Science.gov

Sample records for junction nuclear battery

  1. Analytical Study of 90Sr Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Performance Based on p-n Junction Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahastama, Swastya; Waris, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Previously, an analytical calculation of 63Ni p-n junction betavoltaic battery has been published. As the basic approach, we reproduced the analytical simulation of 63Ni betavoltaic battery and then compared it to previous results using the same design of the battery. Furthermore, we calculated its maximum power output and radiation- electricity conversion efficiency using semiconductor analysis method.Then, the same method were applied to calculate and analyse the performance of 90Sr betavoltaic battery. The aim of this project is to compare the analytical perfomance results of 90Sr betavoltaic battery to 63Ni betavoltaic battery and the source activity influences to performance. Since it has a higher power density, 90Sr betavoltaic battery yields more power than 63Ni betavoltaic battery but less radiation-electricity conversion efficiency. However, beta particles emitted from 90Sr source could travel further inside the silicon corresponding to stopping range of beta particles, thus the 90Sr betavoltaic battery could be designed thicker than 63Ni betavoltaic battery to achieve higher conversion efficiency.

  2. The nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  3. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  4. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  5. Possible Involvement of Tight Junctions, Extracellular Matrix and Nuclear Receptors in Epithelial Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Satohisa, Seiro; Nishiura, Keisuke; Chiba, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions localized at the most apical end of the lateral plasma membrane. They consist of four kinds of transmembrane proteins (occludin, claudins, junctional adhesion molecules, and tricellulin) and huge numbers of scaffolding proteins and contribute to the paracellular barrier and fence function. The mutation and deletion of these proteins impair the functions of tight junctions and cause various human diseases. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent studies on transmembrane proteins of tight junctions and highlight the functional significance of tight junctions, extracellular matrix, and nuclear receptors in epithelial differentiation. PMID:22162632

  6. Emerging battery research in Indonesia: The role of nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kartini, E.

    2015-12-31

    Development of lithium ion batteries will play an important role in achieving innovative sustainable energy. To reduce the production cost of such batteries, the Indonesian government has instituted a strategy to use local resources. Therefore, this technology is now part of the National Industrial Strategic Plan. One of the most important scientific challenges is to improve performance of lithium batteries. Neutron scattering is a very important technique to investigate crystal structure of electrode materials. The unique properties of neutrons, which allow detection of light elements such as lithium ions, are indispensable. The utilization of neutron scattering facilities at the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency will provide significant contributions to the development of improved lithium ion battery technologies.

  7. Emerging battery research in Indonesia: The role of nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, E.

    2015-12-01

    Development of lithium ion batteries will play an important role in achieving innovative sustainable energy. To reduce the production cost of such batteries, the Indonesian government has instituted a strategy to use local resources. Therefore, this technology is now part of the National Industrial Strategic Plan. One of the most important scientific challenges is to improve performance of lithium batteries. Neutron scattering is a very important technique to investigate crystal structure of electrode materials. The unique properties of neutrons, which allow detection of light elements such as lithium ions, are indispensable. The utilization of neutron scattering facilities at the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency will provide significant contributions to the development of improved lithium ion battery technologies.

  8. Minireview: Steroid/Nuclear Receptor-Regulated Dynamics of Occluding and Anchoring Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Bhumika J.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of physiological signals control intercellular interactions by regulating the structure and function of occluding junctions (tight junctions) and anchoring junctions (adherens junctions and desmosomes). These plasma membrane junctions are comprised of multiprotein complexes of transmembrane and cytoplasmic peripheral plasma membrane proteins. Evidence from many hormone-responsive tissues has shown that expression, modification, molecular interactions, stability, and localization of junctional complex-associated proteins can be targeted by nuclear hormone receptors and their ligands through transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms. The focus of this minireview is to discuss molecular, cellular, and physiological studies that directly link nuclear receptor- and ligand-triggered signaling pathways to the regulation of occluding and anchoring junction dynamics. PMID:25203673

  9. Gap junctions/hemichannels modulate interkinetic nuclear migration in the forebrain precursors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuxin; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Torii, Masaaki; Ding, Chen; Rakic, Pasko

    2010-01-01

    During mitotic division in the telencephalic proliferative ventricular zone (VZ), the nuclei of the neural precursors move basally away from the ventricular surface for DNA synthesis, and apically return to the surface for mitotic division; a process known as interkinetic migration or “to-and-fro” nuclear translocation. The cell, which remains attached to the ventricular surface, either continues cycling, or exits the cycle and migrates to the subventricular zone (SVZ) or the developing cortical plate. While gap junctions/hemichannels are known to modulate DNA synthesis via Ca2+ waves, the role of Ca+ oscillations and the mechanism of nuclear translocation in the VZ precursors are unclear. Here we provide evidence that during apical nuclear migration, VZ precursors display dynamic spontaneous Ca2+ transients, which depend on functional gap junctions/hemichannels via ATP release and Ca2+ mobilizing messenger diffusion. Furthermore, we found that blocking gap junctions/hemichannels or shRNA mediated knockdown of connexin 43 (Cx43) retards the apically directed interkinetic nuclear migration accompanied with changes in the nuclear length/width ratio. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking functional gap junctions/hemichannels induces phosphorylation of small GTPase cdc42 in the VZ precursors. The basal phase of interkinetic migration is much slower and appears to be mediated passively by mechanical forces after cell division. Our findings indicate that functional interference with gap junctions/hemichannels during embryonic development may lead to abnormal corticogenesis and dysfunction of the cerebral cortex in adult organisms. PMID:20335455

  10. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013. Comments...

  11. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... with regard to the maintenance, testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in...

  12. Nuclear localization of the tight junction protein ZO-2 in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Islas, Socorro; Vega, Jesús; Ponce, Lissette; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2002-03-10

    The tight junction constitutes the major barrier to solute and water flow through the paracellular space of epithelia and endothelia. It is formed by transmembrane proteins and submembranous molecules such as the MAGUKs ZOs. We have previously found that several MAGUKs, including those of the tight (ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3) and septate junction (tamou and Dlg), contain one or two nuclear sorting signals located at their first PDZ and GK domains. Now we show that these proteins also contain a nuclear export signal and focus our study on the nuclear membrane shuttling of ZO-2. In sparse cultures this molecule concentrates at the nucleus in clusters, where it partially colocalizes with splicing factor SC35. Nuclear staining diminishes as the monolayer acquires confluence through a process sensitive to the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Nuclear localization can be induced by impairing cell-cell contacts, by mechanical injury. ZO-2 that shuttles from the cell periphery into the nucleus is not newly synthesized but originates from a preexistent pool. The movement of this protein is mediated by the actin cytoskeleton.

  13. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  14. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  15. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    SciTech Connect

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  16. The tight junction protein Z O-2 has several functional nuclear export signals

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza . E-mail: lorenza@fisio.cinvestav.mx; Ponce, Arturo; Alarcon, Lourdes; Jaramillo, Blanca Estela

    2006-10-15

    The tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-2 changes its subcellular distribution according to the state of confluency of the culture. Thus in confluent monolayers, it localizes at the TJ region whereas in sparse cultures it concentrates at the nucleus. The canine sequence of ZO-2 displays four putative nuclear export signals (NES), two at the second PDZ domain (NES-0 and NES-1) and the rest at the GK region (NES-2 and NES-3). The functionality of NES-0 and NES-3 was unknown, hence here we have explored it with a nuclear export assay, injecting into the nucleus of MDCK cells peptides corresponding to the ZO-2 NES sequences chemically coupled to ovalbumin. We show that both NES-0 and NES-3 are functional and sensitive to leptomycin B. We also demonstrate that NES-1, previously characterized as a non functional NES, is rendered capable of nuclear export upon the acquisition of a negative charge at its Ser369 residue. Experiments performed injecting at the nucleus WT and mutated ZO-2-GST fusion proteins revealed the need of both NES-0 and NES-1, and NES-2 and NES-3 for attaining an efficient nuclear exit of the respective amino and middle segments of ZO-2. Moreover, the transfection of MDCK cells with full-length ZO-2 revealed that the mutation of any of the NES present in the molecule was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of the protein.

