vein intensities. It is concluded that rock strength variation controlled strain partitioning and channelized fluid flow thus influencing vein emplacement and mineralization and formation of lodes.

  3. A reduced-order model-based study on the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression of limbs on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Maffiodo, Daniela; De Nisco, Giuseppe; Gallo, Diego; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto; Ferraresi, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates the effect that the application of intermittent pneumatic compression to lower limbs has on the cardiovascular system. Intermittent pneumatic compression can be applied to subjects with reduced or null mobility and can be useful for therapeutic purposes in sports recovery, deep vein thrombosis prevention and lymphedema drainage. However, intermittent pneumatic compression performance and the effectiveness are often difficult to predict. This study presents a reduced-order numerical model of the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the intermittent pneumatic compression device. The effect that different intermittent pneumatic compression operating conditions have on the overall circulation is investigated. Our findings confirm (1) that an overall positive effect on hemodynamics can be obtained by properly applying the intermittent pneumatic compression device and (2) that using intermittent pneumatic compression for cardiocirculatory recovery is feasible in subjects affected by lower limb disease. © IMechE 2016.

  4. Massive pulmonary embolism caused by internal iliac vein thrombosis with free-floating thrombus formation in the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Deutschmann, Hannes; Pilger, Enrst

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, compression ultrasonography (CUS) is the gold standard for the routine diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The drawback of CUS is the low sensitivity concerning the diagnosis of isolated pelvic vein thrombosis, especially referring to isolated internal iliac vein and ovarian vein thromboses. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) venography has become a valuable alternative. We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient with a massive pulmonary embolism with the indication for thrombolytic therapy due to severe right ventricular overload. We were not able to detect a DVT in the lower limbs of this patient with CUS. However, further DVT workup by MR venography showed a free-floating thrombus formation originating from the right internal iliac veins into the inferior vena cava. Owing to the fact that this thrombus was free floating, surgical removal of the thrombus was scheduled and performed successfully. In some patients it might be important to look for so-called rare causes of pulmonary embolism, even when CUS of the lower limbs does not reveal any DVTs. The diagnostic procedure of choice for these patients seems to be MR phlebography, as iliac and pelvic veins can be evaluated without radiation exposure with this procedure. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dissemond, Joachim; Assenheimer, Bernd; Bültemann, Anke; Gerber, Veronika; Gretener, Silvia; Kohler-von Siebenthal, Elisabeth; Koller, Sonja; Kröger, Knut; Kurz, Peter; Läuchli, Severin; Münter, Christian; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Probst, Sebastian; Protz, Kerstin; Riepe, Gunnar; Strohal, Robert; Traber, Jürg; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Wund-D.A.CH. is the umbrella organization of the various wound care societies in German-speaking countries. The present consensus paper on practical aspects pertinent to compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers was developed by experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. In Europe, venous leg ulcers rank among the most common causes of chronic wounds. Apart from conservative and interventional wound and vein treatment, compression therapy represents the basis of all other therapeutic strategies. To that end, there are currently a wide variety of materials and systems available. While especially short-stretch bandages or multicomponent systems should be used in the initial decongestion phase, ulcer stocking systems are recommended for the subsequent maintenance phase. Another - to date, far less common - alternative are adaptive Velcro bandage systems. Medical compression stockings have proven particularly beneficial in the prevention of ulcer recurrence. The large number of treatment options currently available enables therapists to develop therapeutic concepts geared towards their patients' individual needs and abilities, thus resulting in good acceptance and adherence. Compression therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients with venous leg ulcers. In recent years, a number of different treatment options have become available, their use and application differing among German-speaking countries. The present expert consensus is therefore meant to outline concrete recommendations for routine implementation of compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins Varicose veins are enlarged veins you may see on your ... Healthy Roads Media project www. healthyroadsmedia. org English - Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy (Varicose Veins) Last reviewed ...

  7. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  8. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema.

    PubMed

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-09-28

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema.

  9. Homestake Vein, False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This false-color view of a mineral vein called Homestake comes from the panoramic camera Pancam on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The vein is about the width of a thumb and about 18 inches 45 centimeters long.

  10. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mert, Murat; Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-12-01

    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined

  12. Early and Late Retrieval of the ALN Removable Vena Cava Filter: Results from a Multicenter Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pellerin, O., E-mail: olivier.pellerin@egp.aphp.f; Barral, F. G.; Lions, C.

    Retrieval of removable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in selected patients is widely practiced. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of percutaneous removal of the ALN removable filter in a large patient cohort. Between November 2003 and June 2006, 123 consecutive patients were referred for percutaneous extraction of the ALN filter at three centers. The ALN filter is a removable filter that can be implanted through a femoral/jugular vein approach and extracted by the jugular vein approach. Filter removal was attempted after an implantation period of 93 {+-} 15 days (range, 6-722 days)more » through the right internal jugular vein approach using the dedicated extraction kit after control inferior vena cavography. Following filter removal, vena cavograms were obtained in all patients. Successful extraction was achieved in all but one case. Among these successful retrievals, additional manipulation using a femoral approach was needed when the apex of the filter was close to the IVC wall in two patients. No immediate IVC complications were observed according to the postimplantation cavography. Neither technical nor clinical differences between early and late filter retrieval were noticed. Our data confirm the safety of ALN filter retrieval up to 722 days after implantation. In infrequent cases, additional endovenous filter manipulation is needed to facilitate extraction.« less

  13. What Are Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... most severe with vein stripping and ligation (li-GA-shun). Rarely, this procedure can cause severe pain, infections, blood clots, and scarring. Sclerotherapy Sclerotherapy (SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) uses a liquid chemical to close off a varicose vein. The ...

  14. Transpressional folding and associated cross-fold jointing controlling the geometry of post-orogenic vein-type W-Sn mineralization: examples from Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    The world-class W-Sn Panasqueira deposit consists of an extensive, subhorizontal vein swarm, peripheral to a late-orogenic greisen cupola. The vein swarm consists of hundreds of co-planar quartz veins that are overlapping and connected laterally over large distances. Various segmentation structures, a local zigzag geometry, and the occurrence of straight propagation paths indicate that they exploited a regional joint system. A detailed orientation analysis of the systematic joints reveals a geometrical relationship with the subvertical F2 fold generation, reflecting late-Variscan transpression. The joints are consistently orthogonal to the steeply plunging S0-S2 intersection lineation, both on the regional and the outcrop scale, and are thus defined as cross-fold or ac-joints. The joint system developed during the waning stages of the Variscan orogeny, when already uplifted to an upper-crustal level. Veining reactivated these cross-fold joints under the conditions of hydraulic overpressures and low differential stress. The consistent subperpendicular orientation of the veins relative to the non-cylindrical F2 hinge lines, also when having an inclined attitude, demonstrates that veining did not occur during far-field horizontal compression. Vein orientation is determined by local stress states variable on a meter-scale but with the minimum principal stress consistently subparallel to fold hinge lines. The conspicuous subhorizontal attitude of the Panasqueira vein swarm is thus dictated by the geometry of late-orogenic folds, which developed synchronous with oroclinal buckling of the Ibero-Armorican arc.

  15. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    PubMed

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-03-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein.

  16. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P < 0.01). In the liver, the hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy

  17. Multimodal ultrasonographic assessment of leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein in a patient misdiagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Yan, Feng; Huang, Bin; Wu, Zhoupeng; Wen, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Primary leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the vein is a rare tumor that arises from the smooth muscle cells of the vessel wall and has an extremely poor prognosis. This tumor can occur in vessels such as the inferior vena cava, great saphenous vein, femoral vein, iliac vein, popliteal vein, and renal vein; the inferior vena cava is the most common site. LMS of the femoral vein can result in edema and pain in the lower extremity; therefore, it is not easy to be differentiated from deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Moreover, virtually no studies have described the ultrasonographic features of LMS of the vein in detail. Patient concerns: We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with LMS of the left femoral vein that was misdiagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on initial ultrasonographic examination. The patient began to experience edema and pain in her left leg seven months previously. She was diagnosed as having DVT on initial ultrasonographic examination, but the DVT treatment that she had received for 7 months failed to improve the status of her left lower limb. Diagnoses: She subsequently underwent re-examination by means of a multimodal ultrasonographic imaging approach (regular B-mode imaging, color Doppler imaging, pulsed-wave Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography), which confirmed a diagnosis of LMS. Interventions: This patient was treated successfully with surgery. Outcomes: This case demonstrates that use of multiple ultrasonographic imaging techniques can be helpful to diagnose LMS accurately. Detection of vasculature in a dilated vein filled with a heterogeneous hypoechoic substance on ultrasonography is a sign of a tumor. Lessons: The pitfall of misdiagnosing this tumor as DVT is a useful reminder. PMID:29145269

  18. Self-taught axillary vein access without venography for pacemaker implantation: prospective randomized comparison with the cephalic vein access.

    PubMed

    Squara, Fabien; Tomi, Julien; Scarlatti, Didier; Theodore, Guillaume; Moceri, Pamela; Ferrari, Emile

    2017-12-01

    Axillary vein access for pacemaker implantation is uncommon in many centres because of the lack of training in this technique. We assessed whether the introduction of the axillary vein technique was safe and efficient as compared with cephalic vein access, in a centre where no operators had any previous experience in axillary vein puncture. Patients undergoing pacemaker implantation were randomized to axillary or cephalic vein access. All three operators had no experience nor training in axillary vein puncture, and self-learned the technique by reading a published review. Axillary vein puncture was fluoroscopy-guided without contrast venography. Cephalic access was performed by dissection of delto-pectoral groove. Venous access success, venous access duration (from skin incision to guidewire or lead in superior vena cava), procedure duration, X-ray exposure, and peri-procedural (1 month) complications were recorded. results We randomized 74 consecutive patients to axillary (n = 37) or cephalic vein access (n = 37). Axillary vein was successfully accessed in 30/37 (81.1%) patients vs. 28/37 (75.7%) of cephalic veins (P = 0.57). Venous access time was shorter in axillary group than in cephalic group [5.7 (4.4-8.3) vs. 12.2 (10.5-14.8) min, P < 0.001], as well as procedure duration [34.8 (30.6-38.4) vs. 42.0 (39.1-46.6) min, P = 0.043]. X-ray exposure and peri-procedural overall complications were comparable in both groups. Axillary puncture was safe and faster than cephalic access even for the five first procedures performed by each operator. Self-taught axillary vein puncture for pacemaker implantation seems immediately safe and faster than cephalic vein access, when performed by electrophysiologists trained to pacemaker implantation but not to axillary vein puncture. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  20. The Origin of Fibrous Calcite Veins: Aragonite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elburg, M. A.; Bons, P. D.

    2005-12-01

    Truly fibrous calcite veins occur mainly in carbonaceous shales and are characterised by high length:width ratios of their fibres (>10). Previous studies on their Sr isotopic geochemistry (Elburg et al., 2002: Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 200, 103-118; Hilgers and Sindern, 2005: Geofluids, in press) have shown that some of the material could be derived from the local wall rock. These studies also showed that the veins were always enriched in Sr compared to the calcite in the host rocks. Aragonite can contain significantly more Sr than calcite, while it also tends to have a fibrous crystal habit. It is therefore possible that the fibrous habit of these veins, which now consist of calcite, are a reflection of their initial aragonitic mineralogy, rather than of any special tectonic regime during their formation. This idea was investigated by analysing the major and trace element geochemistry of selected fibrous and non-fibrous calcite veins from Arkaroola (northern Flinders Ranges, Australia). The fibrous vein analysed for major elements contains less than 1% MgCO3, whereas calcite in the host rock, with which it is in Sr isotopic equilibrium, contains 18% MgCO3. Calcite can contain significant Mg, whereas the aragonitic structure cannot accomodate this ion, so this result is consistent with the idea of an original aragonitic mineralogy of the veins. The fibrous veins show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (REE) compared to the calcite in the host rock and blocky veins. In a Post-Archean Average Shale normalised diagram, Eu is more strongly enriched compared to its neighbouring elements in the fibrous veins, but not in the host calcite, blocky veins, or in the silicate fraction of the host rock, suggesting more reducing conditions during fibrous vein formation. This data cannot be used as direct evidence for the fibrous veins' aragonitic mineralogy. It does, however, show that significant differences exist between calcite in host rocks, blocky and

  1. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, John Calvin; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  2. Blood flow velocity in the popliteal vein using transverse oscillation ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Holbek, Simon; Lönn, Lars; Strandberg, Charlotte; Bækgaard, Niels; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition leading to varicose veins, leg edema, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcerations. Ultrasound (US) is the main modality for examination of venous disease. Color Doppler and occasionally spectral Doppler US (SDUS) are used for evaluation of the venous flow. Peak velocities measured by SDUS are rarely used in a clinical setting for evaluating chronic venous disease due to inadequate reproducibility mainly caused by the angle dependency of the estimate. However, estimations of blood velocities are of importance in characterizing venous disease. Transverse Oscillation US (TOUS), a non-invasive angle independent method, has been implemented on a commercial scanner. TOUS's advantage compared to SDUS is a more elaborate visualization of complex flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether TOUS perform equal to SDUS for recording velocities in the veins of the lower limbs. Four volunteers were recruited for the study. A standardized flow was provoked with a cuff compression-decompression system placed around the lower leg. The average peak velocity in the popliteal vein of the four volunteers was 151.5 cm/s for SDUS and 105.9 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.001). The average of the peak velocity standard deviations (SD) were 17.0 cm/s for SDUS and 13.1 cm/s for TOUS (p <0.005). The study indicates that TOUS estimates lower peak velocity with improved SD when compared to SDUS. TOUS may be a tool for evaluation of venous disease providing quantitative measures for the evaluation of venous blood flow.

