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Sample records for juha olavi korhonen

  1. Lightcurves for 2567 Elba, 2573 Hannu Olavi, 2731 Cucula, 4930 Rephiltim 6952 Niccolo, and 7750 McEwen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owings, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    Lightcurve observations have yielded period determinations for the following asteroids: 2567 Elba, 9.7794 ± 0.0008 h; 2573 Hannu Olavi, 4.9326 ± 0.0003 h; 2731 Cucula, 26.886 ± 0.003 h; 4930 Rephiltim, 5.2423 ± 0.0001 h; 6952 Niccolo, 12.532 ± 0.001 h; and 7750 McEwen, 27.8182 ± 0.0009 h.

  2. Mathematics Education Research in Finland: Yearbook, 1987-1988. Publication Series B: Theory into Practice 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupari, Pekka, Ed.

    This yearbook includes four articles, one of which is written in German. The first article, "The Development of Mathematics Attitudes on the Upper Level of the Comprehensive School" (Olavi Karjalainen), examines the development of children's attitudes towards mathematics and the factors related to the development during the upper level of the…

  3. 15 Jahre Beobachtungen des aktiven Doppelsterns V505 Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Klaus; Frank, Peter; Huemmerich, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    V505 Ser (GSC 02038-00293) is a short-period eclipsing RS CVn system which was discovered by Bernhard and Frank (2006). It has been the subject of several recent studies which have established physical parameters and distribution of spots (cf. eg. Korhonen et al., 2010; Dal et al., 2012). The present paper gives an overview over recent results from the literature and presents new photometry of V505 Ser which gives further evidence to the existence of a 6-year spot cycle. Klaus Bernhard, Peter Frank and Stefan Huemmerich are member of the BAV.

  4. Sonoran Skies Observatory lightcurve results for asteroids 1054, 1390, 1813 1838, 2988, 3167, 4448, and 5262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, John

    2003-09-01

    Lightcurve period and amplitude results are reported for eight asteroids observed during February-March 2002 at Sonoran Skies Observatory. 1054 Forsytia (7.650 ± 0.001h; 0.18 mag.), 1390 Abastumani (17.100 ± 0.005h; 0.11 mag.), 1813 Imhotep (17.978 ± 0.003h; 0.40 mag.), 1838 Ursa (16.141 ± 0.004h; 0.60 mag.), 2988 Korhonen (29.494 ± 0.001h; 0.81 mag.), 3167 Babcock (15.450 ± 0.001h; 0.31 mag.), 4448 Phildavis (14.914 ± 0.001h; 0.68 mag.), 5262 Brucegoldberg (16.430 ± 0.001h; 0.09 mag.).

  5. The Structure and Molecular Parameters of Camphene Determined by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Dréan, Pascal; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds, from plants has strong revelance for plant physiology, plant ecology and atmospheric chemistry. Camphene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene which is emitted in the atmosphere by biogenic sources. The structure of the unique stable conformer was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The rotational spectrum of camphene was recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. Signals from the parent species and from the ten 13C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. A magnetic hyperfine structure associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled.The rotational constants coupled to the equilibrium structure calculations were used to determine the r_0 and the r_m(1) gas-phase geometries of the carbon skeleton. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of camphene in the gas phase and these results are also relevant for ozonolysis kinetics study through Criegee intermediates. R. Baraldi, F. Rapparini, O. Facini, D. Spano and P. Duce, Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol.6, No.1, (2005). A. Bracho-Nunez, N. M. Knothe, S. Welter, M. Staudt, W. R. Costa, M. A. R. Liberato, M. T. F. Piedade, and J. Kesselmeier Biogeosciences, 10, 5855-5873, (2013). Minna Kivimäenpää, Narantsetseg Magsarjav, Rajendra Ghimire, Juha-Matti Markkanen, Juha Heijari, Martti Vuorinen and Jarmo K. Holopainen, Atmospheric Environment, 60, 477-485, (2012). R.C. de M. Oliveira and G. F. Bauerfeldt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 119 2802-2812 (2015)

  6. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. PMID:26562772

  7. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process.

  8. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees.

  9. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees. PMID:26209615

  10. Tie1: an orphan receptor provides context for angiopoietin-2/Tie2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sarah B; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 (ANG1/Tie2) signaling is well documented as regulating angiogenesis and vessel maturation. This pathway is complicated by involvement of the orphan receptor Tie1, which has been implicated as both a positive and negative regulator of ANG1/Tie2 signaling, and ANG2, which can serve as both a Tie2 agonist and antagonist, depending on the context. Two papers in this issue of the JCI provide new insight into this complicated pathway. Korhonen et al. reveal that Tie1 acts to modulate the effects of ANG1 and ANG2 on Tie2 in vitro and in vivo. Kim et al. demonstrate that ANG2 acts as a Tie2 agonist in non-pathological conditions, whereas in the setting of inflammation, ANG2 functions as a Tie2 antagonist and promotes vascular dysfunction. Both studies indicate that inflammation promotes cleavage of the ectodomain of Tie1 and that this cleavage event corresponds with the switch of ANG2 from a Tie2 agonist to an antagonist. The results of these studies lay the groundwork for future strategies to therapeutically exploit this pathway in diseases characterized by adverse vascular remodeling and increased permeability. PMID:27548526