  17. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  18. Temperature effect of a radioluminescent nuclear battery based on (147)Pm/ZnS:Cu/GaAs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Hong, Liang; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2015-03-01

    A radioluminescent nuclear battery was fabricated and the performance was measured and calculated at temperature of 223.15-323.15K. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that Jsc minimally decreases with the increase in temperature, whereas Voc linearly decreases. Pmax rapidly decreases with temperature. The mechanism of temperature effect is discussed using the temperature dependency of semiconductor parameters. This study significantly guides the selection of batteries' power source under various temperature. The nuclear battery may also be used as a long-life temperature transducer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. Inactivation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α mediates alcohol-induced downregulation of intestinal tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure has been shown to increase the gut permeability in the distal intestine, in part, through induction of zinc deficiency. The present study evaluated the molecular mechanisms whereby zinc deficiency mediates alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Examination of zinc finger transcription factors in the gastrointestinal tract of mice revealed a prominent distribution of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). HNF-4α exclusively localizes in the epithelial nuclei and exhibited an increased abundance in mRNA and protein levels in the distal intestine. Chronic alcohol exposure to mice repressed the HNF-4α gene expression in the ileum and reduced the protein level and DNA binding activity of HNF-4α in all of the intestinal segments with the most remarkable changes in the ileum. Chronic alcohol exposure also decreased the mRNA levels of tight junction proteins, particularly in the ileum. Caco-2 cell culture studies were conducted to determine the role of HNF-4α in regulation of the epithelial tight junction and barrier function. Knockdown of HNF-4α in Caco-2 cells decreased the mRNA and protein levels of tight junction proteins in association with disruption of the epithelial barrier. Alcohol treatment inactivated HNF-4α, which was prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine or zinc. The link between zinc and HNF-4α function was confirmed by zinc deprivation, which inhibited HNF-4α DNA binding activity. These results indicate that inactivation of HNF-4α due to oxidative stress and zinc deficiency is likely a novel mechanism contributing to the deleterious effects of alcohol on the tight junctions and the intestinal barrier function. PMID:20576917

  1. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  2. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  3. A novel connexin 50 gene (gap junction protein, alpha 8) mutation associated with congenital nuclear and zonular pulverulent cataract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyu; Wang, Qiwei; Fu, Qiuyue; Zhu, Yanan; Zhai, Yi; Yu, Yinhui; Zhang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the disease-causing mutations in four generations of a Chinese family affected with bilateral congenital nuclear and zonular pulverulent cataract. Methods Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. The phenotype was documented using slit-lamp photography. Candidate genes were amplified using PCR and screened for mutations using bidirectional sequencing. Results Affected individuals had nuclear and zonular pulverulent cataract with Y-sutural opacities. Sequencing of the candidate genes revealed a heterozygous c. 139G>C change in the coding sequence of the connexin 50 gene (gap junction protein, alpha 8 [GJA8]), which results in the substitution of a wild-type aspartic acid with a histidine (D47H). This mutation cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected family members or in 100 unrelated controls. Conclusions Our study has identified a novel connexin 50 gene (GJA8) mutation, resulting in the amino substitution p. D47H in a Chinese family with nuclear and zonular pulverulent congenital cataracts. This mutation is probably the causative lesion for the observed phenotype in this family. PMID:23592913

  4. Propagation Distance of the α-Particle-Induced Bystander Effect: The Role of Nuclear Traversal and Gap Junction Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Sylvain; Pusset, David; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Fromm, Michel; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2009-01-01

    When cell populations are exposed to low-dose α-particle radiation, a significant fraction of the cells will not be traversed by a radiation track. However, stressful effects occur in both irradiated and bystander cells in the population. Characterizing these effects, and investigating their underlying mechanism(s), is critical to understanding human health risks associated with exposure to α particles. To this end, confluent normal human fibroblast cultures were grown on polyethylene terephthalate foil grafted to an ultrathin solid-state nuclear track detector and exposed under non-perturbing conditions to low-fluence α particles from a broadbeam irradiator. Irradiated and affected bystander cells were localized with micrometer precision. The stress-responsive protein p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A) was induced in bystander cells within a 100-µm radius from an irradiated cell. The mean propagation distance ranged from 20 to 40 µm around the intranuclear α-particle impact point, which corresponds to a set of ∼30 cells. Nuclear traversal, induced DNA damage, and gap junction communication were critical contributors to propagation of this stressful effect The strategy described here may be ideal to investigate the size of radiation-affected target and the relative contribution of different cellular organelles to bystander effects induced by energetic particles, which is relevant to radioprotection and cancer radiotherapy. PMID:19580486

  5. A radioluminescent nuclear battery using volumetric configuration: (63)Ni solution/ZnS:Cu,Al/InGaP.

    PubMed

    Russo, Johnny; Litz, Marc; Ray, William; Smith, Brenda; Moyers, Richard

    2017-09-14

    Energy dense power sources are critical to the development of compact, remote sensors for terrestrial and space applications. Nuclear batteries using β(-)-emitting radioisotopes possess energy densities 1000 times greater than chemical batteries. Their power generation is a function of β(-) flux saturation point relative to the planar (2D) configuration, β(-) range, and semiconductor converter. An approach to increase power density in a beta-photovoltaic (β-PV) nuclear battery is described. By using volumetric (3D) configuration, the radioisotope, nickel-63 ((63)Ni) in a chloride solution was integrated in a phosphor film (ZnS:Cu,Al) where the β(-) energy is converted into optical energy. The optical energy was converted to electrical energy via an indium gallium phosphate (InGaP) photovoltaic (PV) cell, which was optimized for low light illumination and closely matched to radioluminescence (RL) spectrum. With 15mCi of (63)Ni activity, the 3D configuration energy values surpassed 2D configuration results. The highest total power conversion efficiency (ηt) of 3D configuration was 0.289% at 200µm compared 0.0638% for 2D configuration at 50µm. The highest electrical power and ηt for the 3D configuration were 3.35 nWe/cm(2) at an activity of 30mCi and 0.289% at an activity of 15mCi, respectively. By using 3D configuration, the interaction space between the radioisotope source and scintillation material increased, allowing for significant electrical energy output, relative to the 2D configuration. These initial results represent a first step to increase nuclear battery power density from microwatts to milliwatts per 1000cm(3) with the implementation of higher energy β(-) sources. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair; Ballas, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  7. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  8. A Specific Set of Exon Junction Complex Subunits Is Required for the Nuclear Retention of Unspliced RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Shiimori, Masami; Inoue, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is highly conserved in many organisms and is involved in various steps of mRNA metabolism. During the course of investigating the role of EJC in the germ line sex determination of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that depletion of one of the three core subunits (Y14, MAG-1, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4III [eIF4AIII]) or one auxiliary subunit (UAP56) of EJC resulted in the cytoplasmic leakage of unspliced RNAs from almost all of the C. elegans protein-coding genes examined thus far. This leakage was also observed with the depletion of several splicing factors, including SF3b, IBP160, and PRP19, all of which genetically interacted with Y14. We also found that Y14 physically interacts with both pre-mRNA and spliceosomal U snRNAs, especially U2 snRNA, and that the interaction was abolished when both IBP160 and PRP19 were depleted. Our results strongly suggest that a specific set of EJC subunits is recruited onto introns and interacts with components of the spliceosome, including U2 snRNP, to provide a critical signal for the surveillance and nuclear retention of unspliced RNAs in C. elegans. PMID:23149939

  9. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials. Fuel cells, battery, hydrogen storage and nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Boillat, Pierre; Kaestner, Anders; Vontobel, Peter; Mannes, David

    2015-10-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  10. The Nuclear and Adherent Junction Complex Component Protein Ubinuclein Negatively Regulates the Productive Cycle of Epstein-Barr Virus in Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Gruffat, Henri; Lupo, Julien; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique; Manet, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) productive cycle is initiated by the expression of the viral trans-activator EB1 (also called Zebra, Zta, or BZLF1), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family. We have previously identified the cellular NACos (nuclear and adherent junction complex components) protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a partner for EB1, but the function of this complex has never been studied. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of this interaction on the EBV productive cycle and find that Ubn-1 overexpression represses the EBV productive cycle whereas Ubn-1 downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases virus production. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we show that Ubn-1 blocks EB1-DNA interaction. We also show that in epithelial cells, relocalization and sequestration of Ubn-1 to the tight junctions of nondividing cells allow increased activation of the productive cycle. We propose a model in which Ubn-1 is a modulator of the EBV productive cycle: in proliferating epithelial cells, Ubn-1 is nuclear and inhibits activation of the productive cycle, whereas in differentiated cells, Ubn-1 is sequestrated to tight junctions, thereby allowing EB1 to fully function in the nucleus. PMID:21084479

  11. The nuclear and adherent junction complex component protein ubinuclein negatively regulates the productive cycle of Epstein-Barr virus in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gruffat, Henri; Lupo, Julien; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique; Manet, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) productive cycle is initiated by the expression of the viral trans-activator EB1 (also called Zebra, Zta, or BZLF1), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family. We have previously identified the cellular NACos (nuclear and adherent junction complex components) protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a partner for EB1, but the function of this complex has never been studied. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of this interaction on the EBV productive cycle and find that Ubn-1 overexpression represses the EBV productive cycle whereas Ubn-1 downregulation by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases virus production. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we show that Ubn-1 blocks EB1-DNA interaction. We also show that in epithelial cells, relocalization and sequestration of Ubn-1 to the tight junctions of nondividing cells allow increased activation of the productive cycle. We propose a model in which Ubn-1 is a modulator of the EBV productive cycle: in proliferating epithelial cells, Ubn-1 is nuclear and inhibits activation of the productive cycle, whereas in differentiated cells, Ubn-1 is sequestrated to tight junctions, thereby allowing EB1 to fully function in the nucleus.

  12. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  13. Monitoring the Retention of Human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen at Primer/Template Junctions by Proteins That Bind Single-Stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Hedglin, Mark; Aitha, Mahesh; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2017-07-11

    In humans, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamps encircling DNA coordinate various aspects of DNA metabolism throughout the cell cycle. A critical aspect of this is restricting PCNA to the vicinity of its DNA target site. For example, PCNA must be maintained at or near primer/template (P/T) junctions during DNA synthesis. With a diverse array of cellular factors implicated, many of which interact with PCNA, DNA, or both, it is unknown how this critical feat is achieved. Furthermore, current biochemical assays that examine the retention of PCNA near P/T junctions are inefficient, discontinuous, and qualitative and significantly deviate from physiologically relevant conditions. To overcome these challenges and limitations, we recently developed a novel and convenient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that directly and continuously monitors the retention of human PCNA at a P/T junction. Here we describe in detail the design, methodology, interpretation, and limitations of this quantitative FRET assay using the single-stranded DNA-binding protein, SSB, from Escherichia coli as an example. This powerful tool is broadly applicable to any single-stranded DNA-binding protein and may be utilized and/or expanded upon to dissect DNA metabolic pathways that are dependent upon PCNA.