  3. Early postnatal ozone exposure alters rat nodose and jugular sensory neuron development

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, Leor C.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Hunter, Dawn D.; Dey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neurons originating in nodose and jugular ganglia that innervate airway epithelium (airway neurons) play a role in inflammation observed following exposure to inhaled environmental irritants such as ozone (O3). Airway neurons can mediate airway inflammation through the release of the neuropeptide substance P (SP). While susceptibility to airway irritants is increased in early life, the developmental dynamics of afferent airway neurons are not well characterized. The hypothesis of this study was that airway neuron number might increase with increasing age, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure might increase both the number of sensory airway neurons as well as the number SP-containing airway neurons. Studies using Fischer 344 rat pups were conducted to determine if age or acute O3 exposure might alter airway neuron number. Airway neurons in nodose and jugular ganglia were retrogradely labeled, removed, dissociated, and counted by means of a novel technique employing flow cytometry. In Study 1, neuron counts were conducted on postnatal days (PD) 6, 10, 15, 21, and 28. Numbers of total and airway neurons increased significantly between PD6 and PD10, then generally stabilized. In Study 2, animals were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air (FA) on PD5 and neurons were counted on PD10, 15, 21, and 28. O3-exposed animals displayed significantly less total neurons on PD21 than FA controls. This study shows that age-related changes in neuron number occur, and that an acute, early postnatal O3 exposure significantly alters sensory neuron development. PMID:22140294

  4. Portal vein thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Tomizuka, H; Hatake, K; Kitagawa, S; Yamashita, K; Arai, H; Miura, Y

    1999-01-01

    A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and low-grade fever. He had a 6-month history of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), and laboratory data showed anaemia and liver dysfunction. An abdominal ultrasonography showed ascites and portal vein thrombosis. After receiving antithrombotic treatment, the portal vein thrombosis did not extend. Portal vein thrombosis is very rare but should be considered when we encounter liver dysfunction associated with PNH as well as hepatic vein thrombosis. Ultrasonography is very useful in detecting portal vein thrombosis and facilitating early diagnosis. Warfarin is very effective in preventing exacerbation of portal vein thrombosis in PNH.

  5. Techniques for Nonterminal Blood Sampling in Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    PubMed

    Head, Valerie; Eshar, David; Nau, Melissa R

    2017-03-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used as an animal model for research on gallbladder stones and several infectious diseases. A comprehensive, instructive resource regarding the appropriate techniques for venipuncture and collection of nonterminal blood samples in this species has not yet been published. Blood samples (1 mL or larger) were readily obtained from the jugular vein, femoral vein, or cranial vena cava, whereas peripheral sites, such as the cephalic vein, saphenous vein, and tarsal vein, mainly were useful for obtaining smaller volumes. The detailed and illustrated information presented here can aid clinicians and researchers in performing venipuncture, anesthesia, and handling of this species.

  6. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  7. Fecal Impaction Causing Pelvic Venous Compression and Edema

    PubMed Central

    Naramore, Sara; Aziz, Faisal; Alexander, Chandran Paul; Methratta, Sosamma; Cilley, Robert; Rocourt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition which may result in fecal impaction. A 13-year-old male with chronic constipation and encopresis presented with fecal impaction for three weeks. The impaction caused abdominal pain, distension, encopresis, and decreased oral intake. He was found in severe distress with non-pitting edema of his feet and ankles along with perineal edema. The pedal edema worsened after receiving a fluid bolus, so concern arose for venous compression or a thrombus. A Duplex Ultrasound demonstrated changes in the venous waveforms of the bilateral external iliac and common femoral veins without thrombosis. Manual disimpaction and polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes resolved the pedal and perineal edema. Four months later, he had soft bowel movements without recurrence of the edema. A repeat Duplex Ultrasound was normal. We present a child in whom severe fecal impaction caused pelvic venous compression resulting in bilateral pedal and perineal edema. PMID:26500749

  8. Natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children.

    PubMed

    Spentzouris, G; Gasparis, A; Scriven, R J; Lee, T K; Labropoulos, N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children presented with a first episode in the lower extremity veins. Children with objective diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis were followed up with ultrasound and clinical examination. Risk factors and clinical presentation were prospectively collected. The prevalence of recurrent deep vein thrombosis and the development of signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were recorded. There were 27 children, 15 males and 12 females, with acute deep vein thrombosis, with a mean age of 4 years, range 0.1-16 years. The median follow-up was 23 months, range 8-62 months. The location of thrombosis involved the iliac and common femoral vein in 18 patients and the femoral and popliteal veins in 9. Only one vein was affected in 7 children, two veins in 14 and more than two veins in 6. Recurrent deep vein thrombosis occurred in two patients, while no patient had a clinically significant pulmonary embolism. Signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were present at last follow-up in 11 patients. There were nine patients with vein collaterals, but no patient developed varicose veins. Reflux was found in 18 veins of 11 patients. Failure of recanalization was seen in 7 patients and partial recanalization in 11. Iliofemoral thrombosis (p = 0.012) and failure to recanalize (p = 0.036) increased significantly the risk for developing signs and symptoms. Children with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis develop mild chronic venous disease signs and symptoms at mid-term follow-up and are closely related with iliofemoral thrombosis and failure to recanalization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Haemodynamic Performance of Low Strength Below Knee Graduated Elastic Compression Stockings in Health, Venous Disease, and Lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, C R; Kalodiki, E; Azzam, M; Geroulakos, G

    2016-07-01

    To test the in vivo haemodynamic performance of graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings using air-plethysmography (APG) in healthy volunteers (controls) and patients with varicose veins (VVs), post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), or lymphoedema. Responsiveness data were used to determine which group benefited the most from GEC. There were 12 patients per group compared using no compression, knee-length Class 1 (18-21 mmHg) compression, and Class 2 (23-32 mmHg) compression. Stocking/leg interface pressures (mmHg) were measured supine in two places using an air-sensor transducer. Stocking performance parameters, investigated before and after GEC, included the standard APG tests (working venous volume [wVV], venous filling index [VFI], venous drainage index [VDI], ejection fraction [EF]) and the occlusion plethysmography tests (incremental pressure causing the maximal increase in calf volume [IPMIV], outflow fraction [OF]). Results were expressed as median and interquartile range. Significant graduated compression was achieved in all four groups with higher interface pressures at the ankle. Only the VVs patients had a significant reduction in their wVV (without: 133 [109-146] vs. class1: 93 [74-113] mL) and the VFI (without: 4.6 [3-7.1] vs. class1: 3.1 [1.9-5] mL/s), both at p <.05. The IPMIV improved significantly in all groups except in the PTS group (p <.05). The OF improved only in the controls (without: 43 [38-51] vs. class1: 50 [48-53] %) and the VVs patients (without: 47 [39-58] vs. class1: 56 [50-64] %), both at p <.05. There were no significant differences in the VDI or the EF with GEC. Compression dose-response relationships were not observed. Patients with varicose veins improved the most, whereas those with PTS improved the least. Performance seemed to depend more on disease pathophysiology than compression strength. However, the lack of responsiveness to compression strength may be related to the low external pressures used. Stocking performance tests

  10. What Are Varicose Veins? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... full of oxygen, which makes the blood bright red. But the blood coming back from your body in the veins is darker because your body parts have used up the oxygen in the blood. That's why veins look purple or blue. What Causes Varicose Veins? It's a lot of ...

  11. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 PMID:7400038

  12. Clinical outcomes of totally implantable venous access port placement via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun; Seo, Tae-Seok; Song, Myung Gyu; Seol, Hae-Young; Suh, Sang Il; Ryoo, In-Seon

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy. A total of 176 totally implantable venous access ports were placed via the axillary vein in 171 patients with head and neck malignancy between May 2012 and June 2015. The patients included 133 men and 38 women, and the mean age was 58.8 years (range: 19-84 years). Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. This study included a total of 93,237 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 478 catheter-days, range: 13-1380 catheter-days). Of the 176 implanted totally implantable venous access port, complications developed in nine cases (5.1%), with the overall incidence of 0.097 events/1000 catheter-days. The complications were three central line-associated blood-stream infection cases, one case of keloid scar at the needling access site, and five cases of central vein stenosis or thrombosis on neck computed tomography images. The 133 cases for which neck computed tomography images were available had a total of 59,777 totally implantable venous access port catheter-days (median 399 catheter-days, range: 38-1207 catheter-days). On neck computed tomography evaluation, the incidence of central vein stenosis or thrombosis was 0.083 events/1000 catheter-days. Thrombosis developed in four cases, yielding an incidence of 0.067 events/1000 catheter-days. All four patients presented with thrombus in the axillary or subclavian vein. Stenosis occurred in one case yielding an incidence of 0.017 events/1000 catheter-days. One case was catheter-related brachiocephalic vein stenosis, and the other case was subclavian vein stenosis due to extrinsic compression by tumor progression. Of the nine complication cases, six underwent port removal. These data indicate that totally implantable venous access port implantation via the axillary vein in patients with head and neck malignancy is safe and

  13. Right atrium positioning for exposure of right pulmonary veins during off-pump atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Suwalski, Grzegorz; Emery, Robert; Mróz, Jakub; Kaczejko, Kamil; Gryszko, Leszek; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Concomitant surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is recommended for patients undergoing off-pump coronary revascularization in the presence of this arrhythmia. Achievement of optimal visualization of pulmonary veins while maintaining stable haemodynamic conditions is crucial for proper completion of the ablation procedure. This study evaluates the safety and feasibility of right atrial positioning using a suction-based cardiac positioner as opposed to compressive manoeuvres for exposure during off-pump surgical ablation for AF. Thirty-four consecutive patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation, ganglionated plexi ablation and left atrial appendage occlusion during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Right atrial suction positioning was used to visualize right pulmonary veins. Safety and feasibility end points were analysed intraoperatively and in the early postoperative course. In all patients, right atrial positioning created optimal conditions to complete transverse and oblique sinus blunt dissection, correct placement of a bipolar ablation probe, detection and ablation of ganglionated plexi and conduction block assessment. In all patients, this entire right-sided ablation procedure was completed with a single exposure manoeuvre. Feasibility end points were achieved in all study patients. This report documents the safety and feasibility of right atrial exposure using a suction-based cardiac positioner to complete ablation for AF concomitant with off-pump coronary revascularization. This technique may be widely adopted to create stable haemodynamic conditions and optimal visualization of the right pulmonary veins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6980 Vein stabilizer. (a) Identification. A vein stabilizer is a device consisting of a flat piece...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6980 Vein stabilizer. (a) Identification. A vein stabilizer is a device consisting of a flat piece...

  16. Segmentation of Dilated Hemorrhoidal Veins in Hemorrhoidal Disease.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Miriam; García, Pino; Sáez, Francisco J; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Carrasco, José Luis; Madrid, Juan F

    2018-06-18

    Vein segmentation is a vascular remodeling process mainly studied in experimental conditions and linked to hemodynamic factors, with clinical implications. The aim of this work is to assess the morphologic characteristics, associated findings, and mechanisms that participate in vein segmentation in humans. To this end, we examined 156 surgically obtained cases of hemorrhoidal disease. Segmentation occurred in 65 and was most prominent in 15, which were selected for serial sections, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence procedures. The dilated veins showed differently sized spaces, separated by thin septa. Findings associated with vein segmentation were: (a) vascular channels formed from the vein intima endothelial cells (ECs) and located in the vein wall and/or intraluminal fibrin, (b) vascular loops formed by interconnected vascular channels (venous-venous connections), which encircled vein wall components or fibrin and formed folds/pillars/papillae (FPPs; the encircling ECs formed the FPP cover and the encircled components formed the core), and (c) FPP splitting, remodeling, alignment, and fusion, originating septa. Thrombosis was observed in some nonsegmented veins, while the segmented veins only occasionally contained thrombi. Dense microvasculature was also present in the interstitium and around veins. In conclusion, the findings suggest that hemorrhoidal vein segmentation is an adaptive process in which a piecemeal angiogenic mechanism participates, predominantly by intussusception, giving rise to intravascular FPPs, followed by linear rearrangement, remodeling and fusion of FPPs, and septa formation. Identification of other markers, as well as the molecular bases, hemodynamic relevance, and possible therapeutic implications of vein segmentation in dilated hemorrhoidal veins require further studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Renal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Kyew; Park, Sung Kwang

    1987-01-01

    The coexistence of nephrotic syndrome and renal vein thrombosis has been of medical interest since Rayer’s description in 1840. Renal vein thrombosis has been underdiagnosed because of its variable clinical and radiological findings but it becomes a more frequently recognizable clinical entity since diagnosis can be easily established by modern angiographic techniques. Generally it has been believed that renal vein thrombosis may cause nephrotic syndrome. But recent articles strongly suggest that renal vein thrombosis is a complication of the nephrotic syndrome rather than a cause. We report three cases of nephrotic syndrome associated with renal vein thrombosis. PMID:3154812

  18. Percutaneous Portal Vein Access and Transhepatic Tract Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.; Madoff, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous portal vein interventions require minimally invasive access to the portal venous system. Common approaches to the portal vein include transjugular hepatic vein to portal vein access and direct transhepatic portal vein access. A major concern of the transhepatic route is the risk of postprocedural bleeding, which is increased when patients are anticoagulated or receiving pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy. Thus percutaneous portal vein access and subsequent closure are important technical parts of percutaneous portal vein procedures. At present, various techniques have been used for either portal access or subsequent transhepatic tract closure and hemostasis. Regardless of the method used, meticulous technique is required to achieve the overall safety and effectiveness of portal venous procedures. This article reviews the various techniques of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access and the various closure and hemostatic methods used to reduce the risk of postprocedural bleeding. PMID:23729976

  19. Monorail system for percutaneous repositioning of the Greenfield vena caval filter.

    PubMed

    Guthaner, D F; Wyatt, J O; Mehigan, J T; Wright, A M; Breen, J F; Wexler, L

    1990-09-01

    The authors describe a technique for removing or repositioning a malpositioned Greenfield inferior vena caval filter. A "monorail" system was used, in which a wire was passed from the femoral vein through the apical hole in the filter and out the internal jugular vein; the wire was held taut from above and below and thus facilitated repositioning or removal of the filter. The technique was used successfully in two cases.

  20. Prevalence of venous obstruction in permanent endovenous pacing in newborns and infants: follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Petar; Vranes, Mile; Velimirovic, Dusan; Zivkovic, Mirjana; Kocica, Mladen J; Davidovic, Lazar; Neskovic, Voislava; Stajevic, Mila

    2005-05-01

    We examined the prevalence of venous obstruction in 12 newborns and infants with permanent endovenous ventricular pacing, clinically, and by ultrasonographic assessment of hemodynamics (spontaneity, phasicity, velocity, and turbulence of flow) and morphologic parameters (compressibility, wall thickness, and thrombus presence). All implantations of single ventricular unipolar endovenous steroid leads, were performed via cephalic vein, and pacemakers were placed in subcutaneous pocket in right prepectoral region. After the vascular surgeon has carefully examined all children for presence of venous collaterals in the chest wall, morphologic and hemodynamic parameters of the subclavian, axillary, and internal jugular veins, were assessed by linear-array color Doppler. Lead capacity (LC) was calculated for each patient. Mean age of patients at implant was 6.2 months (range 1 day-12 months), mean weight 6.5 kg (range 2.25-10 kg), and mean height 60.9 cm (range 48-78 cm). Mean LC was 1.99 (range 1.14-3.07). Total follow-up was 1023 and mean follow-up 85.2 pacing months (range 3-156). No clinical signs of venous obstruction were observed. Mild stenosis (20%) of subclavian vein was found by color Doppler in 2/12 patients. Both had adequate lead diameter for body surface. Permanent endovenous pacing is a feasible procedure, even in children of body weight less than 10 kg, with quite acceptable impact on venous system patency.