  11. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v.2) - released for research and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI-Dyment, Y.; Lesur, V.; Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Thebault, E.; Catalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). We have produced a candidate which has been accepted as the second version of this map (WDMAM v2) at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy in Prag, in June 2015. On land, we adopted an alternative approach avoiding any unnecessary processing on existing aeromagnetic compilations. When available, we used the original aeromagnetic data. As a result the final compilation remains an acceptable representation of the national and international data grids. Over oceanic areas the marine data have been extended. In areas of insufficient data coverage, a model has been computed based on a modified digital grid of the oceanic lithosphere age, considering plate motions in the determination of magnetization vector directions. This model has been further adjusted to the available data, resulting in a better representation of the anomalies. The final grid will be periodically upgraded. Version 2.0 has been released and is available at wdmam.org to support both research and education projects. Colleagues willing to contribute data for future releases (and become a co-author of the map) should contact any of the authors or Jerome Dyment (chair of the WDMAM Task Force) at jdy@ipgp.fr .

  12. The orbitozygomatic stich: A technical modification of the lateral supraorbital approach

    PubMed Central

    Lazukova, Miroslava; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Makhamov, Mahkham; Kivelev, Juri; Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Ibrahim, Tarik F.; Araujo, Ricardo; Lehto, Hanna; Hernesniemi, Juha A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The lateral supraorbital approach (LSO) provides access to a variety of pathologies including anterior and some posterior circulation aneurysms, sellar and suprasellar lesions, and anterior fossa tumors. Technical modifications of LSO improve the surgical exposure of the skull base. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 73 consecutive patients treated by the senior author (Juha A. Hernesniemi), at the Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Hospital in Helsinki, Finland from May 2013 to October 2013. This study cohort underwent a modified LSO to access anterior circulation aneurysms, sellar and suprasellar tumors, and anterior fossa tumors. The studied population comprised 30 men and 43 women, with a mean age at treatment of 54 years (9–83 years). Results: LSO was successfully used to access anterior circulation aneurysms in 59 (81%) patients, 10 (14%) patients with anterior cranial fossa tumors, and 4 (5%) patients with suprasellar tumors. The skull base drilling provided a mean of 6.8 mm (1.7–22 mm) in increased exposure. Conclusion: LSO provides adequate access to vascular and neoplastic lesions of the anterior cranial fossa, by drilling approximately 6.8 mm (1.7–22 mm) of the lateral orbital wall and sphenoid wing. This enhances surgical exposure and trajectory. An additional trick while performing an LSO is to place a single or multiple stiches (orbitozygomatic stich) at the base of the dura once opened, eliminating the dead space between the dura and anterior skull base. PMID:27168949

  13. The influence of target irradiation conditions on the parameters of laser-produced plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-03-01

    Recent experimental results demonstrate that the forming of plasma jets is a fundamental process accompanying the laser-produced plasma expansion, if a massive planar target with relatively high atomic number is irradiated by a defocused laser beam. In this paper some new results on the influence of target irradiation conditions on plasma jet parameters are presented. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. with the third harmonic beam of the pulse duration of 250ps. The beam energies varied in the range of 13-160J. The planar massive targets used in the experiment were made of copper. For measurements of the electron density evolution a three frame interferometric system was employed. The jets were produced in the whole range of the laser energy used. Calculations of the efficiency of the plasma jet production show that it decreases with increasing the laser energy.

  14. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-10-15

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation ({lambda}=0.438 {mu}m), laser energy of 70 J, pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400 {mu}m. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one.

  15. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation (λ=0.438μm), laser energy of 70J, pulse duration of 250ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400μm. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one.

  16. The influence of target irradiation conditions on the parameters of laser-produced plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-03-15

    Recent experimental results demonstrate that the forming of plasma jets is a fundamental process accompanying the laser-produced plasma expansion, if a massive planar target with relatively high atomic number is irradiated by a defocused laser beam. In this paper some new results on the influence of target irradiation conditions on plasma jet parameters are presented. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. with the third harmonic beam of the pulse duration of 250 ps. The beam energies varied in the range of 13-160 J. The planar massive targets used in the experiment were made of copper. For measurements of the electron density evolution a three frame interferometric system was employed. The jets were produced in the whole range of the laser energy used. Calculations of the efficiency of the plasma jet production show that it decreases with increasing the laser energy.