  14. Interaction of Ubinuclein-1, a nuclear and adhesion junction protein, with the 14-3-3 epsilon protein in epithelial cells: implication of the PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Conti, Audrey; Sueur, Charlotte; Lupo, Julien; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique

    2013-03-01

    Ubinuclein-1 is a NACos (Nuclear and Adhesion junction Complex components) protein which shuttles between the nucleus and tight junctions, but its function in the latter is not understood. Here, by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis, we show that Ubinuclein-1 interacts with the 14-3-3ɛ protein both in HT29 colon cells, and AGS gastric cells. This interaction is mediated by an Ubinuclein-1 phosphoserine motif. We show that the arginine residues (R56, R60 and R132) which form the 14-3-3ɛ ligand binding site are responsible for the binding of 14-3-3ɛ to phosphorylated Ubinuclein-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vitro Ubinuclein-1 can be directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This in vitro phosphorylation allows binding of wildtype 14-3-3ɛ. Moreover, treatment of the cells with inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, KT5720 or H89, modifies the subcellular localization of Ubinuclein-1. Indeed, KT5720 and H89 greatly increase the staining of Ubinuclein-1 at the tight junctions in AGS gastric cells. In the presence of the kinase inhibitor KT5720, the amount of Ubinuclein-1 in the NP40 insoluble fraction is increased, together with actin. Moreover, treatment of the cells with KT5720 or H89 induces the concentration of Ubinuclein-1 at tricellular intersections of MDCK cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel cell signaling trafficking by Ubinuclein-1 via association with 14-3-3ɛ following Ubinuclein-1 phosphorylation by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of solid state lithium ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifeng

    1999-10-01

    A variety of materials used in lithium ion battery development have been investigated by solid State 6,7Li NMR. In lithiated hard carbon, 7Li high- resolution NMR measurements reveal two distinct insertion mechanisms, one is intercalation between disordered graphene planes and the other is covalently bonded with in amorphous hydrogen-containing regions of the carbon. The irreversible portion of the Li, which constitutes the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), was detected. 7Li NMR results of lithiated natural graphite and mildly oxidized graphite show that the SEI formation is more efficient in latter, and that there is excess reversible capacity not associated with intercalated Li. With measurements of electrochemically lithiated SnO by NMR, Li 2O and LixSn phases were detected at low and intermediate Li contents, and the Lix-2Sn alloy structure is significantly different at high Li content. 6,7Li NMR spectroscopic measurements of Li1+yCoO 2 (y = 0.08, 0.35) suggest that only a small fraction (about 10% of the excess Li) may be reversible, the remainder of the excess are various impurities. For physical mixtures of LiI and nano-scale particles of Al2O 3, the high resolution (MAS) NMR method clearly resolves two or more distinct Li+ sites, one characteristic of bulk LiI and the rest associated with surface/interface regions. Composite solid electrolytes based on PEO, LiI and high surface area inorganic oxides were investigated. The MAS NMR spectrum of a sample with a PEO/Li ratio of 3/2 is consistent with at least two Li environments, one solvated by the polymer and one in small ionic clusters at room temperature. The Li environment becomes more purely ionic as the polymer-associated peak vanishes above 80°C. 6,7Li NMR results in Li-Co-Ni-O and Li- (Cr, Fe)-Mn-O sample systems are also presented.

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Huang, Cheng; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2010-11-15

    The vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium (IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium (IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H2O)5]2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3M and in the temperature range of 240 to 340 K. The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.

  17. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalte

    2004-12-28

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  18. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  19. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Ginger Binds with Importin-α through Its Junction Domain for Nuclear Localization, and Further Interacts with NAC Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Sreekumar, Sweda; Sivakumar, K. C.; Tuteja, Narendra; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca2+ elevations in plant cells regulating the gene expression linked with various cellular processes like stress response, growth and development, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. Ginger is an extensively used spice due to its unique flavor and immense medicinal value. The two major threats that interfere with the large scale production of ginger are the salinity and drought stress. ZoCDPK1 (Zingiber officinale Calcium-dependent protein kinase 1) is a salinity and drought-inducible CDPK gene isolated from ginger and undergoes dynamic subcellular localization during stress conditions. ZoCDPK1, with signature features of a typical Ca2+ regulated kinase, also possesses a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in its junction domain (JD). A striking feature in ZoCDPK1 is the rare occurrence of a coupling between the NLS in JD and consensus sequences in regulatory domain. Here, we further identified its nature of nuclear localization and its interaction partners. In the homology model generated for ZoCDPK1, the regulatory domain mimics the crystal structure of the regulatory domain in Arabidopsis CDPK1. Molecular docking simulation of importin (ZoIMPα), an important protein involved in nuclear translocation, into the NLS of ZoCDPK1 was well-visualized. Furthermore, the direct interaction of ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα proteins was studied by the yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) system, which confirmed that junction domain (JD) is an important interaction module required for ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα binding. The probable interacting partners of ZoCDPK1 were also identified using Y2H experiment. Of the 10 different stress-related interacting partners identified for ZoCDPK1, NAC transcription factor (TF) needs special mention, especially in the context of ZoCDPK1 function. The interaction between ZoCDPK1 and NAC TF, in fact, corroborate with the results of gene expression and over-expression studies of ZoCDPK1. Hence

  20. 16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-43 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  2. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, Joel R.; Plut, Thomas A.; Martens, Jon S.

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material.

  3. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Daniel A; Paul, David L

    2009-07-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell-cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology.

  4. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology. PMID:20066080

  5. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  6. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  7. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  8. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazumichi; Stopfer, Mark

    2013-12-02

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, signaling among neurons is most commonly mediated by chemical synapses. At these synapses neurotransmitter released by presynaptic neurons is detected by receptors on the postsynaptic neurons, leading to an influx of ions through the receptors themselves or through channels activated by intracellular signaling downstream of the receptors. But neurons can communicate with each other in a more direct way, by passing signals composed of small molecules and ions through pores called gap junctions. Gap junctions that transmit electrical signals are called electrical synapses. Unlike most chemical synapses, electrical synapses interact through axon-to-axon or dendrite-to-dendrite contacts. Found throughout the nervous system, they are probably best known for linking the relatively few inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons into large, effective networks within vertebrate brains. They are particularly important early in development before the formation of most chemical synapses, but recent work shows gap junctions play important roles in the adult nervous system, too. Gap junctions are sometimes thought to be mere passageways between cells. But, as recent work shows, their properties can be complex and surprising. Gap junctions help generate, propagate, and regulate neural oscillations, can filter electrical signals, and can be modulated in a variety of ways. Here we discuss recent work highlighting the diversity and importance of gap junctions throughout the nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Z.; Chen, Honghao; Vijayakumar, M.; Zheng, Jianming; Pan, Huilin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Feng, Ju; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gu, Meng; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Dongping; Xu, Suochang; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun

    2015-05-13

    Li-S batteries hold great potential for next-generation, large-format power source applications; yet, the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical reaction pathways remains lacking to enable their functionality as promised. Here, in situ NMR technique employing a specially designed cylindrical micro battery was used to monitor the chemical environments around Li+ ions during repetitive charge-discharge process and track the transient electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring in the whole Li-S system. The in situ NMR provides real time, quantitative information related to the temporal concentration variations of the polysulfides with various chain lengths, providing important clues for the reaction pathways during both discharge and charge processes. The in-situ technique also reveals that redox reactions may involve transient species that are difficult to detect in ex-situ NMR study. Intermediate species such as charged free radicals may play an important role in the formation of the polysulfide products. Additionally, in situ NMR measurement simultaneously reveals vital information on the 7Li chemical environments in the electrochemical and parasitic reactions on the lithium anode that promotes the understanding of the failure mechanism in the Li-S system. These new insights could help design effective strategies to accelerate the development of Li-S battery technology.

  10. Self-diffusion of electrolyte species in model battery electrodes using Magic Angle Spinning and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambio, Sacris Jeru; Deschamps, Michaël; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Etiemble, Aurélien; Douillard, Thierry; Maire, Eric; Lestriez, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are electrochemical storage devices using the electrochemical activity of the lithium ion in relation to intercalation compounds owing to mass transport phenomena through diffusion. Diffusion of the lithium ion in the electrode pores has been poorly understood due to the lack of experimental techniques for measuring its self-diffusion coefficient in porous media. Magic-Angle Spinning, Pulsed Field Gradient, Stimulated-Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-PFG-STE NMR) was used here for the first time to measure the self-diffusion coefficients of the electrolyte species in the LP30 battery electrolyte (i.e. a 1 M solution of LiPF6 dissolved in 1:1 Ethylene Carbonate - Dimethyl Carbonate) in model composites. These composite electrodes were made of alumina, carbon black and PVdF-HFP. Alumina's magnetic susceptibility is close to the measured magnetic susceptibility of the LP30 electrolyte thereby limiting undesirable internal field gradients. Interestingly, the self-diffusion coefficient of lithium ions decreases with increasing carbon content. FIB-SEM was used to describe the 3D geometry of the samples. The comparison between the reduction of self-diffusion coefficients as measured by PFG-NMR and as geometrically derived from FIB/SEM tortuosity values highlights the contribution of specific interactions at the material/electrolyte interface on the lithium transport properties.