  1. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    back pain and arthritis. Lower limb VV is a common disease affecting adults and estimated to be the seventh most common reason for physician referral in the US. There is a strong familial predisposition to VV with the risk in offspring being 90% if both parents affected, 20% when neither is affected, and 45% (25% boys, 62% girls) if one parent is affected. Globally, the prevalence of VV ranges from 5% to 15% among men and 3% to 29% among women varying by the age, gender and ethnicity of the study population, survey methods and disease definition and measurement. The annual incidence of VV estimated from the Framingham Study was reported to be 2.6% among women and 1.9% among men and did not vary within the age range (40-89 years) studied. Approximately 1% of the adult population has a stasis ulcer of venous origin at any one time with 4% at risk. The majority of leg ulcer patients are elderly with simple superficial vein reflux. Stasis ulcers are often lengthy medical problems and can last for several years and, despite effective compression therapy and multilayer bandaging are associated with high recurrence rates. Recent trials involving surgical treatment of superficial vein reflux have resulted in healing and significantly reduced recurrence rates. Endovascular Laser Therapy for VV ELT is an image-guided, minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical stripping of superficial venous reflux. It does not require an operating room or general anesthesia and has been performed in outpatient settings by a variety of medical specialties including surgeons (vascular or general), interventional radiologists and phlebologists. Rather than surgically removing the vein, ELT works by destroying, cauterizing or ablating the refluxing vein segment using heat energy delivered via laser fibre. Prior to ELT, colour-flow Doppler ultrasonography is used to confirm and map all areas of venous reflux to devise a safe and effective treatment plan. The ELT procedure involves the

  2. Beware Swan-Ganz complications. Perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Asteri, T; Tsagaropoulou, I; Vasiliadis, K; Fessatidis, I; Papavasi-Liou, E; Spyrou, P

    2002-08-01

    Since the introduction of the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in 1970 by Swan et al., various complications are recognized with the insertion and the use of Swan-Ganz catheter. We present two different cases with rare but life threatening complications which had been successfully managed. The first case is a carotid cannulation with an 8.5 Fr introducer sheath, in an attempt to insert a pulmonary catheter via the right internal jugular vein. Two weeks later, the patient was re-admitted to the hospital and when an arteriovenous fistulae (carotid artery-internal jugular vein) was diagnosed, he was treated surgically. The second case presents the rupture of the right atrium in the conjunction with the superior vena cava. This serious cardiac complication was developed during the floatation of the PAC and the lesion was repaired while the mitral valve replacement was in progress.

  3. An effective hand vein feature extraction method.

    PubMed

    Li, Haigang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Chengdong

    2015-01-01

    As a new authentication method developed years ago, vein recognition technology features the unique advantage of bioassay. This paper studies the specific procedure for the extraction of hand back vein characteristics. There are different positions used in the collecting process, so that a suitable intravenous regional orientation method is put forward, allowing the positioning area to be the same for all hand positions. In addition, to eliminate the pseudo vein area, the valley regional shape extraction operator can be improved and combined with multiple segmentation algorithms. The images should be segmented step by step, making the vein texture to appear clear and accurate. Lastly, the segmented images should be filtered, eroded, and refined. This process helps to filter the most of the pseudo vein information. Finally, a clear vein skeleton diagram is obtained, demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm. This paper presents a hand back vein region location method. This makes it possible to rotate and correct the image by working out the inclination degree of contour at the side of hand back.

  4. A rare congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt affecting the inferior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and left ovarian vein.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hajime; Takeda, Yoko; Takahashi, Miyo; Hayashi, Shogo; Fukuzawa, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    To observe a case of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt and discuss it from the embryological and clinical viewpoints. An 85-year-old female cadaver was employed for a dissection course at Aichi Medical University in 2009. There was no evidence of liver cirrhosis macroscopically or microscopically. A portosystemic shunt was observed that involved communication between the inferior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), and left ovarian vein by a single Y-shaped shunt vessel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the above-mentioned three veins being connected by a single Y-shaped shunt vessel. Considering the other venous diameters, the shunt appeared to flow into the splenic vein and IVC. It cannot be denied that this shunt may have led to hepatic encephalopathy, although the shunt effect may have been minimal. Embryological development of IVC appears to occur close to the plexus of anastomosing vitelline veins, forming the portal vein.

  5. Protection against Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury by Increase in Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming; Kawoos, Usmah; McCarron, Richard; Chavko, Mikulas

    2017-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of injuries in recent military conflicts and it is responsible for an increased number of civilian casualties by terrorist attacks. bTBI includes a variety of neuropathological changes depending on the intensity of blast overpressure (BOP) such as brain edema, neuronal degeneration, diffuse axonal damage, and vascular dysfunction with neurological manifestations of psychological and cognitive abnormalities. Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression is known to reduce intracranial compliance by causing an increase in brain volume and was shown to reduce brain damage during closed impact-induced TBI. We investigated whether IJV compression can attenuate signs of TBI in rats after exposure to BOP. Animals were exposed to three 110 ± 5 kPa BOPs separated by 30 min intervals. Exposure to BOP resulted in a significant decrease of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) together with upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and endothelin 1 receptor A (ETRA) expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus one day following exposures. IJV compression attenuated this BOP-induced increase in 3-NT in cortex and ameliorated the upregulation of AQP-4 in hippocampus. These results suggest that elevated intracranial pressure and intracerebral volume have neuroprotective potential in blast-induced TBI.

  6. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Central Venous Stenosis among Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients, a Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osama O; El-Magzoub, Abdul-Rahman A; Elamin, Sarra

    2014-01-01

    Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included 106 prevalent HD patients. For every patient, we performed Duplex Doppler for the right and left jugular, subclavian and femoral veins. A patient was considered to have hemodynamically significant stenosis if the pre-stenosis to the post-stenosis velocities ratio was ≥ 2.5 or they had complete vein occlusion. Overall, 28.3% of patients had Doppler detected CVS, including 25.5% with hemodynamically significant stenosis and 2.8% with compromised flow. The prevalence of CVS was 68.4% among symptomatic patients compared to 19.5% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of CVS among patients with history of 0-1, 2-3 and ≥ 4 central venous catheters was 3.4%, 29.4% and 53.8% respectively (p=0.00). CVS was not more common in patients with history of previous/current jugular or femoral vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in these veins (28.3% vs 28.6% and 35% vs 26.7% respectively; p >0.1). However, CVS was significantly more common in patients with previous/ current subclavian vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in this vein (47.8% vs 22.9%, p = 0.02). CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.

  8. Portal vein aneurysm in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Das, Simi; Dey, Mousam; Kumar, Vinay; Lal, Hira

    2017-08-11

    Arterial aneurysms are more common than visceral venous aneurysms. Portal vein aneurysms being the most common type of visceral venous aneurysms. Here, we present an 18-year-old young woman with thalassaemia major, who presented with headache, palpitation, shortness of breath and a recent increase in blood transfusion rate. On clinical examination, she had hepatosplenomegaly. Ultrasonography revealed hepatosplenomegaly with fusiform dilatation of extrahepatic portal vein, which was confirmed to be portal vein aneurysm on contrast enhanced CT. Though portal vein aneurysms were previously thought to be rare, recently they are increasingly diagnosed with the use of cross-sectional imaging. Recognition of this finding can help to avoid potential confusion with other periportal cystic masses of different aetiologies, especially on sonography. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Abdominal collateral vein as an unconventional vascular access for hemodialysis in patient with central vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Stróżecki, Paweł; Flisiński, Mariusz; Serafin, Zbigniew; Wiechecka-Korenkiewicz, Joanna; Manitius, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old female patient with chronic kidney disease stage 5 and a history of spleen neoplasm with dissemination within peritoneum is presented. During 5 years of hemodialysis therapy, bilateral occlusion of brachiocephalic and iliac vein developed as a consequence of vein catheterization. An attempt to cannulate inferior vena cava was unsuccessful. A cannulation of dilated collateral abdominal veins with dialysis needles allowed to perform several hemodialysis sessions in the patient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography in suspected thrombo-occlusive disease of the central chest veins.

    PubMed

    Kroencke, T J; Taupitz, M; Arnold, R; Fritsche, L; Hamm, B

    2001-11-01

    To determine the usefulness of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the evaluation of central venous thrombo-occlusive disease of the chest. Prospective study. University hospital. Sixteen consecutive patients with clinically suspected thrombosis of the superior vena cava, subclavian, brachiocephalic/innominate, internal jugular, or axillary veins. Thirteen patients had a neoplasm, two patients had a connective tissue disease, and one patient had a history of strenuous exercise. Twelve of 16 patients had prior central venous catheter placement. MRI was correlated with color-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) in 7 of 16 patients, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 3 of 16 patients, and CT in 2 of 16 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRV was performed in a total of 20 examinations. A 3D data set (gradient echo; time to repeat, 4.6 ms; time to echo, 1.8 ms; flip angle, 30 degrees; time of acquisition, 23 s; 512 matrix/64 partitions; slice thickness, 1.5 mm) was acquired in the arterial and venous phase. Overall image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale. The presence, site, and extent of thrombus, as well as presence of an intravascular device, were determined. Overall image quality was rated very good (1 point) in 7 of 16 cases (44%) and good (2 points) in 9 of 16 cases (56%). Thrombus was detected in 16 of 16 patients, and complete extent of disease could be determined in 15 of 16 patients (94%). MRV did not miss any finding obtained by CCDS, DSA, or CT, and provided additional information in 6 of 16 examinations (38%). Contrast-enhanced MRV is a fast and reliable noninvasive procedure with excellent results regarding detection and determination of the extent of thrombo-occlusive disease of the chest veins.

  11. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona; Holmberg, Svante; Hallas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries. A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems widespread across the Nordic countries. Close to 80% of respondents were using it "almost always" or "frequently" across all paediatric age groups for internal jugular vein cannulation. US was least frequently used when catheterizing the subclavian vein. The two most common reasons given when not using US were lack of training followed by lack of equipment. We found no difference in the use of US between high-volume centres and low-volume centres. (High-volume centres placed paediatric CVCs at least weekly.). US was commonly used for cannulation of the internal jugular vein but infrequently for the subclavian vein. A lack of training seems to be a barrier for further increasing the use of US. Establishing standardized training programmes based on current evidence should alleviate this.

  12. Multimodal ultrasonographic assessment of leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein in a patient misdiagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Yan, Feng; Huang, Bin; Wu, Zhoupeng; Wen, Xiaorong

    2017-11-01

    Primary leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the vein is a rare tumor that arises from the smooth muscle cells of the vessel wall and has an extremely poor prognosis. This tumor can occur in vessels such as the inferior vena cava, great saphenous vein, femoral vein, iliac vein, popliteal vein, and renal vein; the inferior vena cava is the most common site. LMS of the femoral vein can result in edema and pain in the lower extremity; therefore, it is not easy to be differentiated from deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Moreover, virtually no studies have described the ultrasonographic features of LMS of the vein in detail. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with LMS of the left femoral vein that was misdiagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on initial ultrasonographic examination. The patient began to experience edema and pain in her left leg seven months previously. She was diagnosed as having DVT on initial ultrasonographic examination, but the DVT treatment that she had received for 7 months failed to improve the status of her left lower limb. She subsequently underwent re-examination by means of a multimodal ultrasonographic imaging approach (regular B-mode imaging, color Doppler imaging, pulsed-wave Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography), which confirmed a diagnosis of LMS. This patient was treated successfully with surgery. This case demonstrates that use of multiple ultrasonographic imaging techniques can be helpful to diagnose LMS accurately. Detection of vasculature in a dilated vein filled with a heterogeneous hypoechoic substance on ultrasonography is a sign of a tumor. The pitfall of misdiagnosing this tumor as DVT is a useful reminder.

  13. Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Robert H; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Lu, Yao; Gillies, George T; Durieux, Marcel E

    2011-06-01

    The arterial pulse oximeter, which was introduced clinically in the 1970s, is a convenient, useful, and now ubiquitous anesthesia monitor. Unfortunately, although percent saturation of arterial hemoglobin is, along with cardiac output and concentration of hemoglobin, one of 3 components of oxygen delivery, it does not indicate whether oxygen delivery to a region of interest is adequate. Knowledge of peripheral or regional venous oxygen saturation (Sxvo₂) may lend insight into analysis of regional oxygen supply and demand. Our goal was to assess the suitability of 3 anatomic sites for the transcutaneous assessment of Sxvo₂. Using a Nonin reflectance oximetry probe (provided by Nonin Medical, Plymouth, MN) placed directly over the antecubital, external jugular, and internal jugular veins in 10 volunteers, we measured the absorbance of red and infrared electromagnetic radiation. We performed fast Fourier transformation on these absorbance waveforms. The ratio of pulsatile absorbance of red and infrared radiation at different frequencies was compared with nonpulsatile absorption, and Sxvo₂ was calculated based on previously derived empiric correlations. Estimates of transcutaneous Sxvo₂ ranged from 41% to 97%, with mean values of 75%, 80%, and 80% at the antecubital, external jugular, and internal jugular veins, respectively. Overall, 93% of predicted Sxvo₂ values were < 90%. Validation and subsequent improvement of this technique requires correlation of our results with venous blood gas measurements, followed by incorporation of technologies from related fields in oximetry (fetal reflectance oximetry and near-infrared spectroscopy), as well as the development of advanced signal processing techniques.

  14. Management of Post-Traumatic Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens via Right-to-Left Femoral Vein to Femoral Vein Bypass (Palma Procedure).

    PubMed

    Dua, Anahita; Heller, Jennifer; Lee, Cheong

    2017-11-01

    Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare condition resulting from venous occlusion that impairs arterial flow. We report a rare case of post-traumatic PCD after ligation of the iliac vein with successful treatment by right-to-left femoral vein to femoral vein bypass using left great saphenous vein (Palma procedure). The clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and approach to management along with a literature review on the operative management of PCD are presented in this case report.