  17. A Monodisperse Aerosol Dynamics Model Mono32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.

    A recently developed aerosol dynamics model MONO32 (and MULTIMONO) (Pir- jola and Kulmala, 2000) is a Lagrangian type box model which uses mondisperse representation for particle size distribution. The model takes into account gas-phase chemistry and aerosol dynamics including emissions and dry deposition of gases and particles, chemical reactions in the gas phase, homogeneous binary H2SO4-H2O or ternary H2SO4-H2O-NH3 nucleation, multicomponent condensation of H2SO4, H2O, HNO3, NH3 and some organic vapour onto particles as well as inter- and in- tramode coagulation of particles. Particles can consist of soluble material such as sul- phate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium cloride, as well as insoluble material such as or- ganic carbon, elemental carbon and mineral dust. Hygroscopic properties and growth of particles were studied by the model. Simulations predicted that nucleation mode particles grew with a growth rate of 2.5-3 nm/h if the source rate of a condensable nonvolatile organic vapour exceeded 10^5 cm^-3 s^-1 and the condensation sink of the pre-existing particles was 0.9x10^-3 s^-1. These results are in good agreemnet with the measurements in Southern Finland. Further, these particles are able to grow to CCN sizes, thus affecting climate. The model was compared very well with the sectional model AEROFOR2 (Pirjola and Kulmala, 2001). It is physically sound and computa- tionally efficient model also for using as a module for regional transport models. Pirjola, L. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Aerosol dynamical model MULTIMONO, Boreal research 5, 361-372. Pirjola, L. and Kulmala, M. (2001) Development of particle size and composition distribution with aerosol dynamics model AEROFOR2. Tellus 53B, 491-509. Pirjola, L., Korhonen, H. and Kulmala, M. (2002) Condensation/ evaporation of insoluble organic vapour as functions of source rate and saturation vapour pressure. J. Geophys. Res. (in press).

  18. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in fish downstream from a Ky-5 manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Verta, M; Lehtoranta, J; Kiviranta, H; Vartiainen, T

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were studied in seven fish species, burbot (Lota lota), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Stizopedion lucioperca), bream (Abramis brama), salmon (Salmo salar) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in River Kymijoki and its estuary polluted by Ky-5 manufacturing. The fish were caught at 14 localities along the river and its estuary. The selected species represent different trophic levels and/or inhabit different environments. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, in most samples below 1 pg g(-1) ITEQ (NATO/CCMS 1988) fresh weight (fw) in muscle, except salmon and Baltic herring. These two species graze at the open sea and consequently accumulate contaminants at a large area in the Baltic Sea. The lipid content in salmon and Baltic herring was an order of magnitude higher than in other species. PCDD/Fs in fish muscle showed only slightly elevated levels in the Kymijoki area and its estuary as compared to the levels in the same species in Finnish freshwaters and sea areas. The concentration of the main impurities of the fungicide Ky-5 was higher in the Kymijoki River downstream the Ky-5 manufacturing place compared to the up-stream locations. The PCDD/F concentrations in fish liver and spawn were 10-100 times higher than the concentration in muscle, because of the much higher lipid concentrations of these organes. Consequently, the tolerable daily intake values could be as much as 100 times smaller (M. Korhonen, M. Verta, T. Vartiainen, Organohalog. Comp. 32 (1997) 305-310; P. Mikkelson, J. Paasivirta, H. Kiviranta, Organohalog. Comp. 39 (1998) 59-62).

  19. Effect of In-Plume Aerosol Processing on the Efficacy of Marine Cloud Albedo Enhancement from Controlled Sea-Spray Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R. G.; Spracklen, D.; Korhonen, H.; Pierce, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships has been suggested as a possible means to control anthropogenic global warming (1); however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. Recent analysis showed that more sea-spray may be necessary than previously assumed to reach a desired cooling due to nonlinearities in the aerosol/cloud microphysics (2). A major assumption used in (2) is that all sea-spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus did not account for sub-grid aerosol microphysics within the sea-spray plumes. However, as a consequnce of the fast sea-spray injection rates which are proposed, in the order of 1x10^17 1/s (1), particle concentrations in these plumes may be quite high and particle coagulation may significantly reduce the number of emitted particles and increase their average size. Therefore, it is possible that the emissions necessary to reach a desired cooling may be even larger than currently assumed. We explore the processing of the freshly emitted sea-spray plumes in the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES)/Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, 3) with the online aerosol microphysics module TOMAS (4). We determine how the final number and size of particles (once well mixed with background air) depends on the emission rate and size distribution of the sea-spray plume and on the pre-existing aerosol concentrations and local atmospheric conditions. Finally, we make suggestions for effective size-resolved emissions for use in climate models. (1) Salter, S. et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 2008. (2) Korhonen, H. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4133-4143, 2010. (3) Khairoutdinov, M., and Randall, D.,. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 607-625, 2003. (4) Pierce, J. and Adams, P., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1339-1356, 2009.

