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Sample records for jugular vein deformities

  1. Subclavian artery- internal jugular vein fistula and heart failure: complication of internal jugular vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Takhellambam, Brojen; Ghosh, Biplab; Choudhury, Tauhidul Alam; Singh, Shivendra; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2013-02-01

    Hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requires vascular access which can be either temporary or permanent. However, these procedures are not without complications. Arterial puncture is the most common immediate complication and pseudoaneurysm formation is the most common late sequel of internal jugular venous catheterization (IJVC). However, arterio-venous fistula (AVF) formatiorn following IJVC is rare. We are reporting a case of AVF formation between subclavian artery (SCA) and internal jugular vein (IJV) following IJVC which later on leads to the development of cardiac failure.

  2. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the jugular vein in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Pierini, Alessio; Cinti, Filippo; Binanti, Diana; Pisani, Guido

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old, male, Labrador retriever was referred for removal of a spindle cell sarcoma involving the right jugular vein. A post-contrast CT scan showed a seven-centimeter subcutaneous mass originated from the right external jugular vein, which was partially obstructed and showing contrast stasis, suggested a primary intravascular tumor of the jugular vein. The mass was resected, and histological evaluation was consistent with grade II intravenous spindle cell sarcoma of the jugular vein. Immunohistochemical positivity for vimentin, desmin, and αSMA antibody and negativity for S-100 protein confirmed venous leiomyosarcoma. The dog received five doses of intravenous doxorubicin, and there was no recurrence of the tumor 30 months post treatment. In dogs, primary intravascular sarcomas are rare and primary venous leiomyosarcoma has not been described. A venous tumor may be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with ventral neck swelling. PMID:28331835

  3. Common femoral vein reconstruction using internal jugular vein after blast injury.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew M; West, Charles A; Davis, James A; Gilani, Ramyar; Askenasy, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Common femoral vein traumatic injuries are rare. Surgical management is controversial and by nature case specific. In this report, we present an unusual case of an isolated common femoral vein injury from a gunshot blast repaired with an interposition internal jugular vein bypass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated common femoral vein reconstructed in this manner.

  4. Papilloedema and Increased Intracranial Pressure as a Result of Unilateral Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Thandra, Abhishek; Jun, Bokkwan; Chuquilin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial hypertension and papilloedema are known to develop secondary to cerebral sinus or bilateral jugular vein thrombosis. However, in rare cases, unilateral jugular vein thrombosis may lead to increased intracranial pressure and papilloedema with resultant headache and vision changes. We describe a 45-year-old patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx that developed right jugular vein thrombosis after chemoradiation therapy with cetuximab. This was later complicated by intracranial hypertension and papilloedema. The normal cerebral venous drainage, the potential role of chemoradiation therapy on the aetiology of jugular vein thrombosis, and the mechanism of increased intracranial pressure secondary to unilateral jugular vein occlusion are discussed. PMID:27928352

  5. Comparison of internal jugular vein dilation between Valsalva maneuver and proximal internal jugular vein compression

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Hyeonjoo; Kang, Bora; Kim, Giwoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Valsalva maneuver is recognized as an effective method to dilate the internal jugular vein (IJV). However, this maneuver cannot be performed in many cases, such as children and unconscious patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of proximal IJV compression, which can easily be performed, regardless of patient cooperation. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were recruited from tertiary hospital employees. Basic anatomic and physiologic data were collected. The subjects lay down as if they were undergoing IJV catheter insertion, in the supine position with their necks turned 30 degrees to the left. The main outcome was the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the distal IJV as measured by ultrasound in four stages. The first stage was sham without any maneuver. The second was Valsalva maneuver, the third was digital IJV compression, and the fourth was digital compression accompanied by simultaneous Valsalva maneuver. Results A total of 41 volunteers were enrolled. Twenty-six (63.41%) were male with an average age of 28.15±2.85 years. Mean height was 170.74±8.66 cm and mean neck circumference was 35.28±3.87 cm. The mean CSA-IJV was 1.06±0.36 cm2 without any maneuver. It increased to 1.34±0.45 cm2 with Valsalva maneuver (P<0.001), to 1.26±0.41 cm2 with digital compression (P<0.001), and to 1.41±0.47 cm2 with the two maneuvers combined (P=0.01). Conclusion Digital proximal IJV compression effectively dilates the distal IJV. When performed simultaneously with the Valsalva maneuver, the effect was enhanced. PMID:28168225

  6. [Thrombosis of the internal jugular vein secondary to acute pharyngotonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Giselle; Lijdens, Yesica; Demarchi, María Victoria; Martínez Corvalán, María Pía; Razetti, Juan; Boccio, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Acute pharyngotonsillitis is one of the most common diseases in children and adolescents. The most frequent etiology is virus, followed by bacteria. The main bacterial agent is beta hemolytic Streptococcus group A. A rare complication of pharyngeal infectious processes is septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of an inflammatory unilateral neck swelling. The diagnosis is confirmed by contrast computed tomography. Treatment consists of prolonged administration of antibiotics, being the use of anticoagulants controversial. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent persistent vascular occlusion and progression of the thrombus, which can cause pulmonary emboli. In the present study, we present a teenager with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein secondary to acute streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of this rare vascular complication are described herein.

  7. External Jugular Vein Thrombosis as a Sign of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; Kafadar, Mehmet Tolga; Çıvgın, Esra Yurduseven; Düzgün, Arife Polat

    2017-01-01

    External jugular vein thrombosis is a rare vascular event which may lead fatal complication such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Its relation to the visceral solid tumor as an etiologic factor has been established well. Although external jugular vein thrombosis may be seen in malignancy, it is unusual to see as a sign of breast cancer. Most of the external jugular vein thrombosis occurs secondary to compression of the vein. Vascular thrombosis due to hypercoagulability is known as Trousseau syndrome. Herein, we present a case of metastatic breast cancer which presented with external jugular vein thrombosis; Trousseau syndrome. PMID:28331768

  8. Congenital internal jugular vein aneurysm in an infant: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Khandelwal, Nidhi; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-05-01

    A 1-month old baby boy presented with a mass at the root of the neck. On investigation, a saccular aneurysm arising from the internal jugular vein was diagnosed. The aneurysm was excised after ligating the patent internal jugular vein above and below the origin of the aneurysm. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a vascular malformation. Vascular malformation of the internal jugular vein, presenting as neck mass, is extremely rare with no case described in neonates. We present one such interesting case.

  9. Venous thrombosis in subclavian, axillary, brachial veins with extension to internal jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tamizifar, Babak; Beigi, Arash; Rismankarzadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of Venous Thrombosis in Subclavian, Axillary, Brachial Veins with extension to Internal Jugular vein, right sigmoid sinus and simultaneous Pulmonary embolism during the treatment with low molecular weight heparin. PMID:23901341

  10. An unusual condition during internal jugular vein catheterisation: vertebral artery catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Göksel, Sabahattin; Söylemez, Burçak; Durmuş, Kasim; Işbir, Ahmet Cemil; Berkan, Öcal

    Vertebral artery cannulation is an unusual complication during internal jugular vein cannulation. We report a case of vertebral artery cannulation, which occurred during an attempt to cannulate the right internal jugular vein, and we discuss the management of such a rare complication.

  11. An ectopic hamartomatous thymoma compressing left jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Zhao, L; Chai, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. It is usually found at the root of the neck (frequently on the left) and does not usually impact adjacent tissues in clinically significant ways. While EHT manifests distinct pathological features, the lesion is either asymptomatic or may show nonspecific clinical features. We report one case of EHT which was assumed to be of low malignant potential since it severely compressed the inlet of left internal jugular vein as seen by computed tomography scan. To the best of our knowledge, this clinical finding of EHT is very rare. After the diagnosis and treatment of this patient, we believe that EHT or suspected EHT should be treated less invasively.

  12. Rare primary leiomyosarcoma of the internal jugular vein with cervical extravascular extension.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, M; González-García, R; Moreno-García, C; Toro, W; Monje, F

    2017-02-01

    Leiomysarcoma of intravascular origin is a rare malignant tumour of the soft tissue. We present what is, to our knowledge, the first example of one that has arisen from the wall of the internal jugular vein.

  13. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moini, Majid; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Kenari, Mohammad Mahmoodzadeh; Mahmoodi, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD), we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (p< 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the external jugular vein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  14. Internal jugular vein cannulation: A comparison of three techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Bikash R; Mohan, Virender K; Kashyap, Lokesh; Shende, Dilip; Darlong, Vanlal M; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2013-01-01

    Context: Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation is known for increasing success rate and decreasing rate of complications. The ultrasound image can be used as a real time image during cannulation or to prelocate the IJV before attempting cannulation. Aims: This study compares both the ultrasound-guided technique with the classical anatomical landmark technique (central approach) for right IJV cannulation in terms of success rate, complications, and time for cannulation. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty patients requiring IJV cannulation were included in this study and were randomly allocated in three groups. Number of attempts, success rate, venous access time, catheterization time, and complications were observed in each group. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using STATA-9 software. Demographic data were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Nonparametric data were compared using the Kruskall–Wallis test, and multiple comparisons were done applying The Mann–Whitney test for individual pairs of groups. Nominal data were compared by applying the Chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Results: Successful cannulation (≤3 attempt) was achieved in 90.83% of patients without any statistical significant difference between the groups. Venous access time and catheterization time was found to be significantly less in both the ultrasound groups than the anatomical land mark group. Number of attempts and success in first attempt was similar between the groups. Conclusions: Both the ultrasound techniques are found to be better than the anatomical landmark technique. Further, ultrasound-guided prelocation was found to be as effective as ultrasound guided real-time imaging technique for right IJV cannulation. PMID:24106363

  15. [Pharyngeal hemorrhaging due to iatrogenic false aneurysm. Complication after cannulation of the internal jugular vein].

    PubMed

    Kreckel, V; Langwara, H

    2009-03-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein is used for temporary access to the central vein in patients with acute or chronic renal failure. The most frequent problem is the arterial puncture and accidental placement of the large catheter in an artery. This case report describes a rare secondary complication by accidental catheterization of the right common carotid artery after intended dual lumen catheter insertion into the right internal jugular vein. A false aneurysm with pharyngeal hemorrhaging developed 2 weeks after the puncture. The diagnosis was made using colour-Doppler ultrasound and the aneurysm was treated with vascular surgery.

  16. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of catheter-induced combined subclavian and internal jugular vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Abulafia, O; Sherer, D M; DeEulis, T G

    1995-03-01

    Catheter-induced subclavian and internal jugular vein thrombosis in a patient with unresectable ovarian carcinoma was diagnosed by sonography following subtle clinical symptomatology. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of central vein thrombosis offers applicable, noninvasive bedside diagnosis. The case we describe suggests that a low threshold should be maintained for application of this technique in the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening complication, especially with the current widespread application of invasive monitoring.

  17. Brachial plexus compression due to subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm from internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Mol, T. N.; Gupta, A.; Narain, U.

    2017-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization has become the preferred approach for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. However, complications such as internal carotid artery puncture, vessel erosion, thrombosis, and infection may occur. We report a case of brachial plexus palsy due to compression by right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm as a result of IJV catheterization in a patient who was under maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:28356671

  18. Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: An Ultrasound-Guided Technique Versus a Landmark-Guided Technique

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Gurkan; Kaya, Fatma Nur; Gurbet, Alp; Aksu, Hale; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Atlas, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the landmark-guided technique versus the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in spontaneously breathing patients. METHODS A total of 380 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned to receive internal jugular vein cannulation using either the landmark- or ultrasound-guided technique in Bursa, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between April and November, 2008. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization and the demographics of each patient were recorded. RESULTS The overall complication rate was higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.01). Carotid puncture rate and hematoma were more frequent in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.05). The number of attempts for successful placement was significantly higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group, which was accompanied by a significantly increased access time observed in the landmark group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Although there were a higher number of attempts, longer access time, and a more frequent complication rate in the landmark group, the success rate was found to be comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of immediate complications. PMID:19841706

  19. Videothoracoscopic management of a perforated central vein and pleura after ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jeon, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Yongsuk; Jeong, Su Ah

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male underwent a left internal jugular vein catheterization during extended surgery for treatment of multiple fractures due to a traffic accident. Although the catheterization was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance, iatrogenic perforation of the central vein and pleura occurred. The catheter was removed, and the perforated site was addressed under thoracoscopy rather than an open thoracotomy. This case suggests that using US does not completely guarantee a complication-free outcome, and that catheter placement should be carefully confirmed. In addition, this case suggests that thoracoscopy may be an ideal method of resolving a perforation of the central vein and pleura. PMID:24851167

  20. Impact of misplaced subclavian vein catheter into jugular vein on transpulmonary thermodilution measurement variables*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-qiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-yang; Liang, Zhong-yan; Fu, Shui-qiao; Xu, Jia; Liang, Ting-bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The subclavian vein (SCV) is usually used to inject the indicator of cold saline for a transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) measurement. The SCV catheter being misplaced into the internal jugular (IJV) vein is a common occurrence. The present study explores the influence of a misplaced SCV catheter on TPTD variables. Methods: Thirteen severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients with malposition of the SCV catheter were enrolled in this study. TPTD variables including cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI), and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) were obtained after injection of cold saline via the misplaced SCV catheter. Then, the misplaced SCV catheter was removed and IJV access was constructed for a further set of TPTD variables. Comparisons were made between the TPTD results measured through the IJV and misplaced SCV accesses. Results: A total of 104 measurements were made from TPTD curves after injection of cold saline via the IJV and misplaced SCV accesses. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated an overestimation of +111.40 ml/m2 (limits of agreement: 6.13 and 216.70 ml/m2) for GEDVI and ITBVI after a misplaced SCV injection. There were no significant influences on CI and EVLWI. The biases of +0.17 L/(min·m2) for CI and +0.17 ml/kg for EVLWI were revealed by Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusions: The malposition of an SCV catheter does influence the accuracy of TPTD variables, especially GEDVI and ITBVI. The position of the SCV catheter should be confirmed by chest X-ray in order to make good use of the TPTD measurements. PMID:26739527

  1. Collet-Sicard syndrome: a rare but important presentation of internal jugular vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Neo, Shermyn; Lee, Kim En

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare neurological presentation of internal jugular vein thrombosis induced by central venous catheter placement in a patient with cancer. A 71-year-old man gave a 3-week history of dysphagia and dysarthria with left-sided neck pain and headache. He was receiving chemotherapy for appendiceal adenocarcinoma. On examination, he had left 9th-12th cranial neuropathies, manifesting as voice hoarseness, decreased palatal movement, absent gag reflex, weakness of scapular elevation and left-sided tongue wasting. CT scan of neck showed the left subclavian central venous catheter tip was in the left internal jugular vein. Skull base MRI showed thrombus within the left jugular foramen extending intracranially. We diagnosed Collet-Sicard syndrome secondary to thrombosis in the sigmoid-jugular venous complex. His headache and neck pain resolved 2 days after removing the catheter and starting anticoagulation. Collet-Sicard syndrome is an unusual syndrome of lower cranial nerve palsies, often signifying disease at the skull base, including malignancy, trauma or vascular causes.

  2. Diffuse thyroid metastases and bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombus from renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Jha, Priyanka; Shekhar, Mallika; Wan, Jennifer; Mari-Aparici, Carina

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland, and it has been reported to present as a solitary mass. We present a case of diffuse thyroid cancer metastases from renal cell cancer. Bilateral internal jugular vein tumor thrombi were also present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of diffuse thyroid metastases from renal cell cancer in the English literature. Renal cell cancer metastases should be considered in the differential of thyroid imaging abnormalities arising in the setting of known renal cell carcinoma, particularly late in the course of disease. This is frequently associated with internal jugular vein thrombi, which should be evaluated with an abnormal thyroid. Thyroglobulin levels are usually normal in such patients.

  3. Iliopsoas abscess as a complication of tunneled jugular vein catheterization in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Iliopsoas abscess is a rare complication in hemodialysis patients that is mainly due to adjacent catheterization, local acupuncture, discitis, and bacteremia. Herein, we report a 47-year-old woman undergoing regular hemodialysis via a catheter in the internal jugular vein who presented with low back pain and dyspnea. A heart murmur suggested the presence of catheter-related endocarditis, and this was confirmed by an echocardiogram and a blood culture of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A computed tomography indicated a pulmonary embolism and an incidental finding of iliopsoas abscess. Following surgical intervention and intravenous daptomycin, the patient experienced full recovery and a return to usual activities. This case indicates that an iliopsoas abscess can be related to a jugular vein catheter, which is apparently facilitated by infective endocarditis. The possibility of iliopsoas abscess should be considered when a hemodialysis patient presents with severe low back pain, even when there is no history of adjacent mechanical intervention.

  4. Percutaneous trans-jugular vein closure of atrial septal defect with steerable introducer under echocardiographic guidance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jian; Ma, Lunchao; Kuang, Suhua; Lu, Guoliang; Zhang, Yingyuan; Liao, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to discuss a novel surgical approach of percutaneous trans-jugular vein closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) with steerable introducer under echocardiographic guidance. Methods From January 2015 to June 2015, ten ASD patients underwent percutaneous trans-jugular vein ASD closure, the occluder placement could be perpendicular to the plane of ASD using the steerable introducer. Results All cases succeeded. The average procedure time was 27.4±5.6 minutes; and the average intracardiac operation time was 6.7±5.2 minutes. No patient showed the residual shunt after the procedure. There was no clinical death, no arrhythmia, no hemolysis, no infection, no jugular vein damage or occlusion during patients’ hospitalization. The post-operation follow up after one month of the operation showed that there was no residual shunt, no falling off or detachment of occluders or other complications. Conclusions It is a new surgical method with easy operation, mild damage and wider indication. Compared with the traditional percutaneous and transthoracic closure of ASD, it has obvious advantages. PMID:26623109

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia and left internal jugular vein thrombosis with Ménière's symptom complex.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, John G

    2003-11-01

    The author describes the case of a 68-year-old woman who experienced severe symptoms of Ménière's syndrome. Ultrasonography of the neck detected a clot in the left internal jugular vein. The patient was hospitalized and anticoagulated, and her symptoms soon resolved. The author speculates that the clot-induced hemodynamic changes led to venous insufficiency in the vein of the paravestibular canaliculus and ultimately caused the patient's symptoms. The blood work-up revealed that the patient had an elevated fasting homocysteine level, which is a known risk factor for thrombus formation.

  6. Age-related brain atrophy may be mitigated by internal jugular vein enlargement in male individuals without neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Belov, Pavel; Magnano, Christopher; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Bergsland, Niels; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between cross-sectional area of internal jugular veins and brain volumes in healthy individuals without neurologic disease. Methods A total of 193 healthy individuals without neurologic disease (63 male and 130 female; age > 20 to < 70 years) received magnetic resonance venography and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The internal jugular vein cross-sectional area was assessed at C2-C3, C4, C5-C6, and C7-T1. Normalized whole brain volume was assessed. Partial correlation analyses were used to determine associations. Results There was an inverse relationship between normalized whole brain volume and total internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (C7-T1: males r = -0.346, p = 0.029; females r = -0.301, p = 0.002). After age adjustment, association of normalized whole brain volume and normalized gray matter volume with internal jugular vein cross-sectional area became positive in males (normalized whole brain volume and right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (C2-C3) changed from r = -0.163 to r = 0.384, p = 0.002), but not in the females. Conclusion Sex differences exist in the relationship between brain volume and internal jugular vein cross-sectional area in healthy individuals without neurologic disease.

  7. Usefulness of Groshong catheters for central venous access via the external jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Nagata, Hitoshi; Takagi, Kazutoshi; Horie, Toru; Sawada, Tokihiko; Kubota, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of central venous access via the external jugular vein (EJV) employing Groshong catheters, and to compare the complications with those of conventional internal jugular venous catheterization. Central venous access was achieved by insertion of a single-lumen 4.0 Fr Groshong catheter via the EJV or internal jugular vein (IJV) with a single puncture. Complications associated with insertion and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CVC-RBSI) were evaluated from the database. Two hundred and twenty-five patients received 400 catheters for a total period of 5377 catheter-days. Ninety-six patients underwent 201 internal jugular venous catheter (IJV-C) procedures for 2381 catheter-days, and 129 patients underwent 199 external jugular venous catheter (EJV-C) procedures for 2996 catheter-days. Use of EJV-C was associated with a longer catheter insertion length (p < .01) and period (p < .01), a larger number of operations (p < .01), and more frequent use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (p < .01) and less frequent use of chemotherapy (p < .01) than for IJV-C. However, there were no significant differences (NS) in complications associated with insertion and CVC-RBSI between IJV-C and EJV-C. There were no significant differences such complications as malposition, oozing or hematoma formation of insertion site, arterial bleeding, nerve damage, pneumothorax, and phlebitis between IJV-C and EJV-C. Moreover, EJV-C was not associated with morbidities such as pneumothorax, arterial bleeding, and nerve damage. Thus the study concluded that EJV-C using Groshong catheters has no severe complications and has the same rates of CVC-RBSI as conventional IJV-C for central venous access.

  8. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Geri

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation. PMID:27725891

  9. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  10. Internal Jugular and Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Case of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayama, Nana; Morozumi, Shouko; Nakano, Mika; Nakayama, Akari; Takahata, Yoshiomi; Sakaguchi, Yuusuke; Inoue, Natsuki; Kubota, Toshiki; Takenoya, Akiko; Ishii, Yoshiko; Okubo, Haruka; Yamaguchi, Souta; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Oharaseki, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheter insertion and cancer represent some of the important predisposing factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DVT usually develops in the lower extremities, and venous thrombosis of the upper extremities is uncommon. Early diagnosis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis are of importance, because it is a precursor of complications such as pulmonary embolism and postthrombotic syndrome. A 47-year-old woman visited our department with painful swelling on the left side of her neck. Initial examination revealed swelling of the region extending from the left neck to the shoulder without any redness of the overlying skin. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell count of 5,800/mm3 and an elevated serum C-reactive protein of 4.51 mg/dL. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck revealed a vascular filling defect in the left internal jugular vein to left subclavian vein region, with the venous lumina completely occluded with dense soft tissue. On the basis of the findings, we made the diagnosis of thrombosis of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins. The patient was begun on treatment with oral rivaroxaban, but the left shoulder pain worsened. She was then admitted to the hospital and treated by balloon thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy, which led to improvement of the left subclavian venous occlusion. Histopathologic examination of the removed thrombus revealed adenocarcinoma cells, indicating hematogenous dissemination of malignant cells. PMID:28194291

  11. Assessing techniques for disinfecting sites for inserting intravenous catheters into the jugular veins of horses.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, T E; Love, S; Taylor, D J; Heller, J; Mellor, D J; Hughes, K J

    2009-01-10

    The sites of insertion of catheters into the jugular veins of six horses were investigated to determine common isolates and to assess the effectiveness of two disinfection protocols with the hair coat left long, clipped or shaved. Skin commensals (Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Micrococcus species) and environmental contaminants (Bacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Aspergillus and Mucor species) were the microorganisms most frequently isolated. Chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone-iodine-based skin disinfection protocols resulted in significant reductions in the number of bacterial isolates from clipped sites. With chlorhexidine, there were no significant differences between the reductions observed at sites with the hair coat left long, clipped or shaved.

  12. [Prevalence of stenosis and thrombosis of central veins in hemodialysis after a tunneled jugular catheter].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Chazot, C; Charra, B; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M

    2001-01-01

    Central venous stenosis (ST) and thrombosis (TB) related to catheter (KT) had been reported mostly for the subclavian vein. We performed a systematic cavographic study to evaluate the prevalence of these complications in 51 hemodialysis patients with present or previous history of tunneled internal jugular catheter. Each of them had used one or several KT (1.8 +/- 1.4 KT) for a mean 28 +/- 26 month cumulative time (i.e. 43,584 days total exposure time). Fifty percent of the KT were PermCath Quinton and 50% were Twincath (uncuffed) or CS 100 (cuffed) Medcomp. Twenty-seven had no ST (53%, group I), 24 had one or several significant ST (47%, group II) of superior Vena Cava (SVC, n = 4), inferior Vena Cava (IVC, n = 1), Brachio-cephalic Vein (BCV, n = 5) and subclavian vein (SC, n = 10), or a TB of SVC (n = 1), IVC (n = 3), BCV (n = 3), SC (n = 2). This accounts for an incidence of 0.55 ST or TB/1000 patient-days. Five of the twelve subclavian ST and TB had no history of previous subclavian catheter. Comparison between the two groups showed no differences according to age, time on dialysis, diabetes, hematocrit, CRP, cumulative time with catheter, catheter-related infections, type of catheter and anticoagulant treatment. IVC catheter tip's position is an important risk factor for TB and ST (4/6). Twelve group II patients had ST or TB-related symptoms, with a functional AV fistula in 9 cases. Eleven patients underwent repeated percutaneous angioplasty with 4 additional Wallstents and in 2 cases an AV fistula need to be closed. Central venous ST and TB after a jugular KT is extremely frequent, mostly without any symptoms. Consequences on peripheral or central vascular access, cost and poor long-term patency rate of angioplasty are of major importance. These results incite us to further reduce the catheter use in dialysis patients.

  13. Accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein cannulation in cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Maddali, Madan Mohan; Arun, Venkitaramanan; Wala, Al-Ajmi Ahmed; Al-Bahrani, Maher Jaffer; Jayatilaka, Cheskey Manoj; Nishant, Arora Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of this study was to compare the incidence of accidental arterial puncture during right internal jugular vein (RIJV) cannulation with and without ultrasound guidance (USG). The secondary end points were to assess if USG improves the chances of successful first pass cannulation and if BMI has an impact on incidence of arterial puncture and the number of attempts that are to be made for successful cannulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study performed at a single tertiary cardiac care center. Material and methods: 255 consecutive adult and pediatric cardiac surgical patients were included. In Group I (n = 124) USG was used for the right internal jugular vein cannulation and in Group II (n = 81) it was not used. There were 135 adult patients and 70 pediatric patients. Statistical analysis: Demographic and categorical data were analyzed using Student ‘t’ test and chi- square test was used for qualitative variables. Results: The overall incidence of accidental arterial puncture in the entire study population was significantly higher when ultrasound guidance was not used (P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, incidence of arterial puncture was significant in both adult (P = 0.03) and pediatric patients (P < 0.001) without USG. First attempt cannulation was more often possible in pediatric patients under USG (P = 0.03). In adult patients USG did not improve first attempt cannulation except in underweight patients. Conclusions: USG helped in the avoidance of inadvertent arterial puncture during RIJV cannulation and simultaneously improved the chances of first attempt cannulation in pediatric and in underweight adult cardiac surgical patients. PMID:27716688

  14. Extraordinary cerebral venous drainage pathway with mastoid emissary and posterior external jugular veins detected by contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Erdogan; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen; Koksal, Vildan

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary cerebral venous drainage pathway and dilated vein at the left posterior cervical region were detected with routine contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography exam. The left sigmoid sinus was drained by dilated mastoid emissary vein (MEV). The MEV continued as posterior auricular and posterior external jugular veins (PEJVs). The left PEJV directly drained into subclavian vein. Atretic right transverse sinus, left facial vein forming the external jugular vein, atresia and hypoplasia of upper internal jugular veins at the right and left sides, respectively, were the other uncommon findings in our case. Detecting venous variations may prevent complications during surgical and interventional procedures, so the radiologists should examine the superficial cervical veins closely.

  15. Internal jugular versus subclavian vein catheterization for central venous catheterization in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Torgay, A; Pirat, A; Candan, S; Zeyneloglu, P; Arslan, G; Haberal, M

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications associated with central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the subclavian vein (SV) among 45 consecutive patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2000 and June 2004. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the site of central venous catheterization (IJV or SV). We recorded each patient's physical characteristics, international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time, platelet levels, number of puncture attempts, success/failure of central venous catheterization, duration of catheter placement, occurrence of catheter tip misplacement, arterial puncture, incidence of hematoma or pneumothorax, catheter-related infection, or bacterial colonization of the catheter. Senior staff anesthesiologists performed 22 SV and 23 IJV catheterizations for the 45 OLT procedures. The SV and IVJ groups both had minor coagulation abnormalities with slightly increased INR values at the time of catheterization. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to success of central venous catheterization (100% for both), numbers of attempted punctures, duration of catheter placement, and incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications. Both groups showed high frequencies of catheter tip misplacement, with right atrium as the site of misplacement in all cases. Two patients in the IJV group (8.7%) developed hematomas after accidental carotid artery puncture. The results suggest that, when performed by experienced anesthesiologists, central venous catheterization via the SV is an acceptable alternative to IJV catheterization for patients undergoing OLT.

  16. Catheter venography for the assessment of internal jugular veins and azygous vein: position statement by expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Simka, Marian; Hubbard, David; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Dake, Michael D; Sclafani, Salvatore J A; Al-Omari, Mamoon; Eisele, Carlos G; Haskal, Ziv J; Ludyga, Tomasz; Miloševič, Zoran V; Sievert, Horst; Stehling, Michael K; Zapf, Stefan; Zorc, Marjeta

    2013-05-01

    This document by an expert panel of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease is aimed at presenting current technique and interpretation of catheter venography of the internal jugular veins, azygous vein and other veins draining the central nervous system. Although interventionalists agree on general rules, significant differences exist in terms of details of venographic technique and interpretations of angiographic pictures. It is also suggested that debatable findings should be investigated using multimodal diagnostics. Finally, the authors recommend that any publication on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency should include detailed description of venographic technique used, to facilitate a comparison of published results in this area.

  17. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening.

  18. Cardiac Variation of Internal Jugular Vein for the Evaluation of Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Qian, Kun; Ando, Takehiro; Inokuchi, Ryota; Doi, Kent; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Evaluations of intravascular fluid volume are considered to be one of the most important assessments in emergency and intensive care. Focusing on pulse-induced variation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) area, i.e., cardiac variation, we investigated its correlation with various hemodynamic indices using newly developed software. Software that automatically can track and analyze the IJV during ultrasonography was developed. Eleven healthy patients were subjected to an exercise load to increase their stroke volume (SV) and a dehydration load to decrease their central venous pressure (CVP). The cardiac variation in the area of the IJV, CVP, the SV and the respiratory variation in the inferior vena cava (IVC) were evaluated. The exercise protocol increased the patients' mean SV by 14.5 ± 3.7 mL, and the dehydration protocol caused their mean CVP to fall by 3.75 ± 0.33 cm H2O, which resulted in the collapse index (max IJV area - min IJV area/max IJV area) changing from 0.32 ± 0.04 to 0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.49 ± 0.04, respectively (p < 0.05). The SV exhibited a strong positive correlation with the collapse index (r = 0.59, p = 0.006), and CVP showed a strong positive correlation with the body height-adjusted mean area of the IJV (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Cardiac variation in the area of the great veins is considered to be induced by venous return to the right atrium under negative pressure. It is possible that intravascular dehydration can be detected and hemodynamic indices, such as CVP and SV, can be estimated by evaluating cardiac variation in the area of the IJV.

  19. Physical stress testing of bovine jugular veins using magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography and electrical velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Boethig, Dietmar; Ernst, Franziska; Sarikouch, Samir; Norozi, Kambiz; Lotz, Joachim; Opherk, Jan Patrick; Meister, Maren; Breymann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Bovine jugular veins (BJVs) (Contegra) are valve-bearing pulmonary artery substitutes. Their valves have higher profiles than human pulmonary valves; this might result in less optimal performance. Therefore, we investigated the impact of stress and undersizing on conduit performance with ergometry, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between April 2007 and June 2008, 20 BJV recipients (age 7.9-19.6 years) underwent spiroergometry and subsequent echocardiography; after due rest, ergometry was repeated and followed by MRI during recovery. A year later, exams were repeated. Data was evaluated as follows: comparison of stress related maximal individual valve performance changes (magnetic resonance: exercise induced average stroke volume changes by 61+/-49%; mean insufficiency increased by 2% in patients with <1% rest insufficiency and by 8% after rest insufficiency of >10%; the average rest gradient of 24+/-11 mmHg rose to 40+/-20 mmHg), and stratification of pooled observations by regurgitation fraction, insufficiency grades and z-values (insufficiency rose with increasing heart rate and decreasing stroke volume; undersizing increased gradients during recovery by 7+/-0.7 mmHg/z-value). Contegras high-profile valves tolerate stress without performance drop. Stress induced changes of insufficiency and gradient were clinically not significant, but sufficient to distort examination results; therefore, constant examination conditions are indispensable for a correct follow-up.

  20. Acute jugular vein thrombosis during rituximab administration: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dada, Reyad; Zekri, Jamal; Ramal, Bilal; Ahmad, Kamel

    2016-02-01

    Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody is licensed for the treatment of CD20 positive lymphomas. Previous studies have found rituximab, in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy, is superior to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone alone in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and many other B-cell lymphomas. Acute hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients receiving rituximab infusion and usually manifesting as headache, fever, chills, sweats, skin rash, dyspnea, mild hypotension, and nausea. Acute major venous thrombosis and seizures have not been reported as manifestation of acute hypersensitivity reaction. We report on a 22-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with stage III B CD20 positive B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. During the first cycle of treatment, she developed grand-mal seizure while receiving rituximab infusion without any other features of acute hypersensitivity reaction. Imaging confirmed new onset jugular vein thrombosis with normal coagulation parameters. These events were managed by anticonvulsants and anticoagulation therapy. The patient completed eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone without rituximab and achieved complete remission. No further complications were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature describing grand-mal seizures and acute thrombosis while on rituximab treatment. Clinicians should be aware of this rare side effect, as stopping rituximab can prevent recurrence of these complications.

  1. Right Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation: Carotid Artery-directed versus Sternocleidomastoid-directed Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yan; Yuan, Ping; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Min

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore a simple and safe method for central venous catheterization (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein (RIJV) by comparing carotid artery (CA) positioning with sternocleidomastoid (SCM) positioning. The medical records of patients who underwent CVC between January 2011 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Central venous catheters were inserted into the RIJV either above the level of the cricoid cartilage using the CA-directed method (419 patients, Group 1) or below the level of the cricoid cartilage using the SCM-directed method (436 patients, Group 2). Success rate and related complications of catheterization were evaluated in the two groups. The total success rate of RIJV cannulation in Group 1 (97.2%) was higher than that in Group 2 (94.5%). Moreover, the success rate at first attempt was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.4% vs 86.9%). The incidence of hematoma was 1.6 per cent in Group 1 and 3.8 per cent in Group 2. The rate of other complications such as pneumothorax, catheter-related infections, and catheter occlusion did not significantly differ between the groups. In conclusions, CA-directed RIJV cannulation is more effective and simple to perform than the SCM-directed method, and should become the preferred CVC technique in the absence of ultrasound guidance.

  2. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, L.; Scaccianoce, E.; Dipasquale, O.; Ricci, C.; Baglio, F.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  3. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing.

    PubMed

    Laganà, M M; Pelizzari, L; Scaccianoce, E; Dipasquale, O; Ricci, C; Baglio, F; Cecconi, P; Baselli, G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1-C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1-C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies.

  4. Placement of long-term hemodialysis catheter (permcath) in patients with end-stage renal disease through external jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, Ali Akbar; Sharifi, Ali; Gaheri, Hafez; Abdollahi, Saeed; Esfahani, Morteza Abdar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) has progressively increased in the population. Kidney transplantation is the specific treatment for such patients; however a majority of patients will require hemodialysis before kidney transplantation. The present study aims to investigate using the external jugular vein (EJV) for Permcath placement in these patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in Alzahra Medical Center, Isfahan, in 2012. Catheters were inserted by cutting down the right EJV. The patency rate and potential complications were studied. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Results: Out of 45 live patients, within three months of surgery, 40 patients (81.6%) had no complications and dialysis continued through Permcath. Permcath Thrombosis occurred in two patients (4.4%). Catheter infection led to the removal of it in one patient (2.2%) 1.5 months after surgery. And accidental catheter removal occurred in one patient. Conclusion: Placement of the permcath in the external jugular vein can be a safe, uncomplicated, and reliable method for patients requiring hemodialysis, and can be a life-saving alternative in patients without accessible internal jugular vein. PMID:25590030

  5. Case report: central venous catheterization via internal jugular vein with associated formation of perioperative venous thrombosis during surgery in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kimito; Mimami, Kimito; Iida, Miki; Iida, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis during supine surgery in the prone position is presented. A 76-year-old woman was scheduled for elective surgery to repair a broken lumbar instrument. A single-lumen CVC was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Surgery was performed in the prone position, with the patient's face directed downward in the standard median position (i.e., no rotation), but with slight forward flexion at the neck. After the surgery, the external jugular vein was dilated, and a postoperative X-ray revealed an infiltrative shadow in the right thoracic cavity. Because cervical echography showed dilated cervical veins with a "moyamoya-type" echo, possibly indicating a thrombus, contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed, revealing a venous thrombus in the right internal jugular vein. An internal jugular venous-velocity measurement suggested that her slightly flexed neck position and her prone position during surgery may have kinked the internal jugular vein, causing engorgement with venous blood. The presence of the internal jugular venous catheter may have created thrombogenic conditions. A patient's position during surgery can reduce deep venous-flow velocity, and venous blood may stagnate, contributing greatly to thrombogenicity. We should consider a patient's position during surgery as a risk factor for thrombus formation, and a careful preoperative evaluation should be made as to which route should be chosen for CVC.

  6. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Hagemeier, Jesper; Beggs, Clive; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal jugular vein (IJV) narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs) has not been adequately assessed. Objectives We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) and aging. Materials and Methods This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females) who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index) and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences. Results Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3) to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1), while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3) to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1); in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3) to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1). The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001) than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels. Conclusions In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors. PMID:26895434

  7. Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

  8. Bilateral surgical reconstruction for internal jugular veins disease in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and associated multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Salvatore; Scalise, Filippo; Barbato, Luciano; Grasso, Maria Antonietta; Tesler, Ugo F

    2014-10-01

    Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a vascular condition characterized by morphologic alterations involving efferent cerebral vascular paths. CCSVI has been implicated as a contributing factor to multiple sclerosis (MS) but this theory is highly controversial. We report 3 cases of CCSVI patients with MS who had undergone internal jugular veins (IJVs) angioplasty to restore vessels patency. All patients reported significant symptomatic improvement after angioplasty until symptoms recurred after restenosis of the treated IJVs. Surgical IJVs reconstruction was performed. Patients' symptoms gradually improved and the benefits were maintained at the 1-year follow-up.

  9. Internal jugular vein thrombosis presenting as a painful neck mass due to a spontaneous dislocated subclavian port catheter as long-term complication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Grommes, Jochen; Junge, Karsten; Göbner, Sonja; Schumpelick, Volker; Truong, Son

    2009-01-01

    Central venous access devices are extensively used for long-term chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. However, there are some possible immediate, early, and late complications related to the implantation technique, care, and maintenance. We present the uncommon occurrence of a thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to a spontaneous migration of a Port-A-Cath catheter into the ipsilateral internal jugular vein as a delayed complication of a central venous access catheter implanted for chemotherapy delivery. A review of the literature is given, and the factors responsible for this unusual complication will be discussed. PMID:19830037

  10. Central venous catheterization--an anatomical review of a clinical skill. Part 2. Internal jugular vein via the supraclavicular approach.

    PubMed

    Boon, J M; van Schoor, A N; Abrahams, P H; Meiring, J H; Welch, T

    2008-01-01

    The safe and successful performance of a central venous catheterization (CVC) requires a specific knowledge of anatomy in addition to a working knowledge. Misunderstanding the anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review aims to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of CVC of the internal jugular veins. CVC is common practice amongst surgeons, anesthesiologists, and emergency room physicians during the preparations for major surgical procedures such as open-heart surgery, as well as for intensive care monitoring and rapid restoration of blood volume. Associated with this technique are certain anatomical pitfalls and complications that can be successfully avoided if one possesses a thorough knowledge of the contraindications, regional anatomy, and rationale of the technique.

  11. Venous anastomosis in free flap reconstruction after radical neck dissection: is the external jugular vein a feasible option?

    PubMed

    Reiter, Maximilian; Baumeister, Philipp

    2017-01-13

    Free microvascular tissue transfer has become a reliable and wellestablished technique in reconstructive surgery. Success rates greater than 95% are constantly reported in the literature. End-to-end anastomosis to the external jugular vein (EJ) is supposed to be equally successful as anastomosis to the internal jugular vein (IJ) in patients treated with selective neck dissection. No data has been published so far when the IJ had to be resected during neck dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate and complications of end-to-end anastomosis to the EJ in cases of (modified) radical neck dissection with resected IJ. A retrospective mono-center cohort study was performed. All patients with end-to-end anastomosis to either the IJ or EJ-system were reviewed. 423 free-tissue transfers performed between 2009 and 2016 were included. The overall success rate was 97.0% with an anastomotic revision rate due to venous thrombosis of 12.3%. In patients when the IJ had to be resected and the venous anastomosis was performed at the ipsilateral side to the EJ (n = 53), overall flap loss was significantly higher (5/53; 9.4%). The revision rate in these cases was 22.6%. Success rate of anastomosis to the EJ when the ipsilateral IJ was still intact was 100% (n = 20). Success rate when the anastomosis was performed at the contralateral side was 100%. End-to-end anastomosis to the EJ in cases with resected IJ is more likely to result in free flap loss. Furthermore, it is associated with a higher revision rate. Therefore, in cases with resected IJ, we suggest to plan the operation beforehand with anastomosis at the contralateral side whenever possible.

  12. Detection of Reflux in Jugular and Vertebral Veins Through Directional Multigate Quality Doppler Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzoni, Leonardo; Morovic, Sandra; Semplici, Paolo; Corsi, Massino; Ricci, Stefano; Tortoli, Piero

    Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) is a medical condition where deoxygenated blood flows from the veins surrounding the brain and spine is slowed down or blocked in its return to the heart. The diagnosis and severity of CCSVI can be assessed by investigating the possible presence and the extent of such reflux and/or blockage in neck veins and intracranial veins, with the patient in both sitting and supine positions. During such examinations, B-Mode and Color Doppler ultrasound are not always capable of accurately detect the flow behavior in all subjects.

  13. Comparison of Brachial Vein Versus Internal Jugular Vein Approach for Access to the Right Side of the Heart With or Without Myocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Neha; Chukwu, Ebere; Alvarez, Manrique; Thohan, Vinay

    2015-09-01

    Right heart catheterization (RHC) and endomyocardial biopsy are mainstay procedures for patients with heart failure and heart transplantation. Approaches are predominantly neck (internal jugular) or leg (femoral vein). We describe a novel arm (brachial/basilica vein) approach. Over 5.5 years, 1,130 right-sided cardiac procedures in 276 patients were analyzed retrospectively and divided into either neck or arm approach. Comparative analyses of procedural success, time, safety, efficacy, and cost were performed. Patient preference was assessed for those who had both neck and arm approaches. In patients receiving RHC (174 neck and 121 arm cases) and in those receiving RHC + biopsy (594 neck and 141 arm cases), mean elapsed and fluoroscopic times (minutes), respectively, were 60 ± 20 versus 62 ± 19 and 3.43 ± 3.8 versus 4.99 ± 5.2 (RHC neck vs arm, respectively), and 55 ± 19 versus 63 ± 17 and 4.14 ± 3.4 versus 5.22 ± 2.6 (RHC + biopsy neck vs arm, respectively). Procedural complications were low (n = 7, 0.6%) and restricted to the neck approach. Patients surveyed preferred the arm approach. In conclusion, RHC and endomyocardial biopsy through the brachial vein can be performed safely, timely, effectively, and at equivalent cost compared with a neck approach. We advocate that an arm approach be the preferred method for these procedures.