  15. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  16. Traumatic injury to the portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, K L; Espada, R; Beall, A R

    1975-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the upper abdominal vasculature pose difficult management problems related to both exposure and associated injuries. Among those injuries that are more difficult to manage are those involving the portal vein. While occurring rarely, portal vein injuries require specific therapeutic considerations. Between January, 1968, and July, 1974, over 2000 patients were treated operatively for abdominal trauma at the Ben Taub General Hospital. Among these patients, 22 had injury to the portal vein. Seventeen portal vein injuries were secondary to gunshot wounds, 3 to stab wounds, and 2 to blunt trauma. Associated injuries to the inferior vena cava, pancreas, liver and bile ducts were common. Three patients had associated abdominal aortic injuries, two with acute aorto-caval fistulae. Nine patients died from from failure to control hemorrhage. Eleven were long-term survivors, including two who required pancreataico-duodenectomy as well as portal venorrhaphy. Late complications were rare. The operative approach to patients with traumatic injuries to multiple organs in the upper abdomen, including the portal vein, requires aggressive management and predetermined sequential methods of repair. In spite of innumerable associated injuries, portal vein injuries can be successfully managed in a significant number of patients using generally available surgical techniques and several adjunctive maneuvers. PMID:1130870

  17. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4885 - External vein stripper.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External vein stripper. 870.4885 Section 870.4885...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4885 External vein stripper. (a) Identification. An external vein stripper is an extravascular device used to remove a section of...

  2. Infrared imaging of subcutaneous veins.

    PubMed

    Zharov, Vladimir P; Ferguson, Scott; Eidt, John F; Howard, Paul C; Fink, Louis M; Waner, Milton

    2004-01-01

    Imaging of subcutaneous veins is important in many applications, such as gaining venous access and vascular surgery. Despite a long history of medical infrared (IR) photography and imaging, this technique is not widely used for this purpose. Here we revisited and explored the capability of near-IR imaging to visualize subcutaneous structures, with a focus on diagnostics of superficial veins. An IR device comprising a head-mounted IR LED array (880 nm), a small conventional CCD camera (Toshiba Ik-mui, Tokyo, Japan), virtual-reality optics, polarizers, filters, and diffusers was used in vivo to obtain images of different subcutaneous structures. The same device was used to estimate the IR image quality as a function of wavelength produced by a tunable xenon lamp-based monochrometer in the range of 500-1,000 nm and continuous-wave Nd:YAG (1.06 microm) and diode (805 nm) lasers. The various modes of optical illumination were compared in vivo. Contrast of the IR images in the reflectance mode was measured in the near-IR spectral range of 650-1,060 nm. Using the LED array, various IR images were obtained in vivo, including images of vein structure in a pigmented, fatty forearm, varicose leg veins, and vascular lesions of the tongue. Imaging in the near-IR range (880-930 nm) provides relatively good contrast of subcutaneous veins, underscoring its value for diagnosis. This technique has the potential for the diagnosis of varicose veins with a diameter of 0.5-2 mm at a depth of 1-3 mm, guidance of venous access, podiatry, phlebotomy, injection sclerotherapy, and control of laser interstitial therapy. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  4. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  5. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  6. Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Finger vein verification is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification in terms of security and convenience. The recognition performance of this technology heavily relies on the quality of finger vein images and on the recognition algorithm. To achieve efficient recognition performance, a special finger vein imaging device is developed, and a finger vein recognition method based on sparse representation is proposed. The motivation for the proposed method is that finger vein images exhibit a sparse property. In the proposed system, the regions of interest (ROIs) in the finger vein images are segmented and enhanced. Sparse representation and sparsity preserving projection on ROIs are performed to obtain the features. Finally, the features are measured for recognition. An equal error rate of 0.017% was achieved based on the finger vein image database, which contains images that were captured by using the near-IR imaging device that was developed in this study. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more robust than previous methods.

  7. Evaluating the effects of protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine production in porcine experimental postoperative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Jesper; Lipcsey, Miklós; Larsson, Anders; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2015-05-10

    Protective ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) and higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces the negative additive effects of mechanical ventilation during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We hypothesised that protective ventilation during surgery would affect the organ-specific immune response in an experimental animal model of endotoxin-induced sepsis-like syndrome. 30 pigs were laparotomised for 2 hours (h), after which a continuous endotoxin infusion was started at 0.25 micrograms × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 5 h. Catheters were placed in the carotid artery, hepatic vein, portal vein and jugular bulb. Animals were randomised to two protective ventilation groups (n = 10 each): one group was ventilated with VT 6 mL × kg(-1) during the whole experiment while the other group was ventilated during the surgical phase with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1). In both groups PEEP was 5 cmH2O during surgery and increased to 10 cmH2O at the start of endotoxin infusion. A control group (n = 10) was ventilated with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1) and PEEP 5 cm H20 throughout the experiment. In four sample locations we a) simultaneously compared cytokine levels, b) studied the effect of protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia and c) evaluated protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine levels. TNF-alpha levels were highest in the hepatic vein, IL-6 levels highest in the artery and jugular bulb and IL-10 levels lowest in the artery. Protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia did not differ in organ-specific cytokine levels. Protective ventilation led to lower levels of TNF-alpha in the hepatic vein compared with the control group, whereas no significant differences were seen in the artery, portal vein or jugular bulb. Variation between organs in cytokine output was observed during experimental sepsis. We see no implication from cytokine levels for initiating protective ventilation before endotoxemia. However, during endotoxemia

  8. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  9. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  10. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in chronic granulomatous disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Meher-Homji, Zaal; Mangalore, Rekha Pai; D R Johnson, Paul; Y L Chua, Kyra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic human pathogen, associated with significant mortality, and has been reported in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a genetic condition causing impaired phagocytosis. Case presentation. A 28-year-old man with a history of CGD presented with fever, pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy and internal jugular vein thrombosis, following travel to the rural Solomon Islands. C. violaceum was recovered from his blood. The patient recovered after treatment with meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis (Lemierre's syndrome) caused by C. violaceum in a patient with CGD. A review of the literature demonstrated that the diagnosis of C. violaceum preceded the diagnosis of CGD in the majority of cases. This case emphasizes the importance of this organism in patients with CGD who live in or visit tropical areas.

  11. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in chronic granulomatous disease: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mangalore, Rekha Pai; D. R. Johnson, Paul; Y. L. Chua, Kyra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic human pathogen, associated with significant mortality, and has been reported in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a genetic condition causing impaired phagocytosis. Case presentation. A 28-year-old man with a history of CGD presented with fever, pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy and internal jugular vein thrombosis, following travel to the rural Solomon Islands. C. violaceum was recovered from his blood. The patient recovered after treatment with meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis (Lemierre’s syndrome) caused by C. violaceum in a patient with CGD. A review of the literature demonstrated that the diagnosis of C. violaceum preceded the diagnosis of CGD in the majority of cases. This case emphasizes the importance of this organism in patients with CGD who live in or visit tropical areas. PMID:28348801

  12. Clival osteomyelitis and hypoglossal nerve palsy--rare complications of Lemierre's syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Jingzhou; Lam, Jonathan Chun Leuk; Adlan, Tarig

    2015-08-30

    An increasingly reported entity, Lemierre's syndrome classically presents with a recent oropharyngeal infection, internal jugular vein thrombosis and the presence of anaerobic organisms such as Fusobacterium necrophorum. The authors report a normally fit and well 17-year-old boy who presented with severe sepsis following a 5-day history of a sore throat, myalgia and neck stiffness requiring intensive care admission. Blood cultures grew F. necrophorum and radiological investigations demonstrated left internal jugular vein, cavernous sinus and sigmoid sinus thrombus, left vertebral artery dissection and thrombus within the left internal carotid artery. Imaging also revealed two areas of acute ischaemia in the brain, consistent with septic emboli, skull base (clival) osteomyelitis and an extensive epidural abscess. The patient improved on meropenem and metronidazole and was warfarinised for his cavernous sinus thrombosis. He has an on-going left-sided hypoglossal (XIIth) nerve palsy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Portal Vein Stenting to Treat Portal Vein Stenosis in a Patient With Malignant Tumor and Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Katsunobu; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Akira; Nishida, Norifumi; Matsutani, Shinya; Hirata, Keiichiro; Kimura, Kenjiro; Muguruma, Kazuya; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Masakazu; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the successful use of portal venous stent placement for a patient with recurrent melena secondary to jejunal varices that developed after subtotal stomach preserved pancreatoduodenectomy (SSPPD). A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with tarry stool and severe anemia at 2 years after SSPPD for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography examination showed severe stenosis of the extrahepatic portal vein caused by local recurrence and showed an intensely enhanced jejunal wall at the choledochojejunostomy. Gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy also revealed active bleeding near the choledochojejunostomy. Based on these findings, jejunal varices resulting from portal vein stenosis were suspected as the cause of the melena. Portal vein stenting and balloon dilation was performed via the ileocecal vein after laparotomy. Coiling of the jejunal varices and sclerotherapy of the dilate postgastric vein with 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol was performed. After portal stent placement, the patient was able to lead a normal life without gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, he died 7 months later due to liver metastasis. PMID:24444277

  14. The level of awareness and the attitude of patients recommended for use of compression stockings in Turkish society, and investigation of the factors affecting their use.

    PubMed

    Manduz, Şinasi; Ada, Fatih; Ada, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the treatment outlook, usage habits, and factors affecting these habits, in addition to providing suggestions for solutions for patients who are frequently recommended the use of compression stockings as treatment for conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema, and pregnancy. The study was conducted as a face-to-face questionnaire session with 1,004 patients who had previously registered at the cardiovascular surgeon's polyclinic of Sivas Numune Hospital between March 29, 2017, and October 31, 2017. In the study, basic criteria such as the patients' history, physical examination findings, and the use of compression stockings were evaluated. The survey was conducted in patients who were recommended compression stockings treatment for conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema, or pregnancy. The patients were asked about their demographics, characteristics of the compression stockings, whether compression stockings were used or not, and doctor evaluations related to the diagnosis. At the end of the study, it was found that 20.5% of the patients who were recommended compression stockings never bought them and only 11.5% of the patients regularly used them. Another surprising detail was that only 54.7% of the patients thought that the compression stockings were part of the treatment and 44.0% of the patients thought that they would benefit from using them. In many guidelines, use of compression stockings is the cornerstone of treatment of venous diseases. However, when the treatment incompatibility of the patients is taken into account, many duties fall to the doctors. The first of these is to inform the patient about the treatment and to answer any questions from the patients. In addition, the socioeconomic and sociocultural status of patients should be considered by the doctors.

  15. The level of awareness and the attitude of patients recommended for use of compression stockings in Turkish society, and investigation of the factors affecting their use

    PubMed Central

    Manduz, Şinasi; Ada, Fatih; Ada, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to reveal the treatment outlook, usage habits, and factors affecting these habits, in addition to providing suggestions for solutions for patients who are frequently recommended the use of compression stockings as treatment for conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema, and pregnancy. Methods The study was conducted as a face-to-face questionnaire session with 1,004 patients who had previously registered at the cardiovascular surgeon’s polyclinic of Sivas Numune Hospital between March 29, 2017, and October 31, 2017. In the study, basic criteria such as the patients’ history, physical examination findings, and the use of compression stockings were evaluated. The survey was conducted in patients who were recommended compression stockings treatment for conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, lymphedema, or pregnancy. The patients were asked about their demographics, characteristics of the compression stockings, whether compression stockings were used or not, and doctor evaluations related to the diagnosis. Results At the end of the study, it was found that 20.5% of the patients who were recommended compression stockings never bought them and only 11.5% of the patients regularly used them. Another surprising detail was that only 54.7% of the patients thought that the compression stockings were part of the treatment and 44.0% of the patients thought that they would benefit from using them. Conclusion In many guidelines, use of compression stockings is the cornerstone of treatment of venous diseases. However, when the treatment incompatibility of the patients is taken into account, many duties fall to the doctors. The first of these is to inform the patient about the treatment and to answer any questions from the patients. In addition, the socioeconomic and sociocultural status of patients should be considered by the doctors. PMID:29588577

  16. Is localised dehydration and vein generation the tremor-generating mechanism in subduction zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Ake; Meneghini, Francesca; Diener, Johann; Harris, Chris

    2017-04-01

    The phenomena of tectonic, non-volcanic, tremor was first discovered at the down-dip end of the seismogenic zone in Japan early this millennium. Now this low amplitude, low frequency, noise-like seismic signal has been observed at and/or below the deep limit of interseismic coupling along most well-instrumented subduction thrust interfaces. Data and models from these examples suggest a link between tremor and areas of elevated fluid pressure, or at least fluid presence. Tremor locations appear to also correlate with margin-specific locations of metamorphic fluid release, determined by composition and thermal structure. We therefore hypothesise that: (i) tremor on the deep subduction thrust interface is related to localised fluid release; and (ii) accretionary complex rocks exhumed from appropriate pressure - temperature conditions should include a record of this process, and allow a test for the hypothesis. Hydrothermal veins are a record of mineral precipitation at non-equilibrium conditions, commonly caused by fracture, fluid influx, and precipitation of dissolved minerals from this fluid. Quartz veins are ubiquitous in several accretionary complexes, including the Chrystalls Beach Complex, New Zealand, and the Kuiseb Schist of the Namibian Damara Belt. In both locations, representing temperatures of deformation of < 300 and < 600 °C respectively, there are networks of foliation-parallel and oblique veins, which developed incrementally and record a combination of shear and dilation. Required to have formed at differential stresses less than four times the tensile strength, and at fluid pressures exceeding the least compressive stress, these veins are consistent with tremorgenic conditions of low effective stress and mixed-mode deformation kinematically in agreement with shear on the plate interface. We have analysed the oxygen isotope composition of syntectonic quartz veins in both Chrystalls Beach Complex and Kuiseb Schist accretionary complexes, to unravel the

  17. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. [Diagnosis and management of pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Wuqing; Dai, Chunfu; Chen, Liang

    2010-03-01

    To discuss the diagnosis and management of pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin. A retrospective study was conducted on 12 patients who were diagnosed with pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin and treated with ligation of internal jugular veins. We reevaluated the evidences of identifying pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin and reviewed the short-term and long-term postoperative effects and complications. We also reviewed associated articles in this report. Seven patients got relief of tinnitus in less than one week after the surgery, while the other 5 patients had no relief. Seven patients were inquired in this study and the other five lost to follow-up. According to the long review (from one to five years postoperatively), two patients who acquired immediate effect got relief of tinnitus, four including complained of no relief and the seventh aggravated into roaring. Three patients who got no immediate relief got no improvement at all. No one in our review complained of any complications. It's assumed that a history of pulsatile tinnitus, alleviation of tinnitus when pressing jugular veins, tinnitus changing with head position or posture and no occupying lesion in temporal CT scan or cranial MRI are inadequate in diagnosing pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin. Vascular imaging is also necessary to exclude other pathological changes like dura arteriovenous fistula, sigmoid diverticulum and so on. CT arteriography and venography are recommended preferentially. Ligation of internal jugular veins is controversial in patients who have no absence of transverse and sigmoid sinus and identified as pulsatile tinnitus of venous origin.