  20. Effect of In-Plume Aerosol Processing on the Efficacy of Marine Cloud Albedo Enhancement from Controlled Sea-Spray Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. S.; Stevens, R. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Korhonen, H.; Pierce, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming (1); however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption used in multiple recent studies (2,3) is that all sea-spray was emitted uniformly into some oceanic grid boxes, and thus did not account for sub-grid aerosol microphysics within the sea-spray plumes. However, as a consequence of the fast sea-spray injection rates which are proposed, in the order of 10^17 1/s (1), particle concentrations in these plumes may be quite high and particle coagulation may significantly reduce the number of emitted particles and increase their average size. Therefore, it is possible that the emissions necessary to reach a desired cooling may be even larger than currently assumed. We explore the evolution of these sea-salt plumes using a multi-shelled Gaussian plume model with size-resolved aerosol coagulation. We determine how the final number and size of particles depends on the emission rate and size distribution of the emitted sea-spray plume and local atmospheric conditions, including wind speed and boundary-layer stability. Under the injection rates reported in (1) and typical marine conditions, we find that the number of aerosol particles is reduced by about 40%. This fraction decreases for decreasing emission rates or increasing wind speeds due to lower particle concentrations in the plume. Finally, we make suggestions for effective size-resolved emissions for use in climate models. (1) Salter, S. et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 2008. (2) Korhonen, H. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4133-4143, 2010. (3) Partanen, A.-I. et al., J. Geophys. Res., 117, D02203, 2012.

  1. Stable dense plasma jets produced at laser power densities around 1014 W/cm2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Hora, H.

    2006-06-01

    The results of investigations are presented that are connected with defocused laser beam-planar target interaction. Following the very large focus laser-plasma interaction experiments on the Nova [H. T. Powell, J. A. Caird, J. E. Murray, and C. E. Thompson, 1991 ICF Annual Report UCRL-LR-105820-91, p. 163 (1991)] and GEKKO-XII [C. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, Y. Izawa, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, T. Sasaki, T. Nakatsuka, J. Kuroda, and S. Nakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)] lasers, as well as on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [W. J. Hogan, E. I. Moses, B. E. Warner, M. S. Sorem, and J. M. Soures, Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)] with generation of high Mach number jets, this paper is devoted to similar jet generation with very detailed measurements of density profiles by using high-power lasers at large focus conditions. The experiment was carried out with target materials of different mass densities (Al, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Pb) using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikowa, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. The investigations were conducted for the laser radiation energy of 100J at two wavelengths of 1.315 and 0.438μm (the first and third harmonics of laser radiation), pulse duration of 0.4ns, and a focal spot radius of 300μm. Most of the experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame laser interferometer and an x-ray streak camera; the crater parameters were obtained by using the crater replica technique. These investigations have shown that stable dense plasma jets can be produced in a simple configuration of laser beam-planar target interaction, provided that a proper target material is used.

  2. Stable dense plasma jets produced at laser power densities around 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Hora, H.

    2006-06-15

    The results of investigations are presented that are connected with defocused laser beam-planar target interaction. Following the very large focus laser-plasma interaction experiments on the Nova [H. T. Powell, J. A. Caird, J. E. Murray, and C. E. Thompson, 1991 ICF Annual Report UCRL-LR-105820-91, p. 163 (1991)] and GEKKO-XII [C. Yamanaka, Y. Kato, Y. Izawa, K. Yoshida, T. Yamanaka, T. Sasaki, T. Nakatsuka, J. Kuroda, and S. Nakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)] lasers, as well as on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [W. J. Hogan, E. I. Moses, B. E. Warner, M. S. Sorem, and J. M. Soures, Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)] with generation of high Mach number jets, this paper is devoted to similar jet generation with very detailed measurements of density profiles by using high-power lasers at large focus conditions. The experiment was carried out with target materials of different mass densities (Al, Cu, Ag, Ta, and Pb) using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikowa, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)]. The investigations were conducted for the laser radiation energy of 100 J at two wavelengths of 1.315 and 0.438 {mu}m (the first and third harmonics of laser radiation), pulse duration of 0.4 ns, and a focal spot radius of 300 {mu}m. Most of the experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame laser interferometer and an x-ray streak camera; the crater parameters were obtained by using the crater replica technique. These investigations have shown that stable dense plasma jets can be produced in a simple configuration of laser beam-planar target interaction, provided that a proper target material is used.