  14. Massive hemothorax due to subclavian vein tear during internal jugular vein cannulation in a 15-year-old boy scheduled for mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Paulose, Deepak; Kundra, Pankaj; Parida, Satyen

    2015-01-01

    We present an unusual case of life-threatening hemothorax in a 15-year-old boy following subclavian vein tear during internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation prior to initiation of surgery (mitral valve replacement). Successful IJV cannulation was done in the third attempt. However, we missed the subclavian tear which occurred during the first two initial attempts as there was no clinical evidence suggestive of it at that point of time. This undiagnosed hemothorax led to hemodynamic decompensation requiring high volume and inotropic support to wean the patient off cardiopulmonary bypass. This unusually high requirement of fluid and inotropes required the surgeon to look for noncardiac causes for the hemodynamic disturbance and he noticed a bulge in the right pleura, which on exploration had approximately 1.5 L of collected blood. It was then retrospectively analyzed that the cause of this hemothorax could have been the undue lateral orientation of the needle during IJV cannulation and the advancement of the dilator to its entire length could have injured the subclavian vein. Here, we also would like to discuss the safety precautions to be taken during the cannulation, like the needle orientation and the length to which the dilator must be advanced for safe central venous cannulation. PMID:26712992

  15. A rare malposition of the thoracic venous catheter introduced via the left internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip; Dewan, Himanshu; Bhattacharyya, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    A rare malposition of central venous catheter in the left superior intercostal vein is described. The diagnostic features and the possible ways to prevent this complication are discussed. PMID:19742265

  16. Ipsilateral jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition to relieve central venous hypertension in rescue vascular access surgery: a surgical report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Acri, Ignazioe; Carmignani, Amedeo; Vazzana, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Acri, Edvige; Lentini, Salvatore; Spinelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Central venous thrombosis may often arise following central venous cannulation for temporary haemodialysis access. Venous thrombosis may be clinically asymptomatic due to the presence of collateral circulation. However, if an arteriovenous (AV) fistula is prepared below the obstructed venous segment, then symptoms may occur. Central venous hypertension interferes with dialysis, compromises limb function and threatens its safety. Percutaneous treatment is mostly used. However, in some cases endovascular treatment may not be as easy and long term patency uncertain.We report our experience on 3 patients on chronic hemodialysis treatment presenting with a patent AV fistula and ipsilateral subclavian vein chronic fibrotic obstruction. They were treated by ipsilateral internal jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition. Two separate surgical incisions were performed to expose the subclavian vein distally to the occlusion and the jugular vein that was distally ligated and transposed. There was no mortality nor significant postoperative complications. Resolution of hypertensive symptoms was achieved within 3-4 weeks in all patients. The AV fistula was used for dialysis treatment starting from the first postoperative day. At follow-up (mean 13 months), there was no recurrence of upper limb venous hypertension.In patients with subclavian occlusion and ipsilateral low flow, patent AV fistula, jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition may prove useful in cases when percutaneous angioplasty is technically not feasible or long term patency is not expected.

  17. [A case of a flapping infected thrombus in the internal jugular vein, septic pneumonias and heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia].

    PubMed

    Majdák, P; Kubík, J; Harmátová, L

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a 54 years old female patient after anterior wall left ventricular myocardial infarction in 2005 who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery requiring cannulation of the right internal jugular vein (IJV). She was admitted to a Department of Pulmonary Diseases with left bronchopneumonia (BPN) following 7 day treatment, with hemoptysis, dyspnoea and fevers. Duplex ultrasound (DUS) was used to diagnose flapping thrombus in the right IJV, severe thrombocytopenia and, in addition, progressing multiple infiltrates on X-ray a few days later. We empirically adjusted the treatment initiated in primary care and observed deterioration of the severe thrombocytopenia during treatment with low molecular weight heparine. We diagnosed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and, even though this indication was not included in our drug formulary, we initiated treatment with Arixtra (fondaparinux) 2.5 mg s.c. daily. Intensive conservative treatment was associated with significant clinical and laboratory improvement of the condition, significant regression of the IJV thrombus as well as the finding on X-ray. The final effective antibiotic treatment lasted 20 (amoxicillin + clavulanate) and 10 (clindamycin) days, respectively. Treatment with Arixtra (fondaparinux) continued in primary care and lasted a total of 65 days until normal thrombocyte levels were achieved, with gradual transition to oral anticoagulation treatment. The patient was discharged to primary care on the 23rd day of hospitalization when she was stabilized, a febrile and her cardiopulmonary functions were compensated. We did not identify any case of treatment of jugular thrombosis and concurrent HIT with fondaparin anywhere in the international literature.

  18. The Oscillating Component of the Internal Jugular Vein Flow: The Overlooked Element of Cerebral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Sisini, Francesco; Toro, Eleuterio; Gambaccini, Mauro; Zamboni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The jugular venous pulse (JVP) provides valuable information about cardiac haemodynamics and filling pressures and is an indirect estimate of the central venous pressure (CVP). Recently it has been proven that JVP can be obtained by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV on each sonogram of an ultrasound B-mode sonogram sequence. It has also been proven that during its pulsation the IJV is distended and hence that the pressure gradient drives the IJV haemodynamics. If this is true, then it will imply the following: (i) the blood velocity in the IJV is a periodic function of the time with period equal to the cardiac period and (ii) the instantaneous blood velocity is given by a time function that can be derived from a flow-dynamics theory that uses the instantaneous pressure gradient as a parameter. The aim of the present study is to confirm the hypothesis that JVP regulates the IJV blood flow and that pressure waves are transmitted from the heart toward the brain through the IJV wall. PMID:26783380

  19. Using Ultrasonography to Determine Optimal Head-down Tilt Position Angle in Patients before Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kasatkin, Anton A.; Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Context: It is believed that 15°–25° head-down tilt position increases the internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJV CSA). The increase in IJV CSA before puncture reduces the risk of its perforation. This pattern was not observed in all patients. We assumed that the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion is one of the criteria of head-down tilt position effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the head-down tilt angle, which ensures the absence of the respiratory-based IJV excursion. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study included twenty adult patients. The IJVs scanning was carried out in 1 min after placing the patients in a horizontal position on their back and in 1 min after placing them in the head-down tilt position at 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° tilt angles. Results: We found that collapsibility index of <9% indicating the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion was recorded in 25% of patients in the horizontal supine position. In this case, placing the patients in the Trendelenburg position for IJV catheterization may not be indicated. In 65% of the patients, the respiratory-based excursion was not observed at 10° head-down tilt position. Only 35% of the patients required 15° head-down tilt position. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the disappearance of respiratory-based vein excursion on the ultrasound scanner screen can be considered as criteria of the head-down tilt position effectiveness.

  20. Using Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients With Difficult Peripheral Access.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Michael; Abdelghani, Ramsy; Mohamad, Maha; Limsuwat, Chok; Kheir, Fayez

    2015-10-08

    Vascular access is necessary in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the medical ward. Currently, there are multiple modalities to achieve adequate vascular access, each with their own difficulties and drawbacks. Often, in patients with certain comorbidities, it is difficult to obtain a peripheral intravenous (IV) line, which can lead to multiple failed attempts in achieving access. We describe the feasibility of inserting an ultrasound (US)-guided peripheral IV catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJ) in such populations. This was a prospective observational case series in patients with difficult or failed peripheral IV access. All patients underwent sterile insertion of a peripheral IV catheter (2.5″, 18 gauge) into the IJ under US guidance. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasonography. Nineteen consecutive patients were included in this series. A total of 20 US-guided peripheral IJ catheters were placed. The mean patient age was 57. Sixty percent of patients were male and the mean body mass index was 26 (14.1-51.5). The mean time taken to place the peripheral IJ catheter was 5.3 minutes. Eighty-five percent of catheters placed were mostly placed in the right IJ. There were no complications on follow-up. US-guided placement of peripheral IV catheters in the IJ is feasible to achieve short-term IV access in a select patient population who failed traditional peripheral IV placement. Furthermore, larger trials are needed to confirm safety and long-term complications of this method.

  1. [Continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation in the jugular vein bulb in severe head injuries. Management and case reviews].

    PubMed

    Larráyoz Iriarte, J M; Mariñelarena Huárriz, A C; Martínez de Losa Carvajal, S

    1999-01-01

    Since october 1996, the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital of Navarra has carried out continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation in the bulb of the internal jugular vein (SjO2). This technique, used in patients with severe cranioencephalic trauma (SCET), is designed to facilitate care an ensure the use of adequate therapeutic measures in such patients. The present study has two parts: In the first part, SjO2 monitoring is defined and catheter insertion techniques, technical problems, and nursing care are described. In the second part, a retrospective review is made of patients admitted to the unit from october 1996 to october 1997 who underwent SjO2 monitoring. A total of 11 cases are included, the common features of which were: SCET, intracranial pressure over 20 mmHg, Glasgow score of 8 or less, and abnormal CAT study. This study provides a basis for developing a nursing protocol because familiarity with the technique allows problems to be prevented and/or resolved.

  2. Relationship between intracranial hypertension and ultrasonic patterns of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Liboni, W; Bertolotto, A; Urciuoli, R

    1983-01-01

    The Doppler technique has only been used in neurological practice to evidence local vessel pathology such as occlusion or stenosis. Both common carotid artery and internal jugular vein flows can change not only because of pathological processes of the vessels but also because of impedance of their distribution territory. In this report we analyze the relationship between flow velocity, one of the parameters of blood flow, and intracranial impedance variations which occur in cerebral concussion, tumors and acute vascular cerebral pathology. During our observations we noticed that the diastolic wave of the velocity curve of the common carotid artery is a very important signal of the flow variations in the internal carotid artery and, in turn, of variations in cerebral flow. We studied the behaviour of the common carotid artery velocity curve in our patients both during clinical disease development and during the action of mannitol in the acute phases of the disease. We found that the ultrasonic patterns during antiedema action were similar to the ones obtained during the recovery period. We were able to note some differences and some similarities of the curve morphology in relation to generalized or focal causes of cerebral edema. This may be very important considering that at present no non-invasive and therefore repeatable technique is available for monitoring cerebral blood flow in intracranial hypertension.

  3. Hemodynamics and right-ventricle functional characteristics of a swine carotid artery-jugular vein shunt model of pulmonary arterial hypertension: An 18-month experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoju; Huang, Yuanyuan; He, Yun; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties and right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been fully characterized in large animal model of PAH induced by a carotid artery–jugular vein shunt. A minipig model of PAH was induced by a surgical anastomosis between the left common carotid artery and the left jugular vein. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathologic analyses, and the hemodynamic features and right-ventricle functional characteristics of the model were continuously observed by Doppler echocardiography. Of the 45 minipigs who received the surgery, 27 survived and were validated as models of PAH, reflected by mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, and typical pathologic changes of pulmonary arterial remodeling and RV fibrosis. Non-invasive indices of pulmonary hemodynamics (pulmonary artery accelerating time and its ratio to RV ventricular ejection time) were temporarily increased, then reduced later, similar to changes in tricuspid annular displacement. The Tei index of the RV was elevated, indicating a progressive impairment in RV function. Surgical anastomosis between carotid artery and jugular vein in a minipig is effective to establish PAH, and non-invasive hemodynamic and right-ventricle functional indices measured by Doppler echocardiography may be used as early indicators of PAH. PMID:25595189

  4. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  5. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.

    2015-08-15

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.

  6. Effective use of flow-spoiled FBI and time-SLIP methods in the diagnostic study of an aberrant vessel of the head and neck: "left jugular venous steal by the right jugular vein".

    PubMed

    Kogure, Taroh; Kogure, Kyuya; Iizuka, Mitsumasa; Ino, Azusa; Ishii, Masako

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) is now commonly used in routine magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies of the head and neck. However, there are limits to its diagnostic abilities in the clinical field and, in some instances, a more invasive supplementary examination may be required. We incidentally discovered a patient with an aberrant vessel of the head and neck that ran alongside the left carotid artery and contained a constant, slowly pulsating efferent blood flow. 3D-TOF and carotid ultrasonography could not determine the nature and origin of this vessel. Additional studies using flow-spoiled fresh blood imaging (flow-spoiled FBI) and time spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) methods were effective in determining that the vessel was the left jugular vein, and that the continuous venous reflux was a result of a venous steal by the right jugular vein. We show that by combining different MRA techniques we can effectively achieve diagnosis without resorting to more invasive examinations.

  7. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  8. The effects of the Trendelenburg position and the Valsalva manoeuvre on internal jugular vein diameter and placement in children

    PubMed Central

    Dincyurek, Gamze Naime; Mogol, Elif Basagan; Turker, Gurkan; Yavascaoglu, Belgin; Gurbet, Alp; Kaya, Fatma Nur; Moustafa, Bachri Ramadan; Yazici, Tolga

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We compared the effects of various surgical positions, with and without the Valsalva manoeuvre, on the diameter of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). METHODS We recruited 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I patients aged 2–12 years. The patients’ heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO2 pressure were monitored. Induction of anaesthesia was done using 1% propofol 10 mg/mL and fentanyl 2 µg/kg, while maintenance was achieved with 2% sevoflurane in a mixture of 50/50 oxygen and air (administered via a laryngeal mask airway). The RIJV diameter was measured using ultrasonography when the patient was in the supine position. Thereafter, it was measured when the patient was in the supine position + Valsalva, followed by the Trendelenburg, Trendelenburg + Valsalva, reverse Trendelenburg, and reverse Trendelenburg + Valsalva positions. A 15° depression or elevation was applied for the Trendelenburg position, and an airway pressure of 20 cmH2O was applied in the Valsalva manoeuvre. During ultrasonography, the patient’s head was tilted 20° to the left. RESULTS When compared to the mean RIJV diameter in the supine position, the mean RIJV diameter was significantly greater in all positions (p < 0.001) except for the reverse Trendelenburg position. The greatest increase in diameter was observed in the Trendelenburg position with the Valsalva manoeuvre (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In paediatric patients, the application of the Trendelenburg position with the Valsalva manoeuvre gave the greatest increase in RIJV diameter. The reverse Trendelenburg position had no significant effect on RIJV diameter. PMID:25597750

  9. Incidence of posterior wall penetration during internal jugular vein cannulation: A comparison of two techniques using real-time ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shrikanth; Govil, Deepak; Gupta, Sachin; Patel, Sweta; Jagadeesh, KN; Tomar, Deeksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The true incidence of penetration of the posterior wall (through-and-through puncture) of the internal jugular vein (IJV) during cannulation is unknown. This may have implications if there is hematoma formation, penetration and/or inadvertent cannulation of an underlying carotid artery. This study compared the incidence of posterior wall puncture during IJV cannulation using ultrasound guidance versus traditional landmarks-guided technique. Methods: One hundred and seventy adult patients admitted to a gastro-liver Intensive Care Unit who required central venous lines were randomly divided into Group A: IJV cannulation using anatomical landmark-guided technique and Group B: IJV cannulation using real-time ultrasound guidance. In both groups, a second investigator followed the needle path using real-time ultrasound. The incidence of posterior wall puncture, number of attempts for successful cannulation, incidence of inadvertent arterial punctures and occurrence of complications such as hematoma formation and pneumothorax were recorded. Results: Significantly more (37/80, 46%) patients in Group A had posterior wall puncture compared to 19/90 (21%) in Group B. Incidence of arterial puncture was 8/80 (10%) in Group A, 5/90 (5.5%) in Group B. The number of attempts for venous cannulation and hematoma formation was significantly less in Group B. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound-guided IJV cannulation significantly reduces but does not wholly eliminate the incidence of posterior venous wall penetrations. It also significantly reduces the incidence of inadvertent arterial punctures and number of attempts for successful cannulation.

  10. Inhibitory effect of sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia in the jugular vein after open cutdown central venous catheter placement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongyup; Kim, Younglim; Hwang, Ji Woong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on neointimal hyperplasia after open cutdown has not been elucidated. Methods For the control group (n = 16), silicone 2.7-Fr catheters were placed via the right external jugular vein with the cutdown method. For the treatment group (n = 16), a mixture of 0.65 mg of paclitaxel and 1 mL of fibrin glue was infiltrated around the exposed vein after cutdown. After scheduled intervals (1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks), the vein segment was harvested and morphometric analysis was performed on cross-sections. Results Proliferation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) was strongly suppressed in the treatment group, and the ratio of neointima to vein wall was significantly reduced in the treatment group (8 weeks; 0.63 ± 0.08 vs. 0.2 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Luminal patency was significantly more preserved in the treatment group, and the luminal area was significantly wider in the paclitaxel-treated group compared to the control group (8 weeks; 1.91 ± 0.43 mm2 vs. 5.1 ± 0.43 mm2, P < 0.05). Mean SMC counts measured at 1 and 2 weeks after cutdown were significantly lower in the treatment group (2 weeks; 115 ± 22 vs. 62 ± 22). Paclitaxel was undetectable in systemic circulation (<10 ng/mL). Conclusion Sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel with fibrin glue was effective in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in rat jugular vein after open cutdown. PMID:28203557

  11. Perforation of the superior vena cava 5 days after insertion of a central venous catheter through the left internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Kurabe, Miyuki; Watanabe, Tatsunori; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-06-01

    We describe a very rare case of an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC) through the left internal jugular vein that perforated the superior vena cava (SVC) wall postoperatively, although the CVC was placed in the appropriate position preoperatively. Three days after CVC insertion, a chest radiograph showed that the CVC tip had moved from the lower SVC to the upper SVC. Five days after the insertion, computed tomography showed SVC perforation and the resulting hydrothorax. In cases of CVC insertion through the left side, the CVC tip should not be placed in the upper SVC (zone B). Considering individual clinical factors and the indwelling period for the CVC, the left innominate vein (zone C) may be a suitable site for the left-sided CVC tip to reduce the risk of SVC perforation.

  12. Pulmonary embolism and internal jugular vein thrombosis as evocative clues of Lemierre’s syndrome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Molino, Christian; Misurati, Elisa; Tiseo, Ruana; Parisi, Claudia; Boari, Benedetta; Manfredini, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Lemierre’s syndrome (LS) is an uncommon condition with oropharyngeal infections, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and systemic metastatic septic embolization as the main features. Fusobacterium species, a group of strictly anaerobic Gram negative rod shaped bacteria, are advocated to be the main pathogen involved. We report a case of LS complicated by pulmonary embolism and pulmonary septic emboli that mimicked a neoplastic lung condition. A Medline search revealed 173 case reports of LS associated with internal jugular vein thrombosis that documented the type of microorganism. Data confirmed high prevalence in young males with Gram negative infections (83.2%). Pulmonary embolism was reported in 8.7% of cases mainly described in subjects with Gram positive infections (OR = 9.786; 95%CI: 2.577-37.168, P = 0.001), independently of age and gender. Only four fatal cases were reported. LS is an uncommon condition that could be complicated by pulmonary embolism, especially in subjects with Gram positive infections. PMID:28352635

  13. Successful percutaneous transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure through the right internal jugular vein using a steerable catheter.

    PubMed

    Hascoet, Sebastien; Fraisse, Alain; Elbaz, Meyer

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous transcatheter closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) remains challenging when femoral venous approach is not available. We describe the successful closure of a PFO using the right internal jugular venous approach and a deflectable catheter delivery system in a patient with a PFO, recurrent stroke, and an inferior vena cava filter.

  14. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  15. Dedolomitization in tectonic veins and stylolites: evidence for rapid fluid migration during deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    Jurassic through Tertiary thrust-belt deformation of the Mississippian Madison Group has introduced complex fracturing, stylolitization, and carbonate vein mineralization. Host rocks are dominantly dolostone and dolomitic limestone. Tectonic veins are mineralized first by dolomite and then by multiple calcite phases. Dolomite and some generations of calcite which line veins are highly luminescent, while host-rock dolomite have been corroded and replaced by subsequent generations of calcite mineralization. These textural relationships suggest that fluids associated with thrust-belt deformation were in part extraformational and had not equilibrated with host-rock dolomite. Because thrust-belt deformation moved from west to east with time, the isotopic composition (/sup 18/O, /sup 13/O) of vein and stylolite mineralization can be used to evaluate fluid migration during deformation. In three sections located along an east-west transect in the southern overthrust belt, calcite vein mineralization displays a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinctly depleted relative to the host-rock composition. These vein-lining exhibit systematic compositional changes with both time of deformation and with geographic position relative to major thrust faults. These isotopic changes in vein mineralization and pressure-solution products, together with the textural evidence for calcitization of host-rock and vein dolomite, suggest that these rocks were open to allochthonous fluid migration during deformation.

  16. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured. All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment. The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  17. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects.

  18. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-01-01

    Background Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. Methods A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. Results With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p<0.05) but not in the collar group (p>0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Discussion Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. Trial registration number NCT02696200. PMID:27307271

  19. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600°C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  20. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  1. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjøll, H. J.; Viola, G.; Menegon, L.; Sørensen, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by EBSD and optical microscopy to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low-grade conditions, broadly coincident with the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is from a high strain zone at the front of the Porsa Imbricate Stack in the Paleoproterozoic Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed under lower greenschist facies conditions during deformation along a large out-of-sequence phyllonitic thrust of Caledonian age. The host phyllonite formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation was initially accommodated by basal ⟨a⟩ slip of quartz during the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage. Under the prevailing boundary conditions, however, dislocation glide-accommodated deformation of quartz resulted inefficient and led to dislocation tangling and strain hardening of the vein. In response to hardening, to the progressive increase of fluid pressure and the increasing competence contrast between the vein and the weak foliated host phyllonite, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific, optimally oriented lattice planes, creating microgouges along microfractures. These were, however, rapidly sealed by nucleation of new grains as transiently over pressured fluids penetrated the deforming system. The new nucleated grains grew initially by solution-precipitation and later by grain boundary migration. Due to the random initial orientation of the vein crystals, strain was accommodated differently in the individual crystals, leading to the development of remarkably different microstructures. Crystals

  2. Erythrocyte oxidative stress is associated with cell deformability in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Becatti, M; Marcucci, R; Gori, A M; Mannini, L; Grifoni, E; Alessandrello Liotta, A; Sodi, A; Tartaro, R; Taddei, N; Rizzo, S; Prisco, D; Abbate, R; Fiorillo, C

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Retinal vein occlusion (RVO), characterized by blood hyperviscosity, has an unclear pathogenesis. We aimed to find out if hemorheological profile is altered by oxidative stress in RVO patients. Red blood cell (RBC) oxidative stress is associated to whole blood viscosity and RBC deformability. Reactive oxygen species alter RBC membrane rigidity, playing a key role in RVO pathogenesis.

  3. Brittle-viscous deformation of vein quartz under fluid-rich low greenschist facies conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Viola, Giulio; Menegon, Luca; Sørensen, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    A coarse grained, statically crystallized quartz vein with a random CPO, embedded in a phyllonitic matrix, was studied by optical microscopy, SEM imaging and EBSD to gain insights into the processes of strain localization in quartz deformed under low greenschist facies conditions at the frictional-viscous transition. The vein is located in a high strain zone at the front of an imbricate stack of Caledonian age along the northwesternmost edge of the Repparfjord Tectonic Window in northern Norway. The vein was deformed within the Nussirjavrri Fault Zone (NFZ), an out-of-sequence thrust with a phyllonitic core characterized by a ramp-flat-ramp geometry, NNW plunging stretching lineations and top-to-the SSE thrusting kinematics. Deformation conditions are typical of the frictional-viscous transition. The phyllonitic core formed at the expense of metabasalt wherein feldspar broke down to form interconnected layers of fine, synkinematic phyllosilicates. In the mechanically weak framework of the phyllonite, the studied quartz vein acted as a relatively rigid body deforming mainly by coaxial strain. Viscous deformation, related to the development of a mesoscopic pervasive extensional crenulation cleavage, was accommodated within the vein initially by basal slip of suitably oriented quartz crystals, which produced e.g. undulose extinction, extinction bands and bulging grain boundaries. In the case of misoriented quartz crystals, however, glide-accommodated dislocation creep resulted soon inefficient and led to localized dislocation tangling and strain hardening. In response to 1) hardening, 2) progressive increase of fluid pressure within the actively deforming vein and 3) increasing competence contrast between the vein and the surrounding weak, foliated phyllonitic fault core, quartz crystals began to deform frictionally along specific lattice planes oriented optimally with respect to the imposed stress field. Microfaulting generated small volumes of gouge along

  4. Deformation and veining processes on the subduction zone; example from the Cretaceous Shimanto accretionary complex in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiwa, T.; Kageyama, N.; Yoshida, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the authors discuss the relationship between deformation and veining stages in the accretionary complex in order to understand the deformation and fluid flow process during the subduction. This study deals with the Miyama Formation in the Cretaceous Shimanto accretionary complex located in the Kii Peninsula of Japan. The deformation can be divided three types with four types of vein. Based on the differences, the process can be divided four stage by their cutting relationship as follow. Stage 1; the deformation (D1) in this stage is characterized by the aspect ratio of the deformed clasts with range from 0.1 to 0.4, and pinch-and-swell structure and budinaged structures of the sandstone are developed. The veins (V1) are recognized only within the sandstone, and the veins are cut by muddy matrix. Stage 2; the deformation (D2) is characterized by the aspect ratio is more than 0.4, and is distributed along the unit boundary. The clasts such as sandstone and chert are strongly sheared, and random fabric is often recognized. The vein (V2) in this stage cut the D1, and the V2 and D2 are cut by each other. Stage 3; outcrop-scale faults (D3) cutting D1 and D2 has been progressed in this stage. The vein (V3) is recognized along D3. Stage 4; the vein (V4) cutting D1 to D3 is developed in this stage. From the above-mentioned occurrence and data shown by previous studies of the Miyama Formation, process of each Stage interpreted as follows; Stage 1 developed underthrusting, Stages 2 and 3 correspond to underplating of subducted sediments. In addition, it is considered that Stage 4 is in later stage of underplating. The main components of the V1 to V3 veins are calcite and/or quartz. On the other hand, the V4 vein consists mainly of siderite and ankerite, and contain an abundance of Fe than the other veins. Morphological feature of V1 and V3 veins also show blocky texture suggesting higher rate growth than fracture opening, and V2 vein indicate syn-taxial growth

  5. Emergent Median Sternotomy for Mediastinal Hematoma: A Rare Complication following Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization for Chemoport Insertion—A Case Report and Review of Relevant Literature

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    Mediastinal hematoma is a rare complication following insertion of a central venous catheter with only few cases reported in the English literature. We report a case of a 71-year-old female who was admitted for elective chemoport placement. USG guided right internal jugular access was attempted using the Seldinger technique. Resistance was met while threading the guidewire. USG showed a chronic clot burden in the RIJ. A microvascular access was established under fluoroscopic guidance. Rest of the procedure was completed without any further issues. Following extubation, the patient complained of right-sided chest pain radiating to the back. Chest X-ray revealed a contained white out in the right upper lung field. She became hemodynamically unstable. Repeated X-ray showed progression of the hematoma. Median Sternotomy showed posterior mediastinal hematoma tracking into right pleural cavity. Active bleeding from the puncture site at RIJ-SCL junction was repaired. Patient had an uneventful recovery. Injury to the central venous system is the result of either penetrating trauma or iatrogenic causes as in our case. A possible explanation of our complication may be attributed to the forced manipulation of the dilator or guidewire against resistance. Clavicle and sternum offer bony protection to the underlying vital venous structures and injuries often need sternotomy with or without neck extension. Division of the clavicle and disarticulation of the sternoclavicular joint may be required for optimum exposure. Meticulous surgical technique, knowledge of the possible complications, and close monitoring in the postprocedural period are of utmost importance. Chest X-ray showed to be routinely done to detect any complication early. PMID:24592335

  6. [A clinical case of young, oral combined contraceptive using women, heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden) which revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, S; Ramshev, K; Ramsheva, Z; Ivanov, A; Ganovska, A

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophilia is associated with increased risks of venous thrombosis in women taking oral contraceptive preparations. Universal thrombophilia screening in women prior to prescribing oral contraceptive preparations is not supported by current evidence. The case is presented of a 23 year-old women with a personal history of interruption and on the same day started with oral contraceptive (0.03 microg ethynil estradiol - 0.075 microg gestodene), which due on a 18 pill/day to acute headache, increasing vomiting and speaking defects. Physical/neurologic/gynecologic examinations observed a normal status. The MRI and CT revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein and brain ischemia with cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke. The acute therapy of thrombotic findings was accompanied with many tests. The thrombophilia PCR-Real time - test finds heterozygous carrier of the Factor V (Leiden). This case shows the need of large prospective studies that should be undertaken to refine the risks and establish the associations of thrombophilias with venous thrombosis among contraceptive users. The key to a prompt diagnosis is to know the risk factors. The relative value of a thrombophilia screening programme before contraceptive using needs to be established.

  7. Congenital atresia of portal vein with portocaval shunt associated with cardiac defects, skeletal deformities, and skin lesions in a boy.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Manphool; Lal, Anupam; Thapa, Babu R; Prakash, Mahesh; Shanbhogue, Krishna P; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2008-08-01

    Congenital absence of portal vein is a rare anomaly that results from aberrant venous development in early embryonic life. The intestinal and splenic venous drainage bypass the liver and may drain directly into inferior vena cava or the left renal vein or the left hepatic vein. This rare anomaly is commonly associated with other congenital malformations and generally limited to females. We describe a rare case of aberrant portal vein development with congenital portocaval shunt (end-to-side) in a 3.5-year male child associated with cardiac defects (atrial and ventricular septal defects), skeletal deformities (flexion deformity and clinodactyly of digits and toes), and lichen planus with café au lait macules of skin.

  8. Safe and easy method with little modification in technique is useful for successful internal jugular vein cannulation on same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Thosani, Rajesh; Patel, Jigar; Gandhi, Hemang; Doshi, Chirag; Kothari, Jignesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The modification in technique is useful for successful right-sided internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation on the same side even after intra-arterial puncture without using ultrasound guidance in adult patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in total 160 adult patient from American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade II to III patients male (n = 95) and female (n = 65) who underwent cardiac surgery where cannulation was done on right sided by triple lumen catheter (7 French) using Seldinger technique. Results: Majority of patients were cannulated successfully by Seldinger technique with single or double attempt except for five patients in which arterial puncture occurred. All five patients were cannulated successfully on the same side with this modified technique without any significant major complications. They were managed by application of blocker at the end of arterial needle puncture without removing it. In our routine practice, we were used to removing this needle and applying compression for few minutes to prevent hematoma formation after an arterial puncture. In this study, cannula was used as a marker or guideline for the relocation of IJV on the same side and recannulation was performed by changing the direction of needle on same side lateral to the previous one and without going towards the same direction to prevent the arterial puncture again. Conclusion: Most simple and useful modified technique for institutes where the complications are most common with trainee doctors and in hospitals where there is no advanced facility like ultrasound-guided cannulation available. By this modification, it will be time saving, very comfortable, and user-friendly technique with high success rate. PMID:27052069

  9. The origin of mean arterial and jugular venous blood pressures in giraffes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Graham; Maloney, Shane K; Mitchell, Duncan; Keegan, D James

    2006-07-01

    Using a mechanical model of the giraffe neck and head circulation consisting of a rigid, ascending, 'carotid' limb, a 'cranial' circulation that could be rigid or collapsible, and a descending, 'jugular' limb that also could be rigid or collapsible, we have analyzed the origin of the high arterial and venous pressures in giraffe, and whether blood flow is assisted by a siphon. When the tubes were rigid and the 'jugular' limb exit was lower than the 'carotid' limb entrance a siphon operated, 'carotid' hydrostatic pressures became more negative, and flow was 3.3 l min(-1) but ceased when the 'cranial' and 'jugular' limbs were collapsible or when the 'jugular' limb was opened to the atmosphere. Pumping water through the model produced positive pressures in the 'carotid' limb similar to those found in giraffe. Applying an external 'tissue' pressure to the 'jugular' tube during pump flow produced the typical pressures found in the jugular vein in giraffe. Constriction of the lowest, 'jugular cuff', portion of the 'jugular' limb showed that the cuff may augment the orthostatic reflex during head raising. Except when all tubes were rigid, pressures were unaffected by a siphon. We conclude that mean arterial blood pressure in giraffes is a consequence of the hydrostatic pressure generated by the column of blood in the neck, that tissue pressure around the collapsible jugular vein produces the known jugular pressures, and that a siphon does not assist flow through the cranial circulation.

  10. Misplaced central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch exposed during dissection before sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Eun; Jee, Daelim

    2008-11-01

    Subclavian vein catheterization rarely results in misplacement of the central venous catheter (CVC) into the jugular venous arch (JVA). We present a case of misplacement of the CVC into the JVA during cardiac surgery.

  11. Deformation within the Pisco Basin sedimentary record (southern Peru): Stratabound orthogonal vein sets and their impact on fault development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This outcrop-based study reports diffuse joints and veins, normal to strike-slip fault zones and minor folds that developed, from Miocene to Quaternary, within the clastic to siliceous sedimentary record of the forearc Pisco Basin of southern Peru. Patterns, orientations, dimensional parameters and other outcrop-scale characteristics of the various deformation features are illustrated and their genetic mechanisms and timing of development are inferred. These new structural data and interpretations allow a better constraint of the structural style and evolution of the Pisco Basin, and can represent useful guidelines for characterizing the outcrop-scale deformation affecting similar forearc basins along the Peruvian coast. Major results of this study are that the development of the documented deformation features, their patterns, dimensional parameters and kinematics seem influenced by local perturbations of the paleostress field by mechanic processes partly independent of plate tectonics forces. These processes include strain localization on both pre-existing and progressively forming new structural discontinuities, and cyclic switches of the horizontal, principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. In particular, we discuss how different normal fault patterns, from sub-parallel to multidirectional/polygonal, could form in a same deformation phase in response of the local σ2/σ3 magnitude ratio, as an evolution of stratabound, mutually orthogonal vein sets.

  12. Deformation of a continental margin sequence under a thrust sheet: complex stress history in a high pressure cell revealed by vein systems in the Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.; Grobe, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Seven deformation phases can be mapped in mesozoic carbonates of the Jebel Akhdar mountains in North Oman. These include an early horizontal NE-SW directed extension that produced bedding confined vein sets with evidence for anticlockwise rotation of the stress field over time, interpreted to have developed during the thrust sheet emplacement. It is followed by a phase of top-NE bedding parallel shearing which rotates these veins on the North side of the mountains. The next phase is normal to oblique slip faults followed by at least two phases of strike-slip deformation. A "background" ductile deformation (maximum burial temperatures of 250 °C) is shown bu deformed fossils and diagenetic concretions. Each of these phases is consistently documented by a large number of observations of overprinting in nearly continuous outcrops. Each deformation phase produces vein sets that do not only differ in orientation but also in occurrence and appearance. Early vein sets exhibit a high stratigraphic variability, but are laterally very stable. With the onset of faulting, the stratigraphic variability decreases and the lateral variability becomes more significant. Even though the area offers excellent outcrop conditions with nearly 100% exposure, it is virtually impossible to find two outcrops that exhibit the same vein patterns. This has interesting implications for vein system analysis and is due to two reasons: (1) the stratigraphic and lateral variability of occurrence and orientation of each vein set cause different combination of vein sets do develop in different layers (2) Intersecting vein sets can show very different interaction such as crosscutting and reactivation, depending on the mechanical properties of the host rock and the veins.

  13. The jugular venous pressure revisited

    PubMed Central

    CHIACO, JOHN MICHAEL S. CHUA; PARIKH, NISHA I.; FERGUSSON, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the jugular venous pressure is often inadequately performed and undervalued. Here, we review the physiologic and anatomic basis for the jugular venous pressure, including the discrepancy between right atrial and central venous pressures. We also describe the correct method of evaluating this clinical finding and review the clinical relevance of the jugular venous pressure, especially its value in assessing the severity and response to treatment of congestive heart failure. Waveforms reflective of specific conditions are also discussed. PMID:24085809

  14. A survey of the use of ultrasound guidance in internal jugular venous cannulation.

    PubMed

    McGrattan, T; Duffty, J; Green, J S; O'Donnell, N

    2008-11-01

    It has been that suggested the use of two dimensional (2D) ultrasound to facilitate placement of central venous cannulae in the internal jugular vein improves patient safety and reduces complications. Since the introduction of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence Technology Appraisal Guideline Number 49 in 2002, promoting the use of ultrasound in placement of internal jugular venous cannulae, utilisation of ultrasound has increased throughout the United Kingdom. We report the findings of a postal survey of 2000 senior anaesthetists in the United Kingdom which enquired about their use of ultrasound for internal jugular vein cannulae placement. Only 27% use 2D ultrasound as their first choice technique, although 35% use it as their first choice when teaching. There was no significant difference in practice between those working within a sub specialty in anaesthesia. There continues to be discrepancies between the application of the guideline and how senior anaesthetists both site and teach the placement of internal jugular vein central venous cannulae.

  15. The Ikom-Mamfe basin, Nigeria: A study of fracture and mineral vein lineament trends and Cretaceous deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oden, M. I.; Egeh, E. U.; Amah, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Ikom-Mamfe basin is approximately a 130 km long, east-west abutment onto the eastern flank of the lower Benue trough of Nigeria and extends westwards into Cameroon. Two hundred and six fracture lineaments were analyzed in the Nigerian sector of this basin. They vary in length from 0.5 to 23.75 km, with the most frequently occurring fracture length being about 2.25 km. The most prominent fracture sets have NE-SW and NW-SE orientations, while less prominent patterns are in the NNE-SSW and ESE-WNW directions. NW-SE and NNE-SSW fracture sets are interpreted as "ac" extension fractures from two different deformation episodes, while NE-SW and ESE-WNW sets are "bc" tensile fractures parallel to the axes of F1 and F2 folds, respectively. This implies two deformation episodes in this basin, with the earlier one producing the NE-SW (F1) fold axes, exactly as in the Benue trough. Two prominent mineral vein trends in the basin are the NW-SE and NNE-SSW sets, in which minerals are loaded in "ac" extension fractures. The orientations, lengths and frequency of these lineaments should help in differentiating their ages. The less prominent veins are in the NE-SW and ESE-WNW directions, which are in the "bc" tensile fractures. Early Cretaceous sediments are characterized by NW-SE major and NE-SW minor sets of veins, while the late Cretaceous sequence is characterized by NNE-SSW major and ESE-WNW minor, mainly barite, veins. More than 70% of the barite samples tested gave specific gravity values of 4.2 and above, which is the range specified by the American Petroleum Institution (API) as drilling mud additive or weighting agent. Other vein-filling minerals in this basin are lead ore (galena), zinc ore (sphalerite), pyrite and amethyst, which are altogether subsidiary to barite mineralization.

  16. Intradural jugular foramen tumors.

    PubMed

    Mattos, João Paulo; Ramina, Ricardo; Borges, Wilson; Ghizoni, Enrico; Fernandes, Yvens B; Paschoal, Jorge R; Honorato, Donizeti C; Borges, Guilherme

    2004-12-01

    Eleven patients with jugular foramen lesions with or without extradural extension were operated at University Hospital of Campinas (UNICAMP), in Campinas, Brazil, between 1998 and 2001. Neck dissection, mastoidectomy without transposition of the facial nerve and myofascial flap reconstruction of the cranial base with an especially developed technique were carried out in 7 patients. Four patients were operated using retrosigmoid craniectomy. Total excision was accomplished in 9 cases. All patients did not show evidence of disease progression at least after 2 years follow-up. There was no mortality. New lower cranial nerve deficits occurred in 5 patients. Nine maintain or improved their preoperative status based on Karnofsky and Glasgow Outcome Scale. A complex anatomy of this region demand wide exposures for treat those tumors. For this reason, an adequate approach for curative resection of most lesions and an efficient skull base reconstruction decreasing postoperative morbidity are essential.

  17. Jugular venous reflux on magnetic resonance angiography and radionuclide venography

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Tomohisa; Okuchi, Sachi; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fujimoto, Koji; Togashi, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between the signal from retrograde venous flow on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and retrograde upward flow from the left brachiocephalic vein has not been explored. Purpose To reveal the frequency of jugular venous reflux using MRA and nuclear venography in patients being evaluated for cerebral volume and blood flow. Material and Methods A total of 229 patients with cognitive disturbance who had undergone brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on the same day to evaluate cerebral blood flow were evaluated. Jugular venous reflux was measured on MRA and nuclear venography, which was conducted just after injection of N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine for the SPECT study. Results MRA showed jugular reflux in seven patients on the right side, and in 22 on the left. Nuclear venography showed jugular reflux in six patients on the right side, and in 20 on the left. Conclusion Jugular venous reflux was observed mostly on the left side. Retrograde flow was observed on both MRA and nuclear venography in half of the cases, with the rest only on one of the modalities. PMID:27994882

  18. Jugular thrombophlebitis in horses: A review of fibrinolysis, thrombus formation, and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; de Lacerda Neto, José Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis of the jugular vein is commonly observed in horses, particularly during intensive care, and leads to local and systemic inflammatory responses as well as head and neck circulatory impairment. Thrombolytic therapy is widely used in human practice with the aim of thrombus dissolution and recanalization of the injured vessels. There are similarities between human and horse coagulation and fibrinolytic processes. This review examines the fibrinolytic system, thrombus formation, and the clinical management of jugular thrombophlebitis, including thrombolytic therapy. There is evidence that early regional thrombolytic therapy for jugular thrombophlebitis in horses may be effective to achieve sustained recanalization. PMID:23814304

  19. Water stress deforms tracheids peripheral to the leaf vein of a tropical conifer.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Holbrook, N Michele

    2005-03-01

    Just as a soggy paper straw is prone to yielding under the applied suction of a thirsty drinker, the xylem tracheids in leaves seem prone to collapse as water potential declines, impeding their function. Here we describe the collapse, under tension, of lignified cells peripheral to the leaf vein of a broad-leaved rainforest conifer, Podocarpus grayi de Laub. Leaves of Podocarpus are characterized by an array of cylindrical tracheids aligned perpendicular to the leaf vein, apparently involved in the distribution of water radially through the mesophyll. During leaf desiccation the majority of these tracheids collapsed from circular to flat over the water potential range -1.5 to -2.8 MPa. An increase in the percentage of tracheids collapsed during imposed water stress was mirrored by declining leaf hydraulic conductivity (K(leaf)), implying a direct effect on water transport efficiency. Stomata responded to water stress by closing at -2.0 MPa when 45% of cells were collapsed and K(leaf) had declined by 25%. This was still substantially before the initial indications of cavitation-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in the leaf vein, at -3 MPa. Plants droughted until 49% of tracheids had collapsed were found to fully recover tracheid shape and leaf function 1 week after rewatering. A simple mechanical model of tracheid collapse, derived from the theoretical buckling pressure for pipes, accurately predicted the collapse dynamics observed in P. grayi, substantiating estimates of cell wall elasticity and measured leaf water potential. The possible adaptive advantages of collapsible vascular tissue are discussed.

  20. Water Stress Deforms Tracheids Peripheral to the Leaf Vein of a Tropical Conifer1

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Tim J.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2005-01-01

    Just as a soggy paper straw is prone to yielding under the applied suction of a thirsty drinker, the xylem tracheids in leaves seem prone to collapse as water potential declines, impeding their function. Here we describe the collapse, under tension, of lignified cells peripheral to the leaf vein of a broad-leaved rainforest conifer, Podocarpus grayi de Laub. Leaves of Podocarpus are characterized by an array of cylindrical tracheids aligned perpendicular to the leaf vein, apparently involved in the distribution of water radially through the mesophyll. During leaf desiccation the majority of these tracheids collapsed from circular to flat over the water potential range −1.5 to −2.8 MPa. An increase in the percentage of tracheids collapsed during imposed water stress was mirrored by declining leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf), implying a direct effect on water transport efficiency. Stomata responded to water stress by closing at −2.0 MPa when 45% of cells were collapsed and Kleaf had declined by 25%. This was still substantially before the initial indications of cavitation-induced loss of hydraulic conductance in the leaf vein, at −3 MPa. Plants droughted until 49% of tracheids had collapsed were found to fully recover tracheid shape and leaf function 1 week after rewatering. A simple mechanical model of tracheid collapse, derived from the theoretical buckling pressure for pipes, accurately predicted the collapse dynamics observed in P. grayi, substantiating estimates of cell wall elasticity and measured leaf water potential. The possible adaptive advantages of collapsible vascular tissue are discussed. PMID:15734905

  1. Rapid methods for jugular bleeding of dogs requiring one technician.

    PubMed

    Frisk, C S; Richardson, M R

    1979-06-01

    Two methods were used to collect blood from the jugular vein of dogs. In both techniques, only one technician was required. A rope with a slip knot was placed around the base of the neck to assist in restraint and act as a tourniquet for the vein. The technician used one hand to restrain the dog by the muzzle and position the head. The other hand was used for collecting the sample. One of the methods could be accomplished with the dog in its cage. The bleeding techniques were rapid, requiring approximately 1 minute per dog.