  11. Following the transient reactions in lithium-sulfur batteries using an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance technique.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Hu, Jian Zhi; Chen, Honghao; Vijayakumar, M; Zheng, Jianming; Pan, Huilin; Walter, Eric D; Hu, Mary; Deng, Xuchu; Feng, Ju; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gu, Meng; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Lu, Dongping; Xu, Suochang; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun

    2015-05-13

    A fundamental understanding of electrochemical reaction pathways is critical to improving the performance of Li-S batteries, but few techniques can be used to directly identify and quantify the reaction species during disharge/charge cycling processes in real time. Here, an in situ (7)Li NMR technique employing a specially designed cylindrical microbattery was used to probe the transient electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring during the cycling of a Li-S system. In situ NMR provides real time, semiquantitative information related to the temporal evolution of lithium polysulfide allotropes during both discharge/charge processes. This technique uniquely reveals that the polysulfide redox reactions involve charged free radicals as intermediate species that are difficult to detect in ex situ NMR studies. Additionally, it also uncovers vital information about the (7)Li chemical environments during the electrochemical and parasitic reactions on the Li metal anode. These new molecular-level insights about transient species and the associated anode failure mechanism are crucial to delineating effective strategies to accelerate the development of Li-S battery technologies.

  12. Modeling the effect in of criticality from changes in key parameters for small High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (U-BatteryTM) using MCNP4C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    The neutron transport code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) which was wellkown as the gold standard in predicting nuclear reaction was used to model the small nuclear reactor core called "U-batteryTM", which was develop by the University of Manchester and Delft Institute of Technology. The paper introduces on the concept of modeling the small reactor core, a high temperature reactor (HTR) type with small coated TRISO fuel particle in graphite matrix using the MCNPv4C software. The criticality of the core were calculated using the software and analysed by changing key parameters such coolant type, fuel type and enrichment levels, cladding materials, and control rod type. The criticality results from the simulation were validated using the SCALE 5.1 software by [1] M Ding and J L Kloosterman, 2010. The data produced from these analyses would be used as part of the process of proposing initial core layout and a provisional list of materials for newly design reactor core. In the future, the criticality study would be continued with different core configurations and geometries.

  13. Interplay between tight junctions & adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hannah K; Maiers, Jessica L; DeMali, Kris A

    2017-09-01

    Cell-cell adhesions are critical for the development and maintenance of tissues. Present at sites of cell-cell contact are the adherens junctions and tight junctions. The adherens junctions mediate cell-cell adhesion via the actions of nectins and cadherins. The tight junctions regulate passage of ions and small molecules between cells and establish cell polarity. Historically, the adherens and tight junctions have been thought of as discrete complexes. However, it is now clear that a high level of interdependency exists between the two junctional complexes. The adherens junctions and tight junctions are physically linked, by the zonula occludens proteins, and linked via signaling molecules including several polarity complexes and actin cytoskeletal modifiers. This review will first describe the individual components of both the adherens and tight junctions and then discuss the coupling of the two complexes with an emphasis on the signaling links and physical interactions between the two junctional complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS IS THE IDENTICAL PERSPECTIVE GIVEN I CA-290-43 (CT), BUT THIS IS A TIGHTER (CLOSER) SHOT. APRONS AND STAIRWAY ARE OMITTED. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE SAMPS. TWO OR THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. EACH BATTERY CONTAINS FIVE STAMPS. TWO OF THE THREE BATTERIES ARE SIDE BY SIDE IN FOREGROUND, WHILE THE THIRD BATTERY IS SEPARATE (LOWER RIGHT). STAIRWAY UP IS AT LEFT SIDE. SEE CA-290-16 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Depth profiling Li in electrode materials of lithium ion battery by 7Li(p,γ)8Be and 7Li(p,α)4He nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunitha, Y.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2017-06-01

    A proton induced γ-ray emission method based on 7Li(p,γ)8Be proton capture reaction and a nuclear reaction analysis method involving 7Li(p,α)4He reaction are described for depth profiling Li in the electrode materials, graphite and lithium cobalt oxide for example, of a Li-ion battery. Depth profiling by 7Li(p,γ)8Be reaction is accomplished by the resonance at 441 keV and involves the measurement of 14.6 and 17.6 MeV γ-rays, characteristic of the reaction, by a NaI(Tl) detector. The method has a detection sensitivity of ˜0.2 at% and enables profiling up to a depth ≥20 μm with a resolution of ≥150 nm. The profiling to a fairly large depth is facilitated by the absence of any other resonance up to 1800 keV proton energy. The reaction has substantial off-resonance cross-sections. A procedure is outlined for evaluating the off-resonance yields. Interferences from fluorine and aluminium are major limitation of this depth profiling methodology. The depth profile measurement by 7Li(p,α)4He reaction, on the other hand, utilises 2-3 MeV protons and entails the detection of α-particles at 90° or 150° angles. The reaction exhibits inverse kinematics at 150°. This method, too, suffers interference from fluorine due to the simultaneous occurrence of 19F(p,α)16O reaction. Kinematical considerations show that the interference is minimal at 90° and thus is the recommended angle of detection. The method is endowed with a detection sensitivity of ˜0.1 at%, a depth resolution of ˜100 nm and a probing depth of about 30 μm in the absence and 5-8 μm in the presence of fluorine in the material. Both methods yielded comparable depth profiles of Li in the cathode (lithium cobalt oxide) and the anode (graphite) of a Li-ion battery.

  17. 48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. 22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-47 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  2. Failure analysis of the lithium battery: A study of the header deposit on the cell top and diffusion within the electrode glass seal using nuclear microanalysis and FFTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Razi A.

    1991-10-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Range Safety System (SRBRSS) uses a lithium/poly-carbon monofluoride primary battery as a source of electrical power. After cell fabrication and activation, some battery cells have shown self discharge. One possible source of this cell discharge has been suggested to be the formation and growth of a conducting crystallized chemical compound across the glass bead insulator, electrically shorting the glass bead to the casing. This laboratory has begun an analysis of this compound, the glass seal holding the cathode into place, and the cell electrolyte, using Fast Fourier Transform Infrared (FFTIR) Analysis, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Nuclear Reaction Microanalysis. Preliminary measurements have confirmed the existence of lithium, nitrogen, fluorine, and oxygen on a reddish-brown deposit covering parts of the glass seal holding the positive electrode in place. Cells using Li metal electrodes, have many advantages over conventional primary batteries. One principal disadvantage of using Li batteries on a commercial basis would be the environmental impact of the fluorocarbon material. Another would be the relatively high expense of (CF)n.

  3. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  4. 19. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERY AUTOMATIC FEEDER, LOOKING EAST. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERY AUTOMATIC FEEDER, LOOKING EAST. THIS IS THE MIDDLE OF THREE FEEDERS, ONE FOR EACH STAMP BATTERY. THE CHUTE (UPPER RIGHT) INTRODUCED THE CRUSHED ORE FROM THE ORE BIN. FLOW WAS CONTROLLED BY A SLIDING DOOR ON THE UPPER LEVEL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  6. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  7. Battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a battery charger for a storage battery having circuitry including a primary charging path consisting of means to reduce the voltage of a power source to a level to be applied to a battery to be charged. It also includes a means to convert power from the power source to a pulsating direct current applied to an SCR and gating it on at the beginning of each selected half cycle and passing the current to the positive terminal of the battery. The improvement in circuitry in the charging path consists of voltage control and time control means of a battery charger, the voltage control means comprises a voltage low pass filter and sensing means, the same being connected to the leads of a battery as a charging input voltage source and having as its output a filtered voltage proportional to the Vmin voltage of a battery, the Vmin voltage being applied to a voltage comparator, means feeding a fixed reference voltage to the comparator, the reference voltage being proportional to an equalization voltage to be impressed upon the battery, whereby when the reference voltage is exceeded by the Vmin voltage from the battery, current flow through the SCR ceases and the voltage in the battery decreases, and when the Vmin voltage is less than the fixed reference voltage, the SCR resumes charging the battery to maintain the battery at its equalization level voltage, and means causing the time control means to run for the time of the equalization charge and to pause and hold its time setting in the event equalization charging ceases prior to the completion of the equalization charging cycle.

  8. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  9. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  10. Epithelial adhesive junctions

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Christopher T.; Farkas, Attila E.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesive cell-to-cell contacts contain large, plasma membrane-spanning multiprotein aggregates that perform vital structural and signaling functions. Three prominent adhesive contacts are the tight junction, adherens junction, and the desmosome. Each junction type has unique cellular functions and a complex molecular composition. In this review, we comment on recent and exciting advances in our understanding of junction composition and function. PMID:24592313

  11. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  12. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  13. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  14. Wideband rotating junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochernyaev, V. N.

    1993-06-01

    Rotating junctions of coaxial-waveguide and waveguide type with a traveling wave coefficient exceeding 0.8 in a wide frequency range are considered. The design of these junctions is based on a method of the theory of electrodynamic circuits. Numerical results are obtained for rotating junctions of partially filled rectangular waveguide type and their particular cases.