  3. Chronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Wilson Lake terrane of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.; Waight, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Wilson Lake terrane in central Labrador, Canada is one of a number of terranes that make up the Grenville Province, representing the northern extent of the Grenville Orogen in North America. Many of these terranes record evidence of two orogenies: the Labradorian Orogeny at ca. 1710-1600 Ma, and the Grenville Orogeny at ca. 1080-980 Ma. The rocks in the Wilson Lake terrane are interpreted to have been subjected to peak pressures of ~0.95 GPa and ~930°C during the Labradorian Orogeny (Korhonen et al., in prep., Stability of sapphirine + quartz in the Wilson Lake terrane: calculated equilibria in NCKFMASHTO). The final amalgamation of the Wilson Lake terrane over the underlying Parautochthonous Belt is interpreted to have occurred during the Grenville Orogeny, when the terrane was subjected to a lower-T (500-350°C) overprinting. However, petrologic and chronologic evidence for the Grenville orogeny is limited in the Wilson Lake terrane. Here we present results from a monazite chemical (U-Th)-Pb chronologic study in order to provide constraints on the metamorphic history of the Wilson Lake terrane. Monazite was analyzed in samples of orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz bearing and sapphirine + quartz bearing gneisses from throughout the Wilson Lake terrane. These samples contain two distinct populations of monazite: 1) a population of large (up to ~500 μm) monazite exhibits distinct core and rim zoning in yttrium X-ray compositional maps, and occurs predominately in the melanosome of the rocks, and 2) a population of smaller (up to ~50 μm) unzoned monazite rarely occurs in quartz-rich layers of the rocks. In a majority of the melanosome-hosted monazite, (U-Th)-Pb chemical ages yield cores and rims with statistically similar Labradorian ages of ca. 1705-1675 Ma. However, one sample from the middle of the terrane yields monazite grains with Labradorian age cores (ca. 1710 Ma) and post-Labradorian rims (ca. 1590 Ma). Monazite from the second, quartz

  4. Analysis of the Type IV Fimbrial-Subunit Gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: Application in PCR-Mediated Detection of Yellow Disease in Hyacinths

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J.; Hollinger, T. C.; Oudega, B.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280–1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR. PMID:11157222

  5. Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval By Markov Chain Monte Carlo Based on Memls and Hut Snow Emission Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Vanderjagt, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method had been proved to be successful in snow water equivalent retrieval based on synthetic point-scale passive microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations. This method needs only general prior information about distribution of snow parameters, and could estimate layered snow properties, including the thickness, temperature, density and snow grain size (or exponential correlation length) of each layer. In this study, the multi-layer HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) model and the MEMLS (Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks) will be used as observation models to assimilate the observed TB into snow parameter prediction. Previous studies had shown that the multi-layer HUT model tends to underestimate TB at 37 GHz for deep snow, while the MEMLS does not show sensitivity of model bias to snow depth. Therefore, results using HUT model and MEMLS will be compared to see how the observation model will influence the retrieval of snow parameters. The radiometric measurements at 10.65, 18.7, 36.5 and 90 GHz at Sodankyla, Finland will be used as MCMC input, and the statistics of all snow property measurement will be used to calculate the prior information. 43 dry snowpits with complete measurements of all snow parameters will be used for validation. The entire dataset are from NorSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) experiments carried out by Juha Lemmetyinen, Anna Kontu and Jouni Pulliainen in FMI in 2009-2011 winters, and continued two more winters from 2011 to Spring of 2013. Besides the snow thickness and snow density that are directly related to snow water equivalent, other parameters will be compared with observations, too. For thin snow, the previous studies showed that influence of underlying soil is considerable, especially when the soil is half frozen with part of unfrozen liquid water and part of ice. Therefore, this study will also try to employ a simple frozen soil permittivity model to improve the

  6. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    It is not easy to assess, or even to describe correctly a long and distinguished career that started about the time when I was born. In 1964 Stig Stenholm got both an engineering degree at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), and an MSc degree (in Mathematics) at the University of Helsinki. The two degrees demonstrate Stig's ability to understand both complex mathematics and experimental physics. Statistical physics or rather, quantum liquids, was the field in which Stig got his DPhil at Oxford in 1967, under the guidance of Dirk ter Haar. It is interesting that together they worked on studying fermions in a bosonic background [1]; at the time this meant, of course, 3He atoms as impurities in 4He liquid, but nowadays one would immediately connect such systems to the physics of cold atomic gases. The postdoctoral period in 1967-1968 at Yale University brought Stig in contact with Willis Lamb and laser physics [2]. Back in Finland, Stig's career in the 1970s was dominated by theoretical studies of gas lasers, especially pressure and collision effects on spectral lines and saturation spectroscopy, together with his first PhD student, Rainer Salomaa. A professorship at the University of Helsinki came in 1974, and in 1980 an important era started as Stig became the scientific director of the Research Institute for Theoretical Physics (TFT). At that time he also developed the semiclassical theory of laser cooling especially with Juha Javanainen. The laser spectroscopy work led to a textbook in 1984 [3], and the semiclassical laser cooling theory was summarized in a review article in 1986 [4]. These were not, of course, his only interests, as he also worked on free-electron lasers, ring-laser gyroscopes, multiphoton processes and quantum amplifiers. In an article written in 1990 in honour of Olli Lounasmaa [5], the founder of the famous Low Temperature Laboratory at HUT, Stig mentions that one of his most memorable achievements was acting as a bridge between the

  7. Extreme weather impacts on European networks of transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviakangas, P.