  2. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  3. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), and jugular flow ceased as the jugular cross-sectional area increased to 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (P < 0.01), corresponding to accumulation of approximately 1.2 l of blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  4. Deformation assisted by fluids in quartz veins of shear zones: an example from Iron Formations of Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Paola; Lagoeiro, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The evidences of fluid activity in rocks are well recognized. In many cases, the fluid is responsible to remobilize many elements (e.g. Au, Mn, Si) that may be transported over a long distance and precipitated as new minerals in regions of low stress of the rock. In many deformed rocks, the origin of a large number of structures (veins, pressure shadows, dissolved grain boundaries, etc) may be correlated to the fluid activity. However, the fluids are important not only during the crack-and-seal process but also after the sealing ceases. As an example of how the fluids are responsible to rearrange the structure of the rock, we studied many quartz veins of one iron-formation from Brazil. The rocks were collected in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), Brazil, that is one of the most important metalogenetic provinces in the world. It is assumed the existence of a deformational and metamorphic gradient in the rocks of QF, increasing the occurrence of penetrative structures from southwest to northeast. However, the effects of the local shear zones in the deformation pattern of QF may not be neglected. Shear zones are generally recognized as structures that accommodate deformation, eventually with intense fluid percolation. It is indubitable that there is a relationship between the fluid activity and the deformation accommodation in shear zones. So, to investigate how the fluid activity can affect the mechanisms of accommodation of deformation in rocks of shear zones from QF, we characterized the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of some quartz vein by EBSD (electron backscattering diffraction). All the samples came from the same outcrop and from the same dextral shear zone, localized in the low-deformation region of QF, under greenschist metamorphic conditions. The samples were oriented according to the XYZ reference system, with X parallel to the foliation and Z normal to the XY plane. The veins are quartz-rich layers parallel to the rock foliation. They do not

  5. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alvin I; Balter, Max L; Maguire, Timothy J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture.

  6. Real-time Needle Steering in Response to Rolling Vein Deformation by a 9-DOF Image-Guided Autonomous Venipuncture Robot

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin I.; Balter, Max L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Venipuncture is the most common invasive medical procedure performed in the United States and the number one cause of hospital injury. Failure rates are particularly high in pediatric and elderly patients, whose veins tend to deform, move, or roll as the needle is introduced. To improve venipuncture accuracy in challenging patient populations, we have developed a portable device that autonomously servos a needle into a suitable vein under image guidance. The device operates in real time, combining near-infrared and ultrasound imaging, computer vision software, and a 9 degrees-of-freedom robot that servos the needle. In this paper, we present the kinematic and mechanical design of the latest generation robot. We then investigate in silico and in vitro the mechanics of vessel rolling and deformation in response to needle insertions performed by the robot. Finally, we demonstrate how the robot can make real-time adjustments under ultrasound image guidance to compensate for subtle vessel motions during venipuncture. PMID:26779381

  7. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 μm (276 μm) versus 204 μm (74 μm) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P < .01). Advanced atherosclerotic plaques were found in three of four oversized vein grafts (diameter of graft > diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P < .05). Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome. PMID:22463679

  8. [Internal jugular thrombophlebitis: complications of the cervical oncological surgery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Marcos, C A; Noval Menéndez, J; Alfonso Megido, J; Domínguez Iglesias, F; Hevia Llama, R; Ramos Barriga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis is an infrequent complications, associated in the past to pharyngeal and amygdaline infections but related today to the use of catheters and intravenous drugs. The present paper reports the case of a patient who underwent total laryngectomy and functional neck dissection, developing recurrent neumonias and sepsis in the postoperative period which were secondary to an homolateral jugular thrombophlebitis. A physical exploration with no findings and the poor resolution of CT scan and ultrasound due to postsurgical alterations, lead to a late diagnosis and fatal evolution, in spite of the medical and surgical treatment.

  9. Surgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors.

    PubMed

    Pareschi, Roberto; Righini, Stefano; Destito, Domenico; Raucci, Aldo Falco; Colombo, Stefano

    2003-08-01

    The treatment of choice for glomus jugulare tumors is still controversial. High rates of morbidity, incomplete resection, and the aggressive behavior of these tumors are the main arguments for advocates of primary radiotherapy. However, constant refinements in skull base techniques have made complete resection of these lesions a realistic goal. The high probability of achieving local control of these tumors by surgery has convinced us to support this option strongly. Between 1993 and 2000 we diagnosed 52 glomus tumors of the temporal bone. Of these patients, only 42 had a class C lesion (glomus jugulare) and were included in this study; 37 of these patients underwent surgery, 10 of whom had intracranial extension of the disease. The overall resection rate was 96 %. Facial nerve function at 1 year was House-Brackmann grade I to II in 52 % of patients and grade III or better in 84 % of patients. Hospitalization was shorter than 14 days in 33 patients (89 %). All patients with pharyngolaryngeal palsy had sufficient compensation at discharge. Twelve vocal chord Teflon injections were performed after surgery to reduce hoarseness and aspiration. No patient died. No relapse was observed (mean follow-up, 4.9 years).

  10. Concurrent Angioplasty Balloon Placement for Stent Delivery through Jugular Venous Bulb for Treating Cerebral Venous Sinus Stenosis. Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Khan, Asif A.; Capistrant, Rachel; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Xie, Kevin; Suri, M. Fareed K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report upon technique of concurrent placement of angioplasty balloon at the internal jugular vein and sigmoid venous sinus junction to facilitate stent delivery in two patients in whom stent delivery past the jugular bulb was not possible. CLINICAL PRESENTATION A 21-year-old woman and a 41-year-old woman with worsening headaches, visual obscuration or diplopia were treated for pseudotumor cerebri associated with transverse venous stenosis. Both patients had undergone primary angioplasty, which resulted in improvement in clinical symptoms followed by the recurrence of symptoms with restenosis at the site of angioplasty. INTERVENTION After multiple attempts at stent delivery through jugular venous bulb were unsuccessful, a second guide catheter was placed in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein through contralateral femoral venous approach. A 6 mm × 20 mm (left) or 5 × 15 mm (right) angioplasty balloon was placed across the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction and partially inflated until the inflation and relative straightening of the junction was observed. In both patients, the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinus junction was successfully traversed by the stent delivery system in a parallel alignment to inflated balloon. Balloon mounted stent was deployed at the site of restenosis with near complete resolution of lumen narrowing delivery and improvement in clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION We report a technique for realignment and diameter change with concurrent placement and partial inflation of angioplasty balloon at the jugular venous bulb to facilitate stent delivery into the sigmoid and transverse venous sinuses in circumstances where multiple attempts at stent delivery are unsuccessful. PMID:27829971

  11. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  12. Successful endovascular therapy of a penetrating zone III jugular bulb injury. A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, K; Yamamoto, A; Ishida, K; Matsuzaki, J; Ozaki, T; Ishihara, M; Shimahara, Y; Nakajima, S; Sadamitsu, D; Yamasaki, M

    2012-06-01

    Penetrating venous injuries via Zone III of the neck extended over jugular bulb are rare. The optimal strategies for these venous injuries are currently unknown because many of the vital structures in this region are poorly accessible to the surgeon and therefore it is difficult to control bleeding. A 76-year-old man got drunk and fell down onto a paper door. The wooden framework of the paper door was broken and got stuck deep in the right side of his neck. Enhanced computed tomography showed the wood stick had penetrated through the right jugular foramen and injured the jugular bulb. We successfully performed right sigmoid and jugular vein occlusion via an endovascular approach using Guglielmi detachable coils at first and then to draw out the wood stick in order to avoid venous bleeding. To our best knowledge, these venous injuries have reported in only four cases. Only one case was performed by endovascular approach using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Coil embolization is much better than NBCA in the light of reducing complications due to adhesion to the inserted wood stick and embolization of unintended vessels. Venous occlusion using coil embolization is the best way to treat a penetrating jugular bulb injury via zone III because of reducing the hemorrhage and air embolism.

  13. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo

    2014-10-07

    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs.

  14. A pilot/introducer needle for central vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Kanazawa, M; Kinefuchi, Y; Fukuyama, H; Takiguchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Abe, K; Okuda, Y

    1995-12-01

    A kit for safe and easy insertion of a central vein cannula was devised. A small gauge (22 gauge) metal pilot needle was equipped with a Y-shaped hub which had a side-port to accept a small gauge (0.46 mm) Seldinger guide wire. Once the needle reached the vein, guidewire was threaded in through the side-port. There was no need to remove the pilot needle and no need to repeat vein puncture with a larger-bore needle. Three puncture methods were used with the kit: (1) the central approach via the internal jugular vein, (2) the supraclavicular approach via the junction of the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, and (3) the infraclavicular approach via the subclavian vein. Each method was used on 20 patients, for total of 60 patients, with a high success rate. Less than 3 minutes were required from puncture to catheter insertion. No serious complications were encountered.

  15. Jugular foramen: anatomic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the jugular foramen was examined in detail, and anatomic and CT sections were correlated. The pars nervosa and pars vascularis were identified, and, with intravenous contrast enhancement, a rapid sequence of scans at a gantry angle of +30/sup 0/ to the canthomeatal line demonstrated cranial nerves IX, X, and XI. The osseous margins of the jugular foramen were best shown by CT at planes of sections parallel and positive (0/sup 0/-30/sup 0/) to the canthomeatal line. CT can be used to evaluate osseous anatomy and the jugular foramen with precision sufficient to confidently exclude an intracanalicular mass.

  16. Autogenous vein graft thrombosis following exposure to calcium-free solutions (calcium paradox).

    PubMed

    Nozick, J H; Farnsworth, P; Montefusco, C M; Parsonnet, V; Ruigrok, T J; Zimmerman, A N

    1981-01-01

    The morphological and functional effects of calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions on canine jugular vein intima were examined under conditions which closely resemble those techniques currently employed in peripheral vascular and aortocoronary bypass surgery. Veins that had been exposed only to calcium-containing solutions remained patent for the duration of the experimental period. Vein perfusion with a calcium-free solution, however, resulted in disruption of the jugular vein intima once calcium ions were reintroduced. Autogenous as a femoral arterial graft became thrombosed within 60 minutes. It is therefore suggested that vein grafts of autogenous origin be irrigated with calcium-containing solutions to prevent intimal damage and thrombosis.

  17. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  18. Constraints on Neogene deformation in the southern Terror Rift from calcite twinning analyses of veins within the ANDRILL MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Demosthenous, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.

    2009-12-01

    The ANDRILL MIS (McMurdo Ice Shelf) Drilling Project obtained over 1200 meters of Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in 2006/2007. Systematic fracture logging of the AND-1B core identified 1,475 natural fractures, i.e. pre-existing fractures in the rock intersected by coring. The most abundant natural fractures are normal faults and calcite veins; reverse faults, brecciated zones, and sedimentary intrusions are also present. In order to better understand Neogene deformation patterns within the southern Terror Rift, we have been conducting strain analyses on mechanically twinned calcite within healed fractures in the drill core. Twinning strains using all of the data from each sample studied to date range from 2% to 10%. The cleaned data (20% of the largest magnitude deviations removed) typically show ≤30% negative expected values, consistent with a single deformation episode or multiple ~coaxial deformation episodes. The majority of the samples record horizontal extension, similar to strain patterns expected in a normal fault regime and/or vertical sedimentary compaction in a continental rift system. The morphology, width, and intensity of twins in the samples suggest that twinning typically occurred at temperatures <170° C. Twinning intensities suggest differential stress magnitudes that caused the twinning ranged from 216 to 295 MPa.

  19. Stenting of the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein with preserving the central venous catheter in situ.

    PubMed

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2011-01-01

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  20. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... has surface (superficial) veins that are connected to deep veins by bridging (perforator) veins. Unlike arteries, which ... the valve leaflets and can develop in the deep, perforator, or superficial veins. View this table: View ...

  1. Infraclavicular access to the axillary vein - new possibilities for the catheterization of the central veins in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Ryszard; Czarnik, Tomasz; Łysenko, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Central vein cannulation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care. Traditionally, the jugular and subclavian vein are recommended as the first choice option. Nevertheless, these attempts are not always obtainable for critically ill patients. For this reason, the axillary vein seems to be a rational alternative approach. In this narrative review, we evaluate the usefulness of the infraclavicular access to the axillary vein. The existing evidence suggests that infraclavicular approach to the axillary vein is a reliable method of central vein catheterization, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance.

  2. Veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat.

    PubMed

    Ozüdoğru, Z; Aksoy, G; Soygüder, Z; Ozmen, E

    2003-04-01

    The drainage of the thoracic limb of the Van cat was performed by the superficial and deep vein systems. The superficial system was constituted by the cephalic vein and its branches. The deep vein system was constituted by the axillary vein and its branches. The two vein systems anastomosed with each other at various points along their courses. The cephalic vein emerged from the external jugular vein together with the superficial cervical vein. The axillary vein continued the subclavian vein. It ran caudoventrally and gave off the subscapular vein, at the level of the shoulder joint, then gave off two independent branches, which were the external thoracic veins. Then the rest of the vessel continued as the brachial vein. The thoracodorsal vein was formed by the communicate ramus vein which arose between the subscapular vein and the brachial vein. The cranial circumflex humeral vein arose double from the subscapular vein. One of them anastomosed with the deep brachial vein and the other one drained the biceps and the deep pectoral muscles. The cranial interosseous vein from the caudal aspects of the brachial vein and passed the interosseous space of the antebrachium then ran to the lateral aspect of the forearm. The caudal interosseous vein arose from the ulnar vein (in two specimens) and the median vein together with the ulnar vein (in two specimens) or independently from the median vein (in one specimen). Although many similarities were found in the veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat as compared with the domestic cat, some significant differences were noted in the origin, course, anastomosing and ramification of veins of the thoracic limb.

  3. The jugular bulb diverticulum. A radioanatomic investigation.

    PubMed

    Wadin, K; Wilbrand, H

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and forty-five temporal bone specimens were examined radiographically. Subsequently the topographic relationship between the jugular fossa and surrounding structures was evaluated in plastic casts of the specimens. Fifty-eight casts showed a high jugular fossa and in 17 a jugular bulb diverticulum was found. A diverticulum is regarded as an anomaly of the high jugular bulb and presumably has a potential for expansion. Most frequently a diverticulum was directed medially into the space between the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular aqueduct and the posterior cranial fossa. Seven diverticula reached the level of the internal acoustic meatus. Encroachment upon the vestibular aqueduct was seen in 4 casts and both the internal acoustic meatus and the cochlear aqueduct were very close to the diverticulum. A few diverticula were directed postero-laterally close to the facial canal and the stapedius muscle. The investigation was supplemented with a selected clinical material of radiographs of temporal bones with high fossae. The results corresponded to those of the experimental investigation. The jugular bulb diverticulum is a relatively common feature and should be regarded as an anomaly with a potential to give rise to clinical symptoms consequent to its intrusion upon surrounding structures.

  4. Collet-Sicard Syndrome from Thrombosis of the Sigmoid-Jugular Complex: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Tom P. B.; Miah, Mohammed S.; Majumdar, Samit; Hussain, S. S. Musheer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Collet-Sicard syndrome is a very rare condition characterised by unilateral palsy of the IX–XII cranial nerves. It is distinguished from Villaret syndrome by lack of presence of sympathetic involvement. Current literature contains only two cases of Collet-Sicard syndrome due to idiopathic internal jugular vein thrombosis. Method and Results. We report the case of Collet-Sicard syndrome in a 30-year-old man who presented with delayed development of XIth nerve dysfunction, due to internal jugular vein-sigmoid sinus thrombosis. A multidisciplinary team approach was employed in the management of this patient. At three-month followup, he had significantly improved swallowing, and repeat computed tomography neck scan showed partial recanalisation of the right internal jugular vein. Conclusion. In suspected Collet-Sicard syndrome, a focal primary lesion or metastasis to the temporal bone must be excluded, and sigmoid-jugular complex thrombosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment may result in significant functional recovery. PMID:20706543

  5. [Clinical estimation of the central vein catheterization in phthysiosurgical patients].

    PubMed

    Opanasenko, M S; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; Klymenko, V I; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Konik, B M; Obrems'ka, O K; Demus, R S; Kshanovs'kyĭ, O E

    2013-04-01

    The issue of actuality of the central veins catheterization application was studied in phthysiosurgical patients. The author's view, concerning indications and choosing of the central vein catheterization side, was presented. The data, concerning frequency of the certain veins catheterization, were adduced. General succeeding in performing central veins catheterization have had constituted 96%. While having complications rate of 11.8%, this included mechanical--8.2%, thrombotic--2.3%, infective--1.3%. There was substantiated one of the most optimal and secure procedure among central accesses--the internal jugular vein catheterization.

  6. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts.

  7. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  8. Late-onset congestive heart failure in a patient with a 58-year-old huge traumatic carotid-jugular fistula and pseudoaneurysm: endovascular treatment with a stent-graft.

    PubMed

    Kong, Joon Hyuk; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Dong Hoon; Lee, Do Yun

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of successful stent-graft endovascular treatment of a huge traumatic carotid-jugular fistula with a pseudoaneurysm that had resulted from a bullet injury. A 77-year-old man with a pulsatile neck mass came to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and chest pain at rest; about 58 years ago, a gunshot accident had inflicted a penetrating bullet wound on the right side of his neck. Computerized tomography angiogram had demonstrated a huge vascular mass protruding into the right anterior neck with a pseudoaneurysm. The calcified pseudoaneurysm had an oval-shaped opening in the right common carotid artery, with a large base into the right internal jugular vein. Echocardiography showed deteriorating congestive heart failure, wherein left ventricular (LV) enlargement with a LV end-diastolic diameter of 6.1 cm, severe tricuspid valve regurgitation, and LV ejection fraction of 60% was seen. The surgical approach was considered risky because of the severe deformity of the native vasculature, the severe calcified pseudoaneurysm, and the context of advanced age with congestive heart failure. Thus, we decided to treat this patient with endovascular devices. Fortunately, a stent-graft was delivered successfully across the carotid-jugular fistula and immediate follow-up angiogram demonstrated a small filling defect at the base of stent-graft representing thrombus. The follow-up computerized tomography angiograms obtained 2 weeks and 4 months later further demonstrated a patent stent-graft, no evidence of thrombus progression, and no abnormal shunt flow. The patient did not experience any neurologic complications nor did he show any evidence of pulmonary embolism for 8 months.

  9. Meso- and microscale vein structures in fore-arc basalts and boninites related to post-magmatic tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc. Two drill sites are situated on the outer fore arc composed of fore arc basalts (FAB) whereas two more sites are located on the upper trench slope penetrating the younger boninites. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured. Structures within the drill cores combined with borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones and the formation of tension fractures, shear fractures and hybrid (tension and shear) fractures. Veins form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. (Low Mg-) Calcite and/or various types of zeolite are the major vein constituents, where the latter are considered to be alteration products of basaltic glass. Micrite contents vary significantly and are related to neptunian dikes. In boninites calcite develops mainly blocky shapes but veins with fibrous and stretched crystals also occur in places indicating antitaxial as well as ataxial growth, respectively. In FAB calcite forms consistently blocky crystals without any microscopic identifiable growth direction suggesting precipitation from a highly supersaturated fluid under dropping fluid pressure conditions. However, fluid pressure

  10. Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  11. Gypsum veins in Triassic Moenkopi mudrocks of southern Utah: Analogs to calcium sulfate veins on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B. W.; Chan, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Well-exposed gypsum veins in the Triassic Moenkopi formation in southern Utah, USA, are similar to veins at Endeavour and Gale Craters on Mars. Both Moenkopi and Mars veins are hydrated calcium sulfate, have fibrous textures, and crosscut other diagenetic features. Moenkopi veins are stratigraphically localized with strontium and sulfur isotope ratios similar to primary Moenkopi sulfate beds and are thus interpreted to be sourced from within the unit. Endeavour veins seem to be distributed by lithology and may have a local source. Gale veins cut across multiple lithologies and appear to be sourced from another stratigraphic interval. Evaluation of vein network geometries indicates that horizontal Moenkopi veins are longer and thicker than vertical veins. Moenkopi veins are also generally oriented with the modern stress field, so are interpreted to have formed in the latest stages of exhumation. Endeavour veins appear to be generally vertical and oriented parallel to the margins of Cape York and are interpreted to have formed in response to topographic collapse of the crater rim. Gale horizontal veins appear to be slightly more continuous than vertical veins and may have formed during exhumation. Abrupt changes in orientation, complex crosscutting relationships, and fibrous (antitaxial) texture in Moenkopi and Mars veins suggest emplacement via hydraulic fracture at low temperatures. Moenkopi and Mars veins are interpreted as late-stage diagenetic features that have experienced little alteration since emplacement. Moenkopi veins are useful terrestrial analogs for Mars veins because vein geometry, texture, and chemistry record information about crustal deformation and vein emplacement.

  12. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sparke, Alison; Voss, Sarah; Benger, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices.

  13. The measurement of tissue interface pressures and changes in jugular venous parameters associated with cervical immobilisation devices: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cervical immobilisation is commonly applied following trauma, particularly blunt head injury, but current methods of immobilisation are associated with significant complications. Semi-rigid disposable cervical collars are known to cause pressure ulcers, and impede effective airway management. These collars may also exacerbate a head injury by increasing intracranial pressure as a result of external compression of the jugular veins. There is a clear imperative to find ways of effectively immobilising the cervical spine whilst minimising complications, and any assessment of existing or new devices should include a standardized approach to the measurement of tissue interface pressures and their effect on jugular venous drainage from the brain. This systematic review summarises the research methods and technologies that have been used to measure tissue interface pressure and assess the jugular vein in the context of cervical immobilisation devices. 27 papers were included and assessed for quality. Laboratory investigations and biomechanical studies have gradually given way to methods that more accurately reflect clinical care. There are numerous accounts of skin ulceration associated with cervical collars, but no standardised approach to measuring tissue interface pressure. It is therefore difficult to compare studies and devices, but a pressure of less than 30 mmHg appears desirable. Cervical collars have been shown to have a compressive effect on the jugular veins, but it is not yet certain that this is the cause of the increased intracranial pressure observed in association with cervical collar use. This is the first review of its type. It will help guide further research in this area of trauma care, and the development and testing of new cervical immobilisation devices. PMID:24299024

  14. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, WK; Leong, MC; Samion, H

    2016-01-01

    A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ). The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage. PMID:27212859

  15. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... varicose veins include venous lakes, reticular veins, and hemorrhoids. Venous lakes are varicose veins that appear on ... flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the anus. ...

  16. To reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections: is the subclavian route better than the jugular route for central venous catheterization?

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Goro; Kikuchi, Toshiki; Tsuyuzaki, Hitomi; Kawano, Rumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ugajin, Kazuhisa

    2006-12-01

    The most important targets of hospital-acquired infection control are to reduce the incidence of surgical-site, catheter-related, and ventilator-associated infections. In this report, we address previously presented infection-control strategies for central venous (CV) line catheterization, using a CV catheter-related infection surveillance system. Data concerning CV catheter insertion were collected from all facilities in our 650-bed hospital, excluding the operating and hemodialysis wards. Collected data included the insertion method, purpose, length of catheter inserted, duration of catheterization, infection rate, and complication rate. Catheter-related infection was diagnosed based on bacteriological examinations from blood cultures. The total number of catheterizations was 806 a year, and average duration of catheterization was 9.8 days. The purpose of catheterization was nutritional support in 210 cases, hemodialysis in 96 cases, cardiac support in 174 cases, and other treatments in 260 cases. In 66 cases, the purpose of CV catheter was not specified. The rate of positive cultures was 7.1%, and complications other than infection occurred in 0.5%. The main causative organisms were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 38.6%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis (CNS) in 33.3%, and S. aureus in 12.3% of infections. Infection rates were 3.8 per 1000 catheter-days in subclavian, 6.1 in jugular, and 15.7 in femoral vein catheterization. In high-risk departments (intensive care unit [ICU] and emergency departments) the infection rate was 5.4 for subclavian and 10.2 for jugular catheterization, whereas it was 3.6 for subclavian and 4.6 for jugular catheterization in noncritical-care departments. Considering complications such as pneumothorax, CV catheterization of the jugular vein is recommended in certain situations.

  17. Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Sclerotherapy uses injections from a very fine, ... Sclerotherapy? What is Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins? Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment used ...

  18. In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system.

    PubMed

    Brecht, H P; Prough, D S; Petrov, Y Y; Patrikeev, I; Petrova, I Y; Deyo, D J; Cicenaite, I; Esenaliev, R O

    2007-11-26

    A noninvasive optoacoustic technique could be a clinically useful alternative to existing, invasive methods for cerebral oxygenation monitoring. Recently we proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for monitoring cerebral blood oxygenation by probing large cerebral and neck veins including the superior sagittal sinus and the internal jugular vein. In these studies we used a multi-wavelength optoacoustic system with a nanosecond optical parametric oscillator as a light source and a custom-made optoacoustic probe for the measurement of the optoacoustic signals in vivo from the area of the sheep neck overlying the external jugular vein, which is similar in diameter and depth to the human internal jugular vein. Optoacoustic signals induced in venous blood were measured with high resolution despite the presence of a thick layer of tissues (up to 10 mm) between the external jugular vein and the optoacoustic probe. Three wavelengths were chosen to provide accurate and stable measurements of blood oxygenation: signals at 700 nm and 1064 nm demonstrated high correlation with actual oxygenation measured invasively with CO-Oximeter ("gold standard"), while the signal at 800 nm (isosbestic point) was independent of blood oxygenation and was used for calibration.

  19. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  20. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc; Déglise, Sébastien; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment.

  1. Varicose Veins and Spider Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... are sold in medical supply and drugstores. Prescription-strength gradient compression hose, which offer the greatest amount ... the face. Exercise regularly to improve your leg strength, circulation, and vein strength. Focus on exercises that ...

  2. Radiosurgery of Glomus Jugulare Tumors: A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Batra, Sachin; Limb, Charles J.; Li, Gordon; Sughrue, Michael E.; Redmond, Kristin; Rigamonti, Daniele; Parsa, Andrew T.; Chang, Steven; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Lim, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: During the past two decades, radiosurgery has arisen as a promising approach to the management of glomus jugulare. In the present study, we report on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available published data on the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare tumors. Methods and Materials: To identify eligible studies, systematic searches of all glomus jugulare tumors treated with radiosurgery were conducted in major scientific publication databases. The data search yielded 19 studies, which were included in the meta-analysis. The data from 335 glomus jugulare patients were extracted. The fixed effects pooled proportions were calculated from the data when Cochrane's statistic was statistically insignificant and the inconsistency among studies was <25%. Bias was assessed using the Egger funnel plot test. Results: Across all studies, 97% of patients achieved tumor control, and 95% of patients achieved clinical control. Eight studies reported a mean or median follow-up time of >36 months. In these studies, 95% of patients achieved clinical control and 96% achieved tumor control. The gamma knife, linear accelerator, and CyberKnife technologies all exhibited high rates of tumor and clinical control. Conclusions: The present study reports the results of a meta-analysis for the radiosurgical management of glomus jugulare. Because of its high effectiveness, we suggest considering radiosurgery for the primary management of glomus jugulare tumors.

  3. We still go for the jugular: implications of the 3SITES central venous catheter study for nephrology.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Christina M; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The 3SITES study randomly assigned a nontunneled central venous catheter site in over 3000 adults treated in intensive care units. The subclavian site was associated with a lower rate of short-term complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection and deep venous thrombosis, compared to the femoral or internal jugular site. Nephrologists should be aware of this study and should continue to advocate for alternatives to subclavian vein catheter placement in patients with chronic kidney disease who are expected to require arteriovenous access for dialysis in the future.

  4. A rapid and non-surgical procedure for jugular catheterization of pigs.

    PubMed

    Matte, J J

    1999-07-01

    A rapid and non-surgical method for jugular catheterization in pigs was set up in 30 piglets of 6.2 kg, 23 pigs of 46 kg and 84 kg and two lactating multiparous sows. The animal was restrained on a V-shaped table (piglets) or with a rope around the mandible (slaughter pigs and sows). The vein was located with the Vacutainer system and a wire guide was inserted into the Vacutainer needle up to the vein lumen. When the needle was removed, the catheter was inserted over the wire guide and advanced until it penetrated the skin and thereafter, the vein wall. The catheter was fixed outside by a large tape and coiled inside a patch just behind the ears. The technique utilizes readily available material and is no more risky for the animal than a single blood sampling. Moreover, it can be performed within 15 to 20 min (including animal restraint) within pens. This new approach might have important implications not only for research purposes by facilitating repeated blood samplings but also for projects which require a rapid and easy method for testing of any kind of pharmaceutical or other type of products under husbandry conditions.

  5. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    SciTech Connect

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-02-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  6. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  7. Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wearing loose clothing and avoiding long periods of standing can also help. If varicose veins are painful or you don't like the way they look, your doctor may recommend procedures to remove them. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  9. Veno-venous bypass in experimental liver transplantation: portal-jugular versus caval-portal-jugular.

    PubMed

    Falcini, F; Martini, E; Marsili, M; Benassai, C; Fabbri, L P; Tanini, R; Linden, M; Simoncini, R; Filipponi, F; Cataliotti, L

    1990-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the changes in physiologic variables caused by the use of two different types of pump-assisted veno-venous bypass during experimental liver transplantation. The experiments, performed on female pigs weighing 30 +/- 2 kg, were divided into two groups depending on the bypass used. During the anhepatic phase a pump-assisted portal-jugular (PJ) bypass was used in Group 1 (n = 8) at a flow rate of 15 ml kg-1-min-1, while a pump-assisted caval-portal-jugular (CPJ) bypass was used in Group 2 (n = 8) at a flow rate of 20 ml kg-1-min-1. Intraoperative haemodynamics, pulmonary gas exchange, haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Postoperative animal survival rate and complications associated with the bypass used were evaluated. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance (Pvr) showed significantly different behaviour in the two groups, whereas the remaining parameters all showed the same trend. Thus an earlier and more substantial increase in Ppa and Pvr values was found in Group 1 when compared to Group 2 during the anhepatic phase. The different behaviour shown by Group 1 may depend on the release of circulating vasoactive substances generated following pelvic venous congestion caused by the temporary clamping of the inferior vena cava. In conclusion, this study indicates that the pump-assisted CPJ bypass is more suitable than the pump-assisted PJ bypass. Furthermore, in order to obtain better results it should be used routinely in porcine liver transplantation.

  10. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  11. A rare case of persistent jugulocephalic vein and its clinical implication

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakashchandra; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D'Souza, Melanie Rose

    2016-01-01

    Persistence of jugulocephalic vein is one of the extremely rare variations of the cephalic vein. Knowledge of such a variation is of utmost importance to orthopedic surgeons while treating the fractures of the clavicle, head and neck surgeons, during surgery of the lower part of neck, for cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists during catheterization and cardiac device placement. We report the persistent jugulocephalic vein in an adult male cadaver, observed during the routine dissection classes. The right cephalic vein ascended upwards, superficial to the lateral part of the clavicle and terminated into the external jugular vein. It also gave a communicating branch to the axillary vein below the clavicle. We discuss the embryological and clinical importance of this rare variation. PMID:27722015

  12. Cerebral infarction due to carotid occlusion and carbon monoxide exposure III. Influence of neck vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Laas, R; Igloffstein, J

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral cerebral infarcts were produced in the rat by ligation of one common carotid artery and a subsequent exposure to carbon monoxide. In animals which had undergone an additional ligation of the external jugular veins leading to a moderate increase of the cephalic venous pressure the outcome of the procedure was ameliorated significantly. Venous pressure elevation was thought to reduce the venous vascular resistance effectively by preventing the leptomeningeal veins from collapsing. Collapse of the leptomeningeal veins probably occurred during the severe carbon monoxide-induced hypotension causing a steep increase of cerebral vascular resistance. Images PMID:6886722

  13. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  14. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes the veins to ... pressure in your veins due to overweight or obesity or pregnancy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February ...

  15. Dynamic multiplanar real time ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Hamill, Mark; Collier, Bryan; Bradburn, Eric; Ferrara, John

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound guided vascular access has been well-characterized as a safe and effective technique for internal jugular and femoral vein catheterization. However, there is limited experience with the use of ultrasound to access the infraclavicular subclavian vein. Multiple ultrasound techniques do exist to identify the subclavian vein, but real time access is limited by vessel identification in a single planar view. To overcome this limitation, a novel technique of ultrasound guided infraclavicular subclavian vein catheterization using a real time multiplanar approach has been developed. The initial experience with this approach is described. A single surgeon used combined oblique, transverse, and longitudinal views along with Doppler color flow images to both define the infraclavicular anatomy and to obtain subclavian vein access in 42 adult patients (20 M/22 F and 22 L/20 R) with a mean body mass index of 29.2 (range = 18.9-55.4). Chest x-ray was obtained to confirm position and to rule out pneumothorax. Subclavian vein cannulation was achieved in 100 per cent of patients; subsequent catheterization was successful in 92.9 per cent. The number of attempts required for cannulation averaged 1.3 (range = 1-5), and decreased after a five patient learning curve. No patient developed a pneumothorax, hematoma, or cannula malposition. Ultrasound guided multiplanar infraclavicular subclavian vein access appears to be a safe and effective adjunct for central line placement.

  16. A new approach for sclera vein recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N. L.; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    The vein structure in the sclera is stable over time, unique to each person, and well suited for human identification. A few researchers have performed sclera vein pattern recognition and reported promising initial results. Sclera recognition poses several challenges: the vein structure moves and deforms with the movement of the eye; images of sclera patterns are often defocused and/or saturated; and, most importantly, the vein structure in the sclera is multi-layered and has complex non-linear deformation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sclera recognition: First, we developed a color-based sclera region estimation scheme for sclera segmentation. Second, we designed a Gabor wavelet-based sclera pattern enhancement method, and an adaptive thresholding method to emphasize and binarize the sclera vein patterns. Third, we proposed a line descriptor-based feature extraction, registration, and matching method that is illumination-, scale-, orientation-, and deformation-invariant, and can mitigate the multi-layered deformation effects exhibited in the sclera and tolerate segmentation error. It is empirically verified using the UBIRIS database that the proposed method can perform accurate sclera recognition.

  17. [Effect of catheter type on the functional survival of jugular access ports in chronic hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Chazot, C; Charra, B; Vanel, T; Jean, G; Laurent, G

    1994-01-01

    Silicone catheter (C) can be used in the hemodialysis setting as an alternative for the blood access. We analysed retrospectively the 3 types of the catheters used in 45 patients. 58 catheters were percutaneously inserted in the internal jugular vein (9 Bard (B)-Hickman; 17 Canaud (CD)-Vygon; 32 Permcath (PC)-Quinton). The indications were thrombosis or dysfunction of an arterio-venous fistula (A-V F) (52%), absence of a A-V F (21%), Thomas' shunt infection (8%), infection or extrusion of a previous catheter (19%). The functional survival curve of the C shows the best results for the PC and the worse with the B (Log-Rank test = 6,602, p < 0.037). The main cause of failure was the catheter's extrusion (3 of the 5 failures for the B; 4 of the 6 for the CD). None of the PC was extruded. Infection and inadequate blood flow were equally found in the 3 groups. In our experience, PC give the best results because of the quality of the cuff making a good attachment in the sub-cutaneous tunnel.

  18. Moderate hypothermia suppresses jugular venous superoxide anion radical, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Koda, Yoichi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kaneda, Kotaro; Todani, Masaki; Aoki, Tetsuya; Shitara, Masaki; Izumi, Tomonori; Kasaoka, Shunji; Yuasa, Makoto; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-22

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of moderate hypothermia (MH) on generation of jugular venous superoxide radical (O2-.), oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (FBI/R) rats. Twenty-one Wistar rats were allocated to a control group (n=7, 37 degrees C), a pre-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C before ischemia), and a post-MH group (n=7, 32 degrees C after reperfusion). MH was induced before induction of ischemia in the pre-MH group and just after reperfusion in the post-MH group. Forebrain ischemia was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries with hemorrhagic hypotension for 10 min, followed by reperfusion. O(2)(-)(.) in the jugular vein was measured from the produced current using a novel O2-. sensor. The O2-. current showed a gradual increase during forebrain ischemia in the control and post-MH groups but was attenuated in the pre-MH group. Following reperfusion, the current showed a marked increase in the control group but was strongly attenuated in the pre- and post-MH groups. Concentrations of malondialdehyde, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the brain and plasma 120 min after reperfusion in the pre- and post-MH groups were significantly lower than those in the control group, except for plasma HMGB1 in the post-MH group. In conclusion, MH suppressed O2-. measured in the jugular vein, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in FBI/R rats.

  19. The Jugular Foramen Schwannomas: Review of the Large Surgical Series

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective Jugular foramen schwannomas are uncommon pathological conditions. This article is constituted for screening these tumors in a wide perspective. Materials One-hundred-and-ninty-nine patients published in 19 articles between 1984 to 2007 years was collected from Medline/Index Medicus. Results The series consist of 83 male and 98 female. The mean age of 199 operated patients was 40.4 years. The lesion located on the right side in 32 patients and on the left side in 60 patients. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss, tinnitus, disphagia, ataxia, and hoarseness. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 159 patients. In fourteen patients tumor reappeared unexpectedly. The tumor was thought to originate from the glossopharyngeal nerve in forty seven cases; vagal nerve in twenty six cases; and cranial accessory nerve in eleven cases. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve palsy and facial nerve palsy. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, aspiration pneumonia and mastoiditis were seen as other complications. Conclusion This review shows that jugular foramen schwannomas still have prominently high morbidity and those complications caused by postoperative lower cranial nerve injury are life threat. PMID:19119464

  20. Anatomy of the inferior petro-occipital vein and its relation to the base of the skull: application to surgical and endovascular procedures of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-07-01

    Although the inferior petro-occipital vein has been recently used for vascular access to the cavernous sinus, few detailed descriptions of its anatomy are in the literature. We aimed to investigate the morphology and relationships of this vessel. Twelve latex-injected cadaveric heads (24 sides) were dissected to identify the inferior petro-occipital vein and anatomic details documented. The petro-occipital vein was identified on 83.3% of sides. Generally this vein united the internal carotid venous plexus to the superior jugular bulb. However, on 10% of sides, the anterior part of this vein communicated directly with the cavernous sinus, and on 15%, the posterior vein drained into the inferior petrosal sinus at its termination into the superior jugular bulb. The petro-occipital vein was separated from the overlying inferior petrosal sinus by a thin plate of bone. On 40% of sides, small venous connections were found between these two venous structures. The vein was usually larger if a nondominant transverse sinus was present. The overlying inferior petrosal sinus was smaller in diameter when an underlying inferior petro-occipital vein was present. On 20% of sides, the posterior aspect of the vein communicated with the hypoglossal canal veins. On three sides, diploic veins from the clivus drained into the inferior petro-occipital vein. The inferior petro-occipital vein is present in most humans. This primarily extracranial vessel communicates with intracranial venous sinuses and should be considered an emissary vein. Knowledge of this vessel's exact anatomy may be useful to cranial base surgeons and endovascular specialists.

  1. The clinical anatomy of the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral triangle.

    PubMed

    Loukas, M; Myers, C S; Wartmann, Ch T; Tubbs, R S; Judge, T; Curry, B; Jordan, R

    2008-02-01

    Identification and recognition of the cephalic vein in the deltopectoral triangle is of critical importance when considering emergency catheterization procedures. The aim of our study was to conduct a cadaveric study to access data regarding the topography and the distribution patterns of the cephalic vein as it relates to the deltopectoral triangle. One hundred formalin fixed cadavers were examined. The cephalic vein was found in 95% (190 right and left) specimens, while in the remaining 5% (10) the cephalic vein was absent. In 80% (152) of cases the cephalic vein was found emerging superficially in the lateral portion of the deltopectoral triangle. In 30% (52) of these 152 cases the cephalic vein received one tributary within the deltopectoral triangle, while in 70% (100) of the specimens it received two. In the remaining 20% (38) of cases the cephalic vein was located deep to the deltopectoral fascia and fat and did not emerge through the deltopectoral triangle but was identified medially to the coracobrachialis and inferior to the medial border of the deltoid. In addition, in 4 (0.2%) of the specimens the cephalic vein, after crossing the deltopectoral triangle, ascended anterior and superior to the clavicle to drain into the subclavian vein. In these specimens a collateral branch was observed to communicate between the cephalic and external jugular veins. In 65.2% (124) of the cases the cephalic vein traveled with the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial trunk. The length of the cephalic vein within the deltopectoral triangle ranged from 3.5 cm to 8.2 cm with a mean of 4.8+/-0.7 cm. The morphometric analysis revealed a mean cephalic vein diameter of 0.8+/-0.1 cm with a range of 0.1 cm to 1.2 cm. The cephalic vein is relatively large and constant, usually allowing for easy cannulation.

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vein swells, the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism. Sitting still for a long time can make ...

  3. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000027.htm Deep vein thrombosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. You were treated for deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). This is a condition in ...

  4. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... noninvasive treatment Varicose veins Venous insufficiency Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Review Date 6/6/2016 ... Interventional Radiology & Surgical Critical Care, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  5. Focus on Varicose Veins

    MedlinePlus

    ... work- ing properly or have evidence of reflux. Measurement of the venous function of the leg may ... Vein stripping was the traditional treatment for bad values in the veins however it is rarely used ...

  6. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Thierry; Soltys, Remigiusz; Loarte, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community. PMID:25802795

  7. Late onset of clinically apparent central vein stenosis due to previous central venous catheter in a patient with inherited thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Pissas, Georgios; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    We describe a case of a patient with a functional kidney transplant who was admitted to our department with clinically evident central vein stenosis (CVS) 7 years after the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein. The catheter was used as a hemodialysis access for a 2-month period. In the interval before his last admission, the patient suffered two episodes of deep vein thrombosis. Investigation revealed heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, the most common inherited thrombophilia encountered in 5% of Caucasians, and anticoagulation treatment was started. Magnetic resonance angiography showed stenosis just after the convergence of the right subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein to the innominate vein. Transluminal angioplasty restored venous patency and right upper arm edema resolved. Coexistence of CVS, accompanied by hemodynamic changes and endothelial dysfunction, with thrombophilia fulfill all the elements of the Virchow's triad. Therefore, the patient was at great risk for central vein thrombosis, from which he was possibly protected by the early administration of anticoagulant treatment. This case indicates that CVS can be asymptomatic for several years after CVC removal and also raises the question if thrombophilia workup and investigation for CVS may be beneficial in every patient with CVC placement in order to avoid any harmful outcomes.

  8. Catheter-related bacteremia from femoral and central internal jugular venous access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

  9. [Subclavian vein puncture as a primary approach for pacemaker lead implantation].

    PubMed

    Kronski, D; Haas, H

    2001-12-01

    In the beginning of transvenous pacemaker therapy, the external or alternatively internal jugular vein was commonly used for lead implantation. Due to frequent long-term complications both approaches are nowadays obsolete. In most pacemaker centers implantation via the cephalic vein has become standard. As an alternative, in 1975 Sterz et al. introduced puncture of the subclavian vein in the Seldinger technique as an approach for lead implantation. At this time, the commonly used introducers of pacemaker leads had to be cut for removal. No earlier than 1980 "peel away" introducers were commercially available. Since then, we consequently use this technique for implantation of single or dual chamber pacemaker devices. In the course of the last seven years merely 1.5-2% of implantations were performed via the cephalic vein; no jugular vein approach was performed. Due to a routinely performed subclavian vein puncture, we were able to optimize the procedure, proven by an enormous reduction in implantation time (local anesthesia - skin closure), x-ray time and complication rate. In the year 2000 we performed 52 implantations of a single chamber device with an average fluoroscopy time of 1.5 (0.3-9.3) minutes, radiation dose of 4.5 (0.1-47) Gycm(2) and implantation time of 17.6 (8-40) minutes and 144 implantations of a dual chamber device with an average fluoroscopy time of 2.86 (0.7-6.6) minutes, radiation dose of 8.31 (0.7-28) Gycm(2) and implantation time of 21.25 (10-45) minutes. Complications were rare, clinically irrelevant arterial punctures. Neither nerval damage nor pneumothoraces with the necessity for chest tube placement were seen in the above mentioned time frame. No early or late thrombosis of the subclavian vein was encountered.    The primary subclavian vein approach led to an enormous reduction in overall procedure time without significant morbidity.

  10. Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)

    PubMed Central

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition. PMID:24475025

  11. Regulation of P-selectin expression by inflammatory mediators in canine jugular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Doré, M; Sirois, J

    1996-11-01

    Canine endothelial cells express the adhesion molecule P-selectin to mediate the initial attachment of leukocytes to the vessel wall. Although it is known that agents like histamine and thrombin stimulate the surface expression of P-selectin, the effect of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on canine P-selectin expression has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the regulation of P-selectin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein by these cytokines in canine endothelial cells isolated from jugular veins. Analyses of cytoplasmic RNA by Northern blotting showed that stimulation of culture endothelial cells with either LPS (100 ng/ml) or recombinant human TNF-alpha (30 U/ml) for 3 or 6 hours significantly increased (P < 0.05) steady-state levels of mRNA for P-selectin (3.8- +/- 1.0- and 3.0- +/- 0.4-fold increase for LPS at 3 and 6 hours, respectively, and 2.5- +/- 0.8- and 2.7- +/- 0.9-fold increase for TNF-alpha at 3 and 6 hours, respectively). P-selectin mRNA had decreased by 48 hours to levels found in unstimulated cells. In contrast, human IL-1 beta had no effect on P-selectin mRNA. Increased levels of mRNA with LPS stimulation were associated with the synthesis of new protein, as demonstrated by the positive staining in LPS-stimulated cells using immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against canine P-selectin (MD3). These results reveal that important inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as LPS and TNF-alpha induce the synthesis of new P-selectin and suggest that this process could represent a means of sustaining local leukocyte recruitment for several hours during an acute inflammatory reaction.