  15. YBCO Josephson Junction Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-14

    Conductus 969 West Maude Avenue ř ’AEOTR. 19 4 0 0 75 Sunnyvale CA 94086 9. SPONSORING MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ’C 510 N’_ ; i )N !’->.G...the primary junction being investigated at Conductus (and one of the better performing junctions in the community) was the bi-epitaxial structure [4...achieved. 2.1 Junctions At the time of proposal, the primary junction being investigated at Conductus (and one of the better performing junctions in

  16. Thermally activated ("thermal") battery technology. Part I: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Masset, Patrick

    Thermally activated ("thermal") batteries are primary batteries that use molten salts as electrolytes and employ an internal pyrotechnic (heat) source to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures. They are primarily used for military applications, such as missiles and ordnance, and in nuclear weapons. This paper discusses the development history and presents a general overview of this technology.

  17. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  18. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  19. Anillin regulates cell-cell junction integrity by organizing junctional accumulation of Rho-GTP and actomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ciara C.; Jin, Meiyan; Breznau, Elaina B.; Espino, Rhogelyn; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Goryachev, Andrew B.; Miller, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anillin is a scaffolding protein that organizes and stabilizes actomyosin contractile rings and was previously thought to function primarily in cytokinesis [1–10]. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system to examine Anillin’s role in the intact vertebrate epithelium, we find that a population of Anillin surprisingly localizes to epithelial cell-cell junctions throughout the cell cycle, whereas it was previously thought to be nuclear during interphase [5, 11]. Further, we show that Anillin plays a critical role in regulating cell-cell junction integrity. Both tight junctions and adherens junctions are disrupted when Anillin is knocked down, leading to altered cell shape and increased intercellular spaces. Anillin interacts with Rho, F-actin, and Myosin II [3, 8, 9], all of which regulate cell-cell junction structure and function. When Anillin is knocked down, active Rho (Rho-GTP), F-actin, and Myosin II are misregulated at junctions. Indeed, increased dynamic “flares” of Rho-GTP are observed at cell-cell junctions, while overall junctional F-actin and Myosin II accumulation is reduced when Anillin is depleted. We propose that Anillin is required for proper Rho-GTP distribution at cell-cell junctions and for maintenance of a robust apical actomyosin belt, which is required for cell-cell junction integrity. These results reveal a novel role for Anillin in regulating epithelial cell-cell junctions. PMID:24835458

  20. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach and intestines without causing any serious damage. How well someone does depends on the type of battery they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery.

  1. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  2. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  3. Batteries for implantable biomedical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    The special requirements of power cells for a variety of medical applications and the technical means by which the needs have been met are taken up in 11 contributed chapters. Both chemicals (lithium/halogen, nickel/cadmium, etc.) and nuclear batteries are considered.

  4. Myosins in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions. PMID:22954512

  5. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4{alpha}-induced epithelial polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki . E-mail: hidchiba@sapmed.ac.jp; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4{alpha}-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4{alpha} led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4{alpha} provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization.

  6. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  7. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  8. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  9. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  10. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  11. Overview of Sandia's storage battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Grothaus, K. R.

    The primary mission of Sandia National Laboratories is the design and development of the non-nuclear components and systems for nuclear weapons. To a lesser degree, Sandia is also involved in a variety of other programs; such as, energy projects with the Department of Energy, conventional military projects with the Department of Defense, and nuclear waste management and reactor safety with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Over the years, Sandia has evolved a considerable expertise in the areas of specialty primary, reserve, and more recently, secondary battery systems. This paper focuses on the status of the storage or secondary battery programs. These programs are divided into those battery systems being developed for energy applications and those being developed for military applications.

  12. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  13. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  14. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  15. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  16. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  17. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  18. Quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics.

  19. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  20. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries.

    PubMed

    Maves, M D; Lloyd, T V; Carithers, J S

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the hazards posed by the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries. When viewed in an anterior projection, disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible step-off.

  1. Ripple detecting polarity indicator for battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-31

    A battery charger output cable is described connected with an energized charger, the terminal of the cable embodying circuitry responsive to an AC ripple component in the battery charger output, the circuitry comprised of the following: during an interval of increasing voltage of the ripple component in a battery charger output; a first capacitor responsive to an AC ripple component passing current to the base-emitter junction of a transmitter; a second capacitor discharging current from the base-emitter junction; a correct polarity indicator; the second capacitor diverting current which would otherwise pass through and energize the correct polarity indicator; an incorrect polarity indicator in circuit with the second capacitor being reversely biased relative to the current passing from the second capacitor; during an interval of decreasing voltage of the ripple component in the battery charger output; the first capacitor reversing the direction of the current discharging the same through a second circuit including the second capacitor; the second capacitor having such a greater magnitude of capacitance value than the first capacitor as to pass insufficient voltage to energize the correct polarity indicator and the incorrect polarity indicator being biased relative to the reverse direction of current is energized.

  2. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  3. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  4. 46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND RELATIONSHIP OF BULL WHEEL (LOWER RIGHT) LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L. SEE CA-290-18 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  7. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit.

  8. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  9. Dot junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1986-01-01

    A design of solar cells with reduced junction area on the cell surface is investigated for reduction of saturation current and increase in open-circuit voltage. Equidiameter dot junctions distributed across the surface of the cell offer an efficient alternative, with variations in dot diameter and in the spacing between dots giving the required variations in the ratio of junction area to total surface area. A simplified analysis for short-circuit current and other cell parameters, which enables cell design optimization, is presented. Experimental solar-cell performance results, as functions of different area ratios, are presented and compared with the model. It is shown that saturation current reduction is possible for achieving efficiencies as high as 18 percent in flat-plate terrestrial applications.

  10. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  11. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  12. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  14. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  15. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  16. Brain barriers: Crosstalk between complex tight junctions and adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Silvia; Engelhardt, Britta

    2015-05-25

    Unique intercellular junctional complexes between the central nervous system (CNS) microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells form the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), respectively. These barriers inhibit paracellular diffusion, thereby protecting the CNS from fluctuations in the blood. Studies of brain barrier integrity during development, normal physiology, and disease have focused on BBB and BCSFB tight junctions but not the corresponding endothelial and epithelial adherens junctions. The crosstalk between adherens junctions and tight junctions in maintaining barrier integrity is an understudied area that may represent a promising target for influencing brain barrier function. © 2015 Tietz and Engelhardt.

  17. Intercellular junctions in myriapods.

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Bigliardi, E; Lane, N J

    1990-01-01

    Tissue from the intestinal tract of myriapods, including millipedes, centipedes and pauropods were examined in tracer-impregnated sections and freeze-fracture replicas. The foregut and hindgut of all three classes exhibit pleated septate junctions; these display undulating intercellular ribbons in thin sections. In replicas they show discrete intramembranous particle (IMP) arrays aligned in rows in parallel; with one another. The tissues of the hindgut also possess scalariform junctions, characterized by cross-striated intercellular clefts in sections and IMP-enriched membranes in replicas. Gap junctions occur in all groups, but they are atypical in replicas in that their component IMPs do not always fracture onto the E face, as is characteristic of other arthropods; some IMPs cleave to the P face and others to the E face. The midgut of these organisms exhibits smooth septate junctions with conventional straight septal ribbons and occasional interseptal columns. However the intramembranous appearance in replicas is variable, particularly in centipedes, in that the rows of IMPs in chemically-unfixed propanecryofixed tissues, are prominent and adhere preferentially to the E face, with complementary P face grooves, while in fixed tissues the IMPs are much less distinct and fracture to either P face or E face. They tend not to protrude far beyond the mid-plane of the membrane bilayer and lie in rows which commonly take on the form of a network. Individual rows of the network sometimes curve to run beside a second row, over a short distance, before bending away into another part of the network. The aligned particle rows, which are much more prominent in millipedes, where they frequently lie in close parallel appositions, do not fuse into ridges as often occurs in insect tissues. The myriapod junctions, therefore, are of the same general kind as are found in the gut tract of other arthropod groups, but differ with respect to the subtleties of their intramembranous

  18. Earth Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphillmore » into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  19. Earth Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphill into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  20. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  1. Distribution of gap junctions and square array junctions in the mammalian lens.

    PubMed

    Costello, M J; McIntosh, T J; Robertson, J D

    1989-05-01

    The morphology of membrane specializations of the cortex and nucleus of bovine lenses has been analyzed for both isolated membrane fractions and intact tissue fragments. Fractions of fiber cell membranes isolated from the outer cortex and the inner nucleus of lenses have been compared using x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, SDS polyacrylamide gels and Western blots. Each fraction has distinctive structural characteristics. In x-ray experiments, the cortical fraction gives no sharp equatorial reflections (from the plane of the membrane), whereas the nuclear fraction gives sharp equatorial reflections which index on a square lattice of 6.6 nm. In thin-section electron micrographs, the cortical fraction is composed primarily of closed vesicles and flat membrane sheets, some of which contain pentalamellar structures similar in appearance to the 16-18 nm thick gap junctions found in other tissues. The nuclear fraction contains mostly undulating membrane pairs which often show 11-14 nm pentalamellar profiles and occasionally thicker junctions. In freeze-fracture images the cortical membranes display irregular clusters of intramembrane particles which resemble gap junctions, whereas the nuclear membranes contain numerous large square arrays with a 6.6 nm repeat and few irregular clusters or individual intramembrane particles. Images of fragments of intact lenses used in the membrane isolations give similar results; in the cortex the area covered by gap junctions is over 50 times the area covered by square lattices, whereas nuclear fiber cell membranes contain large square arrays. Thus, cortical and nuclear fiber cell membranes have quite different morphologies. In particular, the size of the square arrays of protein increases as the fiber cells mature. SDS polyacrylamide gels from cortical and nuclear fractions are similar in that they both contain MP26 as the major band. However, Western blot analysis shows increasing quantities of lower molecular weight, 25 kD and

  2. Holliday Junction Resolvases

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Haley D.M.; West, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. PMID:25183833

  3. Holliday junction resolvases.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Haley D M; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-02

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  5. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  6. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  7. Thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod; Jang, Sung-Yeon; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arun

    2007-03-16

    By trapping molecules between two gold electrodes with a temperature difference across them, the junction Seebeck coefficients of 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT), 4,4'-dibenzenedithiol, and 4,4''-tribenzenedithiol in contact with gold were measured at room temperature to be +8.7 +/- 2.1 microvolts per kelvin (muV/K), +12.9 +/- 2.2 muV/K, and +14.2 +/- 3.2 muV/K, respectively (where the error is the full width half maximum of the statistical distributions). The positive sign unambiguously indicates p-type (hole) conduction in these heterojunctions, whereas the Au Fermi level position for Au-BDT-Au junctions was identified to be 1.2 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbital level of BDT. The ability to study thermoelectricity in molecular junctions provides the opportunity to address these fundamental unanswered questions about their electronic structure and to begin exploring molecular thermoelectric energy conversion.