    2012-04-01

    : Pekka Leviäkangas, Anu Tuominen, Riitta Molarius, Heta Kojo, Jari Schabel, Sirra Toivonen, Jaana Keränen, Johanna Ludvigsen, Andrea Vajda, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Ilkka Juga, Pertti Nurmi, Jenni Rauhala, Frank Rehm, Thomas Gerz, Thorsten Muehlhausen, Juha Schweighofer, Silas Michaelides, Matheos Papadakis, Nikolai Dotzek (†), Pieter Groenemeijer.

  8. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    It is not easy to assess, or even to describe correctly a long and distinguished career that started about the time when I was born. In 1964 Stig Stenholm got both an engineering degree at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), and an MSc degree (in Mathematics) at the University of Helsinki. The two degrees demonstrate Stig's ability to understand both complex mathematics and experimental physics. Statistical physics or rather, quantum liquids, was the field in which Stig got his DPhil at Oxford in 1967, under the guidance of Dirk ter Haar. It is interesting that together they worked on studying fermions in a bosonic background [1]; at the time this meant, of course, 3He atoms as impurities in 4He liquid, but nowadays one would immediately connect such systems to the physics of cold atomic gases. The postdoctoral period in 1967-1968 at Yale University brought Stig in contact with Willis Lamb and laser physics [2]. Back in Finland, Stig's career in the 1970s was dominated by theoretical studies of gas lasers, especially pressure and collision effects on spectral lines and saturation spectroscopy, together with his first PhD student, Rainer Salomaa. A professorship at the University of Helsinki came in 1974, and in 1980 an important era started as Stig became the scientific director of the Research Institute for Theoretical Physics (TFT). At that time he also developed the semiclassical theory of laser cooling especially with Juha Javanainen. The laser spectroscopy work led to a textbook in 1984 [3], and the semiclassical laser cooling theory was summarized in a review article in 1986 [4]. These were not, of course, his only interests, as he also worked on free-electron lasers, ring-laser gyroscopes, multiphoton processes and quantum amplifiers. In an article written in 1990 in honour of Olli Lounasmaa [5], the founder of the famous Low Temperature Laboratory at HUT, Stig mentions that one of his most memorable achievements was acting as a bridge between the

  9. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    central network of filamentary structures spiralling down to the centre. "Our analysis of the VLT/NACO images of NGC 1097 shows that these filaments end up at the very centre of the galaxy", says co-author Juha Reunanen from ESO. "This network closely resembles those seen in computer models", adds co-worker Witold Maciejewski from the University of Oxford, UK. "The nuclear filaments revealed in the NACO images are the tracers of cold dust and gas being channelled towards the centre to eventually ignite the AGN." The astronomers also note that the curling of the spiral pattern in the innermost 300 light-years seem indeed to confirm the presence of a super-massive black hole in the centre of NGC 1097. Such a black hole in the centre of a galaxy causes the nuclear spiral to wind up as it approaches the centre, while in its absence the spiral would be unwinding as it moves closer to the centre. An image of NGC 1097 and its small companion, NGC 1097A, was taken in December 2004, in the presence of Chilean President Lagos with the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is available as ESO PR Photo 35d/04. More information This ESO Press Photo is based on research published in the October issue of Astronomical Journal, vol. 130, p. 1472 ("Feeding the Monster: The Nucleus of NGC 1097 at Subarcsecond Scales in the Infrared with the Very Large Telescope", by M. Almudena Prieto, Witold Maciejewski, and Juha Reunanen).

  10. New particle formation events as a source for cloud condensation nuclei in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Burkart, Julia; Wagner, Robert; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    composition of particles < 100 nm, Atmos. Environ., 54, 583-591, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.063, 2012. Kerminen V.-M., Paramonov, M., Anttila, T., Riipinen, I., Fountoukis, C., Korhonen, H., Asmi, E., Laakso, L., Lihavainen, H., Swietlicki, E., Svenningsson, B., Asmi, A., Pandis, S. N., Kulmala, M., and Petäjä, T.: Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12037-12059, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-12037-2012, 2012. Levin, E. J. T., Prenni, A. J., Petters, M. D., Kreidenweis, S. M., Sullivan, R. C., Atwood, S. A., Ortega, J., DeMott, P. J., and Smith, J. N.: An annual cycle of size-resolved aerosol hygroscopicity at a forested site in Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 117, 06201, doi:10.1029/2011JD016854, 2012. Matsui, H., Koike, M., Kondo, Y., Takegawa, N., Wiedensohler, A., Fast, J. D., and Zaveri, R. A.: Impact of new particle formation on the concentrations of aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei around Beijing, J. Geophys. Res., 116, 19208, doi:10.1029/2011JD016025, 2011.