  12. The mechanics of intersecting echelon veins and pressure solution seams in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyum, Solomon; Pollard, David D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies that describe the formation of echelon vein arrays relate the causative stresses implicitly to the deformation, reliant on simple shear kinematics, such that the vein-to-array angle and the array width are the primary physical quantities. In contrast, we identify twelve physical quantities to describe echelon veins in two dimensions, including coeval, vein-intersecting, pressure solution seams. A finite element method is used to reproduce vein shapes in linear elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic model limestone. Model vein geometries are designed using values within the range of geometries measured from echelon veins at Raplee Anticline and Comb Monocline, Utah. Four physical quantities are significant for describing echelon vein shapes: vein spacing, vein-array angle, limestone elastic stiffness, and closing of orthogonal pressure solution seams. Pressure solution seam closing influences the mechanical interaction between adjacent veins, and for a range of conditions, causes a nearly linear vein opening distribution (triangular shapes) and encourages straight vein propagation, both of which approximate field measurements. Model results show that small spacing of veins with seams and large vein-array angles promote straight vein traces in limestone with stiffness typical of laboratory measurements, given the physical geologic conditions inferred from the burial history of the limestone strata.

  13. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  14. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  15. Prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Naroienejad, Minoo; Saedi, Dariush; Rezvani, Asieh

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization with double-lumen temporary catheters, we performed color Doppler sonography in 100 consecutive patients. We detected central vein stenosis in 18 cases; 11 patients in subclavian vein (SCV), 4 patients in internal jugular vein (IJV) and SCV, 2 patients in SCV and brachiocephalic vein, and 2 patients in IJV stenosis. There were statistical difference between groups with and without stenosis regarding time from discontinuation of catheters and use of aspirin (ASA). We could not find any statistical difference between these two groups regarding age, sex, duration of having chronic kidney disease (CKD), and duration of catheter remaining in place. We also found that there was a high proportion of stenosis in patients who still had catheter in their veins (15 from 44 patients, 34%) in comparison with patients who had already the catheters removed from their veins (3 from 56 patients, 5%). We conclude that stenosis of central veins can result from long indwelling time of central catheter used for hemodialysis. Aspirin may have a protective role against stenosis.

  16. Vein of Galen Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamanaka, K.; Iwai, Y.; Yasui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Kitano, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, A.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Eleven patients with so-called “vein of Galen aneurysms ” are reported, six of whom presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (four with choroidal type and two with mural type malformations). The remaining five patients presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilatations secondarily due to an arteriovenous malformation in one patient, an arteriovenous fistula in another, dural arteriovenous fistulas in two patients, and a varix in another. Treatments for these patients were individualised with consideration given to the clinical manifestations and the angioarchitecture of their lesions. Endovascular intervention played a critical role in the treatment of these vein of Galen aneurysms. PMID:20663385

  17. Can tuffisite veins help dictate eruption styles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Heap, M. J.; Lavallee, Y.; Russell, J. K.; Meredith, P. G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of magmas to degas during ascent may affect eruption style. The permeability of the magma and/or the conduit wall rocks may therefore dictate whether an eruption will be explosive or effusive. Fractures increase permeability. Fractures filled by veins of autoclastic, cataclastic and tuffisitic glass shards and crystal fragments are common in shallow conduit systems. These veins have the potential to dramatically increase permeability and provide pathways for gas loss. Here we present the first study on the porosity, permeability, strength, P-and S-wave and dynamic elastic moduli of andesite containing tuffisite veins at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. Porosity was measured via pycnometry. The strength and mechanisms of deformation were investigated on tuffisite-bearing and tuffisite-free samples in a uniaxial press at 940°C by loading at 2 MPa/min until failure. The permeability, P- and S-wave velocity, and dynamic elastic moduli were measured in a high-pressure permeameter/pore volumometer up to effective confining pressures of 50 MPa (ca. 2km depth). Measurements were made on cylindrical samples prepared as: (1) without tuffisite veins and with tuffisite veins (2) perpendicular and (3) sub-parallel to flow (i.e., the samples’ axial direction). Petrographic analysis reveals that the tuffisites are comprised almost exclusively of micron-size crystal fragments. Dilatometric measurements of tuffisite (10°C/min up to 1000°C), failed to reveal a Tg, indicating the absence of interstitial glass. In contrast, the dome rocks exhibits viscous relaxation between 770 and 885 °C, indicating glass. The high-temperature (940°C) deformation experiments on samples containing tuffisite veins showed an absence of ductile deformation and a uniaxial strength of 116 MPa; i.e, slightly weaker than tuffisite-free rock (~130 MPa) and stronger than erupted dome lavas (~30 MPa). The presence of tuffisite increases the porosity. Permeability measurements show that tuffisite

  18. Support for varicose veins.

    PubMed Central

    Fentem, P H; Goddard, M; Gooden, B A

    1976-01-01

    A method has been devised to allow reliable comparison of different strengths and constructions of support hosiery. Five garments were evaluated for the compression they exerted on the leg and their ability to limit the distension of a model varicose vein. Stockings and tights which provide modest compression can achieve worthwhile control of vein distension. PMID:1247807

  19. Prepancreatic preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Lal, N S; Kuruvila, A P; Natesh, P B; Koshy, M M; Anandakumar, M

    1992-10-01

    We report a 17 year old girl with prepancreatic and preduodenal portal vein. She presented with recurrent vomiting. Barium study revealed malrotation of the gut. Laparotomy confirmed malrotation of the gut with a prepancreatic and preduodenal portal vein. The patient is asymptomatic after gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy.

  20. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected into your veins. The dye outlines your veins on x-ray images. An angiogram can help your doctor confirm whether you have varicose veins or another condition. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  1. The evolution of crack seal vein and fracture networks in an evolving stress field: Insights from Discrete Element Models of fracture sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2014-12-01

    Veins are ubiquitous in upper and middle crustal rocks. Due to strength and stiffness contrast to the host rock, veins can influence crack propagation. Here we present Discrete Element Models to investigate crack-vein interactions by simulating cycles of fracturing of a rock mass, sealing the cracks to form veins, and refracturing the rock mass after rotating the stress field. We observe different styles of interaction between new fractures and existing veins, depending on the strength ratio between vein and host rock and on the changes in the stress field between the different deformation stages. If the orientation of stress field does not change between deformation stages, ataxial crack seal veins are produced if the veins are weak and a bundle of subparallel microveins if the veins are strong. If the stress field is rotated between deformation stages, the interactions include reactivation, fracture deflection, and crosscutting. Reactivation of weak veins occurs even if the vein orientation is highly unfavorable relative to the stress field. Relays of fractures between reactivated veins form at a higher angle to the veins than expected. This demonstrates that the orientation of secondary veins does not reflect the regional stress field in a simple manner and that veins can strongly influence fracture connectivity, with implications for paleostress analysis and basin modeling. Simulation results compare well with field examples of multiphase vein networks in carbonates from Jebel Akhdar, Oman.

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps reduce the chances that your blood will pool and clot. You should wear these stockings during ... Make lifestyle changes. Lose weight and quit smoking. Obesity and smoking increase your risk of deep vein ...

  3. What Are Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment ...

  4. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  5. Geometry and texture of quartz veins in Wadi Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2007-02-01

    Several quartz vein sets with varying orientation, geometry and internal structure were recognized in the Atalla area. The veins were associated with the deformation phases affecting the area. En echelon and extensional veins are the main geometrical types. Syn-kinematic veins associated with the major northeast-over-southwest thrust faults were later boudinaged, folded and re-folded. En echelon veins, fibrous veins, and extensional veins are associated with the NNW-SSE faults. Other veins are associated with the NW-SE, N-S, NE-SW and E-W faults. Veins are concentrated at the intersection zones between faults. The internal structure of the veins comprises syntaxial, antitaxial, and composite types and reflects a change from a compressive stress regime to an extensional one. Chocolate-tablet structures and synchronous and co-genetic vein networks indicate later multi-directional extension of the area. Interaction between cracking and sealing of fractures is a common feature in the study area indicating that it was easy for the pore pressure to open pre-existing fractures instead of creating new ones. The reopening of pre-existing fractures rather than creating new ones is also indicated by the scattering of vein data around σ3. There is an alteration and change in characteristics of the wall rock due to increase in fluid flow rate. Fault-valving probably is also a cause of the complex geometry of some veins.

  6. Catheter malplacement during central venous cannulation through arm veins in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Harihar; Chauhan, Rajendra S; Mohanty, Bibekanand

    2003-07-01

    For successful catheter placement, central venous cannulation (CVC) through internal jugular vein and subclavian vein has been recommended in both adult and pediatric patients. But it carries a risk of serious complications, such as pneumothorax, carotid, or subclavian artery puncture, which can be life-threatening, particularly in critically ill children. So a prospective study was carried out to determine the success rate of correct catheter tip placement during CVC through antecubital veins in pediatric neurosurgical patients. A total of 200 pediatric patients (age 1-15 years) of either sex were studied. Basilic or cephalic veins of either arm were selected. All the patients were cannulated in the operation room under general anesthesia. Single lumen, proper size catheters (with stillete) were used for cannulation. The catheter was inserted in supine position with the arm abducted at right angle to the body and neck turned ipsilaterally. The length of insertion was determined from cubital fossa to the right second intercostal space. The exact position of the tip of the catheter was confirmed radiologically in ICU. Correct catheter tip placement was achieved in 98 (49%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of data shows that there was no statistically significant difference among correct and incorrect catheter tip placement in relation to factors including sex, side of cannulation (left or right), and type of vein (basilic or cephalic). The analysis of correct catheter tip placement in relation to age showed that the highest success rate was achieved in children of age group 6 to 10 years (60.2%) followed by 30.6% in the 11 to 15 year group. The lowest success rate of tip placement of only 9.2% was observed in younger children of age 1 to 5 years, which is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Of 102 incorrect placements reported, 37% were in 1 to 5 year age group versus 9.2% correct tip placements. The most common unsatisfactory placements were

  7. A Surgical Procedure for the Chronic Cannulation of the Carotid Artery and the Jugular Vein in Dogs,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    neck incision was closed with 3/0 chromic interrupted suture for the fascia and the subcutaneous layers, and 3/0 Prolene (Ethicon Sutures Limited...Peterborough) subcuticular for the skin. The back incision was closed with 3/0 Prolene subcuticular. Cannulae were wrapped in adhesive tape in a butterfly...fashion (about 2x3 cm) and the wings were anchored to the skin with 3/0 Prolene . The jacket (described below) was put on the dog and the cannulae

  8. Brain tissue fragments in jugular vein blood of cattle stunned by use of penetrating or nonpenetrating captive bolt guns.

    PubMed

    Coore, R R; Love, S; McKinstry, J L; Weaver, H R; Philips, A; Hillman, T; Hiles, M; Helps, C R; Anil, M H

    2005-04-01

    Although the incidence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle continues to decline in the United Kingdom, it remains important to maintain vigilance of all potential routes of transmission of infection to humans. Initial studies have demonstrated a potential risk of carcass contamination with brain tissue following the use of captive bolt gun stunning in cattle. The objective of this study was to further explore these initial findings particularly in regard to captive bolt guns currently in use in the United Kingdom. Brain tissue fragments or elevated levels of a marker protein for brain tissue were detected in venous blood samples from 4% (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 9.8%) of cattle stunned by penetrating captive bolt gun and from 2% (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 7%) of those stunned by nonpenetrating captive bolt gun.

  9. Overview of Research on the Origin of Syntectonic Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltschko, D.

    2005-12-01

    The making of a syntectonic vein requires placing the vein components in a mobile form, transporting them to the vein site and then precipitating them accompanying dilation. The commingling in space and time of dissolution features such as pressure solution cleavage and veins suggest a genetic link. Dissolution has received considerable attention in the literature with regard to cleavage formation. Transport is generally held to be by diffusion; the alternative, advection, leads to mass balance problems in that the amount of fluid needed to precipitate observed vein volumes is huge, with little ancillary evidence of large flow. Coupled dilation and precipitation in veins has received relatively little analytical scrutiny. Competing models include the action of elevated fluid pressure to crack and hold open the rock during precipitation, force of crystallization dilating the rock as the vein grows, and a variety of processes having to do with location in a particular larger structure (e.g., outer arc of a fold hinge). All of these may play a role to one extent or another, depending upon the stage of vein growth. Field evidence from syntectonic vein the Benton Uplift, Ouachitas Mtns, for instance, shows that boundinage in the semi-brittle regime resulted in organized, repeated dilation that scales with the thickness of the competent bed. Several orders of boundinage are present, analogous to orders of folding in layered km-scale folds, leading to a spectrum of vein spacings and lengths. Vein width is controlled by the extent to which beds extended after the individual pinched regions were broken and separated by subsequent deformation of the larger structure.

  10. Management options for penetrating injuries to the great veins of the neck and superior mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Robbs, J V; Reddy, E

    1987-10-01

    Between January 1984 and January 1986, 74 patients were treated for stab or gunshot injury to the great veins in the neck and superior mediastinum. Veins involved in the neck were the subclavian and internal jugular and in the mediastinum, the brachiocephalic and subclavian vein and the superior vena cava. Most patients presented in a state of shock. Twenty-nine were bleeding too rapidly to resuscitate adequately and required emergency operation while in a moribund state. Twenty-five had arteriovenous fistulas and were hemodynamically stable. Direct venous repair was attempted if simple lateral suture or end to end anastomosis could be rapidly done. If complex repairs were required, ligation was performed. Fifty-five veins were ligated on this basis, including 14 brachiocephalic trunks, nine proximal subclavian veins and one superior vena cava cephalad to the azygos. Nineteen were repaired. Two patients died after ligation and one patient after repair, all as a result of the effects of massive hypovolemia. Edema of the upper limb developed in two patients in each treatment group in whom the distal part of the subclavian vein had been involved. The edema resolved within five to seven days. Chronic venous stasis problems did not develop in any patient during the two to 26 month follow-up period.

  11. Albumin uptake by renal lymphatics with and without obstruction of the renal vein

    SciTech Connect

    Threefoot, S.A.; Pearson, J.E. Jr.; Georgiardis, A. )

    1989-08-02

    Experiments involving injection of radio-iodinated albumin into the left renal arteries or left ureters of dogs indicate that the renal lymphatics are capable of a major contribution in returning to the circulation albumin (or other large molecules) escaping from renal capillaries. I-131-albumin was injected into the jugular vein of controls or into the left renal artery or in retrograde manner into the left ureter of female dogs. Experimental groups included those with no obstruction, occlusion of left renal veins or left renal lymphatics, or both. Collections were made from the right femoral artery, both renal veins, thoracic duct and both ureters at frequent intervals for 2 to 4 hours. Data analysis included I-131 concentration, specific activity, rate of recovery and selected ratios. After renal arterial injection, the percentage of I131 recovered in thoracic duct lymph of dogs without renal venous obstruction was 5 to 10 times that recovered in those that received injections into the jugular vein. In dogs with renal venous obstruction, recovery from the thoracic duct was 10 to 1,000 times that in control dogs. Most of the differences occurred during the first hour, after which time as recirculation and redistribution occurred the rates of appearance in thoracic duct lymph in each group were similar. The differences in the ratios of concentration in thoracic duct lymph to concentration in femoral arterial blood were also much greater when the renal vein was obstructed than in dogs with no obstruction. The greater return of albumin through the thoracic duct in those with impeded renal venous outflow was probably related to both sequestered concentration and increased intrarenal pressure.

  12. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  13. [The effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the post-feeding dynamics of N metabolism in the portal vein, jugular vein and the rumen fluid of bulls].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, U; Vrzgula, L; Blazovský, J; Havassy, I; Ledecký, V; Bartko, P

    1984-04-01

    If easily digestible saccharides are deficient in the feed ration of bulls with the live weight of 300 kg and at simultaneous single application of urea at a rate of 0.2 g per 1 kg live weight, zeolite (with 50.6% clinoptilolite content) administered at a rate of 2.5% per 1 kg dry matter influenced significantly (P less than 0.05) the ammonia concentration in rumen, v. portae and v. jugularis. The rumen contents and blood were sampled at the intervals of 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 minutes after feeding. Basal feed ration consisted of 1 kg feed mixture and 3 kg meadow hay. After urea administration, zeolite reduced the ammonia concentration in rumen by 20-40% in comparison with the control group and in v. portae by 60-70%. In v. jugularis in the 90th minute after feeding significant hyperammonemia was observed in bulls with no zeolite supplement. Zeolite administration did not influence urea concentration in plasma.

  14. How Vein Sealing Boosts Fracture Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Veins from from cracks. As such, a stage of brittle failure and fracturing is to be set apart from a stage of opening and sealing. The process of fracture opening requires distortion of the host rocks to create space for the evolving vein. To keep a crack arrested and, at the same time, to widen or stabilize the cavity, the stress intensity factor K_I=(P-S3)(πa) must remain below the fracture toughness K_IC of the host rock, and P-S3 >0 (P and S3 denote pore fluid pressure and absolute minimum principal stress, respectively and 'a' refers to the half-length of the fracture). For purely elastic distortion of the host rocks, maximum aperture W0=K_IC (1-ν^2)/(E(π/8)^1/2))(2a)^1/2 depends on on K_IC, Poisson's ratio ν, and Young's modulus E of the host rocks. Owing to the low values for rock K_IC typically ranging between 0.1 and 1 MPa m^1/2, veins formed by purely elastic distortion of the host rocks are restricted to high aspect ratios 2a/W. In metamorphic rocks, veins with low aspect ratios are common; inelastic deformation and viscous creep in the host rocks must have contributed to final vein shapes. In the present study, I use finite element models to simulate fracture opening and cavity formation supported by viscous creep distributed in the host rock. Simulations are carried out on 2D plate models containing elliptical fractures. The walls of the fractures are coated by thin layers simulating incipient sealing; a residual cavity prevails in the centre of the model veins. Constant displacement is applied to the plate boundaries oriented normal to the cracks. I run a series of models with various viscosity contrasts between the rocks and the sealing. The results of these models indicate the following. (1) Fracture opening is most effective when the viscosity of the sealing ηs exceeds the viscosity of the host rocks ηr (2) The rate of fracture opening increases with increasing values for ηs/ηr . (3) An increase in the thickness of the sealing layer causes

  15. Cephalic vein cutdown for totally implantable central venous port in children: a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Hwan; Moon, Suk-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The jugular vein cutdown for a totally implantable central venous port (TICVP) has 2 disadvantages: 2 separate incisions are needed and the risk for multiple vein occlusions. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of a cephalic vein (CV) cutdown in children. Methods We prospectively followed patients who underwent a venous cutdown for implantation of a TICVP between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2006. For patients younger than 8 months, an external jugular vein cutdown was initially tried without attempting a CV cutdown. For patients older than 8 months, a CV cutdown was tried initially. We recorded information on age, weight, outcome of the CV cutdown and complications. Results During the study period, 143 patients underwent a venous cutdown for implantation of a TICVP: 25 younger and 118 older than 8 months. The CV cutdown was successful in 73 of 118 trials. The 25th percentile and median body weight for 73 successful cases were 15.4 kg and 28.3 kg, respectively. There was a significant difference in the success rate using the criterion of 15 kg as the cutoff. The overall complication rate was 8.2%. Conclusion The CV cutdown was an acceptable procedure for TICVP in children. It could be preferentially considered for patients weighing more than 15 kg who require TICVP. PMID:24461222

  16. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, Lakshmi A.; Marsh, Petra; Holdstock, Judy M.; Harrison, Charmaine S.; Hussain, Fuad F.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Lopez, Anthony

    2008-11-15

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  17. The influence of steroids on vascular tension of isolated superficial veins of the nose and face during the estrous cycle of gilts.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Chłopek, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-15

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus and through the facial vein into the external jugular vein. The current study was designed to determine whether estradiol and progesterone affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in cycling gilts (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors and estradiol receptors in these veins. The influence of hormones on vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel and the phase of the estrous cycle. Estradiol decreased vascular tension in the nasal vein during the follicular phase (P<0.05) and increased tension in the frontal vein during the luteal phase (P<0.05). Progesterone increased the vascular tension of the frontal vein (P<0.05) and decreased the tension of the other veins (P<0.05) in both phases of the cycle. Expression of estradiol receptor beta but not of progesterone receptor was observed in the superficial veins of the nose and face. In conclusion, the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on the vascular tension of the superficial veins of the nose and face in female pigs as well as the reactivity of these veins to steroid boar pheromones can affect the blood supply from the nasal cavity to the venous cavernous sinus. We propose that the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins may also influence the action of boar pheromones absorbed into the nasal mucosa in gilts and may reach the brain via local destination transfer.

  18. Portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion.

  19. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  20. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  1. Evaluation of regional limb perfusion with erythromycin using the saphenous, cephalic, or palmar digital veins in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Kelmer, G; Martin-Jimenez, T; Saxton, A M; Catasus, C; Elliot, S B; Lakritz, J

    2013-10-01

    There are no reported studies evaluating the use of erythromycin for regional limb perfusion (RLP) in horses. Our hypothesis was that using the cephalic and saphenous veins for RLP will enable delivery of therapeutic concentrations of erythromycin to the distal limb. Nineteen healthy horses participated in the study. The cephalic, saphenous or palmar digital (PD) vein was used to perfuse the limb with erythromycin. Synovial samples were collected from the metacarpo/metatarso-phalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Maximum concentration (C(max)) of erythromycin in the MCP joint using the cephalic vein was 113 mg/L. The Cmax of erythromycin in the MTP joint using the saphenous vein was 38 mg/L. Erythromycin administered using the PD vein was not detectable in the MCP/MTP joint of four of six horses. Concentrations of erythromycin achieved in the synovial fluid of the MCP/MTP joint were between 152 and 452 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Rhodococcus equi (R. equi). In conclusion, the results indicate that when using the saphenous or cephalic veins for RLP, therapeutic concentrations of erythromycin in the MCP/MTP joint can be consistently reached [corrected].

  2. The influence of steroids on the vascular tension of isolated superficial nasal and facial veins in gilts during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the facial vein into the external jugular vein and through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus. The venous cavernous sinus is the site where hormones and pheromones permeate from venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to: (1) determine whether estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in maturating prepubertal gilts (PP) and in prepubertal gilts deprived of ovarian hormones (PPov), and (2) to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors (PR), and estradiol receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in these veins. The influence of hormones on the vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel, the hormonal status and dose of hormone used. Estradiol decreased the vascular tension in the nasal and facial veins of PP gilts (P < 0.01). In PPov gilts, the effect of E2 was opposing, however it caused strong tension in the proximal and distal parts of the facial vein (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Progesterone increased the vascular tension in the proximal segment of the nasal vein and in the distal segment of the frontal and facial veins, and decreased the tension in the distal segment of the nasal and facial veins (P < 0.05) of PP gilts. In PPov gilts, P4 produced strong increase in the tension of distal and proximal segments of the nasal vein (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and of distal segment of the facial vein (P < 0.01), strong decrease in the tension of the distal part of the nasal vein (P < 0.01) and had limited effect on other veins. Expression of ER beta, but not of PR, was observed in the superficial nasal and facial veins. In conclusion, the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins in

  3. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization during attempted internal jugular central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Bharat; Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation.

  4. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christopher D.; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease–unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  5. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients.

  6. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    vein formation. Phase 1 corresponds to the assumed development of E-W sinistral shear zones and associated N60°W cleavages under the effects of a NE-SW shortening direction that is recognized at Andean scale. These structures contain the stage 1 ore assemblage that was brecciated during ongoing deformation. Phase 2 is a reactivation of earlier structures under a NW-SE shortening direction that allowed the reopening of the preexisting schistosity and the formation of scarce N50°E-striking S2-cleavage planes filled by the stage 2 pre-bonanza minerals. Phase 3 coincides with the bonanza ore emplacement in the secondary N45-60°W veins and also in open-space in the core of the main E-W veins. Our combined tectonic, textural, mineralogical, fluid-inclusion, and geochronological study presents a complete model of vein formation in which the reactivation of previously formed tectonic structures plays a significant role in ore formation.

  7. [Puncture of the brachiocephalic vein].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, K

    1986-09-01

    A specific central vein catheter for puncture of the brachiocephalic vein has been developed which is provided with a valve by which air-embolism and unwanted bleeding from the catheter are eliminated. Typical and often serious complications, which can develop on insertion of central vein catheter, can nearly be totally avoided by the puncture technique described.

  8. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation: Prognostic Markers Depicted on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W; Vaught, Arthur J; Poretti, Andrea; Blakemore, Karin J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serves a dual role in the prenatal diagnostic work up of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). First, it may confirm the prenatal ultrasound findings and secondly it may identify prognostically important secondary complications of the VGAM. Progressive heart failure with development of fetal hydrops and hemispheric white matter injuries are associated with a poor outcome in children with a VGAM. We present the prenatal findings using both ultrasound and MRI of a fetus with VGAM including bilateral injury of the cerebral hemispheres, severe dilatation of the jugular veins, cardiomegaly, and hydrops fetalis. The neonate died within 30 minutes after delivery. Moreover, fetal MRI revealed complete placenta praevia, uterine fibroids, and wrapping of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck. This additional information is unrelated to the fetal pathology, but could have been of importance to plan the delivery. PMID:25924177

  9. Nonsuture closure of arterial defect by vein graft using isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a tissue adhesive.

    PubMed

    Celik, H; Caner, H; Tahta, K; Ozcan, O E; Erbengi, A; Onol, B

    1991-01-01

    Nonsuture repair of intracranial blood vessel is still a challenging issue in neurosurgery. In this experimental study isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate was used for nonsuture repairing of carotid artery to observe its histotoxicity. Isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate was dropped over the edge of defect on carotid artery of rat under the surgical microscope and jugular vein was placed to cover the defect. Rats were divided in 6 group according to postoperative survival period (2, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 days respectively). The carotid arteries were patent of all rats according to angiography and autopsy specimen. Histopathological results showed that: the changes are mainly inflammatory respons +, there was no necrotic tissue at any time the healing progress and no significant differences in the vein graft. Therefore isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate is considered helpful and safe adhesive material for the nonsuture repair of blood vessel.

  10. Elevation of jugular venous superoxide anion radical is associated with early inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia-reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Aki, Hiromi Shinagawa; Fujita, Motoki; Yamashita, Susumu; Fujimoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Kazumi; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Kasaoka, Shunji; Aoki, Tetsuya; Nanba, Masahiro; Murata, Hidenori; Yuasa, Makoto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-10-06

    A novel electrochemical sensor was used in this study to determine the correlations between jugular venous O(2)(-) and HMGB1, malondialdehyde (MDA), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in rats with forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (FBI/R). Twenty-one male rats were divided into a Sham group, a hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion (HS/R) group, and a forebrain ischemia/reperfusion (FBI/R) group. The O(2)(-) sensor in the jugular vein detected the current derived from O(2)(-) generation (abbreviated as "O(2)(-) current"), which was integrated as the partial value of quantified electricity during ischemia (Q(I)) and after reperfusion (Q(R)). The plasma O(2)(-) current showed a gradual increase during forebrain ischemia in the HS/R and the FBI/R groups. The current showed a marked increase immediately after reperfusion and continued for more than 60 min in the FBI/R group. In the HS/R group, the current was gradually attenuated to the baseline level. Brain and plasma HMGB1 increased significantly in the FBI/R group compared with those in the Sham and the HS/R groups, and both brain and plasma HMGB1 correlated significantly with the sum of Q(I) and Q(R) (total Q). Brain and plasma MDA and plasma soluble ICAM-1 also correlated significantly with total Q. Here, we report the correlation between O(2)(-) and HMGB1, MDA, and sICAM-1 in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, using a novel electrochemical sensor. These data indicated that excessive production of O(2)(-) after ischemia-reperfusion was associated with early inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation in the brain and plasma, which might enhance the ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  11. The effects of crystalloid potassium cardioplegic solution on arterialized canine vein grafts. Assessment of chronic prostacyclin production and histopathologic alterations.

    PubMed

    Hoover, E L; Pett, S B; Eldor, A; Alonso, D; Subramanian, V A; Weksler, B; Gay, W A

    1981-08-01

    Efforts to improve myocardial preservation during aortocoronary bypass procedures have led to the perfusion of saphenous vein segments with potassium cardioplegic (KCP) solutions after completion of the distal anastomosis. Recent reports show that the procurement of veins leads to varying degrees of damage, particularly to the endothelial surface, as a result of the dissection itself, the hydrostatic pressure required to distend the veins in obtaining hemostasis and the composition of the solutions used to irrigate the harvested segments. The biologic activity of arterialized vein segments is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the degree of venous injury inherent in vein harvesting may be compounded by perfusion with a potassium-rich solution, a known vascular irritant. The external jugular vein was removed from 18 dogs. Half of the vein was perfused with 300 ml of a KCP solution at 4 degrees C (40 mEq/l KCl, 10 ml sodium bicarbonate, pH 7.6, osmolarity 340 mosmol) and the other half with lactated Ringer's solution (LR). The treated vein was reversed and interposed into the excluded internal carotid circulation. A sham dissection was done on the opposite jugular vein. The veins were harvested after 6 weeks and assayed for spontaneous and arachidonate-stimulated (AS) prostacyclin activity as well as light microscopic analysis of morphologic changes. Spontaneous and AS production of prostacyclin did not differ significantly in the sham, LR and KCP groups: 1539 +/- 709 and 4166 +/- 1802, 1569 +/- 763 and 3767 +/- 2706, 1860 +/- 1233 and 3947 +/- 3347 pg/ml). Light microscopic analysis revealed an intense adventitial fibrotic reaction in the KCP group and the appearance of fibroblast-like cells in the outer layer of the vein wall. The intima was intact in all three groups. We conclude that intimal damage sustained during harvesting is repaired within 6 weeks, and there is no impairment to surface production of prostacyclin. The intense adventitial fibrotic

  12. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    PubMed

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  13. γ-Secretase inhibitor DAPT attenuates intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts by inhibition of Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong Guang; Wang, Wei; Gong, Dan; Mao, Zhi Fu

    2014-06-01

    The proliferation and high plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are the major reasons for restenosis of vein grafts. N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), specific inhibitor of γ-secretase, has been shown to regulate vSMC proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway, but the pathophysiological importance of these findings in venous grafts has not yet been determined. A rat vein graft model was employed wherein the left jugular vein was surgically interposed into the left common carotid artery. Daily subcutaneous injections of DAPT or placebo (DMSO) were administered postoperatively (control animals received no treatment). We showed that DAPT can inhibit restenosis of vein grafts by inhibiting vSMC proliferation and increasing apoptosis in vivo. Notch1 signaling was highly active during the development of intima thickening. By blocking the Notch signaling pathway, the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT can significantly attenuated intima thickening. These changes in vein grafts coincided with enhanced binding of myocardin to the smooth muscle-specific protein SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain at the promoters of vSMC differentiation-specific genes. These studies showed that DAPT can restore the vSMC phenotype and inhibit vSMC proliferation through suppression of the Notch1 signaling pathway, and thus opens a new avenue for the treatment of restenosis in vein grafts.

  14. Non-contact hemodynamic imaging reveals the jugular venous pulse waveform

    PubMed Central

    Amelard, Robert; Hughson, Richard L.; Greaves, Danielle K.; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Leung, Jason; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = −0.73 ± 0.17), consistent with ultrasound findings. Pulsatile venous flow was observed over a spatially cohesive region of the neck. Critical inflection points (c, x, v, y waves) of the JVP were observed across all participants. The anatomical locations of the strongest pulsatile venous flow were consistent with major venous pathways identified through ultrasound. PMID:28065933

  15. Spinal Accessory Neuropathy Associated With the Tumor Located on the Jugular Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment. PMID:23526381

  16. Non-contact hemodynamic imaging reveals the jugular venous pulse waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Hughson, Richard L.; Greaves, Danielle K.; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Leung, Jason; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = ‑0.73 ± 0.17), consistent with ultrasound findings. Pulsatile venous flow was observed over a spatially cohesive region of the neck. Critical inflection points (c, x, v, y waves) of the JVP were observed across all participants. The anatomical locations of the strongest pulsatile venous flow were consistent with major venous pathways identified through ultrasound.

  17. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amirak, Emre; Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  18. Effects of multiple vein microjoints on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings: numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Darvizeh, A; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2016-03-01

    Dragonfly wings are known as biological composites with high morphological complexity. They mainly consist of a network of rigid veins and flexible membranes, and enable insects to perform various flight manoeuvres. Although several studies have been done on the aerodynamic performance of Odonata wings and the mechanisms involved in their deformations, little is known about the influence of vein joints on the passive deformability of the wings in flight. In this article, we present the first three-dimensional finite-element models of five different vein joint combinations observed in Odonata wings. The results from the analysis of the models subjected to uniform pressures on their dorsal and ventral surfaces indicate the influence of spike-associated vein joints on the dorsoventral asymmetry of wing deformation. Our study also supports the idea that a single vein joint may result in different angular deformations when it is surrounded by different joint types. The developed numerical models also enabled us to simulate the camber formation and stress distribution in the models. The computational data further provide deeper insights into the functional role of resilin patches and spikes in vein joint structures. This study might help to more realistically model the complex structure of insect wings in order to design more efficient bioinspired micro-air vehicles in future.

  19. Effects of multiple vein microjoints on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings: numerical modelling

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Darvizeh, A.; Appel, E.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are known as biological composites with high morphological complexity. They mainly consist of a network of rigid veins and flexible membranes, and enable insects to perform various flight manoeuvres. Although several studies have been done on the aerodynamic performance of Odonata wings and the mechanisms involved in their deformations, little is known about the influence of vein joints on the passive deformability of the wings in flight. In this article, we present the first three-dimensional finite-element models of five different vein joint combinations observed in Odonata wings. The results from the analysis of the models subjected to uniform pressures on their dorsal and ventral surfaces indicate the influence of spike-associated vein joints on the dorsoventral asymmetry of wing deformation. Our study also supports the idea that a single vein joint may result in different angular deformations when it is surrounded by different joint types. The developed numerical models also enabled us to simulate the camber formation and stress distribution in the models. The computational data further provide deeper insights into the functional role of resilin patches and spikes in vein joint structures. This study might help to more realistically model the complex structure of insect wings in order to design more efficient bioinspired micro-air vehicles in future. PMID:27069649

  20. Percutaneous Vein Occlusion with Small Intestinal Submucosa: An Experimental Pilot Study in Swine and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man Deuk; Hoppe, Hanno; Pavcnik, Dusan Kaufman, John A.; Uchida, Barry T.; Correa, Luiz O.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Park, Won Kyu; Corless, Christopher L.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility, outcomes, and amount of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) material needed for embolization of jugular vein (JV) in a swine and sheep model. Our hypothesis was that SIS would cause vein occlusion. Materials and Methods. The external JVs (EJV) in swine (n = 6) and JVs in sheep (n = 6) were occluded with SIS fan-folded compressed strips. After percutaneous puncture of the peripheral portion of the EJV or JV, a TIPS set was used to exit their lumen centrally through the skin. The SIS strips were delivered into the isolated venous segment with a pull-through technique via a 10-Fr sheath. Follow-up venograms were done immediately after placement and at the time of sacrifice at 1 or 3 months. Gross examinations focused on the EJV or JV and their surrounding structures. Specimens were evaluated by histology. Results. SIS strip(s) placement was successful in all cases, with immediate vein occlusion seen in 23 of 24 veins (95.8%). All EJVs treated with two strips and all JVs treated with three or four strips remained closed on 1- and 3-month follow-up venograms. Two EJVs treated with one strip and one JV treated with two strips were partially patent on venograms at 1 and 3 months. There has been one skin inflammatory reaction. Necropsies revealed excluded EJV or JV segments with SIS incorporation into the vein wall. Histology demonstrated various stages of SIS remodeling with fibrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, capillaries, and inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We conclude that EJV and JV ablation with SIS strips using percutaneous exit catheterization is feasible and effective in animal models. Further exploration of SIS as vein ablation material is recommended.

  1. Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Cesar A Restrepo; Villa, Carlos A Buitrago; Cardona, Jose A Chacon

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter. Methods All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used. Results Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found. Conclusion The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy

  2. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further.

  3. The economics of vein disease.

    PubMed

    Sales, Clifford M; Podnos, Joan; Levison, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The management of cosmetic vein problems requires a very different approach than that for the majority of most other vascular disorders that occur in a vascular surgery practice. This article focuses on the business aspects of a cosmetic vein practice, with particular attention to the uniqueness of these issues. Managing patient expectations is critical to the success of a cosmetic vein practice. Maneuvering within the insurance can be difficult and frustrating for both the patient and the practice. Practices should use cost accounting principles to evaluate the success of their vein work. Vein surgery--especially if performed within the office--can undergo an accurate break-even analysis to determine its profitability.

  4. Using vein fabric and fluid inclusion characteristics as an integrated proxy to constrain the relative timing of non cross-cutting, syn- to late-orogenic quartz vein generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Dominique; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Research on ancient fluid systems mainly focuses on veins, because they offer the opportunity to combine macro- and microstructural data with geochemical data to gain insight into the P-T-X conditions present during veining. By applying such an integrated petrographic and microthermometric methodology to syn- to late-orogenic quartz veins in the Palaeozoic High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium), we were able to define the relative timing and related P-T-X conditions of different quartz vein generations, despite of the absence of any mutual cross-cutting relationships in the field (Jacques et al., 2014). The different quartz vein generations represent the meso-scale brittle accommodation during fold initiation, amplification and locking. The presence of free polycrystal growth in cavities at a midcrustal depth, and fluid-assisted brecciation indicate that veining occurred under overpressured fluid conditions during the orogeny. Significant differences in crystal-plastic deformation microstructures and P-T trapping conditions indicate that the different processes accommodating folding occurred in a progressive manner along a retrograde deformation path. While vein quartz in an extrados vein and in the peripheral part of a lenticular, fault-accommodating vein shows moderate crystal-plastic deformation (e.g. bulging recrystallisation, deformation lamellae, shear bands), crystal-plastic deformation is relatively absent in the vein quartz of a saddle reef and the core of the lenticular vein (i.e. no to minor undulose extinction). Successive veining occurred from peak metamorphic conditions (ca. 300 ° C and 190 MPa), measured in the extrados vein, to lower P-T conditions in the periphery of the lenticular vein (ca. 275 ° C and 180 MPa), the late-orogenic saddle reef (ca. 245 ° C and 160 MPa) and the core of the lenticular vein (ca. 220 ° C and 150 MPa). The relative timing and accompanying decrease in P-T conditions of the different quartz vein generations reflect the

  5. Deformation-induced dehydration structures in the Nankai accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famin, V.; Byrne, T.; Lewis, J. C.; Kanagawa, K.; Behrmann, J.; Iodp 314/315/316 Scientists, E.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the chemical changes caused by deformation in the hanging wall of a major, probably seismogenic thrust fault in the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough. In cores from IODP Expedition 315 (site C0001), the clay sediments display numerous deformation structures including tilted beddings, decimeter scale faults and shear zones with normal or thrust offsets, and clusters of parallel curviplanar veins interpreted as earthquake-induced dewatering structures. Curviplanar veins are often observed to merge into small oblique shear zones with millimeter offsets, or to branch on larger shear zones with a ~30° angle. This suggests that some shear zones may form by the coalescence of veins. Curviplanar veins and shear zones appear darker than the surrounding clay at the macroscopic observation scale, and brighter and therefore denser under CT-scan imaging. At the micro-scale, clay has a preferred crystallographic orientation in the deformation structures and no preferred orientation outside. Electron probe micro-analysis reveals that the dark material has a higher sum of major elements (65-80 wt%), i.e. a lower volatile content (assumed to be mostly water) than the host sediment (50-60 wt%). All the major elements are equally enriched in proportion to the volatile depletion. Mass balance calculation indicates that a 20-30 wt% water loss is required to account for chemical change in the deformation microstructures. The water loss may be due to clay dehydration or to pore collapse. Shear zones are equally dehydrated as the curviplanar veins from the mass balance standpoint. In 1 m3 of sediment, a deformed volume of 1 % should produce about 6.2 L of water. Given the low permeability of the sediment, dehydration may increase the pore pressure and enhance further deformation. Deformation localization would be self-sustained by fluid overpressure, suggesting that dewatering veins may evolve into larger deformation structures after an earthquake.

  6. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M

    2016-02-15

    Glomus tumors are rare skull base slow-growing, hypervascular neoplasms that frequently involve critical neurovascular structures, and delay in diagnosis is frequent. Surgical removal is rarely radical and is usually associated with morbidity or mortality. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) has gained an increasing dependable role in the management of glomus jugulare tumors, with high rate of tumor growth control, preserving or improving clinical status and with limited complications. This study aims to evaluate intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of twenty-two patients bearing growing glomus jugulare tumors at the International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo, Egypt, between 2005 and 2011. The mean follow-up period was 56 months (range 36-108 months); there were 3 males, 19 females; mean age was 43.6 years; 15 patients had GKS as the primary treatment; 2 patients had surgical residuals; 2 had previous radiation therapy; and 3 previously underwent endovascular embolization. The average tumor volume was 7.26 cm3, and the mean marginal dose was 14.7 Gy. Post gamma knife surgery through the follow-up period neurological status was improved in 12 patients, 7 showed stable clinical condition and 3 patients developed new moderate deficits. Tumor volume post GKS was unchanged in 13 patients, decreased in 8, and showed tumor regrowth in 1 patient. Tumor progression-free survival in our studied patients was 95.5% at 5 and 7 years of the follow-up period post GKS. Gamma knife surgery could be used safely and effectively with limited complications as a primary management tool in the treatment of glomus jugulare tumors controlling tumor growth with preserving or improving clinical status especially those who do not have significant cranial or cervical extension, elderly, and surgically unfit patients; moreover, it is safe and highly effective as adjuvant therapy as well.

  7. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  8. Isolated glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves palsy due to fracture involving the left jugular foramen.

    PubMed

    Alberio, N; Cultrera, F; Antonelli, V; Servadei, F

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a case of delayed post-traumatic glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves palsy (i.e. dysphonia and swallowing dysfunction). A high resolution CT study of the cranial base detected a fracture rim encroaching on the left jugular foramen. Treatment consisted in supportive measures with incomplete recovery during a one-year follow-up period. Lower cranial nerves palsies after head trauma are rare and, should they occur, a thorough investigation in search of posterior cranial base and cranio-cervical lesions is warranted. The presumptive mechanism in our case is a fracture-related oedema and ischemic damage to the nerves leading to the delayed occurrence of the palsy.

  9. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) in association with jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence.

    PubMed

    Wenstrom, K D; Williamson, R A; Hoover, W W; Grant, S S

    1989-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis in association with cystic hygroma is described. Ultrasound findings of severe short-limbed dwarfism, decreased vertebral ossification, and normal ossification of the calvarium were all consistent with achondrogenesis type II. Although the unusual finding of associated cystic hygroma raised the suspicion of a concurrent chromosome abnormality, the karyotype of both fetal lymphocytes and fetal fibroblasts was normal. Autopsy confirmed dilated lymphatic channels in the basal endothelial layer of the skin, cystic hygroma, and coarctation of the aorta. Although previously unreported, we suggest that the features of this case of achondrogenesis indicate an association with lymphatic stasis and jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence in this syndrome.

  10. Varicose Veins and Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... that impact a person’s quality of life. Endovenous laser ablation treatment (EVLT) EVLT is a minimally invasive ... ray images ), the interventional radiologist threads a thin laser fiber into the problem vein through a tiny ...

  11. How Are Varicose Veins Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and scarring. Sclerotherapy Sclerotherapy (SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) uses a liquid chemical to close off a ... Microsclerotherapy Microsclerotherapy (MI-kro-SKLER-o-ther-ah-pe) is used to treat spider veins and other ...

  12. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... deep vein of the leg can break off, travel to the lungs, and block blood flow. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: October 28, 2011 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT ...

  13. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Schregel, W; Höer, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    attempted CV catheters, 43 were placed successfully. In 2 cases the axillary vein could not be encountered by the puncture needle. Guide-wire placement did not succeed in 4 patients. One catheter was malpositioned in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein. Four inadvertent punctures of the axillary artery remained without sequelae after compression. No further puncture-related complications were observed. With high US intensity score the number of puncture attempts necessary for successful vein cannulation was lower. On the other hand, complications and puncture failure seemed to be more frequent in patients with lower US intensity scores. DISCUSSION. CV access via the axillary vein had a satisfying success rate (43/50) and proved to be a safe procedure in our ICU patients despite higher risk factors compared to a healthy population. Although ethical reasons did not allow a randomised comparison with the standard technique, location of the axillary vein by Doppler US is likely to improve cannulation results and reduce complications induced by "blind" needle probing. With a low US intensity score, the rate of successful punctures is lower and complication rates increase. In some patients, e.g., those with extended tumour operations involving the head and neck, CV access via the axillary vein may be of high clinical value.