  8. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  9. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  10. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  11. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  12. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  13. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  14. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  15. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  16. Signatures of topological Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yang; Pientka, Falko; Berg, Erez; Oreg, Yuval; von Oppen, Felix

    2016-08-01

    Quasiparticle poisoning and diabatic transitions may significantly narrow the window for the experimental observation of the 4 π -periodic dc Josephson effect predicted for topological Josephson junctions. Here, we show that switching-current measurements provide accessible and robust signatures for topological superconductivity which persist in the presence of quasiparticle poisoning processes. Such measurements provide access to the phase-dependent subgap spectrum and Josephson currents of the topological junction when incorporating it into an asymmetric SQUID together with a conventional Josephson junction with large critical current. We also argue that pump-probe experiments with multiple current pulses can be used to measure the quasiparticle poisoning rates of the topological junction. The proposed signatures are particularly robust, even in the presence of Zeeman fields and spin-orbit coupling, when focusing on short Josephson junctions. Finally, we also consider microwave excitations of short topological Josephson junctions which may complement switching-current measurements.

  17. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  18. Asian Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Asia is described. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market, Asian economic growth has the potential to result in the battery market matching or possibly exceeding that of North America.

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  20. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  1. Josephson junctions with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Blackburn, James A.; Huberman, Bernardo A.; Smith, H. J. T.

    1992-12-01

    We study a simple model of an overdamped Josephson junction coupled to a transmission line, which is regarded as a delayed feedback to the junction. It is demonstrated analytically how the nonlocal time dependence can give rise to hysteresis and steps in the current-voltage characteristics of the junction and the fundamental difference between positive and negative feedback is discussed. Excellent agreement between the analytical results and the results of numerical simulations is found.

  2. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  3. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  4. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-02

    between 1989 and 1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in conjunction...with beryllium to create a neutron initiator for a nuclear weapon. Polonium , according to many observers, is not ideal for nuclear weapons purposes. The

  5. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-18

    can be used to produce Polonium - 210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in conjunction with beryllium to create a neutron initiator for a...nuclear weapon. These experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. Polonium , according to many observers, is not ideal for nuclear weapons

  6. Li-ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar; Smart, M.; Whitacanack, L.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have contributed significantly to the success of NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity that have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last two years and performing astounding geological studies to answer the ever-puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and the origin of our planets. Combined with the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries have been powering the robotic rovers, and assist in keeping the rover electronics warm, and in supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has resulted in significant benefits in several categories, such as mass, volume, energy efficiency, self discharge, and above all low temperature performance. Designed initially for the primary mission needs of 300 cycles over 90 days of surface operation, the batteries have been performing admirably, over the last two years. After about 670 days of exploration and at least as many cycles, there is little change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages or capacities of these batteries, as estimated from the in-flight data and corroborated by ground testing. Aided by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond two years. In this paper, we will describe the performance characteristics of these batteries during launch, cruise phase and on the surface of Mars thus far.

  7. Li-ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar; Smart, M.; Whitacanack, L.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have contributed significantly to the success of NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity that have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last two years and performing astounding geological studies to answer the ever-puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and the origin of our planets. Combined with the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries have been powering the robotic rovers, and assist in keeping the rover electronics warm, and in supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has resulted in significant benefits in several categories, such as mass, volume, energy efficiency, self discharge, and above all low temperature performance. Designed initially for the primary mission needs of 300 cycles over 90 days of surface operation, the batteries have been performing admirably, over the last two years. After about 670 days of exploration and at least as many cycles, there is little change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages or capacities of these batteries, as estimated from the in-flight data and corroborated by ground testing. Aided by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond two years. In this paper, we will describe the performance characteristics of these batteries during launch, cruise phase and on the surface of Mars thus far.

  8. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  9. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  10. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-23

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  11. Handling difficult materials: Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

  12. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  14. Germ cell-somatic cell relationships: a comparative study of intercellular junctions during spermatogenesis in selected non-mammalian vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sprando, R L; Russell, L D

    1987-09-01

    Specialized germ cell-somatic cell relationships were surveyed in the testis of species representative of four classes of non-mammalian vertebrates. Desmosome-like junctions were present in all classes studied. In the teleost fish studied (bluegill; Lepomis macrochirus), small, infrequent desmosomes, seen between the spherical cyst cells and spermatocytes, were characterized by poorly represented subsurface densities. In the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), similar desmosome-like junctions were found between cyst cell processes and spermatocytes. Reptilian (turtle; Pseudameys scripta) desmosome-like junctions between Sertoli cells and germ cells were heterogeneous and more numerous than those junctions found in fish and amphibians. In general, the reptilian desmosome-like junctions were extensive structures displaying 10 nm filaments associated with the Sertoli cell component of the junctions. Regions within the desmosome where the two plasma membranes converged suggested that gap junctions were a component of the desmosome-like junctions. "Desmosome-gap" junctions persisted in turtle spermatids for sometime after nuclear elongation had commenced. In birds (chicken; Gallus domesticus), "desmosome-gap" junctions, similar to those seen in turtles were described between both spermatocytes and Sertoli cells, and spermatids and Sertoli cells. These junctions were frequently lined by saccules of endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of gap junctions suggest the evolution of mechanisms for somatic cell-germ cell communication although more species should be examined to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  20. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  1. 18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL ELEVATION OF STAMP BATTERIES AND APRONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. MORTARS, BOSSES, MOST SHOES, STEMS, TAPPETS, CAMS AND BULL WHEELS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE AND INTACT. NAMEPLATE CASTING IS CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THE UPPER MORTAR BLOCKS (BELOW CENTER) UNION IRON WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO C-L, SEE CA-290-45 (CT) FOR A SIMILAR COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples, or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single-atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent, which is a consequence of strong intervalley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce intervalley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudomagnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e., existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short-range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.

  3. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  4. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  5. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  6. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  7. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  8. Gap junctions, pannexins and pain.

    PubMed

    Spray, David C; Hanani, Menachem

    2017-06-22

    Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels have been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds. Moreover, targeted modulation of Cx43 expression was shown to modulate pain thresholds, albeit in somewhat contradictory ways, and mice lacking Panx1 expression globally or in specific cell types show depressed hyperalgesia. We here review the evidence for involvement of gap junctions and Panx channels in a variety of animal pain studies and then discuss ways in which gap junctions and Panx channels may mediate their action in pain processing. This discussion focusses on spread of signals among satellite glial cells, in particular intercellular Ca(2+) waves, which are propagated through both gap junction and Panx1-dependent routes and have been associated with the phenomenon of spreading depression and the malady of migraine headache with aura. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Metallic Junction Thermoelectric Device Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric junctions made of semiconductors have existed in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) for deep space missions, but are currently being adapted for terrestrial energy harvesting. Unfortunately, these devices are inefficient, operating at only 7% efficiency. This low efficiency has driven efforts to make high-figure-of-merit thermoelectric devices, which require a high electrical conductivity but a low thermal conductivity, a combination that is difficult to achieve. Lowered thermal conductivity has increased efficiency, but at the cost of power output. An alternative setup is to use metallic junctions rather than semiconductors as thermoelectric devices. Metals have orders of magnitude more electrons and electronic conductivities higher than semiconductors, but thermal conductivity is higher as well. To evaluate the viability of metallic junction thermoelectrics, a two dimensional heat transfer MATLAB simulation was constructed to calculate efficiency and power output. High Seebeck coefficient alloys, Chromel (90%Ni-10%Cr) and Constantan (55%Cu-45%Ni), produced efficiencies of around 20-30%. Parameters such as the number of layers of junctions, lateral junction density, and junction sizes for both series- and parallel-connected junctions were explored.

  10. Asian battery forecast report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-08-01

    A forecast battery production in Asia is a particularly relevant subject for an Australian lead man to speak of as the majority of our own business is in the region. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market of some 80-85 million units per annum, Asian economic growth in the next decade has the potential to result in the battery market matching or even exceeding the above figures.

  11. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  12. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  13. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  14. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  15. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  17. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  18. Development of the nematocyte junctional complex in hydra tentacles in relation to cellular recognition and positioning.