  11. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Eevaliisa

    2015-04-01

    ., Jokinen, J., Koistinen, E., Kontinen, A., Korhonen, J., Korpisalo, J., Kurimo, M.,Lahti, I., Laine, E., Levaniemi, H., Sorjonen-Ward, P. & Torppa, J. 2014. Developing deep exploration methods in the Outokumpu Mining Camp area. In: Lauri, L. S., Heilimo, E., Levaniemi, H., Tuusjarvi, M., Lahtinen, R. & Holtta, P. (eds) Current Research: 2nd GTK Mineral Potential Workshop, Kuopio, Finland, May 2014. Geological Survey of Finland,Report of Investigation 207. Koistinen, T. J., 1981. Structural evolution of an early Proterozoic strata-bound Cu-Co-Zn deposit, Outokumpu, Finland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 72, pp. 115-158. Kontinen,A., 1987.An early Proterozoic ophiolite -- the Jormuamafic-ultramafic complex, northern Finland. Precambrian Research 35, 313-341. Peltonen, P. & Kontinen, A. 2004. The Jormua Ophiolite: a mafic-ultramafic complex from an ancient ocean-continent transition zone. In: Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks. Developments in Precambrian geology 13. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 35-71. Saalmann, K.; Laine, E.L, 2014. Structure of the Outokumpu ore district and ophiolite-hosted Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au sulfide deposits revealed from 3D modeling and 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data. Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 62, October 2014, Pages 156-180. Vuollo, J., and Piirainen, T., 1989. Mineralogical evidence for an ophiolite from the Outokumpu serpentinites in North Karelia, Finland. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland 61, 95-112.

  12. High temporal resolution ecosystem CH4, CO2 and H2O flux data measured with a novel chamber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Riis Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    switching automatically between transparent and darkened mode enabling for separation of light-sensitive and light-indifferent processes in chambers. In a pilot study we measured hourly fluxes of CO2, H2O and CH4 continuously for two weeks in Danish Calluna vulgaris (common heather) heathland (Larsen et al. 2011). We will present an analysis of the novel, high-frequency data of CH4 fluxes under light and dark conditions, assess the advantages and limitations of the experimental setup and recommend future improvements of the technology involved. References: Carter, M.S., Larsen, K.S., et al. 2012. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands: responses to climatic and environmental changes. Biogeosciences 3739-3755. Christiansen, J.R., Korhonen, J.F.J., et al. 2011. Assessing the effects of chamber placement, manual sampling and headspace mixing on CH4 fluxes in a laboratory experiment. Plant and Soil 343, 171-185. Christiansen, J.R., Outhwaite, J., et al. 2015. Comparison of CO2, CH4 and N2O soil-atmosphere exchange measured in static chambers with cavity ring-down spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 211-212, 48-57. Creelman, C., Nickerson, N., Risk, D., 2013. Quantifying Lateral Diffusion Error in Soil Carbon Dioxide Respiration Estimates using Numerical Modeling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77, 699-708. Larsen, K.S., Andresen, L.C., et al. 2011. Reduced N cycling in response to elevated CO2, warming, and drought in a Danish heathland: Synthesizing results of the CLIMAITE project after two years of treatments. Global Change Biology 17, 1884-1899. Pihlatie, M.K., Christiansen, J.R., et al. 2013. Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 171-172, 124-136.

  13. The Effect of Pollution on Newly-Formed Particle Composition in Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, Petri

    2010-05-01

    Petri Vaattovaara (1), Tuukka Petäjä (2), Jorma Joutsensaari (1), Pasi Miettinen (1), Boris Zaprudin (1,6), Aki Kortelainen (1), Juha Heijari (3,7), Pasi Yli-Pirilä (3), Pasi Aalto (2), Doug R. Worsnop (4), and Ari Laaksonen(1,5) (1) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (2) University of Helsinki, Finland (3) University of Eastern Finland, Finland (4) Aerodyne Research Inc., USA (5) Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland (6) Currently at University of Turku, Finland (7) Currently at Maritime Research Centre, Finland Email address of the Corresponding author: Petri.Vaattovaara@uef.fi The geographical extent of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests is about 30% of the Earth's land surface. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes [1]. In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in varying conditions (e.g. a change in meteorological parameters or in the concentrations of biogenic and antropogenic trace gases) need to be better known. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer [2]) and the UFH-TDMA (ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer [3]) methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions (via physic-chemical properties) at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. The measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä forest station in Northern Europe (Finland) during 15 spring nucleation events. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in