  14. [Surgery of essential varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Maraval, M

    1994-03-15

    Idiopathic varicose veins of the lower limbs are a frequent but benign disorder. Surgery is only a moment in the course of the disease. Although not the only treatment of essential varicose veins, surgery by an experienced team performing crossectomy, stripping by intussusception using a stripper, and phlebectomy gives fully satisfactory results, both to patient and to physician, in over 80% of cases. New techniques were recently developed that, at present, have not confirmed early hopes.

  15. Incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis after veno-venous ECMO.

    PubMed

    Menaker, Jay; Tabatabai, Ali; Rector, Raymond; Dolly, Katelyn; Kufera, Joseph; Lee, Eugenia; Kon, Zachary; Sanchez, Pablo; Pham, Si; Herr, Daniel L; Mazzeffi, Michael; Rabinowitz, Ronald P; OʼConnor, James V; Stein, Deborah M; Scalea, Thomas M

    2017-02-13

    Limited literature regarding the incidence of cannula associated deep vein thrombosis (CaDVT) following veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) exists. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of post decannulation CaDVT and identify any associated risk factors. Forty eight patients were admitted between August 2014 and January 2016 to the Lung Rescue Unit were included in the study. Protocolized anticoagulation levels (partial thromboplastin time 45-55 second) and routine post decannulation DVT screening were in place during the study period. Forty-one (85.4%) patients had CaDVT. Of those with CaDVT, 31 (76%) patients were treated with full anti-coagulation therapy. 34 (76%) patients with right internal jugular cannulation had CaDVT at cannula site. Twenty-five (61%) patients had CaDVT in the lower extremity. (18 associated right femoral vein cannulation; 7 left femoral vein cannulation) 18 (44%) patients had both upper and lower extremity CaDVT. Overall, patients with CaDVT tended to be older, have a higher body mass index (BMI) and on ECMO longer (p=NS). Mean PTT during time on ECMO between patients that did and did not have CaDVT did not differ. No clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism was seen.

  16. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  17. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis.

  18. Clumped-Isotope Thermometry of Carbonate Veins from the SAFOD Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetkemeyer, P. B.; Kirschner, D. L.; Huntington, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    We present clumped-isotope and stable-isotope data from carbonate veins obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole. A number of models proposed to explain the apparent weakness of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) require fluids to be present in the fault zone. However, little is known about the presence, source(s), temperature, and migration pathways of these fluids. We investigate spatial trends in isotopic composition of veins within meters of two actively deforming strands of the SAF - the southern deformation zone (SDZ) and central deformation zone (CDZ). Two populations of veins are present based on the isotopic data. The first group of veins with calcite δ18O values < +15 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ 13C values > +1 ‰ (VPDB) are present in foliated siltstone and shale cataclasites from 3186 to 3194 meters MD and in sheared siltstones and sandstones of the CDZ from 3297 to 3301 meters MD. Clumped-isotope analyses for a subset of samples from this vein set indicate temperatures between 72 and 99 °C and calculated pore fluid δ18O values of -3.4 to +0.1‰ (VSMOW). A second group of veins with δ18O values between +17 and +25 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ13C values between +1 and -18 (VPDB) is present in the serpentinite-bearing SDZ from 3196 to 3197 meters MD and in siltstones from 3302 to 3310 meters MD. Veins in the SDZ record temperatures from 80 to 118 °C and calculated pore fluid δ18O values of -0.3 to +3.1‰ (VSMOW). Both vein populations record temperatures less than or within uncertainty of present-day borehole temperature of ca. 120 °C. We propose the first group of veins formed by precipitating from fluids charged with soil CO2 or biogenic methane that flowed along preexisting diagenetic fracture networks or fractures formed early in the evolution of the SAF. The second group of veins precipitated from fluids charged with thermogenic methane near present-day ambient temperatures and localized in a ~50 meter wide zone of damage along the

  19. Why Current Doppler Ultrasound Methodology Is Inaccurate in Assessing Cerebral Venous Return: The Alternative of the Ultrasonic Jugular Venous Pulse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cerebral venous return is growing interest for potential application in clinical practice. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used as a screening tool. However, three meta-analyses of qualitative DUS protocol demonstrate a big heterogeneity among studies. In an attempt to improve accuracy, several authors alternatively measured the flow rate, based on the product of the time average velocity with the cross-sectional area (CSA). However, also the quantification protocols lacked of the necessary accuracy. The reasons are as follows: (a) automatic measurement of the CSA assimilates the jugular to a circle, while it is elliptical; (b) the use of just a single CSA value in a pulsatile vessel is inaccurate; (c) time average velocity assessment can be applied only in laminar flow. Finally, the tutorial describes alternative ultrasound calculation of flow based on the Womersley method, which takes into account the variation of the jugular CSA overtime. In the near future, it will be possible to synchronize the electrocardiogram with the brain inflow (carotid distension wave) and with the outflow (jugular venous pulse) in order to nicely have a noninvasive ultrasound picture of the brain-heart axis. US jugular venous pulse may have potential use in neurovascular, neurocognitive, neurosensorial, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27006525

  20. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M.; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease. PMID:28123979

  1. Perinatal autopsy findings in three cases of jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence and cardiac polyvalvular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bendon, Robert; Asamoah, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Three infants with a prenatal diagnosis of Noonan's syndrome suffered fetal hydrops and immediate neonatal death. The infants all had the external appearance of jugular lymphatic obstruction sequence with wide-spaced nipples, redundant posterior nuchal skin, and edema of the dorsa of the feet and hands. All 3 demonstrated thick, redundant leaflets of all 4 cardiac valves, and 2 had a membranous ventricular septal defect. One female infant had a mutation of the PTPN11 gene. Two males had no common mutation of PTPN11. The males demonstrated other abnormalities in common, including small penis, testicular malformation, rosette-like appearance of the pituicytes, and an eosinophil infiltration of the pancreatic islets with islet cell hypertrophy. Detailed anatomy of cases of lymphatic obstruction sequence fetuses can be correlated with an increasing number of genetic mutations associated with Noonan's syndrome and related syndromes in mice and humans.

  2. Modal dynamics in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2005-08-08

    Modal characteristics of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins are studied by use of a recently proposed numerical method. The dynamic behavior of bandgap guided modes, as the wavelength and aspect ratio are varied, is shown to include zero-crossings of the birefringence, polarization dependent radiation losses, and deformation of the fundamental mode.

  3. Leiomyosarcoma of the splenic vein.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Cristian; Socola, Francisco; Donet, Jean A; Gallastegui, Nicolas; Hernandez, Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyosarcomas arising from the wall of blood vessels are rare and aggressive neoplasm. We report a case of a previously healthy 66-year-old woman who presented with intermittent abdominal pain, progressive constipation, and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 12 cm solid heterogeneous tumor in the tail of the pancreas. The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection of the pancreatic mass. Surprisingly, histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed leiomyosarcoma arising from the smooth muscle of the splenic vein. After surgery, she received adjuvant chemotherapy. One year later, there was no evidence of local recurrence. In this paper, we discuss the available information about leiomyosarcomas of splenic vein and its management.

  4. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  5. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged <60 years and 18 (43/9%) patients were aged >60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  6. Angiosarcoma of common iliac vein

    PubMed Central

    Ibis, Kamuran; Usta, Ufuk; Cosar, Rusen; Ibis, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of endothelial cells. Primary angiosarcoma of venous origin is extremely rare, and has a very poor prognosis. A 63-year-old woman with retroperitoneal mass underwent en bloc resection on a part of iliac vein followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25596292

  7. How Is Deep Vein Thrombosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vein Thrombosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. He or she will identify your risk factors and rule out other causes of your symptoms. ...

  8. What Are Varicose Veins? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... X-ray What Are Varicose Veins? KidsHealth > For Kids > What Are Varicose Veins? Print A A A ...

  9. phenoVein-A Tool for Leaf Vein Segmentation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. The most important traits being calculated are total vein length, vein density, piecewise vein lengths and widths, areole area, and skeleton graph statistics, like the number of branching or ending points. For the determination of vein widths, a model-based vein edge estimation approach has been implemented. Validation was performed for the measurement of vein length, vein width, and vein density of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), proving the reliability of phenoVein. We demonstrate the power of phenoVein on a set of previously described vein structure mutants of Arabidopsis (hemivenata, ondulata3, and asymmetric leaves2-101) compared with wild-type accessions Columbia-0 and Landsberg erecta-0. phenoVein is freely available as open-source software.

  10. Necrotizing Fasciitis on the Right Side of the Neck with Internal Jugular Vein Thrombophlebitis and Septic Emboli: A Case of Lemierre’s-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Dang; YAACOB, Yazmin; HAMID, Hamzaini; MUDA, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre’s syndrome (LS) is a rare life-threatening infective condition typically starting with an oropharyngeal infection causing thrombophlebitis and metastatic abscesses. The most common aetiology of LS is Fusobacterium necrophorum; however, it can also occur after infection with other organisms. LS mainly affects young healthy adults. The initial infection site can be in the head and neck or in the abdomen. The morbidity rate of this disease is high despite aggressive treatments. In this article, we report a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, presenting with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection-induced necrotizing fasciitis on the right side of the neck, leading to LS. PMID:24643401

  11. Fire in the vein: Heroin acidity and its proximal effect on users’ health

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Harris, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The loss of functioning veins (venous sclerosis) is a root cause of suffering for long-term heroin injectors. In addition to perpetual frustration and loss of pleasure/esteem, venous sclerosis leads to myriad medical consequences including skin infections, for example, abscess, and possibly elevated HIV/HCV risks due to injection into larger jugular and femoral veins. The etiology of venous sclerosis is unknown and users’ perceptions of cause/meaning unexplored. This commentary stems from our hypothesis that venous sclerosis is causally related to heroin acidity, which varies by heroin source-form and preparation. We report pilot study data on first ever in vivo measurements of heroin pH and as well as qualitative data on users’ concerns and perceptions regarding the caustic nature of heroin and its effects. Heroin pH testing in natural settings is feasible and a useful tool for further research. Our preliminary findings, for example, that different heroin source-forms and preparations have a two log difference in acidity, have potentially broad, vital and readily implementable harm reduction implications. PMID:26077143

  12. Fire in the vein: Heroin acidity and its proximal effect on users' health.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Harris, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    The loss of functioning veins (venous sclerosis) is a root cause of suffering for long-term heroin injectors. In addition to perpetual frustration and loss of pleasure/esteem, venous sclerosis leads to myriad medical consequences including skin infections, for example, abscess, and possibly elevated HIV/HCV risks due to injection into larger jugular and femoral veins. The etiology of venous sclerosis is unknown and users' perceptions of cause/meaning unexplored. This commentary stems from our hypothesis that venous sclerosis is causally related to heroin acidity, which varies by heroin source-form and preparation. We report pilot study data on first ever in vivo measurements of heroin pH and as well as qualitative data on users' concerns and perceptions regarding the caustic nature of heroin and its effects. Heroin pH testing in natural settings is feasible and a useful tool for further research. Our preliminary findings, for example, that different heroin source-forms and preparations have a two log difference in acidity, have potentially broad, vital and readily implementable harm reduction implications.

  13. Varicose veins; a practical approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    ELLENBURG, R

    1958-05-01

    Adequate treatment of varicose veins requires thorough mapping of perforating veins, communicating veins and "blow out" areas. Combined ligations, stripping and injection of sclerotic substances after operation is the most effective regimen of therapy. The technique of stripping is facilitated by isolating the saphenous vein at the ankle, inserting the stripper from below upward, then making a transverse groin incision over the palpable stripper. The tip of the stripper should be twice the diameter of the vein to be removed. Stripping should be done with the patient in the Trendelenburg position. All patients must be examined at regular intervals after operation and injection of sclerosing material carried out as necessary.

  14. Preduodenal portal vein: surgery and radiographic appearance.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, E T; Burton, E M; Hixson, S D; Hollabaugh, R S

    1990-12-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is rare, with 63 cases reported in the literature. In general, this anomaly occurs in children with associated small bowel obstruction. We report a newborn infant who presented with duodenal stenosis, mongolism, and preduodenal portal vein. Treatment consisted of a duodenoduodenal anastomosis without mobilizing the portal vein. The correlation between imaging techniques and the operative findings is discussed. Because identification of preduodenal portal vein at surgery is important, preoperative sonography may be useful in selected cases to define the position of the vein.

  15. Jugular venous 'a' wave in dilated cardiomyopathy: sign of abbreviated right ventricular filling time.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Xiao, H B; Gibson, D G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the mechanisms underlying the high venous pressure often seen in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN--Retrospective and prospective examination of the pattern of flow in the superior vena cava, cardiac echo-Doppler studies, and recordings of the jugular venous pulse. SETTING--A tertiary referral cardiac centre. PATIENTS PARTICIPANTS--23 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, all with functional mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. RESULTS--Two patterns of venous pulse were seen: a dominant 'a' wave and 'x' descent, with systolic flow in the superior vena cava (group 1, n = 11), and a dominant 'v' wave with 'y' descent and diastolic flow in the superior vena cava (group 2, n = 12). A comparison of group 1 and group 2 showed: age (mean (SD] 58 (12) v 61 (6) years, left ventricular end diastolic dimension 7.0 (0.7) cm in both groups, right ventricular short axis 3.3 (0.6) v 3.6 (0.5) cm and long axis 7.3 (0.5) v 7.1 (0.7) cm, and duration of tricuspid regurgitation 350 (65) v 370 (50) ms. The RR interval (550 (100) v 680 (80) ms) and right ventricular filling time (150 (30) v 290 (50) ms) were significantly shorter in group 1. In all patients in group 2 right ventricular filling time was more than 200 ms with separate E and A waves on the tricuspid Doppler echocardiogram, while in all group 1 patients it was less than 200 ms with a single summation peak. In nine patients in group 1, the right ventricular filling time was limited by prolonged tricuspid regurgitation and in the remaining two by prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (215 (80) ms), so that it was consistently significantly less than that of the left ventricle. CONCLUSION--In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, right ventricular filling time may be so short that it limits stroke volume. Such patients can be recognised by a dominant 'a' wave on the jugular venous pulse. Patients in whom the right ventricular filling time was longer showed a dominant 'v' wave. Both groups can

  16. Genesis of Syntectonic Hydrothermal Veins in the Igneous Rock of Teschenite Association (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic): Growth Mechanism and Origin of Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urubek, Tomáš; Dolníček, Zdeněk; Kropáč, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal mineralization hosted by the Lower Cretaceous igneous rock of the teschenite association at Jasenice (Silesian Unit, Flysch Belt, Outer Western Carpathians) occurs in two morphological types - irregular vein filled by granular calcite and regular composite vein formed by both fibrous and granular calcite and minor chlorite, quartz, and pyrite. Crosscutting evidence indicates that the granular veins are younger than the composite vein. The composite vein was formed by two mechanisms at different times. The arrangement of solid inclusions in the marginal fibrous zone suggests an episodic growth by the crack-seal mechanism during syntectonic deformation which was at least partially driven by tectonic suction pump during some stages of the Alpine Orogeny. Both the central part of the composite vein and monomineral veins developed in a brittle regime. In these cases, the textures of vein suggest the flow of fluids along an open fracture. The parent fluids of both types of vein are characterized by low temperatures (Th=66-163 °C), low salinities (0.4 to 3.4 wt. % NaCl eq.), low content of strong REE-complexing ligands, and δ18O and δ13C ranges of + 0.2/+12.5 %. SMOW and -11.8/-14.1 %. PDB, respectively. The parent fluids are interpreted as the results of mixing of residual seawater and diagenetic waters produced by dewatering of clay minerals in the associ-ated flysch sediments. The flow of fluids was controlled by tectonic deformation of the host rock.

  17. Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Allen

    2012-12-26

    Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ≥1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options.

  18. Mortality after portal vein embolization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang-Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, In Joon; Kim, Hyun Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly performed worldwide to reduce the possibility of liver failure after extended hepatectomy, by inducing future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy and atrophy of the liver planned for resection. The procedure is known to be very safe and to have few procedure-related complications. In this study, we described 2 elderly patients with Bismuth–Corlette type IV Klatskin tumor who underwent right trisectional PVE involving the embolization of the right portal vein, the left medial sectional portal branch, and caudate portal vein. Within 1 week after PVE, patients went into sepsis combined with bile leak and died within 1 month. Sepsis can cause acute liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, the common patient characteristics other than sepsis, that is, trisectional PVE; chronic alcoholism; aged >65 years; heart-related comorbidity; and elevated serum total bilirubin (TB) level (7.0 mg/dL) at the time of the PVE procedure in 1 patient, and concurrent biliary procedure, that is, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the other patient might have affected the outcomes of PVE. These cases highlight that PVE is not a safe procedure. Care should be taken to minimize the occurrence of infectious events because sepsis following PVE can cause acute liver failure. Additionally, prior to performing PVE, the extent of PVE, chronic alcohol consumption, age, comorbidity, long-lasting jaundice, concurrent biliary procedure, etc. should be considered for patient safety. PMID:28178122

  19. Bunionette deformity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  20. Sinter-vein correlations at Buckskin Mountain, National district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    in veins and sinter. Acid-sulfate fluid of the second fluid regime was derived from oxidation of H2S and other volatiles exsolved from sinter-vein fluid. Acid-sulfate fluid produced (1) a subhorizontal zone of partially leached basinal deposits and rhyolite from the paleosurface to a depth of ???60 m, and (2) laterally pervasive zones, ???100 to 200 m thick, of quartz + alunite ?? hematite and quartz + kaolinite + pyrite in volcaniclastic deposits immediately beneath partially leached rocks, but this fluid did not decompose selenide-sulfide-precious metal phases in sinter. Paragenetically late vein and wall-rock assemblages, including marcasite + pyrite, calcite, and kaolinite-replaced K minerals, record deeper transition of sinter-vein fluid into acid-sulfate fluid in vein conduits. This transition occurred as regional subsidence, manifested by the Goosey Lake depression immediately east of Buckskin Mountain, lowered the pieziometric surface at Buckskin Mountain, terminated sinter deposition, and caused boiling and/or degassing of sinter-vein fluid. The timing of subsidence is recorded by a decrease in alunite ages, from ca. 15.8 to 15.6 Ma, with depth below sinter. Lateral replacement of sinter and partially leached epiclastic deposits and rhyolite by opal-A marks the termination of the two hydrothermal regimes that lasted ???0.5 m.y. and followed rhyolitic volcanism of similar duration. Veins and sinter display textures that attest to plastic deformation, spalling, and gravitational settling, and indicate fluid-flow direction, velocity, and density stratification which, with conduit topology, may have influenced precious metal tenor in the veins. Components of sinter and veins were transported as colloids, formed in supersaturated sinter-vein fluid, that aggregated or coagulated as incompetent gelatinous layers in shallow pools and in underlying, near-vertical conduits in rhyolite and initially crystallized as opal and chalcedony. The low thermal conductivity of

  1. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy.

  2. The small saphenous vein and other 'neglected' veins of the popliteal fossa: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, T F; Iafrati, M D

    2007-01-01

    The small saphenous vein (SSV) and other veins in the popliteal fossa merit little discussion in the literature or in didactic programmes regarding their role in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and, in this sense, they are neglected. The purpose of this review is to present both duplex ultrasound findings and the associated clinical characteristics of patients with SSV reflux, from several large series. Both the anatomic variations and the epidemiology of the SSV, as well as other veins of the popliteal fossa, the gastrocnemius veins, Gocamini vein, popliteal area veins and popliteal vein, will be discussed. Findings from our review of the current available literature will demonstrate the important role that these veins play in association with CVI. The implications for open and endovenous surgery will be underlined.

  3. Tissue remodeling investigation in varicose veins

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein; Khodaii, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    Although the etiology of varicose veins remains unknown, recent studies have focused on endothelial cell integrity and function because the endothelium regulates vessel tone and synthesizes many pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the evidence involving the endothelium in the development of varicose vein disease. In addition, tissue remodeling was investigated in varicose veins to determine the expression of different types of collagen. Tissue specimens of superficial varicose veins and control saphenous vein were used for immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscope (TEM). α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I, III, IV antibodies were applied for immunohistochemical investigation. Findings of this study showed alterations of the intima, such as focal intimal discontinuity and denudation of endothelium; and the media, such as irregular arrangements of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibres in varicose veins. Our findings showed some changes in terms of distribution of types I, III and IV collagen in the intima and media of varicose vein walls compared with controls. These alterations to the media suggest that the pathological abnormality in varicose veins may be due to the loss of muscle tone as a result of the breakup of its regular structure by the collagen fibres. These findings only described some changes in terms of distribution of these types of collagen in the intima and media of varicose vein walls which may result in venous wall dysfunction in varicosis. PMID:24551759

  4. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  5. The importance of fracture-healing on the deformation of fluid-filled layered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Anna; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Ghani, Irfan; Piazolo, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the fracturing-healing-refracturing cycle is a fundamental part of studying the deformation dynamics and the permeability evolution of rock systems. Previous studies, however, have not examined the influence of healing i.e. fracture-closure through vein formation and the mechanical properties of the "healed" fractures (veins) on the rock deformation. We present results from a two-dimensional coupled hydro-mechanical model which simulates large time and spatial scale dynamic fracturing and healing of a porous medium under the influence of gravity, tectonic stretching and elevated fluid pressures. Our results show that healing decreases the local porosity, and that the veins' strength is more important than their elastic modulus in influencing the deformation and the evolving patterns. Hard veins make the aggregate progressively stronger, results in an overall healing of the system, limited fracturing and thus fluid flow, greater stresses and delayed fracture saturation. Weak veins make the system weaker in which refracturing of the healed bonds is the dominant process that creates more open fractures and thus increases the permeability. These results provide clues for the importance of the veins' mechanical properties and can enhance our understanding of the deformation dynamics and the permeability evolution of the rock systems.

  6. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a single-center series of 75 cases.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Ammori, Mohannad B; Yianni, John; Grainger, Alison; Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias

    2016-07-08

    OBJECTIVE Glomus jugulare tumors are rare indolent tumors that frequently involve the lower cranial nerves (CNs). Complete resection can be difficult and associated with lower CN injury. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has established its role as a noninvasive alternative treatment option for these often formidable lesions. The authors aimed to review their experience at the National Centre for Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Sheffield, United Kingdom, specifically the long-term tumor control rate and complications of GKRS for these lesions. METHODS Clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed for patients treated between March 1994 and December 2010. Data were available for 75 patients harboring 76 tumors. The tumors in 3 patients were treated in 2 stages. Familial and/or hereditary history was noted in 12 patients, 2 of whom had catecholamine-secreting and/or active tumors. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment modality in 47 patients (63%). The median age at the time of treatment was 55 years. The median tumor volume was 7 cm(3), and the median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 18 Gy (range 12-25 Gy). The median duration of radiological follow-up was 51.5 months (range 12-230 months), and the median clinical follow-up was 38.5 months (range 6-223 months). RESULTS The overall tumor control rate was 93.4% with low CN morbidity. Improvement of preexisting deficits was noted in 15 patients (20%). A stationary clinical course and no progression of symptoms were noted in 48 patients (64%). Twelve patients (16%) had new symptoms or progression of their preexisting symptoms. The Kaplan-Meier actuarial tumor control rate was 92.2% at 5 years and 86.3% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife radiosurgery offers a risk-versus-benefit treatment option with very low CN morbidity and stable long-term results.

  7. Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins at legs.

    PubMed

    Jerkic, Zoran; Karic, Alen; Karic, Amela

    2009-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis is a common disorder until recently it was considered as benign disorder. Also it is associated with varicose vein at legs and it was treated effectively with conservative methods, walking and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Aims of our investigation were: determine frequency of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis at legs in patient with and without superficial thrombophlebitis, determine correlation between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis regardless of localization of superficial thrombophlebitis in superficial veins of legs and determine adequacy and safety vein phlebography in early diagnosis clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. Using flebography in prospective study was evaluated incidence of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in 92 patients with varicose veins at legs. By phlebograpy in patients with varicose veins at legs and superficial thrombophlebitis at legs and without clinical signs of DVT at legs of the 49 patients we detected DVT in 12 patients (24, 48%), in three male and nine female. We detected localization of DVT in ilijacofemoral junction in 4,08% patients, although localization of DVT in femoropopliteal region was observed in 6, 12% patients and localization in crural region was in 14.28% patients. Localization of DVT at legs was detected in iliac vein in 16.66% patients, in femoral vein in 25% patients, popliteal vein 8.33% patients, anterior tibial vein 16.66%, posterior tibial vein in 25% and crural veins 8.33% patients. Also we deduced significant difference between two group of patients (chi2 = 10, 76). Such result proves thesis that in most patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins is possibility of developing of DVT.

  8. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  9. Tension vein arrays in progressive strain: complex but predictable architecture, and major hosts of ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, W. P.

    2004-06-01

    Most en échelon vein arrays are extensional and can be termed tension vein arrays (TVAs). TVAs in major fault and shear zones (FSZs) are subject to progressive deformation. This deforms the initial TVA (whose geometry is well documented in the literature), via discrete stages; first into progressively more complex architecture, involving folding of the tension veins, then into progressively more simple architecture, ultimately forming pipes. During this progression the TVA axis (new definition) rotates within the shear plane from normal, to parallel, to the displacement vector. The deforming TVA axis has simpler geometry than the complex tension veins, and it can be employed to precisely track the deformation state of the FSZ, its displacement vector, and shear sense, through all the strain stages. Five structural-metasomatic stages are defined by discrete steps in the strain evolution. TVAs are difficult to recognise, and are under-recognised, in ore systems for a number of inherent geological reasons. Orebodies founded on dilation form parallel to the TVA axis, which is also parallel to dilational jogs in the parent FSZ. Orebodies formed early in the FSZ history are normal to the displacement vector, and in progressive shear rotate with the TVA axis toward the displacement vector; orebodies formed late in the FSZ history overprint apparently complex to 'chaotic' vein stockwork, which nevertheless has analysable geometry. TVA-hosted orebodies are not necessarily parallel to the displacement vector of the host FSZ, but occupy elongate orientations over a 90° range within the FSZ. Large orebodies are favourably developed in TVAs in unfoliated FSZs (type 1 shear zones), which may form fluid 'superhighways'. Type 1 shear zones form in predictable circumstances involving particularly host rocktype and crustal position. Strike-slip FSZs possess a downdip TVA axis and are especially able to tap deep crustal fluid. TVA-hosted orebodies form a major deposit style

  10. Deformation and Fluid Flow in the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees; Davis, Jennifer; Salvona, Aron; Chung, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We studied deformation bands in sandstone and breccia veins in overlying basalts of the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia, regarding their development and history of fluid flow within. The studied deformation bands can be divided into disaggregation bands and cataclastic bands. The former appear to develop in unsorted sandstone, whereas the latter form in well sorted sandstone. We estimated the porosity of the bands and host rock in thin sections using a simple image analysis software (ImageJ). Results show, that no or only a minor decrease in porosity occur in disaggregation bands, while the porosity in cataclastic bands is decreased by up to 82 % with respect to the host rock. These observations are in agreement with results of existing studies (e.g. Fossen et al., 2007). Hence the cataclastic bands form a seal to fluid flow in the host rock, yet it is observed in outcrops that deformation bands can develop into open fractures which in turn increase the permeability of the rock. Breccia veins in the overlying basalts show intense fracturing where the basalt is locally fractured into elongated chips. Mineral precipitation in these breccia veins indicates a hydrothermal origin of the fluids since the precipitates consist of extremely fine-grained quartz aggregates. Secondary mineralization with large crystals indicates that a long-lived fluid circulation through tubular networks was active at a later stage, which eventually sealed the veins completely. We propose that the Etendeka basalts on top of the sandstone formation produced a localized deformation along deformation bands and heated up fluid below the lavas. At a later stage fluid pressures were either high enough to break through the basalt or fracturing due to ongoing extension produced fluid pathways. References Fossen, H., Schultz, R., Shipton, Z. and Mair, K. (2007). Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755-769.

  11. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the High-Ardenne slate belt, part of the Rhenohercynian external fold-and-thrust belt at the northern extremity of the Late Palaeozoic Variscan orogen (Belgium, Germany, France), particular quartz vein occurrences can be observed in predominantly fine-grained siliciclastic metasediments. Detailed structural, petrographical and geochemical studies has revealed that these vein occurrences can be related to a mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a low-grade metamorphic mid-crustal environment. The first type of quartz veins are bedding-perpendicular, lens-shaped extension veins that are confined to the sandstone layers within the multilayer sequence. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrate high fluid pressures suggesting that the individual sandstone bodies acted as isolated high-pressure compartments in an overpressured basin. Hydraulic fracturing occurred during the tectonic inversion (from extension to compression) in the earliest stages of the Variscan orogeny. The vein fill shows a blocky character indicating crystal growth in open cavities. Both the typical lens shape of the veins and the subsequent cuspate-lobate folding of the bed interfaces in between the quartz veins suggest plastic deformation of cohesionless fluid-filled fissures. Metamorphic grade of the host rock and fluid temperature and pressure clearly indicates mid-crustal conditions below the brittle-plastic transition. This first type of quartz veins exemplifies mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour, possibly related to a transient deepening of the brittle-plastic transition. This is in contrast with contemporaneous bedding-perpendicular crack-seal veins observed in higher - upper-crustal - structural levels in the slate belt, reflecting pure brittle deformation behaviour. The second type are discordant quartz veins confined to extensional low-angle detachment shear zones. These very irregular veins transect a pre-existing pervasive cleavage fabric. They show no matching walls and

  12. FDG-PET/CT Enables the Detection of Recurrent Same-Site Deep Vein Thrombosis by Illuminating Recently Formed, Neutrophil-Rich Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tetsuya; Truelove, Jessica; Tawakol, Ahmed; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Hucker, William J.; MacNabb, Megan H.; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Kessinger, Chase W.; Jaff, Michael R.; Henke, Peter K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of recurrent same-site deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a challenging clinical problem. As DVT formation and resolution are associated with a preponderance of inflammatory cells, we investigated whether noninvasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging could identify inflamed, recently formed thrombi and thereby improve the diagnosis of recurrent DVT. Methods and Results We established a stasis-induced DVT model in murine jugular veins and also a novel model of recurrent stasis DVT in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=35) underwent ligation of the jugular vein to induce stasis DVT. FDG-PET/CT was performed at DVT timepoints of day 2, 4, 7, 14, or 2+16 (same-site recurrent DVT at day 2 overlying a primary DVT at day 16). Antibody-based neutrophil depletion was performed in a subset of mice prior to DVT formation and FDG-PET/CT. In a clinical study, 38 patients with lower extremity DVT or controls undergoing FDG-PET were analyzed. Stasis DVT demonstrated that the highest FDG signal occurred at day 2, followed by a time-dependent decrease (p<0.05). Histological analyses demonstrated that thrombus neutrophils (p<0.01), but not macrophages, correlated with thrombus PET signal intensity. Neutrophil depletion decreased FDG signals in day 2 DVT compared to controls (p=0.03). Recurrent DVT demonstrated significantly higher FDG uptake than organized day 14 DVT (p=0.03). The FDG DVT signal in patients also exhibited a time-dependent decrease (p<0.01). Conclusions Noninvasive FDG-PET/CT identifies neutrophil-dependent thrombus inflammation in murine DVT, and demonstrates a time-dependent signal decrease in both murine and clinical DVT. FDG-PET/CT may offer a molecular imaging strategy to accurately diagnose recurrent DVT. PMID:25070665

  13. Continuous deformation versus episodic deformation at high stress - the microstructural record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepmann, C. A.; Stöckhert, B.

    2009-04-01

    The microstructural record of continuous high stress deformation is compared to that of episodic high stress deformation on two examples: 1. Folding of quartz veins in metagreywacke from Pacheco Pass, California, undergoing deformation by dissolution precipitation creep at temperatures of 300 ± 50°C. The microfabric of the folded quartz veins indicates deformation by dislocation creep accompanied by subgrain rotation. The small recrystallized grain size of ~8±6 µm in average implies relatively high differential stresses of a few hundred MPa. The stress concentration in the vein is due to a high contrast in effective viscosities between the single phase material and the polyphase fine-grained host metagreywacke deforming by dissolution precipitation creep. Smoothly curved, but generally not sutured, grain boundaries as well as the small size and a relatively high dislocation density of recrystallized grains suggest that strain-induced grain boundary migration was of minor importance. This is suspected to be a consequence of low strain gradients, which are due to the relative rates of dynamic recovery and continuous dislocation production during climb-controlled creep, at high stress and the given low temperature. Subgrain rotation recrystallization is thus proposed to be characteristic for continuous deformation at high differential stress. 2. Episodic deformation in the middle crust at the tip of a seismic active fault zone. The microfabric of mid-crustal rocks exhumed in tectonically active regions can record episodic high stress deformation at the base of the seismogenic layer. The quartz veins from St. Paul la Roche in the Massif Central, France, are very coarse grained. On the scale of a thin section they are basically single crystalline. However, they show a very heterogeneous microstructure with a system of healed microcracks that are decorated by subgrains and more rarely by small recrystallized grains. Undulating deformation lamellae that do not show a

  14. Brittle-viscous deformation, slow slip, and tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Hillary, Graeme W. B.; Diener, Johann F. A.

    2014-06-01

    Geophysical observations have illuminated a spectrum of fault slip styles from continuous aseismic sliding to fast earthquake slip. We study exhumed intercalated lenses of oceanic crust and sedimentary rocks, deformed to high shear strains. Deformation was partitioned between fractured, rigid blocks, with lengths of tens to hundreds of meters, and surrounding metapelites characterized by interconnected phyllosilicate networks. Under inferred conditions of low effective stress at temperatures > 500°C, locally and transiently elevated shear strain rate in phyllosilicates deforming by dislocation creep can reach those needed for transient slow slip. Concurrently, increased matrix strain rate likely stimulates brittle failure in rigid lenses. The ubiquitous presence of quartz veins and microfractures within rigid material provides evidence for brittle deformation occurring coincident with viscous shearing flow. We suggest that geophysically observed tremor and slow slip may be a manifestation of strain partitioning, where deformation is accommodated viscously in a matrix enveloping rigid lenses.

  15. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(cip1) in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while alpha-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27(Kip1) and p16(INKA) remained unchanged, whereas p21(Cip1) was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21(Cip1) is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts.

  16. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  17. Ultrasound strain elastography in assessment of cortical mechanical behavior in acute renal vein occlusion: in vivo animal model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; He, Wen; Cheng, Ling-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhang, Xiou-Ru; Juluru, Krishna; Al Khori, Noor; Coya, Adrienne; Min, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of quantitative ultrasound strain parameters with the severity of cortical edema in renal vein occlusion, we prospectively performed ultrasound strain elastography on a canine acute renal vein occlusion model prior to and following 10, 20, and 40min of renal vein ligation. Strain and strain relaxation time representing the deformation and relaxation of the renal cortices and reference soft tissue were produced by the external compression with the ultrasound transducer and estimated using commercially available 2-D speckle tracking software. Cortical thickness was additionally measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the difference in cortical thickness, strain ratio (mean cortical strain divided by mean reference tissue strain), and strain relaxation time ratio (cortical relaxation time divided by reference tissue relaxation time) prior to and after renal vein ligation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to test the relationship between strain parameters and the time of the renal vein ligation. There was a strong positive correlation between the duration of renal vein ligation and strain (R(2)=0.97) and strain relaxation time (R(2)=0.98) ratios. Significant differences in strain and strain relaxation time ratios were found at all measured timepoints (all P≪.001). Cortical thickness, however, showed no significant difference between timepoints (P=.065). Our result suggest that strain and strain relaxation time ratios may be used as quantitative markers for the assessment of the renal cortical mechanical behavior in subclinical acute renal vein occlusion.

  18. Element transport in veins during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content (< 4.14wt.%) was detected, but talc was absent, indicating net loss of SiO2 from orthopyroxene during serpentinization. CaO and Al2O3 migrate from orthopyroxene, but occur only as trace components in serpentine at > 100 μm and > 200 μm, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2

  19. Delphi Method Validation of a Procedural Performance Checklist for Insertion of an Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Central Line.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Nicholas; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David

    2016-01-01

    Placement of ultrasound-guided central lines is a critical skill for physicians in several specialties. Improving the quality of care delivered surrounding this procedure demands rigorous measurement of competency, and validated tools to assess performance are essential. Using the iterative, modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States, the study team created a 30-item checklist designed to assess competency in the placement of ultrasound-guided internal jugular central lines. Cronbach α was .94, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Further validation of this checklist will require its implementation in simulated and clinical environments.

  20. [Preduodenal portal vein (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tovar, J A; Benavent, M; Bachiller, C; Díez-Pardo, J A

    1978-01-01

    Three cases of preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) observed in newborns and young infants are reported. In two patients the diagnosis was made during operations for duodenal stenosis and in the remaining one while operating for midgut volvulus and necrosis. In no case was the PDPV responsible for the clinical picture but in all three patients it was accompanied by other causes of obstruction: annular pancreas, extrinsic adhesive bands and malrotation. In one case there was also an asplenia, and polisplenia was present in another one. Both had malrotation and some degree of abnormal visceral asimmetry. The incidence of associated malformations in 52 previously reported cases is analyzed, and the more convincing embriological explanation for this anomaly is commented upon.

  1. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  2. Gamma Knife surgery for patients with jugular foramen schwannomas: a multiinstitutional retrospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kato, Takenori; Kida, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Ayaka; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Kondoh, Takeshi; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Sato, Manabu; Sato, Mitsuya; Nagano, Osamu; Nakaya, Kotaro; Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Kano, Tadashige; Hasui, Koichi; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Yasuda, Soichiro; Moriki, Akihito; Serizawa, Toru; Osano, Seiki; Inoue, Akira

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with jugular foramen schwannomas (JFSs). METHODS This study was a multiinstitutional retrospective analysis of 117 patients with JFSs who were treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) at 18 medical centers of the Japan Leksell Gamma Knife Society. The median age of the patients was 53 years. Fifty-six patients underwent GKS as their initial treatment, while 61 patients had previously undergone resection. At the time of GKS, 46 patients (39%) had hoarseness, 45 (38%) had hearing disturbances, and 43 (36%) had swallowing disturbances. Eighty-five tumors (73%) were solid, and 32 (27%) had cystic components. The median tumor volume was 4.9 cm(3), and the median prescription dose administered to the tumor margin was 12 Gy. Five patients were treated with fractionated GKS and maximum and marginal doses of 42 and 21 Gy, respectively, using a 3-fraction schedule. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 52 months. The last follow-up images showed partial remission in 62 patients (53%), stable tumors in 42 patients (36%), and tumor progression in 13 patients (11%). The actuarial 3- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 91% and 89%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that pre-GKS brainstem edema and dumbbell-shaped tumors significantly affected PFS. During the follow-up period, 20 patients (17%) developed some degree of symptomatic deterioration. This condition was transient in 12 (10%) of these patients and persistent in 8 patients (7%). The cause of the persistent deterioration was tumor progression in 4 patients (3%) and adverse radiation effects in 4 patients (3%), including 2 patients with hearing deterioration, 1 patient with swallowing disturbance, and 1 patient with hearing deterioration and hypoglossal nerve palsy. However, the preexisting hoarseness and swallowing disturbances improved in 66% and 63% of the patients, respectively

  3. Jugular venous `a' wave in pulmonary hypertension: new insights from a Doppler echocardiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Stojnic, Bojan B; Brecker, Stephen J D; Xiao, Han B; Gibson, Derek G

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To study the mechanisms underlying the dominant `a' wave seen in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Design—Retrospective and prospective examination of the jugular venous pulse recording, flow in the superior vena cava, and Doppler echocardiographic studies. Setting—A tertiary referral centre for both cardiac and pulmonary disease, with facilities for invasive and noninvasive investigation, and assessment for heart and heart-lung transplantation. Patients—12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, most being considered for heart-lung transplantation. Results—Two distinct patterns of venous pulse and superior vena caval flow were identified: a dominant `a' wave with no `v' wave, an absent or poorly developed `y' descent, and exclusively systolic downward flow in the superior vena cava (group 1, n = 8), and a dominant `v' wave, deep `y' descent and exclusively diastolic downward flow in the superior vena cava (group 2, n = 4). A comparison between the two groups showed age (mean (SD)) 42 (18) ν 36 (7) years, RR interval 700 (65) ν 740 (240) ms, left ventricular end diastolic dimension 3·6 (0·8) ν 3·2 (1·0) cm and end systolic dimension 2·1 (0·5) ν 2·3 (0·3) cm, right ventricular end diastolic dimension 2·6 (0·5) ν 2·8 (0·6) cm, and pressure drop between right ventricle and right atrium 60 (8) ν 70 (34) mm Hg to be similar. Duration of tricuspid regurgitation 520 (30) ν 420 (130) ms and the time interval of pulmonary closure to the end of the tricuspid regurgitant signal 140 (30) ν 110 (40) ms were longer in group 1 compared with group 2, whereas right ventricular filling time was much shorter 180 (70) ν 350 (130) ms. In seven patients from group 1, a single peak of forward tricuspid flow was present, but this pattern was seen in only one patient from group 2. Conclusions—In patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, the apparent `a' wave seen in the venous pulse is, in fact, a summation wave. It is

  4. Lung Pathology in Pediatric Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Pogoriler, Jennifer E; Kulik, Thomas J; Casey, Alicia M; Baird, Christopher W; Mullen, Mary P; Jenkins, Kathy J; Vargas, Sara O

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare progressive narrowing of the extrapulmonary pulmonary veins, presenting predominantly in infancy and virtually always lethal. It typically arises following repair of congenital heart disease, particularly anomalous pulmonary venous return. Histologic characterization of pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis, not previously well described, may provide insight into the disease pathobiology. We retrieved archival lung specimens (biopsy, explant, or autopsy) from patients with pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis. Medical records were reviewed. Microscopic examination included hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides, and for a subset of patients, elastic, trichrome, smooth-muscle actin, and D2-40. Groups with different clinical disease features were compared using Fisher's exact test. A total of 33 patients (median age, 7 months) had available tissue and 52% had congenital heart disease; 18% were premature. Within the lungs, interlobular septal veins showed thickened muscular coats (in 58%), proliferation/tortuosity (in 6%), and fibromyxoid intimal proliferation (in 3%). Associated arterial hypertensive changes were seen in 30 (91%). The one patient with intrapulmonary venous fibromyxoid intimal proliferation was the only patient with apparent primary familial disease. Lymphangiectasia and arterial medial hypertrophy were histologic features that correlated with clinical grouping. We conclude that in pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis, intrapulmonary pulmonary veins commonly show muscular thickening, best interpreted as venous hypertensive remodeling. Fibromyxoid intimal proliferation resembling that of the extrapulmonary pulmonary veins is uncommon. Awareness of intrapulmonary features in various clinical subtypes of pulmonary vein stenosis may be diagnostically and therapeutically informative considering that current catheter-based and surgical therapy is directed at the extrapulmonary component of pulmonary vein stenosis.

  5. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  6. Atypical tryptamine receptors in sheep pulmonary vein.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, P

    1975-01-01

    Both the pulmonary artery and vein of the sheep contracted dose-dependently to histamine, carbamoylcholine, prostaglandin F2a, noradrenaline and bradykinin and relaxed in the presence of isoprenaline or prostaglandin E1. 2 The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the artery was consistently to produce dose-dependent contractions without tachyphylaxis. The effect on the vein was biphasic. 5HT 5 X 10(-10) to 5 X 10(-8) M relaxed the partially constricted vein. 5-HT 10(-7) to 10(-6) m caused brief venoconstriction followed by relaxation. 5-HT greater than 10(-6) M caused dose-related contraction of the vein. 3 Methysergide effectively blocked the contractile response of the artery to 5-HT, but only weakly inhibited the contractions of the vein (dose-ratio less than 20). 4 Each of ten antagonists tested failed to inhibit the 5-HT-induced relaxation of the vein. Sheep pulmonary vein possesses tryptamine receptors which mediate relaxation and which are not of the classicl M- or D-type. These receptors appear not to be involved directly or indirectly with responses to acetylcholine, catecholamines, histamine or prostaglandins. PMID:1203621

  7. Preduodenal portal vein in the adult.

    PubMed

    Papaziogas, T; Papaziogas, B; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, C; Patsas, A

    2000-09-01

    We present three cases of preduodenal portal vein in adult people, which were diagnosed in our department. All of them were identified during elective operation for cholelithiasis, caused some technical difficulties to the performance of the operation, but led to no major intraoperative or postoperative complications. None of them had any preoperative symptoms, which could be related to this anomaly. The preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly, which is usually discovered in infants or children due to the obstruction of the duodenum. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, and is usually discovered as an accidental finding during laparotomy for other reason. The postcontrast CT can set the diagnosis, when this anomaly is suspected. Despite its rarity, this anomaly is of great surgical importance, because it can predispose to intraoperative complications including hemorrhage from the abnormal vein, or damage to the biliary tract or the distented duodenum. The anterior position of the portal vein results from the persistence of the ventral anastomosis between the two vitelline veins and the distal portion of the right vitelline vein, with subsequent atrophy of the cranial part of the left vitelline and dorsal anastomotic vein.