    PubMed

    Novak, P L; Wood, R L

    1983-05-01

    Formation of the nematocyte-battery cell-mesoglea (NBM) junctional complex of hydra was studied. Normal animals were grafted to nematocyte-free animals and the tentacles of the repopulating host were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Migrating nematocytes extend cytoplasmic processes between battery cell myonemes to contact the mesoglea. Tufts of extracellular filaments radiate from the base of the battery cell adjacent to some of these regions of contact. The fascial desmosome of the NBM complex develops from a lateral fusion of macular desmosomes which often lie near a condensation of extracellular filaments. Microtubules within the intervening battery cell process become oriented perpendicularly to form the apposing half of the desmosomal junction and connect it with the hemidesmosomal portion of the NBM complex. These findings suggest that a migrating nematocyte receives environmental cues associated with the mesoglea-battery cell interface which may serve to direct the nematocyte to its definitive position and induce the subsequent formation of the complete NBM complex.

  19. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  20. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  1. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  2. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  3. Thermopower measurements in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Rincón-García, Laura; Evangeli, Charalambos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás

    2016-08-07

    The measurement of thermopower in molecular junctions offers complementary information to conductance measurements and is becoming essential for the understanding of transport processes at the nanoscale. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the study of the thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions. After presenting the theoretical background for thermoelectricity at the nanoscale, we review the experimental techniques for measuring the thermopower in these systems and discuss the main results. Finally, we consider the challenges in the application of molecular junctions in viable thermoelectric devices.

  4. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  5. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River Junction...

  6. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River Junction...

  7. Thermal conductance of superlattice junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Simon; McGaughey, Alan J. H.

    2015-05-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and the lattice-based scattering boundary method to compute the thermal conductance of finite-length Lennard-Jones superlattice junctions confined by bulk crystalline leads. The superlattice junction thermal conductance depends on the properties of the leads. For junctions with a superlattice period of four atomic monolayers at temperatures between 5 and 20 K, those with mass-mismatched leads have a greater thermal conductance than those with mass-matched leads. We attribute this lead effect to interference between and the ballistic transport of emergent junction vibrational modes. The lead effect diminishes when the temperature is increased, when the superlattice period is increased, and when interfacial disorder is introduced, but is reversed in the harmonic limit.

  8. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1986-03-25

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  9. Shalbatana/Simud Vallis Junction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-11

    The sinuous channels and streamlined islands at the junction of Shalbatana and Simud Vallis, seen in this NASA Mars Odyssey image, present an erosional history of the catastrophic floods that scoured the Martian surface hundreds of millions of years ago.

  10. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; Hilbert, Claude; Hahn, Erwin L.; Sleator, Tycho

    1988-01-01

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  11. Tunable φ Josephson junction ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menditto, R.; Sickinger, H.; Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Goldobin, E.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the operation of a deterministic Josephson ratchet with tunable asymmetry. The ratchet is based on a φ Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic barrier operating in the underdamped regime. The system is probed also under the action of an additional dc current, which acts as a counterforce trying to stop the ratchet. Under these conditions the ratchet works against the counterforce, thus producing a nonzero output power. Finally, we estimate the efficiency of the φ Josephson junction ratchet.

  12. LOW RESISTANCE JUNCTIONS IN CRAYFISH

    PubMed Central

    Peracchia, Camillo

    1973-01-01

    The ultrastructure of low resistance junctions between segments of lateral giant fibers in crayfish is studied in sections from specimens fixed either by conventional methods or by glutaraldehyde-H2O2 or by glutaraldehyde-lanthanum. Cross sections through junctions fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde display the usual trilaminar profile of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow gap. Most of the junctional regions appear covered by 500–800 Å vesicles which lie on both sides of the junction in rows adjacent to the membranes. Gross sections through junctions fixed by glutaraldehyde-H2O2 display, in regions containing vesicles, membranes with a beaded profile. The beads correspond to globules ∼125 Å in width and ∼170 Å in height arranged in a hexagonal pattern with a unit cell of ∼200 Å. The globules of one membrane match precisely with those of the adjacent membrane, and opposite globules seem to come in contact with each other at the center of the junction. The membrane of the vesicles also contains globules. Occasionally the globules of the vesicles seem to join with those of the junctional membranes, apparently forming intracellular junctions. Injunctions negatively stained by lanthanum the globules are seen organized into two arrangements. Areas containing globules in a hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼200 Å (swollen pattern) are seen adjacent to areas in which the globules are more closely and disorderly packed (close packing), the minimum center-to-center distance between adjacent globules being ∼125 Å. At higher magnification each globule appears composed of six subunits arranged in a circle around a central region occupied by lanthanum (possibly a pit). PMID:4120610

  13. Tight junctions as regulators of tissue remodelling.

    PubMed

    Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2016-10-01

    Formation of tissue barriers by epithelial and endothelial cells requires neighbouring cells to interact via intercellular junctions, which includes tight junctions. Tight junctions form a semipermeable paracellular diffusion barrier and act as signalling hubs that guide cell behaviour and differentiation. Components of tight junctions are also expressed in cell types not forming tight junctions, such as cardiomyocytes, where they associate with facia adherens and/or gap junctions. This review will focus on tight junction proteins and their importance in tissue homeostasis and remodelling with a particular emphasis on what we have learned from animal models and human diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  15. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  16. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  17. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  18. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm-1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  19. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  20. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  1. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  2. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF). The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system. PMID:24089604

  3. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  4. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  5. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (<4 nm) conjugated molecular wires, and 3) quantitatively extract interfacial properties characteristic to macroscopic junctions, such as energy level alignment and molecule-contact electronic coupling from experimental I-V curves. Here, we lay ground work for creating a more complete picture of charge transport in macroscopically ordered molecular junctions of controlled architecture, length and charge carrier. The polaronic nature of hopping transport has been predicted in long, conjugated molecular wires

  6. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  7. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  8. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  9. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  10. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  11. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  12. Self-Organizing Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-16

    devise (e.g., electrochromics as well as batteries). ITO has also been found to be electrochemically stable in lithium battery electrolytes and to...1- 0.0 ~ glass powder -. 1.0 + ~~~~~~solvent ...................... -2.0 22, a 4.0 6.0 8.0 log frequency (Hz) Figure 4. Impedance spectroscopy...electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and certain types of sensors are fundamentally based on the separation of

  13. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  14. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  15. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  16. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  17. Sealed nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudszus, W.; Kiehne, H. A.; Cloke, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    The design, manufacture, and application of maintenance-free sealed NiCd batteries are surveyed. The principles of electrochemical power supplies and the history of the development of NiCd cells are reviewed. The batteries produced by Varta Batterie AG are presented; topics discussed include design parameters, electrical and physical characteristics, performance under adverse conditions, type range, production, and quality control. Application techniques, including cell-type choice, charging units and charging circuits, and the construction of standby power supplies, are considered, with reference to national and international standards of performance and classification. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  18. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  19. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  20. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.F.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  1. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  2. Transport in Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, K. H.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2008-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of carbon nanotube thin films as transparent electrical conductors and thin-film transistors owing to their high optical transmittance, low sheet resistivity, and ease of fabrication. [1,2] A major contribution to the sheet resistivity originates at nanotube junctions, as electrical contact is typically poor between adjacent nanotubes. It is thus important to characterize carbon nanotube junctions in order to understand the conduction properties of nanotube thin films. To this end, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the structural, electronic and transport properties of carbon nanotube junctions as a function of nanotube chirality and contact geometry [1] Z. Wu et al., Science 305, 1273 (2004) [2] E. S. Snow, J. P. Novak, P. M. Campbell, and D. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2145 (2003).

  3. Drosophila Nesprin-1 controls glutamate receptor density at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Morel, Véronique; Lepicard, Simon; Rey, Alexandre N; Parmentier, Marie-Laure; Schaeffer, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Nesprin-1 is a core component of a protein complex connecting nuclei to cytoskeleton termed LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton). Nesprin-1 is anchored to the nuclear envelope by its C-terminal KASH domain, the disruption of which has been associated with neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies, including autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Here, we describe a new and unexpected role of Drosophila Nesprin-1, Msp-300, in neuromuscular junction. We show that larvae carrying a deletion of Msp-300 KASH domain (Msp-300 (∆KASH) ) present a locomotion defect suggestive of a myasthenia, and demonstrate the importance of muscle Msp-300 for this phenotype, using tissue-specific RNAi knock-down. We show that Msp-300 (∆KASH) mutants display abnormal neurotransmission at the larval neuromuscular junction, as well as an imbalance in postsynaptic glutamate receptor composition with a decreased percentage of GluRIIA-containing receptors. We could rescue Msp-300 (∆KASH) locomotion phenotypes by GluRIIA overexpression, suggesting that the locomotion impairment associated with the KASH domain deletion is due to a reduction in junctional GluRIIA. In summary, we found that Msp-300 controls GluRIIA density at the neuromuscular junction. Our results suggest that Drosophila is a valuable model for further deciphering how Nesprin-1 and LINC disruption may lead to neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  6. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  7. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  8. Corrugated battery electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  9. Honeycomb battery plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  10. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  11. Gap junctions - guards of excitability.

    PubMed

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus; Delmar, Mario; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2015-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane.