  14. Formation and growth rates of atmospheric nanoparticles: four years of observations at two West Siberian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Arshinova, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Riipinen, I., Wagner, R., Hussein, T., Aalto, P. P., and Lehtinen, K. E. J. (2005). Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, Boreal Environ. Res. 10, 323-336. Dal Maso, M., Sogacheva, L., Aalto, P., Riipinen, I., Komppula, M., Tunved, P., Korhonen, L., Suur-uski, V., Hirsikko, A., Kurten, T., Kerminen, V., Lihavainen, H., Viisanen, Y., Hansson, H., and Kulmala, M. (2007). Aerosol size distribution measurements at four Nordic field stations: identification, analysis and trajectories analysis of new particle formation bursts, Tellus B 59, 350-361. Hamed, A., Joutsensaari, J., Mikkonen, S., Sogacheva, L., Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Cavalli F., Fuzzi S., Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Mircea, M., Lehtinen, K. E. J., and Laaksonen, A. (2007). Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 355-376. Hirsikko, A., Nieminen, T., Gagné, S., Lehtipalo, K., Manninen, H. E., Ehn, M., Hõrrak, U., Kerminen, V.-M., Laakso, L., McMurry, P. H., Mirme, A., Mirme, S., Petäjä, T., Tammet, H., Vakkari, V., Vana, M., and Kulmala, M. (2011). Atmospheric ions and nucleation: a review of observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 767-798. Kulmala, M., Vehkamäki, H., Petäjä, T., Dal Maso, M., Lauri A., Kerminen, V.-M., Birmili, W., and McMurry, P. H. (2004a) Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations, J. Aerosol Science 35, 143-176.

  15. MIRAS characterization and monitoring during the SMOS In-Orbit Commissioning Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbella, I.; Torres, F.; Martin-Neira, M.; Duffo, N.; González-Gambau, V.; Camps, A.; Vall-Llossera, M.

    2009-04-01

    for the in-orbit commissioning phase. The tool can ingest raw data from the electronic ground support equipment (EGSE) developed by the instrument manufacturer and also from the nominal level 0 data provided by the SMOS ground segment data acquisition system. The software classifies the input data and applies the calibration procedures to produce calibrated visibility and brightness temperature. Most of the intermediate results, including raw data and calibration parameters, are saved in files for further analysis and processing. The processing has been optimized for speed so that the results are produced in near real time and it is designed to process large amount of data in a continuous way. Finally, the tool includes a user-friendly graphics interface that allows selecting specific data according to different parameters (baselines or receivers, modes of operation or others). 4 Conclusions During the SMOS In-Orbit Commissioning Phase, a number of tests will be carried out in order to check the payload MIRAS operation and fully characterize it in terms of data consistency and calibration parameters. The UPC team is in charge of analyzing the data and develop the procedures to verify that the final data meets the required specifications. The procedures for this have been summarized and will be presented at the conference in more detail. References [1] Michael Brown, "SMOS in-orbit commissioning phase plan," Tech. Rep. SO-PL-ESA-SYS-5505, issue 1.1, ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands, 8 August 2008. [2] Ignasi Corbella, Francesc Torres, Nuria Duffo, Manuel Martín-Neira, Verónica González, Adriano Camps, and Mercè Vall-llossera, "MIRAS ground characterization," in 10th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment - Rad 2008, Florence, Italy, 11-14 March 2008, Istituto di Fisica Applicata "N.Carrara" (IFAC-CNR), pp. 1-4. [3] Manuel Martín-Neira, Martin Suess, and Juha Kainulainen, "The flat target transformation," IEEE Transactions on

  16. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    the development of SINFONI for nearly 7 years. Some of the members of the Commissioning Teams are depicted in PR Photos 24g/04 and 24h/04; in addition to the SPIFFI team members present on the second photo, Walter Bornemann, Reinhard Genzel, Hans Gemperlein, Stefan Huber have also been working on the reintegration/commissioning in Paranal. Notes [1] This press release is issued in coordination between ESO, the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany, and the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie in Leiden, The Netherlands. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2004/pressemitteilung20040824/index.html and a Dutch version at http://www.astronomy.nl/inhoud/pers/persberichten/30_08_04.html. [2] The SINFONI team consists of Roberto Abuter, Andrew Baker, Walter Bornemann, Ric Davies, Frank Eisenhauer (SPIFFI Principal Investigator), Hans Gemperlein, Reinhard Genzel (MPE Director), Andrea Gilbert, Armin Goldbrunner, Matthew Horrobin, Stefan Huber, Christof Iserlohe, Matthew Lehnert, Werner Lieb, Dieter Lutz, Nicole Nesvadba, Claudia Röhrle, Jürgen Schreiber, Linda Tacconi, Matthias Tecza, Niranjan Thatte, Harald Weisz (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Anthony Brown, Paul van der Werf (NOVA, Leiden, The Netherlands), Eddy Elswijk, Johan Pragt, Jan Kragt, Gabby Kroes, Ton Schoenmaker, Rik ter Horst (ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands), Henri Bonnet (SINFONI Project Manager), Roberto Castillo, Ralf Conzelmann, Romuald Damster, Bernard Delabre, Christophe Dupuy, Robert Donaldson, Christophe Dumas, Enrico Fedrigo, Gert Finger, Gordon Gillet, Norbert Hubin (Head of Adaptive Optics Dept.), Andreas Kaufer, Franz Koch, Johann Kolb, Andrea Modigliani, Guy Monnet (Head of Telescope Systems Division), Chris Lidman, Jochen Liske, Jean Louis Lizon, Markus Kissler-Patig (SINFONI Instrument Scientist), Jerome Paufique, Juha Reunanen