  8. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  9. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications.

  10. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Jing, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy. PMID:21245602

  11. Post-coital intra-cerebral venous hemorrhage in a 78-year-old man with jugular valve incompetence: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage can occur in patients with venous disease due to obstructed venous outflow. Case presentation We report the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian man with jugular valve incompetence who experienced an intra-cerebral temporo-occipital hemorrhage following sexual intercourse. He had no other risk factors for an intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intra-cerebral hemorrhage due to jugular valve incompetence in association with the physical exertion associated with sexual intercourse. PMID:20659320

  12. Genesis of the vein-type tungsten mineralization at Nyakabingo (Rwanda) in the Karagwe-Ankole belt, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, S.; De Clercq, F.; Hulsbosch, N.; Piessens, K.; Boyce, A.; Burgess, R.; Muchez, Ph.

    2016-02-01

    The vein-type tungsten deposit at Nyakabingo in the central Tungsten belt of Rwanda is located in the eastern flank of the complex Bumbogo anticlinal structure. The host rock is composed of alternating sequences of sandstones, quartzites, and black pyritiferous metapelitic rocks. Two types of W-mineralized quartz veins have been observed: bedding-parallel and quartz veins that are at high angle to the bedding, which are termed crosscutting veins. Both vein types have been interpreted to have been formed in a late stage of a compressional deformation event. Both vein types are associated with small alteration zones, comprising silicification, tourmalinization, and muscovitization. Dating of muscovite crystals at the border of the veins resulted in a maximum age of 992.4 ± 1.5 Ma. This age is within error similar to the ages obtained for the specialized G4 granites (i.e., 986 ± 10 Ma). The W-bearing minerals formed during two different phases. The first phase is characterized by scheelite and massive wolframite, while the second phase is formed by ferberite pseudomorphs after scheelite. These minerals occur late in the evolution of the massive quartz veins, sometimes even in fractures that crosscut the veins. The ore minerals precipitated from a H2O-CO2-CH4-N2-NaCl-(KCl) fluid with low to moderate salinity (0.6-13.8 eq. wt% NaCl), and minimal trapping temperatures between 247 and 344 °C. The quartz veins have been crosscut by sulfide-rich veins. Based on the similar setting, mineralogy, stable isotope, and fluid composition, it is considered that both types of W-mineralized quartz veins formed during the same mineralizing event. Given the overlap in age between the G4 granites and the mineralized quartz veins, and the typical association of the W deposits in Rwanda, but also worldwide, with granite intrusions, W originated from the geochemically specialized G4 granites. Intense water-rock interaction and mixing with metamorphic fluids largely overprinted the

  13. Progression of Thrombus in Portal Vein, Superior Mesenteric Vein, and Splenic Vein Even on Anticoagulation in a Patient with Ascending Colonic Malignancy with Liver Metastasis: Portal Vein Thrombosis versus Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sule, Ashish; Borja, Annamarie; Chin, Tay Jam

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in a setting of liver metastasis is not easy to treat as it may be portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). A 77-year-old male patient was diagnosed as ascending colon carcinoma, underwent right hemicolectomy in 1991 with a recurrence in July 2009. In August 2009, he underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen which showed evidence of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with no liver metastasis. He was started with anticoagulation and decision was to treat long term. He was admitted with mesenteric artery ischemic symptoms in February 2012 on anticoagulation. CT scan abdomen and pelvis in February 2012 showed tumor thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with hepatic metastasis. His tumor marker chorioembryonic antigen was 34 µg/L. He was continued on anticoagulation. A repeat CT scan abdomen after 2 years (in January 2014) showed, increase in size of hepatic metastasis, extensive thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with collaterals. Mesentery was congested due to extensive superior mesenteric vein thrombus. He finally succumbed in June 2014. It is very important to differentiate PVT from PVTT as the prognosis is different. PVTT progresses despite of long-term anticoagulation with poor prognosis.

  14. Microfabrics and deformation mechanisms in a jadeite-blueschist from the Franciscan melange, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, S.; Krohe, A.; Stoeckhert, B.; Trepmann, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Franciscan melange is a chaotic mixture of metasedimentary, metabasic and hydrated mantle material forming a typical block in matrix structure with extreme strain gradients on length scales between centimeter and kilometer. Mineral assemblages indicate high-pressure low-temperature metamorphism, with assemblages comprising jadeite + quartz, glaucophane, and aragonite. In combination, the structural relations and metamorphic conditions suggest that the Franciscan melange records processes in the deep level of an accretionary complex or in a subduction channel reaching to great depth. Exhumed materials provide insight into typical deformation mechanisms, stress states, and stress history at depth, which cannot be gained by other approaches. Here we analyze the microfabrics of a highly deformed and compositionally heterogenous jadeite-blueschist. Brittle failure is evident on various length scales. Several generations of fractures are widened and sealed to become veins. The shape of the veins, poor fitting of the walls, and the overall low aspect ratio indicate host rock deformation during sealing. The vein minerals indicate sealing at high-pressure metamorphic conditions, with aragonite being predominant in the latest generation. Individual jadeite porphyroblasts are fragmented. The fractures are sealed by quartz and new jadeite epitactically grown on the broken host. Microstructures suggest that the distributed deformation concomitant with vein formation is predominantly by dissolution precipitation creep. Jadeite porphyroblasts show strain caps and strain shadows, indicating progressive deformation after their crystallization. Unequivocal evidence for dislocation creep is restricted to quartz in some of the veins, where the fine-grained microstructure indicates strain induced grain boundary migration and subgrain rotation. In contrast, in other veins quartz shows a foam structure controlled by interfacial free energy. The microfabrics of the jadeite

  15. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... better within 3 to 12 months of delivery. Overweight or Obesity Being overweight or obese can put extra pressure on your ... lead to varicose veins. For more information about overweight and obesity, go to the Health Topics Overweight ...

  16. Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... what to ask your doctor References Goldman MP, Weiss RA. Phleblogy and treatment of leg veins. In: ... and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    PubMed

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  18. Renal Vein Injury During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Toffeq, Hewa Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is an important approach for removing kidney stones. Puncturing and dilatation are two mandatory steps in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Uncommonly, during dilatation, the dilators can cause direct injury to the main renal vein or to their tributaries. Case Presentation: A 75-year-old female underwent PCNL for partial staghorn stone in the left kidney. During puncturing and dilatation, renal vein tributary was injured, and the nephroscope entered the renal vein and inferior vena cava, which was clearly recognized. Injection of contrast material through the nephroscope confirms the false pathway to the great veins (renal vein and inferior vena cava). Bleeding was controlled intraoperatively by applying Amplatz sheath over the abnormal tract, the procedure was continued and stones were removed. At the end of the procedure, a Foley catheter was used as a nephrostomy tube and its balloon was inflated inside the renal pelvis and pulled back with light pressure to the lower calix, which was the site of injury to the renal vein tributaries, then the nephrostomy tube was closed; by this we effectively controlled the bleeding. The patient remained hemodynamically stable; antegrade pyelography was done on the second postoperative day, there was distally patent ureter with no extravasation, neither contrast leak to renal vein, and was discharged home at third postoperative day. After 2 weeks, the nephrostomy tube was gradually removed in the operative room, without bleeding, on the next day, Double-J stent was removed. Conclusion: Direct injury and false tract to the renal vein tributaries during PCNL can result in massive hemorrhage, and can be treated conservatively in hemodynamically stable patients, using a nephrostomy catheter as a tamponade. PMID:27704054

  19. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  20. Improvements of deep vein reflux following radiofrequency ablation for saphenous vein incompetence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suh Min; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the changes of deep vein reflux after radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence. Method The data on 139 limbs which were treated with radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence were prospectively collected and reviewed. Results Deep vein reflux was present in 43 of 139 limbs (30.9%). There were no significant differences in the rate of successful closure, the incidence of procedure-related complications, and the improvements of symptoms and quality of life between the limbs with or without deep vein reflux. With a mean follow-up of 5.9 months, the peak reflux velocity and duration of reflux were improved in all limbs with deep vein reflux and it was completely corrected in 13 limbs (30.2%) after radiofrequency ablation. Conclusions The presence of deep vein reflux does not affect the treatment outcomes of radiofrequency ablation for great saphenous vein incompetence and is improved in all patients. Deep vein reflux is not a barrier to performing radiofrequency ablation.

  1. Subclavian vein thrombosis: A continuing challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.; Berry, R.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Subclavian vein thrombosis is a relatively uncommon but potentially morbid disease entity. To determine the frequency, cause, and best mode of treatment of this problem, we performed a chart review of all patients with a diagnosis of subclavian vein thrombosis at two major metropolitan hospitals during a 6-year period. A total of 40 patients were identified with subclavian vein thrombosis, which represented 3.5% of all venous thromboses detected during the 6-year period. No side or sex predilection was noted and the majority of patients were outpatients. The cause was fairly evenly divided among intravenous catheters (32%), anatomic abnormalities (45%), and carcinoma with postoperative radiation (22.5%). Despite the increasing use of the subclavian veins for pacemaker leads, hyperalimentation, and permanent intravenous access for chemotherapy, there has not been an increase in diagnosed subclavian vein thrombosis. Anatomic abnormalities with compression of the vein respond well to either heparinization or lytic therapy but require surgery if the venous abnormality persists. Treatment consisted of lytic therapy in 20%, heparinization in 55%, and elevation with removal of the central line in 25% of patients. All patients responded well to treatment, with a decrease in swelling and symptoms; no patient progressed to venous gangrene and only one (2.5%) had a documented pulmonary embolus. Medical treatment provides excellent long-term benefit in most cases unless complicated by an anatomic abnormality.

  2. First records of syn-diagenetic non-tectonic folding in quaternary thermogene travertines caused by hydrothermal incremental veining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea; Berardi, Gabriele; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Rossetti, Federico; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Baykara, M. Oruç; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Kele, Sándor; Soligo, Michele; De Filippis, Luigi; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    This study is the first documentation of syn-diagenetic non-tectonic contractional deformations observed in two Pleistocene thermogene travertine deposits from the late Miocene-Pleistocene Tuscan extensional-hydrothermal province (Italy). The deposits consist of primary porous beds hosting secondary bed-parallel carbonate veins. The porous beds are generally flat-lying, particularly in the upper section of the deposits, whereas the veined beds frequently form undulated structures. These structures are up to a few meters in wavelength, are mostly confined within the lower-middle section of the deposits, and are here mostly interpreted as folds. Field observations, U-Th geochronology, and stable isotope analyses are used to characterize the origin of veins and folds. Radiometrically-determined age inversions, structure overprinting relationships, downward growth of vein crystals, deformation of primary sedimentary structures, and downward increasing frequency of veins and folds show that the undulated travertine beds can be mainly interpreted as the product of syn-diagenetic hydrothermal rejuvenation causing non-tectonic veining and folding. The non-tectonic hypothesis is also supported by the absence of contractional deformation in the travertine-hosting sediments. The folds were generated by complex mechanisms including bending and buckling caused by laterally-confined volume expansion during syn-diagenetic circulation of mineralizing fluids and related incremental veining. Modeling some folds with the Biot-Ramberg's buckling equation shows a vein-to-host travertine viscosity ratio between 1.5 and 4, confirming the syn-diagenetic origin of folds. Veining and folding changed some original properties of travertines including rheology, fabric, porosity, and chronological sequence. The identification of these structures and related changes of rock properties (e.g., age rejuvenation) is relevant for the proper interpretation of thermogene travertines as recorders of

  3. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy.

  4. Fibrous gypsum veins as diffuse features and within fault zones: the case study of the Pisco Basin (Ica desert, southern Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Baud, Patrick; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    New knowledge on patterns of fibrous gypsum veins, their genetic mechanisms, deformation style and weathering are provided by a field- and laboratory-based study carried out on the Neogene to Quaternary Pisco Basin sedimentary strata (porous sandstones, siltstones and diatomites) exposed in the Ica desert, southern Peru. Gypsum veins vary considerably in dimensions, attitudes and timing and can develop in layered and moderately fractured rocks also in the absence of evaporitic layers. Veins occur both as diffuse features, confined to certain stratigraphic levels, and localised within fault zones. Arrays formed by layer-bounded, mutually orthogonal sets of steeply-dipping gypsum veins are reported for the first time. Vein length, height and spacing depend on the thickness of the bed packages in which they are confined. Within fault zones, veins are partly a product of faulting but also inherited layer-bounded features along which faults are superimposed. Due to the different petrophysical properties with respect to the parent rocks and their susceptibility to textural and mineralogical modifications, water dissolution and rupture, gypsum veins may have a significant role in geofluid management. Depending on their patterns and grade of physical and chemical alteration, veins may influence geofluid circulation and storage, acting as barriers to flow and possibly also as conduits.

  5. An effective preprocessing method for finger vein recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, JiaLiang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Ning; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2013-07-01

    The image preprocessing plays an important role in finger vein recognition system. However, previous preprocessing schemes remind weakness to be resolved for the high finger vein recongtion performance. In this paper, we propose a new finger vein preprocessing that includes finger region localization, alignment, finger vein ROI segmentation and enhancement. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is capable of enhancing the quality of finger vein image effectively and reliably.

  6. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a cause of obstructive jaundice with simultaneous extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masao; Umekita, Nobutaka; Noda, Kazumasa

    2008-07-07

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare cause of biliary obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the peripancreatic region causing obstructive jaundice with simultaneous portal vein (PV) invasion has not yet been reported. We present a 50-year-old patient with obstructive jaundice whose extrahepatic portal vein was obstructed by the invasion of a peripancreatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient denied any other symptoms such as recurrent fever, night sweat and loss of body weight. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 10 cm mass in the retroperitoneal space behind the head of the pancreas causing obstruction of the distal bile duct and the PV. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with a PV resection was performed. The PV was reconstructed using an autologous right internal jugular vein graft. The resected specimen showed endoluminal invasion of both the bile duct and the PV. Histological examination showed the mass consisting of diffuse sheets of large malignant lymphoid cells. These cells were positive for CD20 and CD79a, partially positive for CD10, and negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8 and CD30. The pathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell type non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the patient was transferred to the Department of Hematology and Oncology for chemotherapy. He received four cycles of combined chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone plus rituximab, and three cycles of intrathecal chemoprophylaxis including methotorexate, cytosine arbinoside and prednisone. The patient is alive with no evidence of the disease for 7 mo after operation and will receive additional courses of chemotherapy.

  7. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  8. The formation of the superior and jugular ganglia: insights into the generation of sensory neurons by the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah; Blentic, Aida; Watson, Sheona; Begbie, Jo; Graham, Anthony

    2010-02-01

    The superior and jugular ganglia (S/JG) are the proximal ganglia of the IXth and Xth cranial nerves and the sensory neurons of these ganglia are neural crest derived. However, it has been unclear the extent to which their differentiation resembles that of the Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRGs). In the DRGs, neural crest cells undergo neuronal differentiation just after the onset of migration and there is evidence suggesting that these cells are pre-specified towards a sensory fate. We have analysed sensory neuronal differentiation in the S/JG. We show, in keeping with previous studies, that neuronal differentiation initiates long after the cessation of neural crest migration. We also find no evidence for the existence of migratory neural crest cells pre-specified towards a sensory phenotype prior to ganglion formation. Rather our results suggest that sensory neuronal differentiation in the S/JG is the result of localised spatiotemporal cues.

  9. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    PubMed

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  10. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  11. A neurofibroma affecting the first right cervical sympathetic ganglion and entering the jugular foramen of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Kumchev, Y; Kalnev, B

    1997-01-01

    The case of a 27 year old male patient is presented. He had been complaining for three months prior to his initial medical examination of severe pulsating headache in the right occipital region, propagating toward the right parietal and temporal regions, occasionally extending along the neck to the right shoulder. The pain subsequently spread over the right tonsil, the voice became hoarse and the patient experienced difficulties in swallowing. On admission to our Department we found: persistent attacks of headache, dysphonia, dysphagia, the palatine arch was slow during phonation. The right pharyngeal reflex was absent, there was pain on palpation over the right occipital bone and the antero-lateral region of the neck, as well as hypotrophy of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle. Selective right carotid arteriogram was performed--the A/P view revealed lateral displacement of the right internal carotid artery 3 cm above the bifurcation, while on lateral view the artery was pushed forward. Computed tomography of the neck with bolus contrast enhancement showed a space-occupying lesion which caused asymmetry of right pharyngeal valleculae. During surgery the tumor was found to have a spindleform shape, to emerge from the jugular foramen and to involve within its capsule the first cervical sympathetic ganglion. After enlarging the jugular foramen we achieved total extirpation of the tumor along with the first right sympathetic ganglion. The histological characteristics of the specimen defined it as neurofibroma and neural ganglion. The headache subsided in the postoperative period, recovery of the voice without dysphonia was also noted. A month later the fibrillar contractions of the tongue disappeared.

  12. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  13. Giacomini vein: thigh extension of the small saphenous vein - report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, K; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, N; Sofidis, G; Piagkou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Varicose vein surgery is very commonly performed. Also, it is very frequently employed for recurrent disease. The recognition of the normal or variant veins, inducing incompetency, is a prerequisite for effective treatment. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein, the so-called Giacomini vein, was extensively described in 1873 by Carlo Giacomini in an incidence of 72%. However, such a vein is usually underestimated in classic surgical textbooks. Description of cases We present two cases of Giacomini vein found in two cadavers, dissected for academic purposes in the Department of Anatomy, where the small saphenous vein displayed a thigh extension without terminating into the popliteal vein. In one case Giacomini vein drained into the large saphenous vein, while in the other case the vein divided into two branches, separately draining into the large saphenous vein and the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region. Conclusion Due to the fact that Giacomini vein could be incompetent, associated with or without varicose saphenous vein trunks, the vascular surgeon should keep in mind that anatomical entity, to include it in preoperative ultrasound scanning control. Moreover, this vein could be utilized as an autologous graft, when the large saphenous is not available. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 263-265. PMID:27418788

  14. Portal vein aneurysm: What to know.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Andrea; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Lionetti, Raffaella; Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Colasanti, Marco; Vennarecci, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysm is an unusual vascular dilatation of the portal vein, which was first described by Barzilai and Kleckner in 1956 and since then less than 200 cases have been reported. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the international literature to better clarify various aspects of this rare nosological entity and provide clear evidence-based summary, when available, of the clinical and surgical management. A systematic literature search of the Pubmed database was performed for all articles related to portal vein aneurysm. All articles published from 1956 to 2014 were examined for a total of 96 reports, including 190 patients. Portal vein aneurysm is defined as a portal vein diameter exceeding 1.9 cm in cirrhotic patients and 1.5 cm in normal livers. It can be congenital or acquired and portal hypertension represents the main cause of the acquired version. Surgical indication is considered in case of rupture, thrombosis or symptomatic aneurysms. Aneurysmectomy and aneurysmorrhaphy are considered in patients with normal liver, while shunt procedures or liver transplantation are the treatment of choice in case of portal hypertension. Being such a rare vascular entity its management should be reserved to high-volume tertiary hepato-biliary centres.

  15. Robotic Assisted Cannulation of Occluded Retinal Veins

    PubMed Central

    Meenink, Thijs C. M.; Janssens, Tom; Vanheukelom, Valerie; Naus, Gerrit J. L.; Beelen, Maarten J.; Meers, Caroline; Jonckx, Bart; Stassen, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a methodology for cannulating porcine retinal venules using a robotic assistive arm after inducing a retinal vein occlusion using the photosensitizer rose bengal. Methodology Retinal vein occlusions proximal to the first vascular branch point were induced following intravenous injection of rose bengal by exposure to 532nm laser light delivered by slit-lamp or endolaser probe. Retinal veins were cannulated by positioning a glass catheter tip using a robotically controlled micromanipulator above venules with an outer diameter of 80μm or more and performing a preset piercing maneuver, controlled robotically. The ability of a balanced salt (BSS) solution to remove an occlusion by repeat distention of the retinal vein was also assessed. Results Cannulation using the preset piercing program was successful in 9 of 9 eyes. Piercing using the micromanipulator under manual control was successful in only 24 of 52 attempts, with several attempts leading to double piercing. The best location for cannulation was directly proximal to the occlusion. Infusion of BSS did not result in the resolution of the occlusion. Conclusion Cannulation of venules using a robotic microassistive arm can be achieved with consistency, provided the piercing is robotically driven. The model appears robust enough to allow testing of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating a retinal vein thrombus and its evolution over time. PMID:27676261

  16. A Nonlinear Thin-Wall Model for Vein Buckling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Avione Y; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-12-01

    Tortuous or twisted veins are often seen in the retina, cerebrum, and legs (varicose veins) of one-third of the aged population, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. While the collapse of veins under external pressure has been well documented, the bent buckling of long vein segments has not been studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a biomechanical model of vein buckling under internal pressure and to predict the critical pressure. Veins were modeled as thin-walled nonlinear elastic tubes with the Fung exponential strain energy function. Our results demonstrated that veins buckle due to high blood pressure or low axial tension. High axial tension stabilized veins under internal pressure. Our buckling model estimated the critical pressure accurately compared to the experimental measurements. The buckling equation provides a useful tool for studying the development of tortuous veins.

  17. Contrasts in Faulting and Veining Across the Aseismic to Seismic Transition, Kodiak Accretionary Complex, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. D.; Thompson, E.; Moore, J. C.

    2002-12-01

    Structure and Character of Veined Zones in Kodiak Accretionary Prism Subduction thrust systems produce the world's largest earthquakes. The transition from aseismic to seismogenic faulting occurs at approximately 4 km depth. The chemical and physical controls on this transition are not well understood, but previous research indicates that phase transformations, fluid pressure changes, and formation of authigenic minerals and cements may produce changes in cohesion and coefficient of friction which control fault behavior. We have described and sampled areas of paleo faulting and fluid flow in an ancient subduction thrust system, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. We are comparing two formations: the upper Paleocene Ghost Rocks Fm., which previous work has shown to have been exposed to ~ 250° C and 12 km depth (well within the seismogenic zone) and the Eocene Sitkalidak Fm., which has been exposed to 100-125° C at 2.4-3.9 km depth, (accreted before it crossed the aseismic-seismogenic boundary.) Field observations confirmed earlier work and supported project hypotheses. The Ghost Rocks Fm. is characterized by discrete heavily veined zones meters to tens of meters thick. Individual veins in these zones commonly reach thickness of up to several centimeters and are primarily composed of clean calcite and quartz. In contrast, the Sitkalidak Fm. is characterized by a small volume of web-like networks of very fine veins rarely exceeding a few mm in thickness. These veins are composed of laumontite and "dirty" calcite. In the Sitkalidak Fm., stratal disruption is characterized by conjugate shear fracturing, leaving lustrous black residues on shear surfaces, followed by extensional fractures with veining, indicating rising fluid pressures. In the Ghost Rocks Fm., there is little evidence for conjugate shear fracturing. Stratal disruption is accomplished by extensive extensional fracturing and veining as well as ductile deformation and rotation of sediments under non-coaxial strain

  18. Cholestasis in children with portal vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Franchi, Stéphanie; Gauthier, Frédéric; Fabre, Monique; Pariente, Danièle; Bernard, Olivier

    2005-04-01

    We describe cholestasis as a result of bile duct abnormalities in 8 children with portal vein obstruction. In a clinical, biochemical and radiological investigation of 121 children with cavernous transformation of the portal vein seen between 1986 and 2000, 8 presented with jaundice, pruritus, and/or raised serum aminotransferases and/or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma GT) activities. Each displayed dilation and narrowing of intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. Surgical decompression of the portal system (portal-systemic or Rex anastomosis) resulted in the regression of the signs of cholestasis in all children. We conclude that children with portal vein obstruction may exhibit clinically significant cholestasis as a result of external compression of the bile duct by the cavernoma.

  19. Pathogenesis of varicose veins - lessons from biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Larissa; König, Gerd; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The development of varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency is preceded by and associated with the pathophysiological remodelling of the venous wall. Recent work suggests that an increase in venous filling pressure is sufficient to promote varicose remodelling of veins by augmenting wall stress and activating venous endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In line with this, known risk factors such as prolonged standing or an obesity-induced increase in venous filling pressure may contribute to varicosis. This review focuses on biomechanically mediated mechanisms such as an increase in wall stress caused by venous hypertension or alterations in blood flow, which may be involved in the onset of varicose vein development. Finally, possible therapeutic options to counteract or delay the progress of this venous disease are discussed.

  20. Isolated Cortical Vein Thrombosis - The Cord Sign

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay K.; Teoh, Hock L

    2009-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis is an uncommon condition and often difficult to diagnose, both clinically and radiologically. We report a case of a 38 years old man who presented with headache of new onset and clinical examination was unremarkable. The unenhanced brain CT did not reveal any abnormality. In view of unrelenting headache and partial seizures, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (with axial T1, T2 and gradient echo sequences, coronal FLAIR, diffusion weighted imaging as well as Gadolinium contrast-enhanced images) and magnetic resonance venography of the brain that revealed an isolated parietal cortical vein thrombosis with the rarely reported 'cord sign'. We report the clinical and radiological findings in our patient with isolated parietal cortical vein thrombosis. PMID:22470649

  1. CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: Constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Işık, Veysel; Shulmeister, James; İmer, Ali; Feng, Yue-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6-20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7‰, and -10.6 and -4.6‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (δ18OVPDB: -5.9 to -1.7‰; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalised REY variations, some of the veins show positive EuPAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the

  2. Meso- and microscale structures related to post-magmatic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheuz, P.; Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Analysis of structures within drill cores, combined with borehole and site survey seismic data, indicates that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic, associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement, deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones, and the formation of tension fractures, hybrid (tension and shear) fractures, and shear fractures. Veins commonly form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and, generally, show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. The vein filling generally consists of (Low Mg-) calcite and/or various types of zeolite as well as clay. Vein frequency varies with depth but does not seem to correlate with the proximity of faults. This may indicate that these veins are genetically related to hydrothermal activity taking place shortly after magma cooling. Host-rock fragments are commonly embedded within precipitated vein material pointing to a high fluid pressure. Vein thickness varies from < 1 mm up to 15 mm. The wider veins appear to have formed in incremental steps of extension. Calcite veins tend to be purely dilational at shallow depths, but gradually evolve towards oblique tensional veins at depth, as shown by the growth of stretched calcite and/or zeolites (idiomorphic and/or stretched) with respect to vein margins. With increasing depth, the calcite grains exhibit deformation microstructures more frequently than at shallower core intervals. These microstructures include thin twinning (type I twins), increasing in width with depth (type I and type II twins), curved twins, and subgrain boundaries indicative of incipient plastic deformation.

  3. Successful liver allograft inflow reconstruction with the right gastroepiploic vein.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rafael S; Cruz, Ruy J; Nacif, Lucas S; Vane, Matheus F; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A C

    2016-02-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a common complication in cirrhotic patients. When portal vein thrombectomy is not a suitable option, a large collateral vessel can be used for allograft venous inflow reconstruction. We describe an unusual case of successful portal revascularization using the right gastroepiploic vein. The patient underwent a cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation with end-to-end anastomosis of the portal vein to the right gastroepiploic vein. Six months after liver transplantation the patient is well with good liver function. The use of the right gastroepiploic vein for allograft venous reconstruction is feasible and safe, with a great advantage of avoiding the need of venous jump graft.

  4. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish the task at hand. Hopefully the surgeon in training/early career may find this instructive on the journey to surgical maturity. PMID:23130300

  5. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  6. Deformations of superconformal theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d ≥ 3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  7. Looking at Dauphiné twins in vein quartz as a potential paleostress indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Paleostress studies commonly call upon (1) a fault slip data inversion technique, (2) a calcite twin stress inversion technique, (3) recrystallized grain size piezometry for quartz, or (4) direct measurements of residual lattice strain. Recent advances in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed that Dauphiné twinning is very common in quartz in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks in a wide range of tectonometamorphic conditions. It has long been known that mechanical Dauphiné twinning in quartz can be stress-induced. Based on the results of an extensive EBSD-OIM analysis on vein quartz, taken from well-studied early to late-orogenic veins in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Germany, Belgium), we explore the potential use of mechanical Dauphiné twins as a paleostress indicator, possibly completing our toolbox for reconstructing paleostresses in the Earth's crust. The vein quartz studied precipitated in low-grade tectonometamorphic conditions (~200-400°C), typical for the brittle-plastic transition zone at the base of the seismogenic crust (~7-15km). Quartz has only been weakly affected by low to moderate temperature (200 to 400°C) crystal-plastic deformation. The samples show grains with a high concentration of Dauphiné twin boundaries and others free of twin boundaries, thus being untwinned or completely twinned. This pattern depends on the crystallographic orientation. Twin boundaries are arrested by grain or subgrain boundaries, suggesting that Dauphiné twinning occurred on a pre-existing fabric that resulted from crystal-plastic deformation. An analysis of the orientation distribution of the rhombs in the twinned variant domains of individual quartz (sub-)grains reveals a particular preferred orientation of the poles to rhombs. We will discuss the possible significance of these observations with respect to paleostresses that may have caused the mechanical

  8. [Anatomicosurgical study of the superior mesenteric vein].

    PubMed

    Dell'Isola, C; Tucci, G F

    1991-01-01

    Results of an autoptic study of the superior mesenteric vein in thirty cadavers are reported. The anatomo-surgical patterns of the venous axis are emphasized. In fact, a better knowledge of this vessel allows an easier and safer surgical approach during pancreatic resections.

  9. Duodenal web with preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Golombek, S; Bilgi, J; Ukabiala, O

    1995-06-01

    This article described an unusual case of an infant with duodenal atresia and preduodenal portal vein without Down's syndrome or other anatomical anomalies associated with this condition. Duodenoduodenostomy was effective. Enteral feeding was re-established 72 hours post-operatively and the patient was discharged home one day later.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6980 - Vein stabilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vein stabilizer. 880.6980 Section 880.6980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous...

  11. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  12. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider if: You have symptoms of hepatic vein obstruction You are being treated for this condition and you develop new symptoms Alternative Names Budd-Chiari syndrome; Hepatic veno-occlusive disease Images Digestive system Digestive system organs Blood clot formation ...

  13. The nature of faults and hydrothermal veins in corehole SB-15-D, The Geysers Steam Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Porosity in The Geysers Coring Project corehole SB-15-D is concentrated along vuggy, steeply-dipping, hydrothermal calcite-quartz {plus_minus} adularia veins. There is little difference in the texture and abundance of these veins between the upper two thirds of the core, interpreted as caprock, and the lower two-thirds, in which two, vein-controlled, fluid-loss zones (probable steam entries) were encountered. However, vugs in the caprock veins are locally choked with mixed-layer clay, whereas those in the deeper steam-reservoir veins generally lack this clay but contain calc-silicate minerals. Steeply-dipping, concordant faults concentrated in argillite throughout the core show predominantly strike-slip displacement. Although movement was predominantly along argillites, the lithology appears to have deformed in a ductile manner, and porosity development was minimal. High-angle dilational fractures were developed contemporaneously in the graywackes. These fractures in the graywacke were only partially filled by secondary minerals, and are potential steam conduits in the vapor-dominated geothermal system.

  14. Sediment-derived fluids in subduction zones: Isotopic evidence from veins in blueschist and eclogite of the Franciscan Complex, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Isotopic analyses of minerals from veins that cut high-grade blueschist and eclogite blocks in the central belt of the Franciscan Complex provide constraints on the chronology of metamorphic events and on the origin and movement of fluids within the subduction zone. A Rb-Sr age of 153 {plus minus}1 Ma obtained for minerals from veins and open cavities that formed contemporaneously with retrograde blueschist facies metamorphism is a minimum age for the prograde metamorphism. The veining precedes the last episode of sedimentary-matrix melange formation by a minimum 15 to 20 Ma, during which time the blocks must have been stored within the subduction complex at low temperatures and without undergoing penetrative deformation. Initial Nd-isotope compositions ({epsilon}{sub Nd}) of the vein minerals range from +10.8 to {minus}2.4, indicating that some fluids were derived predominantly from dehydration of subducted mid-ocean ridge basalt, but that other fluids had a component derived from subducted sediment. The provenance of the subducted sediment was within old continental crust, thus associating the Franciscan paleo-subduction complex with a continental craton by the time of vein formation.

  15. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the varicose vein. Signs of telangiectasias are clusters of red veins that you can see just under the surface of your skin. These clusters usually are found on the upper body, including ...

  16. Omental vein catheter thrombolysis for acute porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Cleary, Muriel A; Cholewczynski, Walter; Sumpio, Bauer E; Atweh, Nabil A

    2013-05-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon clinical condition with potential high morbidity. We report here a patient who presented with acute-onset MVT and bowel infarction, which was successfully ameliorated with intramesenteric vein thrombolytic therapy.

  17. A Finger Vein Identification Method Based on Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Tao, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    New methods for extracting vein features from finger vein image and generating templates for matching are proposed. In the algorithm for generating templates, we proposed a parameter-templates quality factor (TQF) - to measure the quality of generated templates. So that we can use fewer finger vein samples to generate templates that meet the quality requirement of identification. The recognition accuracy of using proposed methods of finger vein feature extraction and template generation strategy for identification is 97.14%.

  18. An unusual complication of femoral vein catheterisation: pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Yildizdas, D; Tepe, T; Parlak, M; Akcali, M

    2007-12-01

    A 2-month-old girl with severe pneumonia required a central venous line. Femoral vein catheterisation was attempted but insertion was difficult. Pneumoperitoneum developed, which is a rare complication of femoral vein catheterisation. It is important when undertaking femoral vein catheterisation to use the correct landmarks in the femoral triangle below the inguinal ligament and an appropriate size of catheter.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  1. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  2. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  3. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  4. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) include: A history of DVT. Conditions or factors that make your blood thicker or more likely to clot than normal. Some inherited ... to a deep vein from surgery, a broken bone, or other trauma. ...

  5. Preduodenal portal vein in an adult--angiography and CT.

    PubMed

    Sasai, K; Sano, A; Nishizawa, S; Imanaka, K; Kuroda, Y

    1985-01-01

    We report on an adult case of preduodenal portal vein illustrated by computed tomography (CT) and angiography. These diagnostic modalities were initially performed to evaluate a coexisting pancreatic cancer. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated unusual positioning of the portal vein ventral to the duodenum. The superior mesenteric-portal vein, which was L-shaped and convexly caudad, strongly suggested this anomalous condition.

  6. Formation of iddingsite veins in the martian crust by centripetal replacement of olivine: Evidence from the nakhlite meteorite Lafayette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Tomkinson, T.; Hallis, L. J.; Mark, D. F.

    2015-04-01

    The Lafayette meteorite is an olivine clinopyroxenite that crystallized on Mars ∼1300 million years ago within a lava flow or shallow sill. Liquid water entered this igneous rock ∼700 million years later to produce a suite of secondary minerals, collectively called 'iddingsite', that occur as veins within grains of augite and olivine. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio of water within these secondary minerals shows that the aqueous solutions were sourced from one or more near-surface reservoirs. Several petrographically distinct types of veins can be recognised by differences in their width, shape, and crystallographic orientation. Augite and olivine both contain veins of a very fine grained hydrous Fe- and Mg-rich silicate that are ∼1-2 μm in width and lack any preferred crystallographic orientation. These narrow veins formed by cementation of pore spaces that had been opened by fracturing and probably in response to shock. The subset of olivine-hosted veins whose axes lie parallel to (0 0 1) have serrated walls, and formed by widening of the narrow veins by interface coupled dissolution-precipitation. Widening started by replacement of the walls of the narrow precursor veins by Fe-Mg silicate, and a crystallographic control on the trajectory of the dissolution-precipitation front created micrometre-scale {1 1 1} serrations. The walls of many of the finely serrated veins were subsequently replaced by siderite, and the solutions responsible for carbonation of olivine also partially recrystallized the Fe-Mg silicate. Smectite was the last mineral to form and grew by replacement of siderite. This mineralization sequence shows that Lafayette was exposed to two discrete pulses of aqueous solutions, the first of which formed the Fe-Mg silicate, and the second mediated replacement of vein walls by siderite and smectite. The similarity in size, shape and crystallographic orientation of iddingsite veins in the Lafayette meteorite and in terrestrial basalts demonstrates a

  7. Driving forces for metamorphic vein filling during bauxite dehydration: insights from Li and Al transfer illustrated by LIBS compositional profiles (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaguet, Anne; Brunet, Fabrice; Goffé, Bruno; Menut, Denis; Findling, Nathaniel; Poinssot, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In subduction zones, the significant amounts of aqueous fluid released in the course of the successive dehydration reactions occurring during prograde metamorphism are expected to strongly influence the rock rheology, as well as kinetics of metamorphic reactions and mass transfer efficiency. Mineralized veins, ubiquitous in metamorphic rocks, can be seen as preserved witnesses of fluid and mass redistribution that partly accommodate the rock deformation (lateral segregation). However, the driving forces and mechanisms of mass transfer towards fluid-filled open spaces remain somewhat unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the vein-forming processes and the modalities of mass transfer during local fluid-rock interactions, and their links with fluid production and rock deformation, with new insights from Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) profiles. This study focuses on karstic pockets (metre scale) of Triassic metabauxites embedded in thick carbonate units, that have been isolated from large-scale fluid flow during HP-LT Alpine metamorphism (W. Vanoise, French Alps). These rocks display several generations of metamorphic veins containing various Al-bearing minerals, which give particular insights into mass transfer processes. It is proposed that the internally-derived fluid (~13 vol% produced by successive dehydration reactions) has promoted the opening of fluid-filled open spaces (euhedral habits of vein minerals) and served as medium for diffusive mass transfer from rock to vein. Based on mineralogical and textural features, two vein types can be distinguished: (1) some veins are filled with newly formed products of either prograde (chloritoid) or retrograde (chlorite) metamorphic reactions; in this case, fluid-filled open spaces seem to offer energetically favourable nucleation/growth sites; (2) the second vein type is filled with cookeite (Li-Al-rich chlorite) or pyrophyllite, which were present in the host-rock prior to the vein formation. In

  8. Surgical outcomes of lateral approach for jugular foramen schwannoma: postoperative facial nerve and lower cranial nerve functions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang-Sun; So, Yoon Kyoung; Park, Kwan; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Jeong, Han-Sin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Chung, Won-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The lateral surgical approach to jugular foramen schwannomas (JFS) may result in complications such as temporary facial nerve palsy (FNP) and hearing loss due to the complicated anatomical location. Ten patients with JFS surgically treated by variable methods of lateral approach were retrospectively reviewed with emphasis on surgical methods, postoperative FNP, and lower cranial nerve status. Gross total removal of the tumors was achieved in eight patients. Facial nerves were rerouted at the first genu (1G) in six patients and at the second genu in four patients. FNP of House-Brackmann (HB) grade III or worse developed immediately postoperatively in six patients regardless of the extent of rerouting. The FNP of HB grade III persisted for more than a year in one patient managed with rerouting at 1G. Among the lower cranial nerves, the vagus nerve was most frequently paralyzed preoperatively and lower cranial nerve palsies were newly developed in two patients. The methods of the surgical approach to JFS can be modified depending on the size and location of tumors to reduce injury of the facial nerve and loss of hearing. Careful manipulation and caution are also required for short facial nerve rerouting as well as for long rerouting to avoid immediately postoperative FNP.

  9. Switching deformation mode during natural faulting in Carrara marbles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molli, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A study on meso- and microstructural features of a high angle normal fault observed in the Alpi Apuane NW Tuscany (Italy) is presented to document switching in the deformation mode during different evolutionary stages of a fault zone growth in naturally deformed Carrara marble. The studied fault was formed at c.3 Km of depth and belongs to structures related to the most recent deformation history of the Alpi Apuane metamorphic core (from c.4 Ma until now, Fellin et al. 2007; Molli, 2008). On the basis of deformation mechanisms and their chronology interpreted from cross-cutting relationships, different stages of the fault zone evolution have been recognized. An early stage of deformation (stage 1) was associated with extensional and shear veins now observable in both hangingwall and footwall blocks as part of the deformation zone developed at decameter-scale. Geochemical data indicate vein-development in a locally closed system where a "stationary" fluid phase migrates over meter scale distances (Molli et al., in press). During stage 2, a localization of the deformation, possibly in precursory coarse grained calcite/quartz shear veins of stage 1, took place. During this second stage crystal-plastic deformation affected areas at the head and along the hanging wall rim of fractures accommodating fault tip distorsions in a way recalling the mode-II geometry of stable crack propagation (Atkinson, 1987; Vermilye and Scholtz, 1993; Kim et al., 2004). Following pervasive cataclasis (stage 3) characterizes a plurimeter-wide dilational jog between two non-parallel main slip surfaces with brecciation and far-derived fluids channelling leading to significant geochemical alteration of the fault rocks with respect to the protolith (Molli et al., in press). Cataclastic deformation produced a grain size refinement and a decimetric thick fault core asymmetrically bounded by the upper main slip surface. Deformation was then localized within ultracataclasite of the fault core where

  10. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  11. Segmentation and reconstruction of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein based on the coronal sectional anatomic dataset.

    PubMed

    Lou, Li; Liu, Shu Wei; Zhao, Zhen Mei; Heng, Pheng Ann; Tang, Yu Chun; Li, Zheng Ping; Xie, Yong Ming; Chui, Yim Pan

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of intrahepatic vessels is very useful in visualizing the complex anatomy of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein. It also provides a 3D anatomic basis for diagnostic imaging and surgical operation on the liver. In the present study, we built a 3D digitized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein based on the coronal sectional anatomic dataset of the liver. The dataset was obtained using the digital freezing milling technique. The pre-reconstructed structures were identified and extracted, and then were segmented by the method of manual intervention. The digitized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein was established using 3D medical visualization software. This model facilitated a continuous and dynamic displaying of the hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein at different orientations, which demonstrated the complicated relationship of adjacent hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein realistically in the 3D space. This study indicated that high-quality 2D images, precise data segmentation, and suitable 3D reconstruction methods ensured the reality and accuracy of the digital visualized model of hepatic veins and intrahepatic portal vein.

  12. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  13. Constitutive modeling of human saphenous veins at overloading pressures.

    PubMed

    Veselý, J; Horný, L; Chlup, H; Adámek, T; Krajíček, M; Žitný, R

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, inflation tests with free axial extension of 15 human vena saphena magna were conducted ex vivo to obtain data suitable for multi-axial constitutive modeling at overloading conditions (pressures up to approximately 15kPa). Subsequently the data were fitted with a hyperelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic constitutive model based on the theory of the closed thick-walled tube. It was observed that initial highly deformable behavior (up to approximately 2.5kPa) in the pressure-circumferential stretch response is followed by progressive large strain stiffening. Contrary to that, samples were much stiffer in longitudinal direction, where the observed stretches were in the range 0.98-1.03 during the entire pressurization in most cases. The effect of possible residual stress was evaluated in a simulation of the intramural stress distribution with the opening angle prescribed to 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50°. The result suggests that the optimal opening angle making the stress distribution through the wall thickness uniform is about 40°. The material parameters presented here are suitable for use in mechanobiological simulations describing the adaptation of the autologous vein wall after bypass surgery.