  19. One should avoid retro-orbital pharmacokinetic sample collections for intranasal dosing in rats: Illustration of spurious pharmacokinetics generated for anti-migraine drugs zolmitriptan and eletriptan.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Shah, Shaival; Ghoghari, Ashok; Variya, Bhavesh; Laddha, Ritu; Baradia, Dipesh; Dobaria, Nitin; Mehta, Pavak; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-08-30

    Because of the avoidance of first pass metabolic effects due to direct and rapid absorption with improved permeability, intranasal route represents a good alternative for extravascular drug administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the intranasal pharmacokinetics of two anti-migraine drugs (zolmitriptan and eletriptan), using retro-orbital sinus and jugular vein sites sampling. In a parallel study design, healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged between 8 and 12weeks were divided into groups (n=4 or 5/group). The animals of individual groups were dosed intranasal (~1.0mg/kg) and oral doses of 2.1mg/kg of either zolmitriptan or eletriptan. Serial blood sampling was performed from jugular vein or retro-orbital site and plasma samples were analyzed for drug concentrations using LC-MS/MS assay. Standard pharmacokinetics parameters such as T max , C max , AUC last , AUC 0-inf and T 1/2 were calculated and statistics of derived parameters was performed using unpaired t-test. After intranasal dosing, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters C max and AUC inf of zolmitriptan/eletriptan showed about 17-fold and 3-5-fold higher values for retro-orbital sampling as compared to the jugular vein sampling site. Whereas after oral administration such parameters derived for both drugs were largely comparable between the two sampling sites and statistically non-significant. In conclusion, the assessment of plasma levels after intranasal administration with retro-orbital sampling would result in spurious and misleading pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Injection of Light Material into an Older Dark Vein

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-11

    Light material emplaced within darker vein material is seen in this view of a mineral vein at the "Garden City" site on lower Mount Sharp, Mars. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on the arm of NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover took the image on April 4, 2015, during the 946th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The area shown is roughly 0.4 inch (1 centimeter) wide. Differences in textures of light-toned veins in the Garden City complex of crisscrossing mineral veins are clues that these veins may result from distinct fluid events. This example shows where injection of light material into a prior dark vein suggests high fluid pressure. Differences in textures of light-toned veins in the Garden City complex of crisscrossing mineral veins are clues that these veins may result from distinct fluid events. This vein's texture shows indications of crystal growth, suggesting that crystallization may have exerted a force for opening the fracture filled by the vein. Different examples are at PIA19925 and PIA19927. Mineral veins often form where fluids move through fractured rocks, depositing minerals in the fractures and affecting chemistry of the surrounding rock. At Garden City, the veins have been more resistant to erosion than the surrounding host rock. The fluid movement through fractures at Garden City occurred later than wet environmental conditions in which the host rock formed, before it hardened and cracked. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates MAHLI. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19926

  1. Efficacy in Deep Vein Thrombosis Prevention With Extended Mechanical Compression Device Therapy and Prophylactic Aspirin Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Mark A; Sympson, Alexandra N; Scheuerman, Christina M; Gregg, Justin L; Hussain, Lala R

    2017-05-01

    Aspirin at 325 mg twice daily is now included as a nationally approved venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis protocol for low-risk total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurrence after a limited tourniquet TKA using aspirin-based prophylaxis with or without extended use of mechanical compression device (MCD) therapy. One hundred limited tourniquet TKA patients, whose DVT risk was managed with aspirin 325 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, were randomized to either using an MCD during hospitalization only or extended use at home up to 6 weeks postoperatively. Lower extremity duplex venous ultrasonography (LEDVU) was completed on the second postoperative day, 14 days postoperatively, and at 3 months postoperatively to confirm the absence of DVT after treatment. The DVT rate for the postdischarge MCD therapy group was 0% and 23.1% for the inpatient MCD group (P < .001). All DVTs resolved by 3 months postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was 9.56 (±0.82) for postdischarge MCD patients vs 8.50 (±1.46) for inpatient MCD patients (P < .001). Limited tourniquet TKA patients who were mobilized early, managed with aspirin for 3 weeks postoperatively, and on MCD therapy for up to 6 weeks postoperatively experienced superior DVT prophylaxis than patients receiving MCD therapy only as an inpatient (P < .05). The 0% incidence of nonsymptomatic DVTs prevented by aspirin and extended-use MCD further validates this type of prophylaxis in low DVT risk TKA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The surgical treatment of ilio-femoral venous obstruction.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Mancini, P; Papaspyropoulos, V; Ceccanei, G; Lorusso, R; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    A series of 9 patients of a mean age of 48 years, operated on for compression of the ilio-femoral venous axis is reported. The cause of obstruction was external compression in 3 cases, a retroperitoneal sarcoma in 1 case, and an infrarenal aortic aneurysm in 2. Two patients presented with a Cockett's syndrome, 3 with a chronic ilio-femoral thrombosis, and one with a post-traumatic segmentary stenosis. Treatment consisted in a resection/Dacron grafting of 2 infrarenal aortic aneurysms, one femoro-caval bypass graft, 2 transpositions of the right common iliac artery in the left hypogastric artery for Cockett's syndrome, 3 Palma's operations for chronic thrombosis, and one internal jugular vein interposition for segmentary stenosis. There were no postoperative deaths and no early thromboses of venous reconstructions performed. All the patients were relieved of symptoms during the follow-up period, whose mean length was 38 months. The cause of venous obstruction and the presence of symptoms which are resistant to medical treatment are the main indications to ilio-femoral venous revascularization. The choice of the optimal treatment in each single case yields satisfactory results.

  3. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  4. Close-up View of Homestake Vein

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This close-up view of a mineral vein called Homestake comes from the microscopic imager on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity; the vein is found to be rich in calcium and sulfur, possibly the calcium-sulfate mineral gypsum.

  5. Towards the development of active compression bandages using dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourazadi, S.; Ahmadi, S.; Menon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Disorders associated with the lower extremity venous system are common and significantly affect the quality of life of a large number of individuals. These disorders include orthostatic hypotension, oedema, deep vein thrombosis and a number of other conditions related to insufficient venous blood return. The common recommended treatment for these disorders is the use of hosiery compression stockings. In this research, an active compression bandage (ACB) based on the technology of dielectric elastomeric actuators (DEA) was designed, prototyped and tested. A customized calf prototype (CP) was developed to measure the pressure applied by the ACB. Experimental results performed with the CP showed that the pressure applied by the ACB could be electrically controlled to be either below or above the pressure exerted by commercially available compression stockings. An analytical model was used to provide the design criteria. A finite element model (FEM) was also developed to simulate the electromechanical behaviour of the DEA. Comparison of the experimental results with the FEM and analytical models showed that the modelling could accurately predict the behaviour of the ACB. The FEM was subsequently used to study how to improve the ACB performance by varying geometrical parameters such as the ACB thickness.

  6. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  7. MDCT Venography Evaluation of a Rare Collateral Vein Draining from the Left Subclavian Vein to the Great Cardiac Vein

    PubMed Central

    Abchee, Antoine; Saade, Charbel; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies of the venous drainage in the chest affect both cardiac and non-cardiac structures. Collateral venous drainage from the left subclavian vein to the great cardiac vein is a rare venous drainage pattern. These anomalies present a diagnostic challenge. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of these clinically complex disorders. We present a case report of an 18-year-old Caucasian male who came to our institute for evaluation of venous drainage patterns to the heart. We describe the contrast technique of bilateral dual injection MDCT venography and the imaging features of the venous drainage patterns to the heart. PMID:25379351

  8. MDCT Venography Evaluation of a Rare Collateral Vein Draining from the Left Subclavian Vein to the Great Cardiac Vein.

    PubMed

    Abchee, Antoine; Saade, Charbel; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies of the venous drainage in the chest affect both cardiac and non-cardiac structures. Collateral venous drainage from the left subclavian vein to the great cardiac vein is a rare venous drainage pattern. These anomalies present a diagnostic challenge. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is useful in the diagnosis and treatment planning of these clinically complex disorders. We present a case report of an 18-year-old Caucasian male who came to our institute for evaluation of venous drainage patterns to the heart. We describe the contrast technique of bilateral dual injection MDCT venography and the imaging features of the venous drainage patterns to the heart.

  9. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging of the evolution of acute deep vein thrombosis of the leg.

    PubMed

    Westerbeek, R E; Van Rooden, C J; Tan, M; Van Gils, A P G; Kok, S; De Bats, M J; De Roos, A; Huisman, M V

    2008-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relevant to avoid improper diagnosis and unnecessary life-long anticoagulant treatment. Compression ultrasound has high accuracy for a first episode of DVT, but is often unreliable in suspected recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MR DTI) has been shown to accurately detect acute DVT. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the MR signal change during 6 months follow-up in patients with acute DVT. This study was a prospective study of 43 consecutive patients with a first episode of acute DVT demonstrated by compression ultrasound. All patients underwent MR DTI. Follow-up was performed with MR-DTI and compression ultrasound at 3 and 6 months respectively. All data were coded, stored and assessed by two blinded observers. MR direct thrombus imaging identified acute DVT in 41 of 43 patients (sensitivity 95%). There was no abnormal MR-signal in controls, or in the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT (specificity 100%). In none of the 39 patients available at 6 months follow-up was the abnormal MR-signal at the initial acute DVT observed, whereas in 12 of these patients (30.8%) compression ultrasound was still abnormal. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging normalizes over a period of 6 months in all patients with diagnosed DVT, while compression ultrasound remains abnormal in a third of these patients. MR-DTI may potentially allow for accurate detection in patients with acute suspected recurrent DVT, and this should be studied prospectively.

  10. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  11. Numerical modelling of the formation of fibrous bedding-parallel veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Bedding-parallel veins with a fibrous infill oriented orthogonal to the vein wall, are often observed in fine-grained metasedimentary sequences. Several mechanisms have been proposed for their formation, mostly with respect to effects of fluid overpressures and anisotropy of the host-rock fabric in order to explain the inferred extensional failure with sub-vertical opening. Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in Zambia. The goal of this study is to better understand the formation mechanisms of these veins and to explain their particular spatial and thickness distribution, with respect to failure of transversely isotropic rocks. The spatial distribution and thickness variation of these veins was quantified during a field campaign in thirteen line transects perpendicular to undeformed veins in underground crosscuts. The fibrous dolomite veins studied are not related to lithological contrasts, but to a strong bedding-parallel shaly fabric, typical for the black shale facies of the Copperbelt Orebody Member. The host rock can hence be considered as transversely isotropic. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. A microstructural fabric study reveals that the undeformed dolomite veins show low-tortuosity vein walls and quantifiable growth competition. Here, we use a Discrete Element Method numerical modelling approach with ESyS-Particle (http://launchpad.net/esys-particle) to simulate the observed properties of the veins. Calibrated numerical specimens with a transversely isotropic matrix are repeatedly brought to failure under constant strain rates by changing the effective strain rates at model boundaries. After each fracture event, fractures in the numerical model are filled with cohesive vein material and the experiment is repeated. By systematically varying

  12. The Pitfalls and Important Distances in Temporal Bone HRCT of the Subjects with High Jugular Bulbs - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Inal, Mikail; Muluk, Nuray B; Dağ, Ersel; Arıkan, Osman K; Kara, Simay A

    2015-01-01

    High jugular bulb (HJB) may be detected unilaterally or bilaterally in temporal bone high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). In this retrospective study, we investigated the pitfalls and important surgical distances in patients with unilateral and bilateral HJB via temporal bone HRCT. In this preliminary report, the study group consisted of 20 adult patients (12 male, 8 female), or 40 ears, all of which underwent temporal bone HRCT. We divided them into groups that consisted of bilateral HJB (14 ears), unilateral HJB (13 ears), and control (No HJB, 13 ears). The anotomical relationships of the sigmoid sinus, jugular bulb, and carotid artery with several landmarks in the temporal bone were studied via temporal bone axial and coronal HRCT. The shortest distances between certain points were measured. These measurements were analyzed in respect to pneumatization. Dehiscence on the jugular bulb (JB) and internal carotid artery (ICA) and the dominance of JB were also evaluated for all of the groups. In the axial sections of the temporal bone HRCTs, the sigmois sinus (SS)-external auditory canal (EAC) distance of the bilateral HJB group (14.00±1.17 mm) was significantly lower than that of the control group (16.46±2.14 mm). The JB-posteromedial points of the umbo on the ear drum (ED) distance of the bilateral HJB (6.28±1.72 mm) and the unilateral HJB groups (7.23±2.00 mm) were significantly lower than that of the control group (11.15±2.30 mm). In the coronal sections of the temporal bone HRCT, the JB-F distance of the bilateral HJB group (5.42±2.10 mm) was significantly lower than that of the control group (8.30±2.28 mm). As the mastoid pneumatisation and mastoid volume increased, the percentage of ICA-dehiscence and the percentage of JB-dehiscence increased. In subjects with well-pneumatised mastoids, the doctors should be aware of the increased risk of ICA-dehiscence and JB-dehiscence. These measurements should be done in greater series to yield more

  13. [Portal vein thrombosis associated with hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Iwatani, Nao; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Yonehara, Toshiro; Fujioka, Shodo; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Uchino, Makoto

    2005-03-01

    A 54-year-old man who had been administered chlormadinone acetate 3 months after prostatectomy for prostate cancer, acutely developed disorientation and memory disturbance. Six days later, he experienced high grade fever and epigastralgia. He was suspected to have hepatic encephalopathy, because the Fischer ratio was low although serum ammonia level remained normal. Further examinations including abdominal echography and CT scan disclosed a thrombus extending from the portal vein to the superior mesenteric vein together with abnormal collateral vessels originating from the portal vein. He was successfully treated with warfarin potassium, urokinase and heparin sodium. It was suggested that the patient developed hepatic encephalopathy due to portal-systemic circulation shunting secondary to portal vein thrombosis.