  14. Multiple deformation mechanisms operating at seismogenic depths: Tectonic pseudotachylyte and associated deformation from the central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prante, M. R.; Evans, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Description and identification of fault-related deformation products that are diagnostic of seismic slip have implications for the energy budget of earthquakes, fault strength, and fault-rock assemblages. We describe tectonic pseduotachylyte, cataclastic rocks, crystal-plastic deformation, and hydrothermal alteration form faults exhumed from seismogenic depths in the Volcanic Lakes area, in northern Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, CA, USA. Fault rock protoliths include Mesozoic granite and granodiorite plutonic and limited metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. These plutonic and metamorphic rocks are cross-cut by the E-W striking, steeply dipping, left-lateral strike-slip Granite Pass (GPF) and Glacier Lakes faults (GLF). Cross-cutting relationships and microstructural data suggest that the GPF is the oldest fault in the area and preserves evidence for coeval brittle and plastic crystal deformation, and hydrothermal fluid-flow. Tectonic pseudotachylyte from the area has been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar method at 76.6 ± 0.3 Ma; when placed into a thermochronologic framework for the plutonic host rock it can be inferred that the pseudotachylyte formed at depths between 2.4-6.0 km with ambient temperatures between 110-160°C. Exceptionally well preserved tectonic pseudotachylyte from the GLF and GPF contain evidence for a frictional melt origin including: 1) plagioclase spherulites and microlites, 2) injection vein morphology, 3) amygdules, 4) viscous flow banding and folds, and 5) embayed and corroded clasts. Pseudotachylyte from the GPF and GLF is associated with brittle and plastic deformation in the damage zone of the faults. Evidence for plastic deformation includes undulose extinction, deformation lamellae, subgrain development, and grain boundary bulging in quartz; and limited undulose extinction in feldspar. Additionally, abundant hydrothermal alteration and mineralization has been documented in the GPF and GLF fault zones, including, chlorite

  15. Aorto-coronary vein graft 'Y' anastomosis made easy.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Martin Amadee

    2011-10-01

    Vein graft-to-vein graft anastomosis, creating a 'Y' graft, is a useful technique when there is a lack of good-quality autologous vein to perform individual aorto-coronary bypass grafts or when the ascending aorta is short or atheromatous, limiting the space for proximal graft anastomosis. Unlike artery-to-artery composite grafts, which are resistant to flow-limiting technique-based distortions, the accurate construction of vein-to-vein anastomoses is critical. A technique is described that facilitates accurate placement of the anastomosis that prevents kinking, twisting or displacement.

  16. The transition between shortening and extensional regimes in central Mexico recorded in the tourmaline veins of the Comanja Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles-Moreno, Edgar; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel Francisco; Ruiz-González, Francisco Jesús; Levresse, Gilles; Alaniz-Alvarez, Susana Alicia; Olmos Moya, María de Jesús Paulina; Xu, Shunshan; Miranda-Avilés, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    In central Mexico, there is a major angular unconformity separating two lithologic groups. Below the unconformity, the rocks display shortening deformation structures produced by the Laramide orogeny, overprinting those shortening structures there are normal faults related to the Cenozoic Basin and Range tectonics. Above the unconformity, the rocks are affected only by the Basin and Range tectonics, displaying mainly normal faults and in minor amount, lateral-oblique faults. We analyzed the Comanja Granite in the Sierra de Guanajuato, it is a large pluton that contains tourmaline veins. The Granite lacks of the shortening structures that pervasively affected the Mesozoic host-rocks; for this reason, we infer that the granite was formed after the main shortening event. We determined that the emplacement of the Comanja Granite took place between 51.0 ± 0.3 Ma and 49.5 ± 0.8 Ma, and that the tourmaline veins of the granite were formed at ∼51.0 Ma. At the microscopic scale, the tourmaline veins contain three kinds of tourmaline, called T1, T2, and T3, according to the order of their formation. The T1 tourmalines are brown colored and appear affected by brittle-ductile (D1) and brittle (D2) deformations. The cataclasites formed during D2 overprinted the brittle-ductile structures of D1, indicating the transition from deeper to shallower levels. In contrast, T2 and T3 tourmalines were not involved in those deformations. At the outcrop scale, we identified two slickensides in the tourmaline veins. The older, related to D1, is strike-slip with a small thrust component and the younger, related to D2, is normal with oblique components. The T1 tourmalines (which are deformed) were formed before the lateral-thrust faulting, whereas the T2 and T3 tourmalines, which are not deformed, were deposited after the faulting occurred in the veins. Our interpretation is that T1 tourmalines were deposited in the later phases of the Comanja Granite emplacement, with the minimum

  17. Successful Portal Vein Stent Placement in a Child with Cavernomatous Replacement of the Portal Vein After Partial Liver Transplantation: The Importance of a Recognizable Portal Vein Remnant.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Ricotta, Calogero; Riva, Silvia; Burgio, Gaetano; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Late portal vein thrombosis with cavernomatous replacement has been reported in 4.5% of pediatric patients who have undergone partial liver transplantation. In such cases, minimally invasive radiological treatments have a high failure rate. We report a successful case of percutaneous recanalization of the portal vein remnant, and subsequent stent placement, in a pediatric patient who underwent left lateral split liver transplantation with cavernomatous replacement of the portal vein.

  18. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  19. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  20. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  1. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-26

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  2. Leuprolide acetate and central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Federici, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    A 63-year-old man suffered a central retinal vein occlusion 2 months after he began taking leuprolide acetate for prostate cancer. Despite control for possible systemic hypertension (126/90 mm Hg) and mild hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level =246 mg/dL [range: 16 to 200 mg/dL], high-density lipoprotein level =67 mg/dL [range: 40 to 59 mg/dL], and low-density lipoprotein level =144 mg/dL [range: 0 to 130 mg/dL]), progression of the venous occlusive disease occurred. Leuprolide acetate, which is associated with thromboembolic events and diffuse intravascular coagulation, may be implicated in central retinal vein occlusion.

  3. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  4. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  5. Varicose vein therapy and nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Treating varicose veins using endovenous thermal techniques - especially laser and radio frequency ablation - has emerged as an effective alternative to open surgery with stripping and high ligation. Even though these methods are very gentle and patient-friendly, they are nevertheless accompanied by risks and side effects. Compared to open surgical therapy, the risk of damage to peripheral and motor nerves is reduced; however, it still exists as a result of heat exposure and tumescent anaesthesia. Non-thermal methods that can be applied without tumescent anaesthesia have been introduced to the market. They pose a considerably lower risk of nerve lesions while proving to be much more effective. This paper investigates data on postoperative nerve damage and paraesthesia using internet research (PubMed). It analyses the current state of knowledge regarding non-thermal treatment methods and takes into account the latest developments in the use of cyanoacrylate to close insufficient saphenous veins.

  6. The great brain versus vein debate.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  7. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  8. Asymptomatic Pulmonary Vein Stenosis: Hemodynamic Adaptation and Successful Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis is a well-established possible complication following an atrial fibrillation ablation of pulmonary veins. Symptoms of pulmonary vein stenosis range from asymptomatic to severe exertional dyspnea. The number of asymptomatic patients with pulmonary vein stenosis is greater than originally estimated; moreover, only about 22% of severe pulmonary vein stenosis requires intervention. We present a patient with severe postatrial fibrillation (AF) ablation pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, which was seen on multiple imaging modalities including cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiogram, lung perfusion scan, and pulmonary angiogram. This patient did not have any pulmonary symptoms. Hemodynamic changes within a stenosed pulmonary vein might not reflect the clinical severity of the obstruction if redistribution of pulmonary artery flow occurs. Our patient had an abnormal lung perfusion and ventilation (V/Q) scan, suggesting pulmonary artery blood flow redistribution. The patient ultimately underwent safe repeat atrial fibrillation ablation with successful elimination of arrhythmia. PMID:28105376

  9. Spontaneous thrombosis of vein of Galen malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kariyappa, Kalpana Devi; Krishnaswami, Murali; Gnanaprakasam, Francis; Ramachandran, Madan; Krishnaswamy, Visvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Vein of Galen malformation (VOGM) is a rare intracranial vascular malformation. Before the advent and advancement of various endovascular techniques, there was dismal prognosis. Rarely, this condition may spontaneously thrombose without the need for surgical or endovascular treatment with good prognosis. We report a case of an 8-month-old infant who had serial imaging, suggestive of VOGM and presented to us for further management, wherein the imaging revealed spontaneous thrombosis. PMID:27857804

  10. Percutaneous Transumbilical Portal Vein Embolization in a Patient with a Ruptured Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Chin; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by the portal vein that was successfully treated with portal vein embolization via a percutaneous transumbilical approach. A contrast material-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan showed the presence of a large hypervascular tumor on portal venous phase as well as right hepatic vein thrombosis and hemoperitoneum that prevented portal vein embolization by the use of the percutaneous and transjugular transhepatic approach. The use of percutaneous transumbilical portal vein embolization can be an alternative option in this situation.

  11. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  12. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H

    2009-11-01

    Varicose veins are a very frequent disorder with prevalence in our adult population between 14% for large varices and 59% for small teleangiectasias. Subjective symptoms may be very non-specific. The term "chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" defines functional abnormalities of the venous system producing advanced symptoms like oedema, skin changes or leg ulcers. Both entities, varicose veins and CVI, may be summarized under the term "chronic venous disorders" which includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system. A classification system to describe chronic venous disorders regarding clinical appearance, etiology, anatomical distribution and pathophysiology has been proposed under the acronym of CEAP. The revised version of the CEAP classification contains also definitions of clinical signs and suggests three levels of apparative investigations adjusted to the clinical stage. Concerning the etiology of venous disorders controversial theories exist leading to different therapeutic concepts. As a matter of fact there is a vicious circle between structural changes in valves and venous wall and hemodynamic forces leading to reflux and venous hypertension. Different methods for treating varicose veins are available producing satisfactory early outcome in most cases, but followed by a high recurrence rate after years. Chronic venous insufficiency requires "chronic management". Compression therapy by bandages for initial treatment of severe stages and maintenance therapy using medical compression stockings is essential. In addition correction of venous refluxes by surgery or endovenous procedures including echo-guided foam sclerotherapy should be considered in every single case.

  13. Patterning of leaf vein networks by convergent auxin transport pathways.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Megan G; Edgar, Alexander; Scarpella, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The formation of leaf vein patterns has fascinated biologists for centuries. Transport of the plant signal auxin has long been implicated in vein patterning, but molecular details have remained unclear. Varied evidence suggests a central role for the plasma-membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) intercellular auxin transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana in auxin-transport-dependent vein patterning. However, in contrast to the severe vein-pattern defects induced by auxin transport inhibitors, pin1 mutant leaves have only mild vein-pattern defects. These defects have been interpreted as evidence of redundancy between PIN1 and the other four PM-localized PIN proteins in vein patterning, redundancy that underlies many developmental processes. By contrast, we show here that vein patterning in the Arabidopsis leaf is controlled by two distinct and convergent auxin-transport pathways: intercellular auxin transport mediated by PM-localized PIN1 and intracellular auxin transport mediated by the evolutionarily older, endoplasmic-reticulum-localized PIN6, PIN8, and PIN5. PIN6 and PIN8 are expressed, as PIN1 and PIN5, at sites of vein formation. pin6 synthetically enhances pin1 vein-pattern defects, and pin8 quantitatively enhances pin1pin6 vein-pattern defects. Function of PIN6 is necessary, redundantly with that of PIN8, and sufficient to control auxin response levels, PIN1 expression, and vein network formation; and the vein pattern defects induced by ectopic PIN6 expression are mimicked by ectopic PIN8 expression. Finally, vein patterning functions of PIN6 and PIN8 are antagonized by PIN5 function. Our data define a new level of control of vein patterning, one with repercussions on other patterning processes in the plant, and suggest a mechanism to select cell files specialized for vascular function that predates evolution of PM-localized PIN proteins.

  14. Calcaneo-valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Evans, D

    1975-08-01

    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  15. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  16. Constraints on paleofluid sources using the clumped-isotope thermometry of carbonate veins from the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetkemeyer, P. Benjamin; Kirschner, David L.; Huntington, Katharine W.; Chester, Judith S.; Chester, Frederick M.; Evans, James P.

    2016-10-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), near Parkfield, California, is a borehole drilled through two active deforming zones of the San Andreas fault, the Southwest Deforming Zone (SDZ) and the Central Deforming Zone (CDZ). These zones accommodate displacement by seismic slip and aseismic creep. Elevated fluid pressures and fluid-rock interactions have been proposed to explain the low apparent strength and aseismic creep observed, but the origin of the fluids and existence of high fluid pressures remains uncertain. We use clumped-isotope thermometry and δ18O-δ13C compositions of calcite in veins to constrain the origin of paleofluids and compare these results to the isotopic composition of modern-day pore fluids from the SAFOD borehole and nearby areas. We observe that: (1) calcite vein temperatures vary from 81 to 134 °C, which overlaps the current ambient borehole temperatures of 110-115 °C at sampled depths; (2) vein calcite is not in carbon isotope equilibrium with modern-day pore fluids; (3) the δ18O values of paleofluids close to the SDZ and CDZ, calculated from vein δ18O and temperature data, are not in equilibrium with local modern-day pore waters but approach equilibrium with modern pore waters far from these zones; and (4) syntectonic vein calcite is only in C- and O-isotopic equilibrium with their host rocks within the SDZ and CDZ. Spatial patterns of δ18O and δ13C show little evidence for across-fault fluid-flow. Clumped isotope temperatures are consistent with locally-derived fluid sources, but not with continuous or episodic replenishment of fluids from shallow sedimentary brines or deep fluid sources. Our findings are compatible with flow of meteoric fluids from the southwestern damage zone into the SDZ and CDZ, which would have favored the formation of weak phyllosilicates and contributed to the present day weakness of the two actively deforming zones.

  17. Absence of Middle Hepatic Vein Combined with Retro-Aortic Left Renal Vein: a Very Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Turamanlar, Ozan; Kırpıko, Oğuz; Özen, Oğuz Aslan; Değirmenci, Bumin; Akçer, Sezer; Uygur, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic and renal veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The upper group of hepatic veins consists of three veins which extend to the posterior face of the liver to join the inferior cava. The left renal vein passes anterior to the aorta just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. We detected a variation in the hepatic and renal veins in a multislice CT angiogram of a nine-year-old male patient in the Radiology Department of Afyon Kocatepe University Medical School. The upper group hepatic veins normally drains into the inferior vena cava as three separate trunks, namely the right, left and middle. In our case, we found that only the right and left hepatic veins existed and the middle hepatic vein was absent. Furthermore, the left renal vein, which normally passes anterior to the abdominal aorta, was retro-aortic. Left renal vein variations are of great importance in planning retroperitoneal surgery and vascular interventions. Knowledge of a patient’s hepatic vein and renovascular anatomy and determining their variations and anomalies are of critical importance to abdominal operations, transplantations and preoperative evaluation of endovascular interventions. PMID:25206997

  18. Rock Deformation Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Harry

    The Third Rock Deformation Colloquium was held December 4, 1989, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Steve Kirby of the U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif., reported on actions taken by the rock deformation steering committee. Brian Wernicke of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., talked on the structural geology of the Great Basin.The steering committee voted for “Committee on Deformation of Earth Materials” as the name for the AGU technical committee on rock deformation, Kirby said. Considerable discussion has occurred in the steering committee over our relationship to the AGU Mineral Physics Committee. Indeed, Kirby will become chairman of that committee in 1990, underlining the overlap of the two groups. It was agreed that we will pursue closer association with Mineral Physics.

  19. Wrist deformities after fracture.

    PubMed

    Vanheest, Ann

    2006-02-01

    Wrist deformities can occur after fracture because of malunion of the fracture or injury to the growth plate leading to imbalance of growth. Prevention of malunion is paramount by early recognition with proper reduction and casting or fixation with casting. If a mal-union occurs, an osteotomy may be necessary if anticipated growth will not correct the deformity. Injury of the growth plate may lead to wrist deformity in two ways: angular growth or growth arrest. Angular growth deformities are corrected most commonly by osteotomy. Growth arrest of the radius or the ulna leads to an ulnar-positive or an ulnar-negative variance at the wrist. If the ulnar variance is symptomatic, treatment is centered on achieving a level joint. Options for joint leveling procedures include epiphysiodesis or physeal stapling of the longer bone, lengthening osteotomy of the shorter bone, or shortening osteotomy of the longer bone.

  20. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  1. [Endovascular laser ablation of the greater saphenous vein for varicose veins: our initial experience].

    PubMed

    Bronzino, P; Abbo, L; Bagnasco, F; Barisone, P; Dezzani, C; Genovese, A M; Iannucci, P; Ippoliti, M; Sacchi, M; Aimo, I

    2005-01-01

    Laser treatment of primary varicose veins of the legs is a new mini-invasive technique which represent an alternative to the safenectomy. Endovascular laser treatment is based on the employ of laser to destroying the vascular wall and inducing fibrosis. This technique is not without complications: burns, paraesthesias, haematomas, but most of all disappear in few days. Encouraged by the promising results reported in literature, we have performed 18 laser ablation of greater saphenous vein since 2003 till today. Our patients had a good post-operative course and a follow up without troubles (3-17 months). We think that laser treatment is effective in the treatment of the primary varicose veins of the legs. It requests attention and experience in dosing the laser energy for minimizing the complications. Today there isn't long term follow up in literature.

  2. Shear zones in the upper mantle - relation between geochemical enrichment and deformation in mantle peridotites

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Textural variations in mantle-derived spinel peridotites have previously been interpreted as evidence of the existence of asthenospheric mantle diapirs, indicating deformational heterogeneity on a large lateral scale (kilometers to tens of kilometers). However, many volcanic vents entrain both deformed and undeformed xenoliths, and field relations in peridotite massifs show the scale of alternation between deformed and undeformed peridotite to be small (centimeters to meters) because of the presence of numerous lithospheric shear zones. Some rare xenoliths contain both deformed and undeformed peridotite. These is also an apparent relation between deformation and the growth of metasomatic minerals; amphibole is often concentrated in strongly deformed zones in peridotite massifs and deformed xenoliths, although it is also found in crosscutting veins and aureoles around such veins. A relation can also be seen between deformation and indicators of geochemical enrichment. Clinopyroxenes from many deformed spinel peridotites show light rate earth element (REE) enrichment, whereas clinopyroxenes from undeformed spinel peridotites commonly have mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-type light REE-depleted patterns. Sr and Nd radiogenic isotopic compositions of undeformed peridotites are generally MORB-like, and have low {epsilon}Sr and high {epsilon}Nd. In contrast, deformed peridotites, with or without amphibole, often have higher {epsilon}Sr and low {epsilon}Nd values, indicating geochemical enrichment by large ion lithophile (LIL)- and light REE-enriched fluids or melts. These observations can be used to infer that the shallow mantle contains lithospheric ductile shear zones in which metasomatic fluids precipitated amphibole and clinopyroxene.

  3. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  4. Tracing the evolution of crustal-scale, transient permeability in a tectonically active, mid-crustal, low-permeability environment by means of quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, M.

    2013-12-01

    In mid-crustal, low-permeability environments pervasive fluid flow is primarily driven by the production of internally-derived metamorphic fluids, causing a near permanent state of near-lithostatic fluid-pressure conditions. In a tectonically active crust, these overpressured fluids will generate intermittently an enhanced permeability that will facilitate fluid flow through the crust. The High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, France, Germany) can be considered as a fossil (late Palaeozoic) analogue of such mid-crustal, low-permeability environment at the brittle-plastic transition (depth range from 7 to 15 km). Low-grade metamorphic (250°C-350°C), predominantly fine-grained, siliciclastic metasediments were affected by a contraction-dominated deformation, materialized by a pervasive slaty cleavage. Quartz veins, abundantly present in the slate belt, are used as a proxy for the enhanced permeability. Detailed structural, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical studies of different quartz-vein occurrences has enabled to reconstruct the evolution of the crustal-scale permeability , as well as to constrain the coupled fluid-pressure and stress-state evolution throughout the orogenic history. Extensive veining on a regional scale seems confined to periods of tectonic stress inversion, both at the onset (compressional stress inversion) and in the final stages (extensional stress inversion) of orogeny. Firstly, compressional stress inversion is expressed by pre-orogenic bedding-normal extension veins, consistently arranged in parallel arrays, followed by early orogenic bedding-parallel hybrid veins. Fluid-inclusion studies demonstrate near-lithostatic to supralithostatic fluid pressures, respectively. Secondly, discordant veins, transecting the pre-existing cleavage fabric, are interpreted to be initiated shortly after the extensional stress inversion, reflecting the late-orogenic extensional destabilisation of the slate belt. Veining again occurred at high fluid

  5. The importance of healing on the deformation of fluid-filled layered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Anna; Koehn, Daniel; Ghani, Irfan; Toussaint, Renaud

    2014-05-01

    Fractures in the brittle crust form by the combination of gravity, tectonic forces and fluid pressures. Fractures heal as a result of material precipitation forming veins that can refracture due to further deformation. Understanding this cycle (fracturing-healing-refracturing) is a fundamental part of studying the deformation dynamics and the permeability evolution of rocks. In spite of this, not many previous studies have examined the influence of healing and the veins' mechanical properties on the rock deformation. To address this issue we present results from a two-dimensional coupled hydro-mechanical model within the modeling environment 'Elle'. Our simulations have large time (~ 54.8 ka years) and spatial (3 km depth) scale, and show the dynamic fracturing and healing of a porous medium under the influence of gravity, tectonic stretching and elevated fluid pressures. Mechanical properties of the matrix, the embedded layers and the new bonds can be varied in order to investigate their influence on the evolving fracture and vein patterns. Our results show that at early stages of deformation the overall porosity decreases and increases after the maximum differential stress is obtained. The system reaches a steady-state (saturation) that is characterized by minor fluctuations in stress as the strain is accommodated along pre-existing fractures. Small-scale fractures link up to propagate which then evolve to large fracture zones and faults that are responsible for draining the system. It is shown that for the general evolution of the system the veins' strength is more important than their elastic modulus. Hard veins, such as quartz or ore, make the aggregate progressively stronger which leads to overall healing of the system, limited fracturing and thus fluid flow, greater stresses and delayed saturation. Weak veins, such as calcite, make the system weaker in which refracturing of the healed bonds is the dominant process that creates more open fractures and thus

  6. Analysis of Pulmonary Vein Antrums Motion with Cardiac Contraction Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    de Guise, Jacques; Vu, Toni; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Blais, Danis; Lebeau, Martin; Nguyen, Nhu-Tram; Roberge, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole. Right and left atrial fibrillation target volumes (CTVR and CTVL) were defined, with each target volume containing the antral regions of the superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Four points of interest were used as surrogates for the right superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (RSPVA and RIPVA) and the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (LSPVA and LIPVA). On our 4D post-processing workstation (MIM Maestro™, MIM Software Inc.), maximum displacement of each point of interest from diastole to systole was measured in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions. Results: Median age of the enrolled patients was 60 years (range, 56-71 years). Within the CTVR, the mean displacements of the superior and inferior surrogates were 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.002), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 0 mm (p=0.00001), in the ML, AP, and SI directions, respectively. On the left, mean absolute displacements of the LSPVA vs. LIPVA were similar at 4 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.0008), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.00001) in the ML, AP, and SI directions. Conclusion: When isolated from breathing, cardiac contraction is associated with minimal inferior pulmonary veins motion and modest (1-6 mm) motion of the superior veins. Target deformation was thus of a magnitude similar or greater than target motion, limiting the potential gains of cardiac tracking. Optimal strategies for cardiac

  7. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist® was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  8. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  9. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  10. Frictional melting processes and the generation of shock veins in terrestrial impact structures: Evidence from the Steen River impact structure, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Erin L.; Sharp, Thomas G.; Hu, Jinping

    2016-05-01

    Shock-produced melt within crystalline basement rocks of the Steen River impact structure (SRIS) are observed as thin (1-510 μm wide), interlocking networks of dark veins which cut across and displace host rock minerals. Solid-state phase transformations, such as ferro-pargasite to an almandine-andradite-majorite garnet and amorphization of quartz and feldspar, are observed in zones adjacent to comparatively wider (50-500 μm) sections of the shock veins. Shock pressure estimates based on the coupled substitution of Na+, Ti4+ and Si4+ for divalent cations, Al3+ and Cr3+ in garnet (14-19 GPa) and the pressure required for plagioclase (Ab62-83) amorphization at elevated temperature (14-20 GPa) are not appreciably different from those recorded by deformation effects observed in non-veined regions of the bulk rock (14-20 GPa). This spatial distribution is the result of an elevated temperature gradient experienced by host rock minerals in contact with larger volumes of impact-generated melt and large deviatoric stresses experienced by minerals along vein margins. Micrometer-size equant crystals of almandine-pyrope-majorite garnet define the shock vein matrix, consistent with rapid quench (100-200 ms) at 7.5-10 GPa. Crystallization of the vein occurred during a 0.1-0.15 s shock pressure pulse. Majoritic garnet, formed during shock compression by solid state transformation of pargasite along shock vein margins, is observed in TEM bright field images as nanometer-size gouge particles produced at strain rates in the supersonic field (106-108). These crystals are embedded in vesiculated glass, and this texture is interpreted as continued movement and heating along slip planes during pressure release. The deformation of high-pressure minerals formed during shock compression may be the first evidence of oscillatory slip in natural shock veins, which accounts for the production of friction melt via shear when little or no appreciable displacement is observed. Our observations

  11. Chemical gradients and progressive veining in a partly serpentinized harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther; Caddick, Mark; Beard, James; Bodnar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks constitute a major part of the oceanic lithosphere. They form when water interacts with olivine and pyroxene to produce a dense network of veins comprised of secondary minerals: Serpentine + brucite ± magnetite veins occur in olivine, Al-rich serpentine + talc veins occur in orthopyroxene, and Al-rich serpentine ± talc ± brucite veins occur at the boundary between orthopyroxene and olivine. Here, we present a detailed study on a harzburgite from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica that is ~30% serpentinized in order to provide new constraints on the effect of variable water (H2O) and silica (SiO2) activities on vein formation in peridotites. The studied sample records 1) mineralogical and chemical zonations in olivine-hosted veins that show a distinct pattern with increasing width of the veins (consumption of olivine), 2) varying brucite composition depending on whether or not it is associated with magnetite, and 3) chemical gradients in Si, Al, Cr, and Ca at the boundary between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. These observed chemical variations suggest fluid mediated mass transport within and between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. We use thermodynamic models to show that an increase in vein width and progressive evolution of olivine-hosted veins is accompanied by an increase in water-rock ratios. This is associated with the development of chemical gradients (e.g. gradients in water and silica activity) between the fluid-rich center of serpentine veins and the olivine grain boundaries as typically expressed by the abundance of brucite in the vein center and a dominance of serpentine at the boundary with olivine. The increase in water-rock ratios within the vein center also leads to the formation of magnetite from Fe-rich brucite ± Fe-rich serpentine. Mass transfer between vein core and vein rim may exist on the submicron-scale along grain boundaries of the finely intergrown serpentine-brucite mixture. We

  12. Reproducibility of dorsal hand vein responses to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha using the dorsal hand vein compliance method.

    PubMed

    Schindler, C; Grossmann, M; Dobrev, D; Francke, K; Ravens, U; Kirch, W

    2003-03-01

    Assessment of drug-induced venodilation by the dorsal hand vein compliance method requires stable constriction of the vein. This study was designed to investigate intra- and intersubject reproducibility of the venous preconstriction technique in response to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha and to determine the influence of basal vein size. Twelve healthy male nonsmokers participated in a prospective cross-over study. Inter- and intrasubject variability was tested in response to phenylephrine and PGF2 alpha on different study days in the same hand vein. The dose of the respective constrictor causing approximately 80% constriction of the vein (ED80) was determined and infused for another 100 minutes. Actual vein size was measured every 5 minutes. Coefficient of variation and regression analyses were performed to analyze influence of vessel size on ED80 of the respective constrictor. Adjusted constriction levels were stable and well reproducible in all subjects. The intersubject coefficient of variation of ED80 ranged from 0.9% to 6.7% for phenylephrine and from 0.9% to 6.9% for PGF2 alpha. Whereas responses to phenylephrine were independent of basal vein diameter, there was a positive correlation between ED80 of PGF2 alpha and basal vein size. Thus, the hand vein compliance method is a suitable method to study dilatory responses in phenylephrine- or PGF2 alpha-constricted veins with considerable interindividual but small intraindividual variability. However, in such studies, phenylephrine appears to be a more reliable tool than PGF2 alpha.

  13. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  14. Preduodenal portal vein in the adult.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, I; Maruyama, T; Ootsuki, K; Ozaki, M

    1998-01-01

    Preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) is a rare developmental anomaly. We recently encountered this anomaly in a 73-year-old woman who had gastric cancer and colonic cancer with liver metastasis. The PDPV was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography and angiography. To the best of our knowledge, there are only 19 adult cases reported in the world literature, with this additional case being reported here. In infants the anomaly has often been associated with duodenal obstruction, but in adults it is often symptomless. We discuss the disease process, embryology, diagnosis, association with other anomalies, and surgical treatment.

  15. Science Linking Pulmonary Veins and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Mahida, Saagar; Sacher, Frederic; Derval, Nicolas; Berte, Benjamin; Yamashita, Seigo; Hooks, Darren; Denis, Arnaud; Amraoui, Sana; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jais, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanistic basis of atrial fibrillation (AF). One of the most important discoveries in this context has been that pulmonary veins (PV) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of AF. PV isolation has since become the most widely used technique for treatment of paroxysmal AF. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the electrophysiological and anatomical characteristics of PVs create a proarrhythmogenic substrate. The following review discusses the mechanistic links between PVs and AF. PMID:26835098

  16. Massive hydrothorax following subclavian vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of central venous catheterization for monitoring of the venous pressure, fluid infusion and hyperalimentation, the literature has been full of serious life-threatening complications. Of these complications is the false positioning of the central venous catheter and subsequent development of pleural effusion. In this report we are describing a case of iatrogenic massive pleural effusion following subclavian vein catheterization necessitating intercostal tube drainage and mechanical ventilation. The case highlights the importance of ensuring adequate positioning of the catheter after insertion through aspiration of venous blood, immediate post insertion X-ray and the utilization of ultrasound guidance in cases with expected difficult catheterization. PMID:21073758

  17. Azygous Vein Aneurysm (AVA): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tujo, Charles Albert

    2017-01-01

    Azygous Vein Aneurysm (AVAs) is an uncommon cause of mediastinal mass. They are typically asymptomatic and do not commonly require treatment. They may mimic mediastinal adenopathy on chest radiographs. We present a case of AVAs found during evaluation of chest pain in a patient who was also found to have pulmonary thromboembolism. The mass was worked up with cross-sectional imaging techniques using both Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultimately Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to recurrent symptomatology, the aneurysm was coiled.

  18. Preduodenal portal vein: a cause of prenatally diagnosed duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, S O; Park, W H

    1995-10-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare congenital anomaly that causes high intestinal obstruction. The authors report on a newborn who was diagnosed as having duodenal obstruction at 30 weeks' gestation. During surgery the patient was found to have duodenal obstruction caused by a preduodenal portal vein. Malrotation was an associated finding. Treatment consisted of Ladd's procedure and a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy performed anterior to the portal vein.

  19. Polyphase deformation in Marathon basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.; Morris, A.

    1989-03-01

    Marathon basin, Texas, is the westernmost window into the Ouachita orogene. Interpreted as a result of northwest-southeast compression, intermittent orogenic pulses began in the Mississippian and continued into the Early Permian (Wolfcampian). However, the northeastern portion of the basin contains structures that could not have resulted from a single compression orientation and indicate that deformation continued to affect Wolfcampian and Leonardian rocks. Their work confirms the protracted nature of upper Paleozoic deformation and indicates that late- and postorogenic events were not related to the northwest-southeast compression manifest throughout the Marathon basin. The northeastern part of the basin exposes Morrowan( )-Desmoinesian rocks. The authors recognize a duplex thrust system, traceable for 10 km, rooted in the uppermost Morrowan( ) Tesnus Formation and creating a double thickness of (Morrowan-Atokan) Dimple Limestone. The duplex is folded by 50 to 2000-m half-wavelength northwestverging folds which plunge gently southwestward. Dimple thickness is further increased by a large number of contraction faults, each with up to 2 m of stratigraphic throw. Superimposed upon these structures are southeast-plunging, 10-20-m half-wavelength open kinks with vergence sympathetic with the regional trend variation apparent in this part of the basin. The superimposed structures are the result of a northeast-southwest compressive event. North of the Ouachita exposure, rocks containing lower Leonardian fusulinids are deformed into gentle east-west-trending 500-m half-wavelength folds which are likely the result of another distinct compression orientation trending north-south. Pervasive east-west extension in all Pennsylvania-age rocks is indicated by subvertical, calcite-filled veins.

  20. Treatment of Primary Varicose Veins in Japan: Japanese Vein Study XVII

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Takashi; Iwata, Hirohide; Sakata, Masahiro; Sugano, Norihide; Nishibe, Toshiya; Mo, Makoto; Yamada, Norikazu; Iwai, Takehisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at clarifying the changes in treatments for primary varicose veins in Japan. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the members of the Japanese Society of Phlebology. The contents of the survey covered the treatment and treatment strategy of varicose vein cases in 2013. The results were examined and compared with the results of previous surveys conducted by the aforesaid society in 1998, 2004 and 2009. Results: Of 36078 patients, 43958 limbs were reported from 201 institutions. Saphenous type was the most common type of varicose veins that developed in patients aged 70–79 years. The C4–6 cases according to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification occurred significantly more in males than in females (p <0.01). For the treatments of saphenous type and of segment type (dilatation of peripheral branch), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) was performed most frequently (51%), while the frequency of stripping and of high ligation decreased. EVLA was performed with tumescent local anesthesia, which required one day of hospitalization. Conclusion: In our study, the number of patients with varicose veins increased especially in the elderly. Surgical treatments were selected for a number of patients, and EVLA was the most commonly adopted method of treatment in Japan. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2016: 27; 249-57.) PMID:27738459

  1. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    PubMed

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  2. [Idiopathic palmar vein thrombosis of the fingers - rare but relevant].

    PubMed

    Spies, C K; Schwarz-Furlan, S; Hahn, P; Oppermann, J; Unglaub, F

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic thrombosis of palmar finger veins is rare and women suffer from it almost exclusively. Synovial cysts, epidermoid inclusion cysts, giant cell tumours and haemangiomatous lesions should be considered in the process of diagnosis. We present a 56-year-old woman with idiopathic and symptomatic thrombosis of palmar finger veins. Using the palmar approach the painful veins were identified and excised completely. An uncomplicated wound healing has followed with completely unrestricted and painless range of motion. Surgical excision of the finger vein thrombosis should be considered if there is continuing pain.

  3. Evaluation of different systems for clinical quantification of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Cornu-Thénard, A; De Vincenzi, I; Maraval, M

    1991-04-01

    One hundred twenty-five lower limbs with varicose veins were studied clinically, essentially by palpation. Two specialists in venous pathology scored the severity of the varicose veins from 0 to 20. Comparison between the different clinical parameters and the scores of the specialists showed that two systems of clinical quantification gave good results and were easy to use. One system is the maximum diameter of the largest varicose vein; the other system is the sum of maximum diameters over 7 sections (3 for thigh, 3 for leg, 1 for foot). This latter system gives a more precise evaluation of the clinical severity of the varicose veins.

  4. Architecture of the pulmonary veins: relevance to radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S; Cabrera, J; Tran, V; Farre, J; Anderson, R; Sanchez-Quintana, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Radiofrequency ablation of tissues in pulmonary veins can eliminate paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
OBJECTIVE—To explore the characteristics of normal pulmonary veins so as to provide more information relevant to radiofrequency ablation.
METHODS—20 structurally normal heart specimens were examined grossly. Histological sections were made from 65 pulmonary veins.
RESULTS—The longest myocardial sleeves were found in the superior veins. The sleeves were thickest at the venoatrial junction in the left superior pulmonary veins. For the superior veins, the sleeves were thickest along the inferior walls and thinnest superiorly. The sleeves were composed mainly of circularly or spirally oriented bundles of myocytes with additional bundles that were longitudinally or obliquely oriented, sometimes forming mesh-like arrangements. Fibrotic changes estimated at between 5% and 70% across three transverse sections were seen in 17 veins that were from individuals aged 30 to 72 years.
CONCLUSIONS—The myocardial architecture in normal pulmonary veins is highly variable. The complex arrangement, stretch, and increase in fibrosis may produce greater non-uniform anisotropic properties.


Keywords: arrhythmias; catheter ablation; fibrillation; cardiac veins PMID:11514476

  5. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  6. Crustal deformation and earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    The manner in which the Earth's surface deforms during the cycle of stress accumulation and release along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal deformation associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal deformation pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.

  7. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  8. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis: A Recent Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vishnubhotla, Priya

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary veins (PVs) are the most proximal source of arterial thromboembolism. Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but potentially lethal disease; its incidence is unclear, as most of the literature includes case reports. It most commonly occurs as a complica­tion of malignancy, post lung surgery, or atrial fibrillation and can be idiopathic in some cases. Most patients with PVT are commonly asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea from pulmonary edema or infarction. The thrombi are typically detected using a variety of imaging modalities including transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), computed tomography (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or pulmonary angiog­raphy. Treatment should be determined by the obstructing pathological finding and can include antibiotic therapy, anticoagulation, thrombectomy, and/or pulmonary resection. The delay in diagnosing this medical entity can lead to complications including pulmonary infarction, pulmonary edema, right ventricular failure, allograft failure, and peripheral embolism resulting in limb ischemia, stroke, and renal infarction (RI). PMID:28265529

  10. Biomolecular mechanisms in varicose veins development.

    PubMed

    Segiet, Oliwia Anna; Brzozowa-Zasada, Marlena; Piecuch, Adam; Dudek, Damian; Reichman-Warmusz, Edyta; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2015-02-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) can be described as tortuous and dilated palpable veins, which are more than 3 mm in diameter. They are one of the clinical presentations of chronic venous disorders, which are a significant cause of morbidity. The prevalence of VVs has been estimated at 25-33% in women and 10-20% in men and is still increasing at an alarming rate. Family history, older age, female, pregnancy, obesity, standing occupations, and a history of deep venous thrombosis are the predominant risk factors. A great amount of factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VVs, including changes in hydrostatic pressure, valvular incompetence, deep venous obstruction, ineffective function of calf muscle pump, biochemical and structural alterations of the vessel wall, extracellular matrix abnormalities, impaired balance between growth factors or cytokines, genetic alterations, and several other mechanisms. Nevertheless, the issue of pathogenesis in VVs is still not completely known, even if a great progress has been made in understanding their molecular basis. This kind of studies appears promising and should be encouraged, and perhaps the new insight in this matter may result in targeted therapy or possibly prevention.

  11. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  12. Glomus jugulare tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the part of the temporal bone in the skull that involves the middle and inner ear structures. ... affect the ear, upper neck, base of the skull, and the surrounding blood vessels and nerves. Causes ...

  13. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  14. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  15. Micromachined, Electrostatically Deformable Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, Randall K.; Wang, Paul K. C.; Miller, Linda M.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Kaiser, William J.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Agronin, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Micromachined, closed-loop, electrostatically actuated reflectors (microCLEARs) provide relatively simple and inexpensive alternatives to large, complex, expensive adaptive optics used to control wavefronts of beams of light in astronomy and in experimental laser weapons. Micromachining used to make deformable mirror, supporting structure, and actuation circuitry. Development of microCLEARs may not only overcome some of disadvantages and limitations of older adaptive optics but may also satisfy demands of potential market for small, inexpensive deformable mirrors in electronically controlled film cameras, video cameras, and other commercial optoelectronic instruments.

  16. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag

  17. Possible roles of 5-HT in vein graft failure due to intimal hyperplasia 5-HT, nitric oxide and vein graft.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Akio; Itoh, Takeo; Komori, Kimihiro

    2014-02-01

    For vascular occlusive disease, an autologous vein graft is the most suitable conduit for arterial reconstruction. Intimal hyperplasia, resulting from the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major obstacle to patency after vein grafting. The degree to which the function of nitric oxide (NO) in the vein graft is preserved has been reported to be associated with the magnitude of intimal hyperplasia. Serotonin (5-HT) is released from platelets in the vascular system and plays physiological roles in controlling the vascular tone. The subtype receptors contributing to the 5-HT-induced mechanical responses vary by vessel type (artery and vein) and among species (dogs, rabbits, rats, and so on). Recent studies have demonstrated that 5-HT induces vasoconstriction through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors in smooth muscle cells or vasodilatation through the activation of endothelial 5-HT1B receptors in arteries from various animals. However, the effects of 5-HT have not been clarified in grafted veins. We herein demonstrate the responses to 5-HT in un-operated veins and then autogenous vein grafts. Next, we describe the effects of chronic in vivo administration of Rho-kinase inhibitors and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, both of which reduce the 5-HT-induced contraction and intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts. Further studies targeting 5-HT are required to evaluate its possible benefits for autologous vein grafts with respect to vasospasm, function, and patency.

  18. Strength recovery and vein growth during self-sealing of experimentally-induced faults in Westerly granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that crustal deformation in the presence of a chemically-active pore fluid is commonly accompanied by self-sealing processes that can occur relatively rapidly compared with geological timescales. This is consistent with earthquake models involving transient fluid flow on faults during seismic slip, followed by self-sealing which may occur through the physico-chemical process of the crack-seal mechanism. In this mechanism, brittle deformation of water-saturated rock produces new fracture surfaces that are out of chemical equilibrium with the pore fluid, leading to mineral dissolution, mass transport and precipitation in a cycle of coupled deformation and fluid flow. Here, we present direct experimental evidence for the rapid development of dilatant crack-seal quartz veins during sequential stressing of pre-faulted rock samples. Right-cylindrical, pre-faulted samples of Westerly granite were held at a constant temperature of 400°C and an effective confining pressure in the range 100 to 160 MPa in a triaxial deformation apparatus. An differential axial stress was then applied cyclically to the samples at a strain rate of 10-5 s-1 to induce frictional sliding under either saturated (λ = 0.4) or dry (λ = 0) conditions using distilled water as the pore fluid. The samples were broken a number of times (5 to 7 depending on the test) over periods of up to several months, and left to cook between loading cycles at constant temperature and hydrostatic pressure for hold times varying between 1 hour and 78 days. On re-loading, all the saturated samples exhibited substantial strength recovery for hold times greater than about 100 hours, while dry samples showed no increase in strength for any hold time up to the maximum of 34 days. The reason for the strength recovery becomes clear from post-test microstructural analysis of the deformed samples. All of the saturated samples showed evidence of the development of quartz veins in the fault zones

  19. Multi-surface Earthquake Rupture Recorded in Pseudotachylyte Vein Geometries, Norumbega Shear Zone, southern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C.; Rowe, C. D.; Pollock, S. G.; Swanson, M.; Tarling, M.; Backeberg, N. R.; Coulson, S.; Barshi, N.; Bate, C.; Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Scibek, J.; Harrichhausen, N.; Timofeev, A.; Rakoczy, P.; Nisbet, H.; Castro, A.; Smith, H.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake rupture surfaces are typically treated as single rupture planes. However, the observation of four linked, non-parallel to sub-parallel slip surfaces on a mining induced earthquake in 2004 shows that rupture geometries may be more complicated (Heesakkers et al., 2011). Multiple pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surfaces are exposed within a 1.1 km wide mylonite zone of the Paleozoic Norumbega fault system. The pseudotachylytes are present in two juxtaposed mylonite zones: the Ray Corner mylonite and a mylonite derived from Scarboro Formation metavolcanics. The Ray Corner mylonite crosscuts pelitic schists of the Cape Elizabeth Formation, at upper greenschist-facies conditions (quartz + feldspar + chlorite + muscovite ± titanite ± pyrite). The pseudotachylyte veins formed late in the deformational history, during a period of predominantly brittle dextral offset. The pseudotachylytes are cryptocrystalline and have rounded porphyroclasts of quartz and feldspar. Microstructural observations show evidence for static and dynamic recrystallization overprinting the primary quench textures, suggesting that previous generations of rupture surfaces have been recycled into the mylonitic fabric (Price et al., 2012). Many of the pseudotachylyte veins have a sharp boundary on one side and are poorly defined on the other, providing insight to the propagation direction. This confirms that the paleo-earthquake ruptures occurred at conditions where quartz and feldspar were able to deform plastically, near the base of the seismogenic zone. Using differential GPS, we mapped the geometry of pseudotachylyte fault veins, injection veins, and slip surface intersections. At Ray Corner, there are 7 layer-parallel pseudotachylytes in a 4 m wide zone with linking and subsequent oblique pseudotachylytes. Some intersections between pseudotachylytes are dilational, depending on the intersection angle and relative displacement on the two faults. At these sites, pseudotachylyte melt sourced

  20. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Community-Based Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Frederick A.; Emery, Cathy; Lessard, Darleen; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude, risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes in a population-based investigation of patients with upper, as compared to lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis diagnosed in 1999. Methods The medical records of all residents from Worcester, Massachusetts (2000 census=478,000) diagnosed with ICD-9 codes consistent with possible deep vein thrombosis at all Worcester hospitals during 1999 were reviewed and validated. Results The age-adjusted attack rate (per 100,000 population) of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis was 16 (95% CI 13, 20) compared to 91 (83,100) for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were significantly more likely to have undergone recent central line placement, a cardiac procedure, or an intensive care unit admission than patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Although short and 1-year recurrence rates of venous thromboembolism and all-cause mortality were not significantly different between patients with upper, versus lower, extremity deep vein thrombosis, patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis were less likely to have pulmonary embolism at presentation or in follow-up. Conclusions Patients with upper extremity deep vein thrombosis represent a clinically important patient population in the community setting. Risk factors, occurrence of pulmonary embolism, and timing and location of venous thromboembolism recurrence differ between patients with upper as compared to lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. These data suggest that strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis need further study and refinement. PMID:17679126

  1. Lessons from Dynamic Heds: Diagonite Microstructures Suggest Solid-State Deformation, Annealing and Incipient Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazolo, S.; Rushmer, T. A.; Luzin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Diagonite meteorites are commonly thought to represent the deep crust or mantle material of Vesta-like bodies. Here, we present textural analysis by neutron diffraction and microstructural and microchemical data on diagonite Yamato 74013. The meteorite is composed mainly of orthopyroxene with inclusions and interstitial grains of troilite and chromite. A coarse grained orthopyroxene - troilite vein transects the sample. Neutron diffraction data shows a distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of the orthopyroxene grains. Such strong CPO is unusual for meteorites such as chondrites and stony meteorites. Detailed electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that the origin of the preferred orientation is solid state crystal plastic deformation. All phases in the matrix of the rock show crystal plastic deformation, chromite shows distinct substructures, with inclusions of troilite. Orthopyrxone grains are between 50-120 microns in diameter and exhibit irregular interlocking grain boundaries, subgrain boundaries and continuous crystal lattice bending. Grain boundary morphology suggests post-deformation recrystallization with a dominance of grain boundary migration. Orthopyroxene within the vein have traces of S and show straight grain boundaries to each other. Vein troilite grains are interstitial and reach sizes up to 50 times larger than in the matrix. Our results suggest that deep in Yamato's parent body, orthopyroxene is deformed in a crystal plastic regime and experienced significant post-deformational recrystallization. The irregular distribution of interstitial troilite and chromite suggests that segregation of core material has been incipient retaining significant amounts of metal. One possible conclusion is that within small bodies like Vesta, even though deformation and differentiation were concomitant within a dynamic environment, differentiation was not efficient.

  2. Veins in the northern part of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinckney, D.M.

    1965-01-01

    About 20 miles north of Butte and extending nearly to Helena, is an area of 350 square miles containing hundreds of veins and altered zones. The bedrock of the area is 1) late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, forerunners of the Boulder batholith, 2) the Boulder batholith of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age and 3) two groups of Tertiary volcanic rocks lying on the eroded batholith. The veins are post-batholith and pre-Tertiary in age. The veins are largely either quartz-sulfide veins of mesothermal type or chalcedony veins of epithermal type. The relations of these two types of veins have been the subject of conflicting ideas for 60 years. Three workers have proposed three different genetic classifications. This report shows that the quartz veins and the chalcedony veins are closely related parts of a strongly zoned hypogene vein system. Strong zonal patterns were established using the grain size of quartz (or pyrite vs. carbonate in one district) as well as features of the altered rocks. The scale of the zoning ranges from single veins through groups of veins or mining districts to the entire mineralized area. Single veins are zoned around a core of coarse-grained quartz; the quartz outward from the core becoming progressively finer-grained. The cores are zoned around eight major centers and several lesser ones. The centers and their nearby related veins are assigned to central, intermediate, and peripheral zones. Nearly all of the veins around the edge of the mineralized area are chalcedony. Envelopes of altered rocks consist of seven major bands representing three major groups of constituents, aluminum silicates, iron-bearing minerals, and silica. Plagioclase altered successively to montomorillite, kaolinite, and sericite; potassium feldspar altered to sericite (aluminum silicate group). Biotite released iron which formed successively, iron oxides, iron-bearing carbonate, and pyrite (iron-bearing minerals). Excess silica formed silicified bands. Constituents for

  3. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  4. Subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: successful treatment with streptokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. J.; Lesk, D.; Newman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Proximal vein thrombosis has been associated with residual disability from the postphlebetic syndrome in patients receiving symptomatic therapy or heparin and sodium warfarin. This paper describes a man with painless swelling of the right arm secondary to subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis that was successfully treated with streptokinase and conventional anticoagulant therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6704841

  5. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  6. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dongho; Park, Kwang Bo; Lim, Seong Joo; Hwang, Jin Ho; Sinn, Dong Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  7. Congenital duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Pathak, D; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Only about 80 cases of pre-duodenal portal vein (PDPV), a rare congenital anomaly of portal vein development that was first described by Knight in 1921, have been reported till date.[1] We report a neonate with duodenal obstruction caused by PDPV and briefly review the available literature.

  8. The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jasani, Vinay; Jaffray, David

    2002-09-01

    We carried out a cadaver study of 16 iliolumbar veins in order to define the surgical anatomy. Two variants were found; a single vein at a mean distance of 3.74 cm from the inferior vena cava (11 of 16) and two separate draining veins at a mean distance from the vena cava of 2.98 cm for the proximal and 6.24 cm for the distal stem (5 of 16). Consistently, the proximal vein tore on attempted medial retraction of the great vessels. The mean length of the vein was 1.6 cm and its mean width 1.07 cm. Three stems were shorter than 0.5 cm. Two or more tributaries usually drained the iliacus and psoas muscles, and the fifth lumbar vertebral body. The obturator nerve crossed all veins superficially at a mean of 2.76 cm lateral to the mouth. In four of these, this distance was less than 1.5 cm. Usually, the lumbosacral trunk crossed deep, at a mean distance of 2.5 cm lateral to the mouth, but in three veins, this distance was 1 cm or less. Our findings emphasise the need for proper dissection of the iliolumbar vein before ligature during exposure of the anterior lumbar spine.

  9. Finger-vein image separation algorithms and realization with MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Junshan; Wu, Jiajie

    2010-10-01

    According to the characteristics of the finger-vein image, we adopted a series of methods to enhance the contrast of the image in order to separate the finger-vein areas from the background areas, and made prepare for the subsequent research such as feature extraction and recognition processing . The method consists of three steps: denoising, contrast enhancement and image binarization. In denoising, considering the relationship between gray levels in the adjacent areas of the finger-vein image, we adopted the Gradient Inverse Weighted Smoothing method. In contrast enhancement, we improved the conventional High Frequency Stress Filtering method and adopted a method which combined the traditional High Frequency Stress Filtering algorithm together with the Histogram Equalization. With this method, the contrast of the finger-vein area and the background area has been enhanced significantly. During the binarization process, after taking the differences of the gray levels between the different areas of the finger-vein image into consideration, we proposed a method which combined the binarization by dividing the image into several segments and the Morphological Image Processing means. Our experiment results show that after a series of processing mentioned above by using MATLAB, the finger-vein areas can be separated from the background areas obviously. We can get a vivid figure of the finger-vein which provided some references for the following research such as finger-vein image feature extraction, matching and identification.

  10. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Yang, Peng; Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhao, Gui-Ru; Ren, Shi-Yan; Li, Xian-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein, which is often accompanied by high complication rate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique. Methods: A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly. Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded. Results: The overall success rate (95.7% vs. 96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs. 66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups. In the subclavian vein group, pneumothorax occurred in three patients. The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead. In contrast, there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group. In the patient follow-ups, two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement. The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122), respectively (χ2 = 5.813, P = 0.016). Conclusion: Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02358551; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02358551?term=NCT02358551& rank=1. PMID:27823994

  11. Double-lumen catheter in the right jugular vein induces two sub-endothelial abscesses in an unusual place, the transition between the superior vena cava and the right atrium: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endocarditis is a type of infection that is common in internal medicine wards and in haemodialysis clinics. The location that is most affected are the heart valves. Herein, we report a case of an uncommon abscess, a sub-endothelial abscess between the transition of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. There were several emboli to the lung and foot, and the agent was related to Staphylococcus aureus and a double-lumen catheter. Usually, this type of abscess is located in valves, either the tricuspid valve if related to catheters or injection drug use or the mitral valve if related to other causes. An exhaustive review was made, but we found no information about the location of this abscess and the rarity of the event motivating the report of infection. PMID:25110520

  12. Recrystallization fabrics of sheared quartz veins with a strong pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientation from a seismogenic shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Nancy A.; Song, Won Joon; Johnson, Scott E.; Gerbi, Christopher C.; Beane, Rachel J.; West, David P.

    2016-07-01

    Microstructural investigations were carried out on quartz veins in schist, protomylonite, and mylonite samples from an ancient seismogenic strike-slip shear zone (Sandhill Corner shear zone, Norumbega fault system, Maine, USA). We interpret complexities in the microstructural record to show that: (1) pre-existing crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in the host rock may persist in the new CPO patterns of the shear zone and (2) the inner and outer parts of the shear zone followed diverging paths of fabric development. The host rocks bounding the shear zone contain asymmetrically-folded quartz veins with a strong CPO. These veins are increasingly deformed and recrystallized with proximity to the shear zone core. Matrix-accommodated rotation and recrystallization may position an inherited c-axis maximum in an orientation coincident with rhomb < a > or basal < a > slip. This inherited CPO likely persists in the shear zone fabric as a higher concentration of poles in one hemisphere of the c-axis pole figure, leading to asymmetric crossed girdle or paired maxima c-axis patterns about the foliation plane. Three observed quartz grain types indicate a general trend of localization with decreasing temperature: (1) large (> 100 μm), low aspect ratio (< 5) and (2) high aspect ratio ( 5-20) grains overprinted by (3) smaller (< 80 μm), low aspect ratio (< 4) grains through subgrain rotation-dominated recrystallization. In the outer shear zone, subgrain rotation recrystallization led to a well-developed c-axis crossed girdle pattern. In the inner shear zone, the larger grains are completely overprinted by smaller grains, but the CPO patterns are relatively poorly developed and are associated with distinctively different misorientation angle histogram profiles ("flat" neighbor-pair profile with similar number fraction for angles from 10 to 90°). This may reflect the preferential activation of grain size sensitive deformation processes in the inner-most part of the

  13. Aging techniques for deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajah, B; Sounderajah, V; Rowland, S P; Leen, E L S; Davies, A H

    2015-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is common with an incidence of 1 in 1000. Acute thrombus removal for extensive proximal deep vein thrombosis using catheter-directed techniques highlights the need for accurate assessment of thrombus age. This systematic review summarises experimental and clinical evidence of imaging techniques for aging deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance imaging were highlighted as the most studied imaging modalities. Elastography was shown to distinguish between acute and chronic clots, despite demonstrating difficulty in accurate aging of clots older than 10 days in rat models. Elastography is noted as a feasible adjunct to current first-line imaging for deep vein thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography. Combinations of magnetic resonance imaging techniques can identify acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi using endogenous contrast agents and provide objective standardisation of the diagnostic process, with reduced onus upon operator dependency. Further validation is required of these novel imaging techniques prior to clinical implementation for deep vein thrombosis aging.

  14. IVC agenesis: a rare cause of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Man, Louise; Hendricks, Nicholas; Maitland, Hillary

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a healthy, young Caucasian female who presented to an outside hospital with phlegmasia cerulea dolens of both lower extremities. Computed tomography angiography revealed inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion. She was initiated on heparin infusion and transferred to University of Virginia Medical Center. Our evaluation revealed aplasia of the IVC from the infrahepatic segment to the confluence of the common iliac veins and acute bilateral iliac vein thromboses. An extensive network of collateral veins was noted. These findings were consistent with IVC agenesis. She was not pregnant or using contraception. Primary thrombophilia workup was negative. She underwent bilateral iliac vein thrombolysis and was started on anticoagulation. While IVC agenesis is rare, it carries risk for development of thrombotic sequelae and bears consideration when evaluating young patients with unexplained deep vein thrombosis, especially if extensive and bilateral.

  15. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  16. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Kettenbach, Joachim; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Kara, Levent

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  17. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  18. [Ultrasound study before surgery of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Wuppermann, T; Dittrich, O

    2001-02-01

    Ultrasonographic investigation of the various forms of chronic venous insufficiency has substantial advantages compared to diagnosis with the competing phlebogram, particularly preoperatively. Important details such as side branches in the region of the groin, course variations of the small saphenous vein and insufficiency of the perforators in the lower leg are sometimes missed in the antegrade phlebogram. However, it is absolutely necessary to take these into consideration in order to attain a substained good result of surgery. With adequate qualification of the investigator and using all ultrasound techniques, diagnosis by sonography is better than by means of antegrade phlebogram. There are clear specifications for the documentation. With regard to costs and time required, ultrasonographic investigation of chronic venous insufficiency is superior to the antegrade phlebogram and can be repeated at any time.

  19. [Intermittent compression of the subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Maraval, M

    1980-01-01

    The pathology of the cervico-thoracic channel is now well understood. Intermittent venous compression in the costo-clavicular space by the subclavian muscle can lead to acute occlusion of the venous trunk. It is important to make an early diagnosis of such compression before the stage of occlusive phlebitis. Clinical examination and dynamic phlebography allow the diagnosis to be made. Resection of the first rib is the ideal treatment. The mode of approach to the first rib is debatable since it seems that when venous symptomatology is dominant, the axillary method of Roos is not the best approach. A combined sub- and supra-clavicular approach permits a wide decompression of the vein and a more complete excision of the rib.

  20. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  1. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  2. Formation of Archean batholith-hosted gold veins at the Lac Herbin deposit, Val-d'Or district, Canada: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezeau, Hervé; Moritz, Robert; Beaudoin, Georges

    2017-03-01

    The Lac Herbin deposit consists of a network of mineralized, parallel steep-reverse faults within the synvolcanic Bourlamaque granodiorite batholith at Val-d'Or in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt. There are two related quartz-tourmaline-carbonate fault-fill vein sets in the faults, which consist of subvertical fault-fill veins associated with subhorizontal veins. The paragenetic sequence is characterized by a main vein filling ore stage including quartz, tourmaline, carbonate, and pyrite-hosted gold, chalcopyrite, tellurides, pyrrhotite, and cubanite inclusions. Most of the gold is located in fractures in deformed pyrite and quartz in equilibrium with chalcopyrite and carbonates, with local pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, cobaltite, pyrite, or tellurides. Petrography and microthermometry on quartz from the main vein filling ore stage reveal the presence of three unrelated fluid inclusion types: (1) gold-bearing aqueous-carbonic inclusions arranged in three-dimensional intragranular clusters in quartz crystals responsible for the main vein filling stage, (2) barren high-temperature, aqueous, moderately saline inclusions observed in healed fractures, postdating the aqueous-carbonic inclusions, and considered as a remobilizing agent of earlier precipitated gold in late fractures, and (3) barren low-temperature, aqueous, high saline inclusions in healed fractures, similar to the crustal brines reported throughout the Canadian Shield and considered to be unrelated to the gold mineralization. At the Lac Herbin deposit, the aqueous-carbonic inclusions are interpreted to have formed first and to represent the gold-bearing fluid, which were generated contemporaneous with regional greenschist facies metamorphism. In contrast, the high-temperature aqueous fluid dissolved gold from the main vein filling ore stage transported and reprecipitated it in late fractures during a subsequent local thermal event.

  3. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    PubMed

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  4. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  5. Artery and vein diameter ratio measurement based on improvement of arteries and veins segmentation on retinal images.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tachiki, Hirokazu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Retinal arteriolar narrowing is decided based on the artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR). Previous methods segmented blood vessels and classified arteries and veins by color pixels in the centerlines of blood vessels. AVR was definitively determined through measurement of artery and vein diameters. However, this approach was not sufficient for cases with close contact between the artery of interest and an imposing vein. Here, an algorithm for AVR measurement via new classification of arteries and veins is proposed. In this algorithm, additional steps for an accurate segmentation of arteries and veins, which were not identified using the previous method, have been added to better identify major veins in the red channel of a color image. To identify major arteries, a decision tree with three features was used. As a result, all major veins and 90.9% of major arteries were correctly identified, and the absolute mean error in AVRs was 0.12. The proposed method will require further testing with a greater number of images of arteriolar narrowing before clinical application.

  6. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himadri S; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zickler, Gerald A; Raz-Ben Aroush, D; Funari, Sérgio S; Roschger, Paul; Wagner, H Daniel; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not homogeneous but distributed between a tensile deformation of the fibrils and a shearing in the interfibrillar matrix between them.

  7. Portal Vein Recanalization and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis: Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Bartley; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Kulik, Laura; Ganger, Daniel; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is common in cirrhotic patients and presents a challenge at the time of transplant. Owing to the increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality associated with complete PVT, the presence of PVT is a relative contraindication to liver transplantation at many centers. Our group began performing portal vein (PV) recanalization and transjugular intrahepatic portostystemic shunt placement (PVR-TIPS) several years ago to optimize the transplant candidacy of patients with PVT. The procedure has evolved to include transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, which is now our preferred method due to its technical success without significant added morbidity. Here, we describe in detail our approach to PVR-TIPS with a focus on the transsplenic method. The procedure was attempted in 61 patients and was technically successful in 60 patients (98%). After transitioning to transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, the technical success rate has improved to 100%. The recanalized portal vein and TIPS have maintained patency during follow-up, or to the time of transplant, in 55 patients (92%) with a mean follow-up of 16.7 months. In total, 23 patients (38%) have undergone transplant, all of whom received a physiologic anastomosis (end-to-end anastomosis in 22 of 23 patients, 96%). PVR-TIPS placement should be considered as an option for patients with chronic PVT in need of transplantation. Transsplenic access makes the procedure technically straightforward and should be considered as the primary method for recanalization.

  8. Portal Vein Inflow From Enlarged Coronary Vein in Liver Transplantation: Surgical Approach and Technical Tips: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Safwan, M; Nagai, S; Abouljoud, M S

    2016-11-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is common in patients with end-stage liver disease, with an incidence as high as 26% in liver transplant candidates. It is known to be associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality posttransplantation, and its management can be challenging. The management options range from a simple thrombendvenectomy to multivisceral transplantation in cases with diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis. We report a case of liver transplantation in which we performed a rare reconstruction of the portal vein. Briefly, the patient had diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis, calcified aneurysmosis, and a large collateral coronary vein, to which we directly anastomosed the donor portal vein in an end-to-side fashion. This report describes a unique surgical approach for similar cases of severe portal vein thrombosis in liver transplant candidates.

  9. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  10. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  11. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  12. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  13. Coil Protruding into the Common Femoral Vein Following Pelvic Venous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, Petra Holdstock, Judith M.; Bacon, Jennifer L.; Lopez, Anthony J.; Whiteley, Mark S.; Price, Barrie A.

    2008-03-15

    Pelvic venous embolization is performed for pelvic congestion syndrome and prior to lower limb varicose vein surgery in females with associated pelvic venous insufficiency. The procedure is analogous to varicocele embolization in males, although refluxing internal iliac vein tributaries may also be embolized. We report a case of inadvertent coil placement in the common femoral vein while embolizing the obturator vein, during pelvic vein embolization for recurrent lower limb varicose veins. There were no clinical consequences and the coil was left in situ. We advise caution when embolizing internal iliac vein tributaries where there is clinically significant communication with veins of the lower limb.

  14. Osteotomies for bunionette deformity.

    PubMed

    Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott

    2011-12-01

    A variety of surgical osteotomy procedures have been described for the bunionette deformity.Metatarsal osteotomies narrow the forefoot, maintain the length of the metatarsal, and preserve function of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Distal metatarsal osteotomies produce less correction and reduce postoperative disability; however, they pose a risk of inadequate correction because of the small width of the fifth metatarsal head and transfer lesions if shortened or dorsiflexed excessively. The sliding oblique metaphyseal osteotomy described by Smith and Weil (without fixation) and later by Steinke (with fixation) is easy to perform and provides good cancellous bone contact. Fixation is sometimes difficult and bone healing can take a few months owing to the unstable construct of this osteotomy. Kitaoka described a distal chevron osteotomy, which provides lateral pressure relief and reduced plantar pressure. This osteotomy is currently the most common procedure used; however, it may prove difficult to perform if the deformity is large and the bone is narrow. Diaphyseal osteotomies are indicated when greater correction is needed; however, they require more dissection and there is greater postoperative convalescence with non–weight bearing for several weeks. Proximal base osteotomies may be used to address significantly increased 4–5 IMAs or when a large degree of sagittal plane correction is required. Approaches that have been described include opening and closing base wedges and basal chevrons. Advantages to this approach are the ability to avoid epiphyseal plates in pediatric patients and maintain function of the MTPJ, while disadvantages include inherent instability of the location of the osteotomy, embarrassment of intraosseous and extraosseus blood supply of the metatarsal, and technical demand. Non–weight bearing is essential for several weeks. The Scarfette procedure is a combination head–shaft procedure, which is indicated to treat mild to moderate

  15. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  16. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    designs using just a glass wafer and a wafer of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer ( CFRP ). In both cases minimum bend radius decreases and the resonant... matrix is consequently nearly diagonal. The long actuators at the outer edge of the deformable mirror are largely outside the working pupil so their...formal reconstruction of the wave front either explicitly or implicitly in the control matrix . The WFS-DM combination is acting like an analog computer

  17. AGE AND ORIGIN OF BASE- AND PRECIOUS-METAL VEINS OF THE COEUR D'ALENE MINING DISTRICT, IDAHO

    SciTech Connect

    Fleck, R J; Criss, R E; Eaton, G F; Cleland, R W; Wavra, C S; Bond, W D

    2000-11-07

    Ore-bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district yield {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.74 to >1.60 for low-Rb/Sr, carbonate gangue minerals, similar to current ranges measured in Middle Proterozoic, high-Rb/Sr rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies establish a genetic relationship between vein formation and metamorphic-hydrothermal systems of the region. These extraordinary {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios require accumulation of radiogenic {sup 87}Sr in a high Rb/Sr system over an extended period prior to incorporation of Sr into the veins by hydrothermal processes. Evaluation of the age and composition of potential sources of highly radiogenic Sr indicates that the ore-bearing veins of the Coeur d'Alene district formed within the last 200 Ma from components scavenged from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Belt Supergroup, the primary host-rocks of the district. These results are consistent with a Cretaceous or Early Tertiary age for these veins. Pb-Zn deposits that yield Pb isotope, K-Ar, and Ar-Ar results indicative of a Proterozoic age probably formed during deposition or diagenesis of the Belt Supergroup at 1350-1500 Ma, possibly as Sullivan-type syngenetic deposits. K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages and {delta}{sup 18}O values of Belt Supergroup rocks decrease southward from the Coeur d'Alene district toward the Idaho batholith, normal to the trends of metamorphic isograds, fold axes, foliation, and the major reverse faults of the district. Isoclinal folding, thrust faulting, high-temperature metamorphism, granitic plutonism, and regional-scale metamorphic-hydrothermal activity is documented in the region between 140 Ma and 45 Ma, but no similar combination of events is recognized for Late Proterozoic time. Combined with Sr results from the veins, the evidence strongly favors formation of the ore-bearing carbonate veins of the district by fluids related to a complex metamorphic-hydrothermal system

  18. Deformation of Wrinkled Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of monolayer graphene, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), on a polyester film substrate has been investigated through the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that the microstructure of the CVD graphene consists of a hexagonal array of islands of flat monolayer graphene separated by wrinkled material. During deformation, it was found that the rate of shift of the Raman 2D band wavenumber per unit strain was less than 25% of that of flat flakes of mechanically exfoliated graphene, whereas the rate of band broadening per unit strain was about 75% of that of the exfoliated material. This unusual deformation behavior has been modeled in terms of mechanically isolated graphene islands separated by the graphene wrinkles, with the strain distribution in each graphene island determined using shear lag analysis. The effect of the size and position of the Raman laser beam spot has also been incorporated in the model. The predictions fit well with the behavior observed experimentally for the Raman band shifts and broadening of the wrinkled CVD graphene. The effect of wrinkles upon the efficiency of graphene to reinforce nanocomposites is also discussed. PMID:25765609

  19. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  20. [Neurogenic foot deformities].

    PubMed

    Senst, S

    2010-01-01

    There is a multitude of neurological diseases which may lead to neuro-orthopaedic problems and subsequently to neurogenic foot deformities. For this reason the diagnostician will be consistently surprised that there is a great multitude of different foot abnormalities and that not only the typical spastic talipes equines dominates. Of particular significance here is that these deformities almost always develop progressively, whereas most diseases persist per se, cerebral palsy being a typical case in point. However, in MMC (myelomeningocele) patients, there is also the danger of a worsening of the basic problem in the case of tethered cord syndrome. Unlike congenital talipes equinovarus, neuro-orthopaedic talipes equinovarus often shows over- or undercorrection postoperatively due to a shift in muscle imbalance. It is important, therefore, that the basis of conservative therapy include regular physiotherapy and orthoses during the day and, if necessary, at night. Botulinum toxin has been established as an additional measure for spasticity; however, this cannot always prevent surgical intervention, but is able to delay this to a better point in the development of the child/patient. The present article describes the diversity of neurological deformities and presents conservative as well as surgical therapeutic approaches.

  1. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction.

    PubMed

    Ward, Phillip G D; Fan, Audrey P; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G; Dowe, David L; Ng, Amanda C L; Egan, Gary F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error <27%) and partial volume maps (root mean-squared error <13%). In vivo results demonstrated consistent estimates of OEF along vein segments. Conclusion: OEF quantification in small veins (1.5-4 voxels in diameter) had lower error when using partial volume estimates from the ICF method.

  2. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative.

    PubMed

    Boyce, C Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2009-05-22

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm(-2) throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms.

  3. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  4. Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Finger vein verification is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification in terms of security and convenience. The recognition performance of this technology heavily relies on the quality of finger vein images and on the recognition algorithm. To achieve efficient recognition performance, a special finger vein imaging device is developed, and a finger vein recognition method based on sparse representation is proposed. The motivation for the proposed method is that finger vein images exhibit a sparse property. In the proposed system, the regions of interest (ROIs) in the finger vein images are segmented and enhanced. Sparse representation and sparsity preserving projection on ROIs are performed to obtain the features. Finally, the features are measured for recognition. An equal error rate of 0.017% was achieved based on the finger vein image database, which contains images that were captured by using the near-IR imaging device that was developed in this study. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more robust than previous methods.

  5. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  6. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J.; Feild, Taylor S.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2009-01-01

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm2 of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm−2, whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm−2 throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms. PMID:19324775

  7. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  8. Life without the vein of Galen: Clinical and radiographic sequelae.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; Downes, Angela E; Agazzi, Siviero; Van Loveren, Harry R

    2011-09-01

    A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the pineal region, particularly venous drainage, is critical for gaining open surgical access to the pineal gland. The adverse sequelae after intraoperative venous occlusion are assumed to be catastrophic but have been scarcely reported. We report a case of pineocytoma in which the vein of Galen was ligated without postoperative adverse sequelae. Pineal region anatomy with emphasis on deep veins was reviewed in large anatomical studies. There are tremendous anatomical variations in the vein of Galen and its tributaries. Several confounding factors can be encountered during surgery and may lead to accidental sacrifice of the vein of Galen. Survival after focal occlusion of a major deep vein depends on the development of collateral circulation as shown in our case report. Venous drainage remains the cornerstone in the surgical planning of the pineal region. Anatomical variations and venous collaterals undoubtedly contributed to the mixed reports of adverse sequelae after venous sacrifice. Vein of Galen ligation may be survivable but consequences cannot be predicted without a thorough pre-ligation assessment of regional venous collateral drainage. Thorough understanding of the venous anatomy, meticulous planning of the surgical approach and avoidance of the occlusion of the vein of Galen and its major tributaries are key factors to successful pineal region surgery.

  9. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Phillip G. D.; Fan, Audrey P.; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G.; Dowe, David L.; Ng, Amanda C. L.; Egan, Gary F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error <27%) and partial volume maps (root mean-squared error <13%). In vivo results demonstrated consistent estimates of OEF along vein segments. Conclusion: OEF quantification in small veins (1.5–4 voxels in diameter) had lower error when using partial volume estimates from the ICF method. PMID:28289372

  10. Genetic therapy for vein bypass graft disease: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Simosa, Hector F; Conte, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    Although continued progress in endovascular technology holds promise for less invasive approaches to arterial diseases, surgical bypass grafting remains the mainstay of therapy for patients with advanced coronary and peripheral ischemia. In the United States, nearly 400,000 coronary and 100,000 lower extremity bypass procedures are performed annually. The autogenous vein, particularly the greater saphenous vein, has proven to be a durable and versatile arterial substitute, with secondary patency rates at 5 years of 70 to 80% in the extremity. However, vein graft failure is a common occurrence that incurs significant morbidity and mortality, and, to date, pharmacologic approaches to prolong vein graft patency have produced limited results. Dramatic advances in genetics, coupled with a rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular basis of vascular diseases, have set the stage for genetic interventions. The attraction of a genetic approach to vein graft failure is based on the notion that the tissue at risk is readily accessible to the clinician prior to the onset of the pathologic process and the premise that genetic reprogramming of cells in the wall of the vein can lead to an improved healing response. Although the pathophysiology of vein graft failure is incompletely understood, numerous relevant molecular targets have been elucidated. Interventions designed to influence cell proliferation, thrombosis, inflammation, and matrix remodeling at the genetic level have been described, and many have been tested in animal models. Both gene delivery and gene blockade strategies have been investigated, with the latter reaching the stage of advanced clinical trials.

  11. Nanoscale Deformable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  12. The inferior mesenteric vein to the left gonadal vein shunt for gastroesophageal varices and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Yamamoto, S; Oya, H; Kokai, H; Hatakeyama, K

    2012-03-01

    This 59-year-old woman underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft as an aid for autoimmune hepatitis in 2003. Splenectomy was also performed because of blood type incompatibility. Follow-up endoscopic and computed tomography examinations showed gastroesophageal varices with extra hepatic portal vein thrombosis in 2007 that increased (esophageal varices [EV]: locus superior [Ls], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], Blue varices [Cb], presence of small in number and localized red color sign [RC1] and telangiectasia [TE+], gastric varices [GV]: extension from the cardiac orifice to the fornix [Lg-cf], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], white varices [Cw], absence of red color sign [RC-]). Portal venous flow to the gastroesophageal varices was also confirmed from a large right gastric vein. The splenic vein was thrombosed. Blood flow to the liver graft was totally supplied from the hepatic artery. The graft was functioning well. Because these gastroesophageal varices had a high risk of variceal bleeding, we decided to proceed with a portal reconstruction of a surgical portosystemic shunt in 2008. Severe adhesions were observed around the portal vein. It was impossible to perform portal reconstruction. There were relatively fewes adhesious in the left lower side of the abdominal cavity. We decided to create an inferior mesenteric vein to left gonadal vein shunt. The portal vein pressure decreased from 31.0 to 21.5 cm H2O thereafter. The postoperative course was smooth without any complication. This patient was discharged on the postoperative day 15. Follow-up endoscopic study showed the improvement in the gastroesophageal varices (EV: Ls, F2, Cb, RC(-), GV: Lg-c, F2, Cw, RC-) at 3 months after the operation. We also comfirmed the patency of the shunt by serial computed tomography examinations.

  13. Use of bovine mesenteric vein in rescue vascular access surgery.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Filippo; Carella, Giuseppe; Lentini, Salvatore; Barillà, David; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Spinelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We describe a technique for rescue surgery of autologous arterovenous fistula (AVF), using bovine mesenteric vein (BMV), which may be used in patients with autologous AVF malfunction caused by steno-occlusion on the arterial side or by fibrosis of the first portion of the vein. To preserve the autologous AVF, we replaced the diseased portion of the artery, or the first centimeters of the vein, by a segment of BMV, with the aim of saving the patency and functionality of the access. We used this technique in 16 cases. All patients underwent hemodialysis treatment immediately after the procedure. Infection or aneurismal dilatation of the graft in implanted BMV was never observed.

  14. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis after cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Pedro; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; García-Manero, Manuel; Lecumberri, Ramón; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication; incidence varies between 0.002% and 0.05%. It most often occurs during the 2–15 days following delivery. Case presentation A 22-year-old pregnant woman at term presented to hospital with uterine contractions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. After delivery an ovarian vein thrombosis was diagnosed. Conclusion Low-molecular weight heparin with broad-spectrum antibiotics are the accepted therapy in non-complicated cases of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis. PMID:18400095

  15. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Associated With Severe Vitamin D Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Talcott, Katherine E; Eliott, Dean

    2016-04-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is thought to occur due to thrombotic occlusion of the central retinal vein at or just posterior to the lamina cribrosa. Studies have shown that the incidence of CRVO may be higher in winter to early spring, suggesting that low vitamin D levels may play a role; however, no studies have measured vitamin D levels in patients with CRVO. In addition, there is mounting evidence that patients with vitamin D deficiency may be predisposed to thrombotic events. The authors report a case of central retinal vein occlusion associated with marked vitamin D deficiency.

  16. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well.

  17. Ovarian Vein Thrombosis as a Complication of Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anu; Gupta, Natasha; Blankstein, Josef; Trester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication of the postpartum period. It has never been reported as a complication of laparoscopic surgery. We report a case of right ovarian vein thrombosis that occurred in the postoperative period after patient underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy for a right side ectopic pregnancy. She presented with 1-week history of abdominal pain and fever. A complete workup for fever was performed and was found negative. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis. The patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy and responded well. PMID:26788386

  18. Prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masafumi; Taenaka, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Aki, Toshihiko; Yamaki, Kenichiro; Enomoto, Hitoshi; Kosaka, Kinshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein (PPPV), incidentally discovered during total gastrectomy. If it had not been noticed, this portal vein might have been ligated and divided with disastrous consequences. This anomaly was not diagnosed preoperatively, but it could have been. Although embryological anomalies of the portal venous system, such as PPPV and preduodenal portal vein, are rarely encountered in abdominal surgery, surgeons must be aware of their possibility and be able to recognize them to avoid major intraoperative injury.

  19. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein detected in adults

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyung-Il; Jeon, Tae Yong; Sim, Mun Sup; Kim, Suk

    2008-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome, defined as the presence of multiple spleens of almost equal volume, is a rare condition involving congenital anomalies in multiple organ systems. We report this anomaly in a 41-year-old female who underwent a left lateral sectionectomy due to recurrent cholangitis and impacted left lateral duct stones. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal vein was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) and surgery was done safely. Although the polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) in adult is rarely encountered, surgeons need to understand the course of the portal vein and exercise caution in approaching the biliary tract. PMID:19009663

  20. Duodenal obstruction due to a preduodenal portal vein.

    PubMed

    Vilakazi, Mnc; Ismail, F; Swanepoel, H M; Muller, E W; Lockhat, Z I

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of a pyloric stenosis. On abdominal ultrasound, pyloric stenosis was excluded, and other causes for proximal duodenal obstruction, such as a duodenal web or annular pancreas, were suspected. At surgery, the cause was found to be due to an anterior portal vein or preduodenal portal vein, compressing the duodenum. There were no associated findings such as midgut malrotation, duodenal web and congenital anomalies. The treatment was a diamond-shaped duodeno-duodenostomy anterior to the portal vein. The patient improved after surgery.

  1. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein detected in adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Il; Jeon, Tae Yong; Sim, Mun Sup; Kim, Suk

    2008-11-07

    Polysplenia syndrome, defined as the presence of multiple spleens of almost equal volume, is a rare condition involving congenital anomalies in multiple organ systems. We report this anomaly in a 41-year-old female who underwent a left lateral sectionectomy due to recurrent cholangitis and impacted left lateral duct stones. Polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal vein was diagnosed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) and surgery was done safely. Although the polysplenia syndrome with preduodenal portal vein (PDPV) in adult is rarely encountered, surgeons need to understand the course of the portal vein and exercise caution in approaching the biliary tract.

  2. [Oclusion of upper ophthalmic vein--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kácerik, M; Alexík, M; Lipková, B

    2009-07-01

    Thrombosis of upper ophthalmic vein is both rare and serious pathologic event. Authors present a case of isolated unilateral upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis in 76-year-old woman, who despite treatment ended with amaurosis and secondary neovascular glaucoma. In differential diagnosis authors focused on searching for inflammatory process of orbit with adjacent structures as well as local and general causes leading to venous thrombosis. None of these were proven; it was a rare case of a patient with isolated upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis.

  3. Novel treatment of an 11-cm saphenous vein graft aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joshua W; Swartz, Michael F; Fink, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysms are rare and potentially fatal complications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Here we present an 11-cm saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm from a 20-year-old vein graft to the obtuse marginal artery. The pseudoaneurysm was directly located beneath the sternum and adjacent to two patent grafts. Therefore, we used a novel approach to access the aorta through a right thoracotomy, and using a pericardial patch, we closed the ostia to the pseudoaneurysm. Postoperatively there was no longer flow into the aneurysm, and at 1-year follow-up the patient is doing well.

  4. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  5. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  6. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients.Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed.Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with measurements made following induction of anesthesia, SjvO2 significantly increased with initiation of CPB, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with induction of anesthesia, BIS significantly decreased with the onset of CPB, aortic cross clamping, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, and coronary reperfusion (P < 0.05). Bispectral index increased following separation from CPB. There was no significant change in SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0

  7. VEIN WALL REMODELING AFTER DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN AND DOXYCYCLINE

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Vikram; Luke, Cathy; Miller, Erin; Mitsuya, Mayo; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Wakefield, Thomas W.; Myers, Dan D.; Henke, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Venous thrombus resolution sets up an early intense inflammatory reaction, from which vein wall damage results. Tissue response to injury includes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and extracellular matrix protein turnover. This study sought to determine the effect of exogenous MMP inhibition and its potential attenuation of early vein wall injury. METHODS Rats received treatment beginning 24 hours after a stasis venous thrombosis by near occlusive ligation, and until harvest at day 7. Three groups were evaluated: 1). Vehicle saline controls (NaCl); 2). LMWH (Lovenox, 3 mg/Kg per day SQ); 3). Doxycycline (DOXY; 30 mg/Kg per day PO). Thrombus size (mg/mm), levels of TNFα and d-Dimer by colorimetric assay, and ED-1 counts by immunohistochemistry were assessed. Vein wall assessment included stiffness by tensiometry, ILβ protein levels by ELISA, MMP2 and -9 by zymography, and histological analysis of intimal thickness (IT). Comparisons were by t-Test to control. A P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS Thrombi sizes were similar at both days 2 and 7 for all three groups, while thrombus TNFα was increased in 2d LMWH and DOXY treated groups (NaCl = 1.0±.8, LWMH = 9 ±3*, DOXY = 27±5*, pg/mg protein, N = 6 - 8, P < .05); and at 7d in the DOXY group (NaCl = 3.0±2.5, DOXY = 23±4.2*, pg/mg protein, N = 5, P < .05). Vein wall stiffness was less with LMWH treatment at 7d, but not with DOXY, as compared with controls (NaCl = .33±.05, LMWH =.17±.03*, DOXY = .43±.09 N/mm, N = 5-7, P < .05). Vessel-wall IL-1β was reduced only in the DOXY group at 7d (NaCl = 26±3, LMWH = 38±17, DOXY = 6±3* pg/mg protein, N = 4 - 6, P < .05) as was the IT score versus controls (NaCl = 2.2±.6, LMWH =1.7±.3, DOXY = 0.8 ± .20*, IT score, N = 4 -6, P < .05). Zymographic MMP9 activity was significantly reduced at 2 days in the LMWH and DOXY groups (NaCl = 85±24, LMWH = 23±7*, DOXY = 13±5* U/mg protein, N = 6 - 8, P < .05). MMP2 zymographic activity, thrombi

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Serdar; Hak, David J.; Morgan, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of 5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs), pneumatic compression devices (PCDs), and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. PMID:22084663

  9. [Pseudoaneurysm of saphenous vein graft after CABG].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shimamoto, M; Yamazaki, F; Fujita, S; Yoshimura, T; Ueno, T; Shinozaki, T

    1995-04-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted because of angina pectoris and thoracic descending aorta aneurysm. Staged operations were planned. First, he underwent CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) with SVGs (saphenous vein grafts) to #4 PD, #7 and #12. Aprotinin was administrated to reduce blood loss. The routine postoperative graft angiography and enhanced CT showed a pseudoaneurysm in the SVG to #4 PD. We planned an elective operation of pseudoaneurysm repair and graft replacement of thoracic descending aorta. Also in this second operation, continuous infusion of aprotinin was started after the induction of anesthesia. About 30 minutes later, he suddenly fell in shock and cardiac arrest. Partial cardiopulmonary bypass was established and median sternotomy was performed. In the mediastinum, no bleeding was found. We found out a bleeding point of the SVG to #4 PD and a hemostatic clip on the right ventricule, and closed the bleeding point with suture. The cause of the pseudoaneurysm seemed to be defluxion of the hemostatic clip for a side brunch of the SVG. The cause of the preoperative shock may be an anaphylaxis to readministrated aprotinin.

  10. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins".

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-04-25

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system.

  11. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  12. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  13. Pulmonary Vein Remodeling Following Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Implications For The Radiographic Diagnosis Of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant Md, Faisal M; Levy Bs, Mathew R; Iravanian Md, Shahriar; Weragoda Md, Ramal M; Clermont Md, Edward C; Kelli Md, Heval M; Eisner PhD, Robert L; Vadnais Md, David; El-Chami Md, Mikhael F; Leon Md, Angel R; Delurgio Md, David B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary vein (PV) reverse remodeling has been recognized following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, the extent of physiologic reverse remodeling after AF ablation and the potential impact of reverse remodeling on the radiographic diagnosis of PV stenosis have not been well characterized. Methods: From January 2004 to February 2014, 186 patients underwent paired cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate PV orifice dimensions before and after (mean 109 ± 61 days) an initial AF ablation. Results: Negative remodeling of the PV orifice cross sectional area occurred in 67.8% of veins with a mean reduction in area of 21.0 ± 14.1%, and positive remodeling was seen in the remaining PVs with an increase in area of 22.1 ± 23.4% compared to baseline. No PVs demonstrated a reduction in cross-sectional area of > 75% (maximum reduction observed was 58%). Negative remodeling of the PV long axis dimension was observed in 55.2% of veins with a mean reduction of 14.6 ± 9.2% compared to pre-ablation and positive remodeling was observed in 25.3% of PVs with a mean increase in diameter of 14.7 ± 12.6%. Only 1 PV demonstrated a reduction in orifice diameter of > 50%. There were no clinically evident or suspected cases of PV stenosis in this cohort. Conclusions: Negative remodeling of the PV orifice area was noted in the majority of PVs following AF ablation. However, in almost all cases, the extent of negative remodeling was well below commonly used thresholds for the radiographic diagnosis of PV stenosis.

  14. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  15. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in the legs, genital area, and rectum ( hemorrhoids are just a type of varicose veins). Varicose ... Recovering From Delivery How Do You Treat Pregnancy Hemorrhoids and Constipation? Medical Care During Pregnancy 10 Things ...

  16. Ovarian vein thrombosis in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, Justina Wei Lynn; Howe, Hwee Siew; Chng, Hiok Hee

    2012-03-01

    We describe a 35-year-old Chinese woman with Behçet disease complicated by recurrent gastrointestinal flares. During admission for acute lower abdominal pain, a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen showed thrombosis of the left ovarian vein. She was treated with increased immunosuppressant and oral anticoagulant. Although she was not compliant to oral anticoagulant with her international normalized ratio frequently subtherapeutic, her symptoms abated and the thrombosis resolved. There has been only 1 reported case of a patient with Behçet disease presenting with postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and no reported case of Behçet disease with ovarian vein thrombosis occurring outside pregnancy and the puerperium. Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare cause of abdominal pain that should be considered in patients with Behçet disease.

  17. Finger vein recognition based on local directional code.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-11-05

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP.

  18. Personal authentication using hand vein triangulation and knuckle shape.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K Venkata

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using triangulation of hand vein images and simultaneous extraction of knuckle shape information. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages: (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of triangulation in the binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless palm dorsal-hand vein images are promising (equal error rate of 1.14%) and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification.

  19. Bypass surgery for lower extremity limb salvage: vein bypass.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hosam F

    2012-01-01

    Bypass surgery for limb salvage in cases of chronic limb ischemia is a well-established treatment modality. Use of an autogenous vein provides the best conduit for infrainguinal arterial bypass procedures, particularly for bypass to the infrapopliteal arteries. In this article, we discuss infrainguinal vein bypass surgery including indications, perioperative care, and long-term follow up. We also discuss the outcomes of the procedure with regard to patient survival and limb salvage. The autogenous vein continues to be the best available conduit with the highest patency rate and the best treatment option. Compared to all other revascularization options for infrainguinal disease, the vein bypass has the best limb salvage and long-term survival in patients appropriately selected for the procedure.

  20. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Solvig, Jan; Schroder, Henrik

    2000-07-15

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years.