  14. Disposition of flavonoids via recycling: Direct biliary excretion of enterically or extrahepatically derived flavonoid glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Min; Sun, Rongjin; Basu, Sumit; Ma, Yong; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Enterohepatic recycling is often thought to involve mostly phase II metabolites generated in the liver. This study aims to determine if direct biliary excretion of extrahepatically generated glucuronides would also enable recycling. Conventional and modified intestinal perfusion models along with intestinal and liver microsomes were used to determine the contribution of extrahepatically derived glucuronides. Glucuronidation of four flavonoids (genistein, biochanin A, apigenin, and chrysin at 2.5-20 μM) were generally more rapid in the hepatic than intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, when aglycones (at 10 μM each) were perfused, larger (1.7-9 fold) amounts of glucuronides were found in the bile than in the luminal perfusate. However, higher concentrations of glucuronides were not found in jugular vein than portal vein, and apigenin glucuronide actually displayed a significantly lower concentration in jugular vein (<1 nM) than portal vein (≈4 nM). A direct portal infusion of four flavonoid glucuronides (5.9-10.4 μM perfused at 2 mL/h) showed that the vast majority (>65%) of the glucuronides (except for biochanin A glucuronide) administered were efficiently excreted into the bile. Direct biliary excretion of extrahepatically generated flavonoid glucuronides is a highly efficient clearance mechanism, which should enable enterohepatic recycling of flavonoids without hepatic conjugating enzymes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reed, Richard A.; Teitelbaum, George P.; Stanley, Philip

    Purpose: To report our experience with inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in pediatric patients. Methods: Over a 19-month period, eight low-profile percutaneously introducible IVC filters were placed in four male and four female patients aged 6-16 years (mean 11 years). Indications were contraindication to heparin in six patients, anticoagulation failure in one, and idiopathic infrarenal IVC thrombosis in one. Six of the eight devices placed were titanium Greenfield filters. One LGM and one Bird's Nest filter were also placed. Two of the filters were introduced via the right internal jugular vein by cutdown, and the remainder were placed percutaneously viamore » the right internal jugular vein or the right common femoral vein. Patients received follow-up abdominal radiographs from 2 to 13 months after IVC filter placement. Results: All filters were inserted successfully without complication. Three of the patients died during the follow-up period: two due to underlying brain tumors at 2 and 12 months and a third at 6 weeks due to progressive idiopathic renal vein and IVC thrombosis. The remaining five patients were all alive and well at follow-up without evidence of IVC thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, or filter migration. Conclusion: IVC filter placement using available devices for percutaneous delivery is technically feasible, safe, and effective in children.« less

  16. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  17. [Sepsis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum (Lemierre syndrome): a rare complication of acute pharyngotonsilitis].

    PubMed

    Perović, Marta; Maretić, Tomislav; Begovac, Josip

    2006-12-01

    Lemierre syndrome is defined as an acute pharyngotonsillar infection that has spread into the lateral pharyngeal space causing thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein with consecutive metastatic emboli. The syndrome is most often caused by Fusobacterium (F.) necrophorum and usually involves young, previously healthy people. We present a healthy 20-year-old man who suddenly developed with high fever and sore throat followed by dyspnea, tachypnea and cough on the third day of illness. His condition worsened despite outpatient intramuscular penicillin therapy (1600 000 IU/day). He was admitted to Dr. Fran Mihaljević University Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Zagreb, on the sixth day of his illness with clinical signs of sepsis. Chest radiograph showed bilateral multiple infiltrates. F. necrophorum was isolated from blood culture. Swelling of the neck was also observed on the fourteenth day of illness, however, thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein was not diagnosed on ultrasound examination. The patient was treated with clindamycin for five weeks and recovered completely.

  18. A peculiar case of suicide enacted through the ancient Japanese ritual of Jigai.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; dell'Aquila, Massimiliano; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    In the past, self-infliction of sharp force was a classic form of suicide, while in modern times it is quite rare, constituting only 2% to 3% of all self-inflicted deaths. In Japan, the jigai (Japanese characters: see text) ritual is a traditional method of female suicide, carried out by cutting the jugular vein using a knife called a tantō. The jigai ritual is the feminine counterpart of seppuku (well-known as harakiri), the ritual suicide of samurai warriors, which was carried out by a deep slash into the abdomen. In contrast to seppuku, jigai can be performed without assistance, which was fundamental for seppuku.The case we describe here involves an unusual case of suicide in which the victim was a male devotee of Japanese culture and weapons. He was found dead in his bathtub with a deep slash in the right lateral-cervical area, having cut only the internal jugular vein with a tantō knife, exactly as specified by the jigai ritual.

  19. Comparison of two blood sampling techniques for the determination of coagulation parameters in the horse: Jugular venipuncture and indwelling intravenous catheter.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C J; McGowan, C M; Pinchbeck, G; Carslake, H B

    2018-05-01

    Evaluation of coagulation status is an important component of critical care. Ongoing monitoring of coagulation status in hospitalised horses has previously been via serial venipuncture due to concerns that sampling directly from the intravenous catheter (IVC) may alter the accuracy of the results. Adverse effects such as patient anxiety and trauma to the sampled vessel could be avoided by the use of an indwelling IVC for repeat blood sampling. To compare coagulation parameters from blood obtained by jugular venipuncture with IVC sampling in critically ill horses. Prospective observational study. A single set of paired blood samples were obtained from horses (n = 55) admitted to an intensive care unit by direct jugular venipuncture and, following removal of a presample, via an indwelling IVC. The following coagulation parameters were measured on venipuncture and IVC samples: whole blood prothrombin time (PT), fresh plasma PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and stored plasma antithrombin activity (AT) and fibrinogen concentration. D-dimer concentration was also measured in some horses (n = 22). Comparison of venipuncture and IVC results was performed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Agreement between paired results was assessed using Bland Altman analysis. Correlation was substantial and agreement was good between sample methods for all parameters except AT and D-dimers. Each coagulation parameter was tested using only one assay. Sampling was limited to a convenience sample and timing of sample collection was not standardised in relation to when the catheter was flushed with heparinised saline. With the exception of AT and D-dimers, coagulation parameters measured on blood samples obtained via an IVC have clinically equivalent values to those obtained by jugular venipuncture. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  20. phenoVein—A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software. PMID:26468519

  1. Colour Doppler ultrasound in preoperative assessment of the neck vessels in patients with tumours of the oral cavity and the neck region.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, Aleksander; Wilk, Grazyna; Mokrzyński, Stanisław; Dul, Przemysław; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Huzarski, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Robert

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the study was not only to establish the applicability of color Doppler ultrasound of the neck vessels in patients with tumors of the oral cavity and the neck region but also to check whether the coexistence of sclerotic changes in the carotid arteries is essential in determination of the sequence of surgical procedure. Color Doppler ultrasound was performed on 110 patients, aged 15 -71 years with tumors of the oral cavity and the neck. The localization, size, echogenicity, as well as the tumor relationship to the surrounding structures and big vessels of the neck region was analyzed. Compression of the veins was observed in 27 cases, and of the arteries only in 20 cases. Infiltration of the jugular vein was observed in 8 patients, whereas infiltration of the carotid artery were seen only in 6 patients. Severe internal carotid artery stenosis, due to arteriosclerosis, was observed in 10 patients. Three persons were suggested to be operated on, first due to carotid artery stenosis, later on, due to the oral cavity tumor. It was found that color Doppler ultrasound is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment, while the examination of the neck vessels is helpful in establishing the sequence of surgical procedures in patients with tumors and coexisting arteriosclerosis.

  2. Veins in the northern part of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinckney, D.M.

    1965-01-01

    About 20 miles north of Butte and extending nearly to Helena, is an area of 350 square miles containing hundreds of veins and altered zones. The bedrock of the area is 1) late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, forerunners of the Boulder batholith, 2) the Boulder batholith of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age and 3) two groups of Tertiary volcanic rocks lying on the eroded batholith. The veins are post-batholith and pre-Tertiary in age. The veins are largely either quartz-sulfide veins of mesothermal type or chalcedony veins of epithermal type. The relations of these two types of veins have been the subject of conflicting ideas for 60 years. Three workers have proposed three different genetic classifications. This report shows that the quartz veins and the chalcedony veins are closely related parts of a strongly zoned hypogene vein system. Strong zonal patterns were established using the grain size of quartz (or pyrite vs. carbonate in one district) as well as features of the altered rocks. The scale of the zoning ranges from single veins through groups of veins or mining districts to the entire mineralized area. Single veins are zoned around a core of coarse-grained quartz; the quartz outward from the core becoming progressively finer-grained. The cores are zoned around eight major centers and several lesser ones. The centers and their nearby related veins are assigned to central, intermediate, and peripheral zones. Nearly all of the veins around the edge of the mineralized area are chalcedony. Envelopes of altered rocks consist of seven major bands representing three major groups of constituents, aluminum silicates, iron-bearing minerals, and silica. Plagioclase altered successively to montomorillite, kaolinite, and sericite; potassium feldspar altered to sericite (aluminum silicate group). Biotite released iron which formed successively, iron oxides, iron-bearing carbonate, and pyrite (iron-bearing minerals). Excess silica formed silicified bands. Constituents for

  3. Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atin; Kumar, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2008-09-01

    We present the case of a 24-year-old man who was incidentally diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt with portal vein aneurysm during an investigation for non-specific abdominal pain. These are rare anomalies, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported with both anomalies associated together. Ultrasound, including color Doppler, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed which revealed a side-to-side shunt between the extrahepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava, with aneurysmal fusiform dilatation of the proximal intrahepatic portal vein which ended abruptly. Etiology, clinical significance, and management strategies with regard to these abnormalities are discussed.

  4. DNABIT Compress – Genome compression algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, “DNABIT Compress” for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that “DNABIT Compress” algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases. PMID:21383923

  5. Portal vein aneurysm: What to know.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Andrea; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Lionetti, Raffaella; Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Colasanti, Marco; Vennarecci, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysm is an unusual vascular dilatation of the portal vein, which was first described by Barzilai and Kleckner in 1956 and since then less than 200 cases have been reported. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the international literature to better clarify various aspects of this rare nosological entity and provide clear evidence-based summary, when available, of the clinical and surgical management. A systematic literature search of the Pubmed database was performed for all articles related to portal vein aneurysm. All articles published from 1956 to 2014 were examined for a total of 96 reports, including 190 patients. Portal vein aneurysm is defined as a portal vein diameter exceeding 1.9 cm in cirrhotic patients and 1.5 cm in normal livers. It can be congenital or acquired and portal hypertension represents the main cause of the acquired version. Surgical indication is considered in case of rupture, thrombosis or symptomatic aneurysms. Aneurysmectomy and aneurysmorrhaphy are considered in patients with normal liver, while shunt procedures or liver transplantation are the treatment of choice in case of portal hypertension. Being such a rare vascular entity its management should be reserved to high-volume tertiary hepato-biliary centres. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finger-Vein Verification Based on Multi-Features Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huafeng; Qin, Lan; Xue, Lian; He, Xiping; Yu, Chengbo; Liang, Xinyuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new scheme to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems. Firstly, a vein pattern extraction method to extract the finger-vein shape and orientation features is proposed. Secondly, to accommodate the potential local and global variations at the same time, a region-based matching scheme is investigated by employing the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) matching method. Finally, the finger-vein shape, orientation and SIFT features are combined to further enhance the performance. The experimental results on databases of 426 and 170 fingers demonstrate the consistent superiority of the proposed approach. PMID:24196433

  7. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis.

  8. Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Pürerfellner, Helmut; Martinek, Martin

    2005-11-01

    This review provides an update on the mechanisms, incidence, and current management of significant pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation involving the pulmonary veins and the surrounding left atrial tissue is increasingly used to treat atrial fibrillation. In parallel with the fact that these procedures may cure a substantial proportion of patients, severe complications have been observed. Pulmonary vein stenosis is a new clinical entity produced by radiofrequency energy delivery mainly within or at the orifice of the pulmonary veins. The exact incidence is currently unknown because the diagnosis is dependent on the imaging modality and on the rigor with which patients are followed up. The optimal method for screening patients has not been determined. Stenosis of a pulmonary vein may be assessed by combining anatomic and functional imaging using computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and lung scanning. Symptoms vary considerably and may be misdiagnosed, leading to severe clinical consequences. Current treatment strategies involve pulmonary vein dilatation or stenting; however, the restenosis rate remains high. The long-term outcome in patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is unclear. Strategies under development to prevent pulmonary vein stenosis include alternate energy sources and modified ablation techniques. Pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation is a new clinical entity that has been described in various reports recently. There is much uncertainty with respect to causative factors, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment, and long-term sequelae are unclear.

  9. A rare case of lateral sinus thrombosis with carotid space abscess.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gautam Bir; Rai, Anil K; Singh, Sarvejeet; Sinha, Mukul

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a case of carotid space abscess secondary to lateral sinus thrombosis associated with internal jugular vein thrombosis. With this case, we illustrate a rare entity that presented in an extremely rare manner. To the authors knowledge such a case has not been previously reported.

  10. Right atrial and right ventricular ultrasound-guided biopsy technique in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; de Clercq, D; Ven, S; van der Vekens, N; Chiers, K; van Loon, G

    2016-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsies could be a valuable tool in equine cardiology for diagnosing myocardial disease, which is probably underdiagnosed in horses because of lack of specific diagnostic measures and limitations of currently available diagnostic methods. To describe a technique for serial right atrial and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein. Prospective study. Biopsy was performed in 10 healthy standing horses sedated with detomidine, under continuous electrocardiography monitoring. A 10 cm (n = 6), 45 cm (n = 1) or 98 cm (n = 3) introducer sheath was inserted into the right jugular vein. Under echocardiographic guidance, a biopsy forceps was introduced through the sheath into the right ventricle and right atrium and endomyocardial biopsies were acquired. In all horses, 3 right ventricular biopsies were obtained from the right ventricular apex and 3 right atrial biopsies were obtained from the dorsal right atrial wall near the tuberculum intervenosum. The presence of myocardial tissue was confirmed by histology. All horses showed atrial and ventricular premature depolarisations associated with acquisition of the biopsies. In 9 horses, the arrhythmia disappeared after retraction of the forceps and introducer sheath. In one horse, ventricular premature depolarisations disappeared only after 8 h. No other complications were observed. Endomyocardial biopsy of the right atrium and right ventricle could be performed in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein and was not associated with complications other than temporary arrhythmias. This technique may be useful for research purposes or as a diagnostic tool, although further research is needed to establish the safety of the technique in clinical patients with myocardial disease. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Thick, Dark Veins at Garden City, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-11

    These images from the Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover indicate similarly dark material, but with very different chemistries, in mineral veins at "Garden City." Each of the side-by-side circular images covers an area about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in diameter. The images were taken by ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager. Researchers used ChemCam's laser, telescope and spectrometers to examine the chemistry of material in these veins. While both of these veins are dark, their chemistries are very different, indicating that they were formed by different fluids. One common aspect of the chemistry in the dark material is an iron content higher than nearby bedrock. Thus the dark appearance may be result of similar iron content. The dark maerial in the vein on the left is enriched in calcium and contains calcium fluorine. The dark material in the vein on the right is enriched in magnesium, but not in calcium or calcium fluorine. Thus, the veins were formed by different fluids that deposited minerals in rock fractures. The Remote Micro-Imager took the image on the left on March 27, 2015, during the 938th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The next day, it took the image on the right. A broader view of the prominent mineral veins at Garden City is at PIA19161. ChemCam is one of 10 instruments in Curiosity's science payload. The U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, developed ChemCam in partnership with scientists and engineers funded by the French national space agency (CNES), the University of Toulouse and the French national research agency (CNRS). More information about ChemCam is available at http://www.msl-chemcam.com. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19924

  12. Management of Chronic Deep Vein Thrombosis in Women.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Rulon L

    2018-03-01

    Chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) affects hundreds of thousands of women in the United States. Chronic DVT can lead to pain, edema, venous ulcers, and varicosities. While there are limited data regarding the management of chronic DVT, several interventional radiology groups aggressively treat chronic DVT to aid patient symptom resolution. Recanalization of occluded veins and venous stenting re-establishes deep vein flow and decreases venous hypertension.

  13. Non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiman; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Park, Sangyun; Noh, SeungWoo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Taejeong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Authentication using finger vein pattern has substantial advantage than other biometrics. Because human vein patterns are hidden inside the skin and tissue, it is hard to forge vein structure. But conventional system using NIR LED array has two drawbacks. First, direct contact with LED array raise sanitary problem. Second, because of discreteness of LEDs, non-uniform illumination exists. We propose non-contact finger vein acquisition system using NIR laser and Laser line generator lens. Laser line generator lens makes evenly distributed line laser from focused laser light. Line laser is aimed on the finger longitudinally. NIR camera was used for image acquisition. 200 index finger vein images from 20 candidates are collected. Same finger vein pattern extraction algorithm was used to evaluate two sets of images. Acquired images from proposed non-contact system do not show any non-uniform illumination in contrary with conventional system. Also results of matching are comparable to conventional system. We developed Non-contact finger vein acquisition system. It can prevent potential cross contamination of skin diseases. Also the system can produce uniformly illuminated images unlike conventional system. With the benefit of non-contact, proposed system shows almost equivalent performance compared with conventional system.

  14. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of portal vein thrombosis following splenectomy.

    PubMed

    van't Riet, M; Burger, J W; van Muiswinkel, J M; Kazemier, G; Schipperus, M R; Bonjer, H J

    2000-09-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of splenectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, risk factors, treatment and outcome of portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy in a large series of patients. All patients who had undergone a splenectomy in the University Hospital, Rotterdam, between 1984 and 1997 were reviewed retrospectively. Splenectomy that was followed by symptomatic portal vein thrombosis was selected for analysis. Risk factors for portal vein thrombosis were sought. Of 563 splenectomies, nine (2 per cent) were complicated by symptomatic portal vein thrombosis. All these patients had either fever or abdominal pain. Two of 16 patients with a myeloproliferative disorder developed portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy (P = 0.03), and four of 49 patients with haemolytic anaemia (P = 0.005). Treatment within 10 days after splenectomy was successful in all patients, while delayed treatment was ineffective. Portal vein thrombosis should be suspected in a patient with fever or abdominal pain after splenectomy. Patients with a myeloproliferative disorder or haemolytic anaemia are at higher risk; they might benefit from early detection and could have routine Doppler ultrasonography after splenectomy.

  16. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Case of a Misplaced IVC Filter: A Lesson to Learn

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sharma, Sanjay, E-mail: drssharma@hotmail.com; Mukund, Amar, E-mail: dramarmukund@gmail.co; Agarwal, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep_aiims@yahoo.co.i

    2010-08-15

    The inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion is a well established procedure to prevent significant pulmonary embolism in selected situations. It is generally considered straight forward without significant complications. We report an interesting case of a young postpartum woman in whom an IVC filter was misplaced in the right gonadal vein. This complication is only rarely reported. Presence of prominent right gonadal vein must always be kept in mind during trans-jugular placement of infra renal filter in the IVC in post partum women.

  18. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  19. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  20. Petrosal sinus sampling: technique and rationale.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Doppman, J L

    1991-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinuses is an extremely sensitive, specific, and accurate test for diagnosing Cushing disease and distinguishing between that entity and the ectopic ACTH syndrome. It is also valuable for lateralizing small hormone-producing adenomas within the pituitary gland. The inferior petrosal sinuses connect the cavernous sinuses with the ipsilateral internal jugular veins. The anatomy of the anastomoses between the inferior petrosal sinus, the internal jugular vein, and the venous plexuses at the base of the skull varies, but it is almost always possible to catheterize the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, variations in size and anatomy are often present between the two inferior petrosal sinuses in a patient. Advance preparation is required for petrosal sinus sampling. Teamwork is a critical element, and each member of the staff should know what he or she will be doing during the procedure. The samples must be properly labeled, processed, and stored. Specific needles, guide wires, and catheters are recommended for this procedure. The procedure is performed with specific attention to the three areas of potential technical difficulty: catheterization of the common femoral veins, crossing the valve at the base of the left internal jugular vein, and selective catheterization of the inferior petrosal sinuses. There are specific methods for dealing with each of these areas. The sine qua non of correct catheter position in the inferior petrosal sinus is demonstration of reflux of contrast material into the ipsilateral cavernous sinus. Images must always be obtained to document correct catheter position. Special attention must be paid to two points to prevent potential complications: The patient must be given an adequate dose of heparin, and injection of contrast material into the inferior petrosal sinuses and surrounding veins must be done gently and carefully. When the procedure is performed as outlined, both inferior

  1. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dobrocky, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.dobrocky@insel.ch; Kettenbach, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.kettenbach@stpoelten.lknoe.at; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.lopez@insel.ch

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloonmore » catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.« less

  2. [Treatment of nontumoral portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Bañares, Rafael; Catalina, María-Vega

    2014-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is a relatively common complication associated with the presence of an accompanying prothrombotic phenotype of advanced cirrhosis. The consequences of portal vein thrombosis are relevant because it can be associated with impaired hepatic function, might contraindicate hepatic transplantation and could increase morbidity in the surgical procedure. There is controversy concerning the most effective treatment of portal vein thrombosis, which is based on information that is seldom robust and whose primary objective is to achieve a return to vessel patency. Various studies have suggested that starting anticoagulation therapy early is associated with portal vein repatency more frequently than without treatment and has a low rate of complications. There are no proven data on the type of anticoagulant (low-molecular-weight heparins or dicoumarin agents) and the treatment duration. The implementation of TIPS is technically feasible in thrombosis without cavernous transformation and is associated with portal vein recanalization in a significant proportion of cases. Thrombolytic therapy does not appear to present an adequate balance between efficacy and safety; its use is therefore not supported for this indication. The proper definition of treatment for portal vein thrombosis requires properly designed studies to delimit the efficacy and safety of the various alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Routine Chest Radiographs After Central Line Insertion: Mandatory Postprocedural Evaluation or Unnecessary Waste of Resources?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lucey, Brian; Varghese, Jose C.; Haslam, Philip

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To study the cost and impact on patient management of the routine performance of chest radiographs in patients undergoing imaged-guided central venous catheter insertion. Methods: Six hundred and twenty-one catheters placed in 489 patients over a 42-month period formed the study group. Catheters were placed in the right internal jugular vein (425), left internal jugular vein (133), and subclavian veins (63). At the end of the procedure fluoroscopy was used to assess catheter position and check for complications. A postprocedural chest radiograph was obtained in all patients. Results: Postprocedural chest fluoroscopy showed no evidence of pneumothorax, hemothorax, or mediastinalmore » hematoma. Inappropriate catheter tip position or catheter kinks were noted with 90 catheters. These problems were all corrected while the patient was on the interventional table. Postprocedural chest radiographs showed no complications but proximal catheter tip migration was noted in six of 621 catheters (1%). These latter six catheters required further manipulation. The total technical and related charges for the postprocedural chest radiographs in this series were estimated at Pounds 15,525. Conclusion: Postprocedural chest radiographs after image-guided central venous catheter insertion are not routinely required. A postprocedural chest radiograph can be performed on a case-by-case basis at the discretion of the interventional radiologist.« less

  4. Crystal Growth Texture in Light Vein at Garden City

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-11

    This view from the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on the arm of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows texture within a light-toned vein at a site called "Garden City" on lower Mount Sharp. The area shown is roughly 0.9 inch (2.2 centimeters) wide. It was taken during the 946th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars (April 4, 2015). Differences in textures of light-toned veins in the Garden City complex of crisscrossing mineral veins are clues that these veins may result from distinct fluid events. This vein's texture shows indications of crystal growth, suggesting that crystallization may have exerted a force for opening the fracture filled by the vein. Different examples are at PIA19926 and PIA19927. Mineral veins often form where fluids move through fractured rocks, depositing minerals in the fractures and affecting chemistry of the surrounding rock. At Garden City, the veins have been more resistant to erosion than the surrounding host rock. The fluid movement through fractures at Garden City occurred later than wet environmental conditions in which the host rock formed, before it hardened and cracked. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates MAHLI. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19925

  5. Femoropopliteal Bypass with Varicose Greater Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Yun Su; Cho, Byung Sun; Jang, Je-Ho; Lee, Moon-Soo; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2015-01-01

    Surgical bypass for peripheral arterial occlusive disease can be performed using different graft materials. Autogenous greater saphenous vein (GSV) is the treatment of choice because of its superior long-term patency. We report a case of femoropopliteal bypass with varicose GSV in a 77-year-old man who was presented with limb ischemia and both varicose veins. We successfully performed bypass with varicose vein. He has been doing well for 15 months after the operation, and a computed tomography angiography of the lower leg, performed on the 15th postoperative month, demonstrated widely patent femoropopliteal bypass graft and no structural change. PMID:28031670

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: therapeutic advantages of minimalism in the skull base.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manish S; Gupta, A; Kale, S S; Agrawal, D; Mahapatra, A K; Sharma, B S

    2008-01-01

    Glomus jugulare (GJ) tumors are paragangliomas found in the region of the jugular foramen. Surgery with/without embolization and conventional radiotherapy has been the traditional management option. To analyze the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) as a primary or an adjunctive form of therapy. A retrospective analysis of patients who received GKS at a tertiary neurosurgical center was performed. Of the 1601 patients who underwent GKS from 1997 to 2006, 24 patients with GJ underwent 25 procedures. The average age of the cohort was 46.6 years (range, 22-76 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. The most common neurological deficit was IX, X, XI cranial nerve paresis (15/24). Fifteen patients received primary GKS. Mean tumor size was 8.7 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). The coverage achieved was 93.1% (range 90-97%) using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.4 Gy (range 12-25 Gy) at a mean isodose of 49.5% (range 45-50%). Thirteen patients (six primary and seven secondary) were available for follow-up at a median interval of 24 months (range seven to 48 months). The average tumor size was 7.9 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). Using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.3 Gy (range 12-20 Gy) 93.6% coverage (range 91-97%) was achieved. Six patients improved clinically. A single patient developed transient trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance imaging follow-up was available for 10 patients; seven recorded a decrease in size. There was no tumor progression. Gamma knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective primary and secondary modality of treatment for GJ.

  7. Light Material Ripped Up Older Dark Vein Material

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-11

    This view from the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on the arm of NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows a combination of dark and light material within a mineral vein at a site called "Garden City" on lower Mount Sharp. The image was taken on April 4, 2015, during the 946th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. The area shown is roughly 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) wide. Differences in textures of light-toned veins in the Garden City complex of crisscrossing mineral veins are clues that these veins may result from distinct fluid events. This example shows where a later addition of light-toned material into a vein ripped up prior dark material, suggesting both high fluid pressure and potentially explosive release of high pressures. Different examples are at PIA19925 and PIA19926. Mineral veins often form where fluids move through fractured rocks, depositing minerals in the fractures and affecting chemistry of the surrounding rock. At Garden City, the veins have been more resistant to erosion than the surrounding host rock. The fluid movement through fractures at Garden City occurred later than wet environmental conditions in which the host rock formed, before it hardened and cracked. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates MAHLI. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19927

  8. Using Calcium Isotopic Composition of Calcium Carbonate Veins to Assess the Roles of Vein Formation and Seafloor Alteration in Regulation of the Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Coggon, R. M.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Calcium carbonate vein formation in the oceanic crust has been proposed as a climate-sensitive feedback mechanism that regulates the carbon cycle on million-year timescales. The suggestion has been that higher pCO2 levels may drive changes in ocean temperature and pH that increase seafloor alteration, releasing more calcium from oceanic basalt. This results in more removal of carbon from Earth's surface through calcium carbonate formation, which includes calcium carbonate vein formation in oceanic crust. The importance of this feedback mechanism remains enigmatic. Measurements of the δ44Ca of calcium carbonate veins in the oceanic crust may constrain the sources of calcium and timing of vein formation. Seawater and basalt are the only sources present shortly after crustal formation, whereas other sources, such as anhydrite dissolution and sedimentary carbonates become available when the crust ages, at which point carbonate veins may form far from the ridge axis. We report the calcium isotopic composition of 65 calcium carbonate veins, ranging from 108 to 1.2 million years old, in hydrothermally altered basalt from the Mid-Atlantic and Juan de Fuca ridges. We also present 43 δ44Ca measurements of 5.9 million year old basalts and dikes from the Costa Rica Rift that have undergone hydrothermal alteration over a range of conditions in upper crust. The δ44Ca of the calcium carbonate veins ranges from -1.59 to 1.01‰ (versus Bulk Silicate Earth), whereas the δ44Ca of altered basalts ranges from -0.18 to 0.28‰. Depth and temperature of formation seem to be major influences on calcium carbonate vein δ44Ca, with veins formed at cool, shallower depths having higher δ44Ca, closer to seawater. In contrast, we note no temporal variation in δ44Ca of calcium carbonate veins when comparing samples from older and younger crust. The majority of veins (54 out of 65) have δ44Ca between that of seawater and basalt, which implies that they may have formed quite soon after

  9. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  10. Variant meso-Rex bypass with transposition of abdominal autogenous vein for the management of idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Mo; Ko, Gi-Young; Oh, Seak Hee; Kwon, Tae-Won; Cho, Yong-Pil; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-10-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether variant meso-Rex bypass with transposition of abdominal autogenous vein can be used as an alternative treatment modality for selected patients with symptomatic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. This was a retrospective review of six consecutive patients who received this alternative procedure for the treatment of symptomatic portal hypertension secondary to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Their clinical characteristics, operative procedures and outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. The procedure was attempted in six patients, and all had a patent shunt established by intraoperative portography at the end of the procedure; the coronary vein was used in four patients and the inferior mesenteric vein was used in two. During the median period of 23.5 months (range 10-30 months), follow-up was uneventful except one patient; reduced portal hypertension and no new episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding were observed in all patients, with the exception of one patient with shunt stenosis and recurrent varix bleeding who had to undergo endovascular treatment to restore portal vein blood flow. Technical and clinical success was achieved in all patients. This procedure could be used safely and effectively to treat selected patients with portal hypertension secondary to extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.

  11. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the endothelium of the human vortex vein system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Paula K; Tan, Priscilla E Z; Cringle, Stephen J; McAllister, Ian L; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The vortex vein system is the drainage pathway for the choroidal circulation and serves an important function in the effective drainage of the exceptionally high blood flow from the choroidal circulation. As there are only 4-6 vortex veins, a large volume of blood must be drained from many choroidal veins into each individual vortex vein. The vortex vein system must also cope with passing through tissues of different rigidity and significant pressure gradient as it transverses from the intrao-cular to the extra-ocular compartments. However, little is known about how the vortex vein system works under such complex situations in both physiological and pathological condition. Endothelial cells play a vital role in other vascular systems, but they have not been studied in detail in the vortex vein system. The purpose of this study is to characterise the intracellular structures and morphology in both the intra-and extra-ocular regions of the human vortex vein system. We hypothesise the presence of endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity through the vortex vein system. The inferior temporal vortex vein system from human donor eyes were obtained and studied histologically using confocal microscopy. The f-actin cytoskeleton and nuclei were labelled using Alexa Fluor conjugated Phalloidin and YO-PRO-1. Eight regions of the vortex vein system were examined with the venous endothelium studied in detail with quantitative data obtained for endothelial cell and nuclei size and shape. Significant endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity was found throughout the vortex vein system with the most obvious differences observed between the ampulla and its downstream regions. Variation in the distribution pattern of smooth muscle cells, in particular the absence of smooth muscle cells around the ampulla, was noted. Our results suggest the presence of significantly different haemodynamic forces in different regions of the vortex vein system and indicate that the vortex vein system may play

  12. Secure biometric image sensor and authentication scheme based on compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masamichi; Urabe, Takuya; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2013-11-20

    It is important to ensure the security of biometric authentication information, because its leakage causes serious risks, such as replay attacks using the stolen biometric data, and also because it is almost impossible to replace raw biometric information. In this paper, we propose a secure biometric authentication scheme that protects such information by employing an optical data ciphering technique based on compressed sensing. The proposed scheme is based on two-factor authentication, the biometric information being supplemented by secret information that is used as a random seed for a cipher key. In this scheme, a biometric image is optically encrypted at the time of image capture, and a pair of restored biometric images for enrollment and verification are verified in the authentication server. If any of the biometric information is exposed to risk, it can be reenrolled by changing the secret information. Through numerical experiments, we confirm that finger vein images can be restored from the compressed sensing measurement data. We also present results that verify the accuracy of the scheme.

  13. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging differentiates acute recurrent ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis from residual thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Melanie; Mol, Gerben C; van Rooden, Cornelis J; Klok, Frederikus A; Westerbeek, Robin E; Iglesias Del Sol, Antonio; van de Ree, Marcel A; de Roos, Albert; Huisman, Menno V

    2014-07-24

    Accurate diagnostic assessment of suspected ipsilateral recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major clinical challenge because differentiating between acute recurrent thrombosis and residual thrombosis is difficult with compression ultrasonography (CUS). We evaluated noninvasive magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MRDTI) in a prospective study of 39 patients with symptomatic recurrent ipsilateral DVT (incompressibility of a different proximal venous segment than at the prior DVT) and 42 asymptomatic patients with at least 6-month-old chronic residual thrombi and normal D-dimer levels. All patients were subjected to MRDTI. MRDTI images were judged by 2 independent radiologists blinded for the presence of acute DVT and a third in case of disagreement. The sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver reliability of MRDTI were determined. MRDTI demonstrated acute recurrent ipsilateral DVT in 37 of 39 patients and was normal in all 42 patients without symptomatic recurrent disease for a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 83% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 92% to 100%). Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ = 0.98). MRDTI images were adequate for interpretation in 95% of the cases. MRDTI is a sensitive and reproducible method for distinguishing acute ipsilateral recurrent DVT from 6-month-old chronic residual thrombi in the leg veins. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Finger vein recognition based on personalized weight maps.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-09-10

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition.

  15. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Personalized Weight Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xiao, Rongyang; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric recognition technology, which verifies identities via the vein patterns in the fingers. Binary pattern based methods were thoroughly studied in order to cope with the difficulties of extracting the blood vessel network. However, current binary pattern based finger vein matching methods treat every bit of feature codes derived from different image of various individuals as equally important and assign the same weight value to them. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on personalized weight maps (PWMs). The different bits have different weight values according to their stabilities in a certain number of training samples from an individual. Firstly we present the concept of PWM, and then propose the finger vein recognition framework, which mainly consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PWM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PWM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:24025556

  16. [Portal perfusion with right gastroepiploic vein flow in liver transplant].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Javier-Haro, Francisco; Mendoza-Medina, Diego Federico; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    Liver transplantation in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, is a complex procedure with high possibility of liver graft dysfunction. It is performed in 2-19% of all liver transplants, and has a significantly high mortality rate in the post-operative period. Other procedures to maintain portal perfusion have been described, however there are no reports of liver graft perfusion using right gastroepiploic vein. A 20 year-old female diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis, with a Child-Pugh score of 7 points (class "B"), and MELD score of 14 points, with thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, severe portal hypertension, splenomegaly, a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices, and left renal agenesis. The preoperative evaluation for liver transplantation was completed, and the right gastroepiploic vein of 1-cm diameter was observed draining to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava and right suprarenal vein. An orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from a non-living donor (deceased on January 30, 2005) using the Piggy-Back technique. Portal vein perfusion was maintained using the right gastroepiploic vein, and the outcome was satisfactory. The patient was discharged 13 days after surgery. Liver transplantation was performed satisfactorily, obtaining an acceptable outcome. In this case, the portal perfusion had adequate blood flow through the right gastroepiploic vein. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditions for veining and origin of mineralizing fluids in the Alpi Apuane (NW Tuscany, Italy): Evidence from structural and geochemical analyses on calcite veins hosted in Carrara marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaselli, Luca; Cortecci, Gianni; Tonarini, Sonia; Ottria, Giuseppe; Mussi, Mario

    2012-11-01

    This work deals with structural and geochemical (chemical and isotopic) analyses of calcite veins hosted in Carrara marbles in the Alpi Apuane, NW Tuscany, Italy. Geometric features and spatial distribution of veins provided estimations of stress ratio (Φ = (σ2 - σ3)/(σ1 - σ3)), driving stress ratio (R' = (Pf - σ3)/(σ1 - σ3)) and fluid overpressure (Δsi = Pf - σ3) at the time of vein formation. The obtained values of Φ = 32 and R' = 0.43 reveal that fluid pressure was higher than the intermediate principal stress at the time of veins formation, whereas the estimated Δsi ranging from 129 to 207 MPa indicates that veins formed under supra-hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure conditions. Carbon (δ13CV-PDB = 1.81-2.10‰ for veins and 1.95-2.51‰ for host marbles), oxygen (δ18OV-SMOW = 28.71-29.57‰ for veins and 28.90-29.36‰ for host marbles) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707716-0.707985 for veins and 0.0707708-0.707900 for host marbles) isotope compositions in vein/host marble pairs were internally quite consistent. Combining our structural and geochemical data, a modeling approach was performed to investigate the compositional features and temperatures of calcite depositing fluids. The results of our studies give evidence that (1) pore-fluids in Carrara marble, consisting of metamorphic formation waters, were re-mobilized during veining event and migrated within the veins in closed system conditions, (2) veins formed after ductile folding phases and before high-angle brittle faulting events, at temperature and pressure around 250 °C and 210 MPa, and finally (3) about 12 g H2O/m3 marble are calculated to have been available as vein parental fluid at the time of vein formation.

  18. Effects of time and sampling location on concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, A; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2014-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to examine factors potentially influencing the measurement of blood β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in dairy cows. The objective of the first trial was to study effects of sampling time on BHBA concentration in continuously fed dairy cows. Furthermore, we determined test characteristics of a single BHBA measurement at a random time of the day to diagnose subclinical ketosis considering commonly used cut-points (1.2 and 1.4 mmol/L). Finally, we set out to evaluate if test characteristics could be enhanced by repeating measurements after different time intervals. During 4 herd visits, a total of 128 cows (8 to 28 d in milk) fed 10 times daily were screened at 0900 h and preselected by BHBA concentration. Blood samples were drawn from the tail vessels and BHBA concentrations were measured using an electronic BHBA meter (Precision Xceed, Abbott Diabetes Care Ltd., Witney, UK). Cows with BHBA concentrations ≥0.8 mmol/L at this time were enrolled in the trial (n=92). Subsequent BHBA measurements took place every 3h for a total of 8 measurements during 24 h. The effect of sampling time on BHBA concentrations was tested in a repeated-measures ANOVA repeating sampling time. Sampling time did not affect BHBA concentrations in continuously fed dairy cows. Defining the average daily BHBA concentration calculated from the 8 measurements as the gold standard, a single measurement at a random time of the day to diagnose subclinical ketosis had a sensitivity of 0.90 or 0.89 at the 2 BHBA cut-points (1.2 and 1.4 mmol/L). Specificity was 0.88 or 0.90 using the same cut-points. Repeating measurements after different time intervals improved test characteristics only slightly. In the second experiment, we compared BHBA concentrations of samples drawn from 3 different blood sampling locations (tail vessels, jugular vein, and mammary vein) of 116 lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of BHBA differed in samples from the 3 sampling locations. Mean BHBA

  19. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Finger-Vein Recognition Using NIR Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyung Gil; Lee, Min Beom; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-06-06

    Conventional finger-vein recognition systems perform recognition based on the finger-vein lines extracted from the input images or image enhancement, and texture feature extraction from the finger-vein images. In these cases, however, the inaccurate detection of finger-vein lines lowers the recognition accuracy. In the case of texture feature extraction, the developer must experimentally decide on a form of the optimal filter for extraction considering the characteristics of the image database. To address this problem, this research proposes a finger-vein recognition method that is robust to various database types and environmental changes based on the convolutional neural network (CNN). In the experiments using the two finger-vein databases constructed in this research and the SDUMLA-HMT finger-vein database, which is an open database, the method proposed in this research showed a better performance compared to the conventional methods.

  20. Retinal vein occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... of one eye. Exams and Tests Tests to evaluate for vein occlusion include: Exam of the retina after dilating the pupil An eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. Intraocular pressure Pupil ...

  1. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  2. [Vein thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Savić, Dejan; Savić, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Having in mind the rate of occurrence and clinical importance, venous thromboembolism implies venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as a result of embolisation of the thrombotic particles from deep veins or pelvic veins. Venous thrombosis of the deep veins may result in chronic vein insufficiency, but the primary medical problem is the possibility of development of pulmonary embolism which may cause permanent respiratory function damage or even fatal outcome. The high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (30% clinically and up to 50% subclinically) in acute stroke hemiparetic and bed ridden patients within two weeks from the onset and 1-2% pulmonary embolism with the fatal outcome in the first month clinically and 17% of all fatal outcomes in postmortem investigations present a necessity for the early venous thromboembolism prevention. On the other hand, the most powerful prevention strategy--anticoagulation has important limitations in acute stroke patients: almost impossible to be used in cerebral haemorrhage and a great risk for the development of haemorrhagic transformation in cerebral infarction. The fact that other prevention strategies have limited value requires an estimation of effectivity-risk ratio in venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke. Venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients is necessary because of a greater risk for venous thromboembolism in these patients according to the nature of illness and functional disability, but also a problem because of limited possibility to recommend the proper medicament according to the risk of serious complications. The necessity of preventing venous thromboembolism and estimation of effectivity-risk ratio in stroke patients, beside plenty of studies and consensus conferences, remain individual and often very difficult.

  3. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections in the treatment of retinal vein occlusions.

    PubMed

    Roth, Daniel B; Cukras, Catherine; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Feuer, William J; Yarian, David L; Green, Stuart N; Wheatley, Harold M; Prenner, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    To report the visual acuity response after intravitreal triamcinolone injection in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions. Retrospective nonrandomized interventional series of 172 consecutive patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions who were treated with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection. Patients underwent Snellen visual acuity testing and ophthalmoscopic examination at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection. All subtypes of retinal vein occlusions showed significant improvements in mean visual acuity 1 month after injection. This improvement in visual acuity was maintained over the 12-month period for all but the central retinal vein occlusion group. Seventy-one (41.3%) of the 172 patients received more than one intravitreal triamcinolone injection for unresolved or recurrent macular edema. This study demonstrates a benefit associated with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for retinal vein occlusions that was maintained by patients with branch retinal vein occlusions and hemiretinal vein occlusions over a 12-month period. Visual acuity improvement was not maintained in patients with central retinal vein occlusions with this course of treatment.

  4. Dorsal metacarpal veins: anatomic variation and potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Elmegarhi, Sara S; Amarin, Justin Z; Hadidi, Maher T; Badran, Darwish H; Massad, Islam M; Bani-Hani, Amjad M; Shatarat, Amjad T

    2018-03-01

    The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified. The final analysis included 726 hands, for an exclusion rate of 30 %. Eight pattern types were identified. Three anatomic features informed the variation. Bilateral symmetry of the dorsal metacarpal veins was present in 352 participants (83 % of the total). The overall frequency distribution of variants in both hands was similar (P = 0.8). The frequency distribution of variants w