  12. Conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Sumedh; Bodkhe, Gajanan; Deshmukh, Megha; Patil, Harshada; Rushi, Arti; Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Koinkar, Pankaj; Kim, Yun-Hae; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a synthesis of conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction (CPNEJ) has been reported. Conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction on Si/SiO2 substrate (having 3 μm gap between two gold microelectrodes) is prepared. Polyaniline nanowires with diameter (ca. 140 nm to 160 nm) were synthesized by one step electrochemical polymerization using galvanostatic (constant current) technique to bridge this gap. The surface morphology of CPNEJ was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synthesized CPNEJ is an excellent platform for biosensor applications.

  13. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  14. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  15. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  16. Predicting coaxial helical stacking in RNA junctions

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian; Wen, Dongrong; Wang, Jason T. L.; Schlick, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements that form when three or more helices come together in space in the tertiary structures of RNA molecules. Determining their structural configuration is important for predicting RNA 3D structure. We introduce a computational method to predict, at the secondary structure level, the coaxial helical stacking arrangement in junctions, as well as classify the junction topology. Our approach uses a data mining approach known as random forests, which relies on a set of decision trees trained using length, sequence and other variables specified for any given junction. The resulting protocol predicts coaxial stacking within three- and four-way junctions with an accuracy of 81% and 77%, respectively; the accuracy increases to 83% and 87%, respectively, when knowledge from the junction family type is included. Coaxial stacking predictions for the five to ten-way junctions are less accurate (60%) due to sparse data available for training. Additionally, our application predicts the junction family with an accuracy of 85% for three-way junctions and 74% for four-way junctions. Comparisons with other methods, as well applications to unsolved RNAs, are also presented. The web server Junction-Explorer to predict junction topologies is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/junction. PMID:21917853

  17. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  18. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  19. Strain measurement based battery testing

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  20. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  1. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  2. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-20

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...experimented between 1989 and 1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in...conjunction with beryllium to create a neutron initiator for a nuclear weapon. However, polonium , according to many observers, is not ideal for

  3. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-12

    Program: Recent Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in conjunction with beryllium...to create a neutron initiator for a nuclear weapon. However, polonium , according to many observers, is not ideal for nuclear weapons purposes. The

  4. The Yolla Bolly junction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, M.C.; Jayko, A.S. ); Jones, D.L. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Engebretson, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    West of Red Bluff, California, rocks of the northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Sierra Nevada, and Great Valley provinces come together at what has been called the Yolla Bolly junction. Mapping of the Red Bluff and Willows 1:100,000 quadrangles has greatly clarified the enigmatic features of this complex area. Terranes of the Klamath Mountains and their Cretaceous sedimentary cover have been thrust northwestward over the Elder Creek terrane and Franciscan rocks, north of the left-lateral Cold Fork fault zone. The Condrey Mountain window (Franciscan Pickett Peak terrane) provides a measure of the magnitude of this thrusting (ca 90 km). South of the Cold Fork fault zone, the Franciscan and Elder Creek terranes were driven southeastward as tectonic wedges onto Sierran-Klamath basement. Timing of this scissor-tectonics is not constrained near the junction, but further north in southwest Oregon, Lower Eocene strata were deformed by overthrusting of the Klamath block whereas Upper Eocene strata overlap the thrust, indicating that thrusting occurred between about 52 and 60 Ma. Plate reconstructions for this time interval indicate the close proximity of the Kula-Farallon-North America triple junction and that old (ca 100 m.y.) Farallon lithosphere was being subducted north of the junction whereas to the south, very young (ca 10 m.y.) Kula plate was presumably obducted onto North America.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  7. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  8. Improved Solar-Cell Tunnel Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Kachare, A.

    1986-01-01

    Efficiency of multiple-junction silicon solar cells increased by inclusion of p+/n+ tunnel junctions of highly doped GaP between component cells. Relatively low recombination velocity at GaP junction principal reason for recommending this material. Relatively wide band gap also helps increase efficiency by reducing optical losses.

  9. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy.

  10. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  11. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  13. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  14. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  15. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  16. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  17. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  18. Controlled battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, D.B.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a controlled battery charging system for charging a battery having terminals. It comprises: a transformer having a primary coil connected to a source of alternating current, and a secondary coil having output leads and a center tap, full wave rectifier means connected to the output leads to the secondary coil, the rectifier means including a pair of gate controlled rectifiers having direct current output leads, a battery charging circuit connected to the output leads to the rectifiers and having output means electrically contacting the terminals of a battery to be charged, a unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit connected to the rectifiers to trigger the gate controlled rectifiers into conduction to produce a DC charging current in the charging circuit, an electronic current limiting control circuit comprising a current limiting amplifier having a positive input, a negative input, and an output, a resistive line connected to center tap, a negative input lead connecting the center tap to the negative input of the current limiting amplifier, voltage input means connected to the positive input for supplying a voltage to the current limiting amplifier more positive than a voltage supplied to the negative input, voltage supply means connecting the current limiting amplifier to the battery charging circuit, and control means connecting the output of the current limiting amplifier to the unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit operative to turn off the DC charging circuit when the charging current exceeds a predetermined current value.

  19. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  20. Energizing the batteries for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports of the nickel-metal-hydride battery and its ability to compete with the lead-acid battery in electric-powered vehicles. The topics of the article include development of the battery, the impetus for development in California environmental law, battery performance, packaging for the battery's hazardous materials, and the solid electrolyte battery.

  1. Tight junction proteins: from barrier to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Runkle, E Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-08-28

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis.

  2. Tight Junction Proteins: From Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, E. Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-01-01

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis. PMID:23743355

  3. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  4. Bigger niche for small batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Teschler, L.

    1981-09-24

    Batteries have improved dramatically in the past few years. Disposable, nonrechargeable batteries, for instance, now store more electrical power and have longer shelf lives than ever before. Moreover, rechargeable batteries can now operate reliably at high temperatures and for as long as 10 years. New chemistries based on lithium have made many of these improvements possible. Some advances have been aimed at improving miniature batteries like those found in watches and hearing aids. Disposable battery technology is even being applied in back-up power sources for volatile memory. Battery life in some new disposables is long enough - on the order of several years - that disposable batteries are sometimes more desirable than installing rechargeable batteries and the charging circuits they require.

  5. Tight Junction Proteins in Human Schwann Cell Autotypic Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Alanne, Maria H.; Pummi, Kati; Heape, Anthony M.; Grènman, Reidar; Peltonen, Juha; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of ions, water, and molecules. Myelinating Schwann cells form highly organized structures, including compact myelin, nodes of Ranvier, paranodal regions, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, periaxonal cytoplasmic collars, and mesaxons. Autotypic TJs are formed in non-compacted myelin compartments between adjacent membrane lamellae of the same Schwann cell. Using indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, we analyzed the expression of adherens junction (E-cadherin) and TJ [claudins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin] components in human peripheral nerve endoneurium, showing clear differences with published rodent profiles. Adult nerve paranodal regions contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and ZO-1. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin. Mesaxons contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin. None of the proteins studied were associated with nodal inter-Schwann cell junctions. Fetal nerve expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin was predominantly punctate, with a mesaxonal labeling pattern, but paranodal (ZO-1, claudin-3) and Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (claudins-1 and -3) expression profiles typical of compact myelin were visible by gestational week 37. The clear differences observed between human and published rodent nerve profiles emphasize the importance of human studies when translating the results of animal models to human diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:523–529, 2009) PMID:19153196

  6. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  7. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  8. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  9. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  10. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  11. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  12. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  13. Role of gap junctions in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Miao-Miao; Chen, Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by periodic and unpredictable seizures. Gap junctions have recently been proposed to be involved in the generation, synchronization and maintenance of seizure events. The present review mainly summarizes recent reports concerning the contribution of gap junctions to the pathophysiology of epilepsy, together with the regulation of connexin after clinical and experimental seizure activity. The anticonvulsant effects of gap junction blockers both in vitro and in vivo suggest that the gap junction is a candidate target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. It is also of interest that the roles of neuronal and astrocytic gap junctions in epilepsy have been investigated independently, based on evidence from pharmacological manipulations and connexin-knockout mice. Further studies using more specific manipulations of gap junctions in different cell types and in human epileptic tissue are needed to fully uncover the role of gap junctions in epilepsy.

  14. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  15. Lithium-assisted electrochemical welding in silicon nanowire battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Karki, Khim; Epstein, Eric; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Jia, Zheng; Li, Teng; Picraux, S Tom; Wang, Chunsheng; Cumings, John

    2012-03-14

    From in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we present direct evidence of lithium-assisted welding between physically contacted silicon nanowires (SiNWs) induced by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. This electrochemical weld between two SiNWs demonstrates facile transport of lithium ions and electrons across the interface. From our in situ observations, we estimate the shear strength of the welded region after delithiation to be approximately 200 MPa, indicating that a strong bond is formed at the junction of two SiNWs. This welding phenomenon could help address the issue of capacity fade in nanostructured silicon battery electrodes, which is typically caused by fracture and detachment of active materials from the current collector. The process could provide for more robust battery performance either through self-healing of fractured components that remain in contact or through the formation of a multiconnected network architecture. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  17. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  18. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  19. Magellan battery operations: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Glueck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Spacecraft's mission to map Venus's surface provides a unique application for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. An overview of the spacecraft, power subsystem, battery, and mission requirements are presented. The reliability and performance of the batteries were extensively studied with a comprehensive test and analysis program. Actual data for cruise and a limited number of mapping orbits is also presented.

  20. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  1. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  3. Battery-powered electric bicycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morchin, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric bicycles powered with today`s nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given. 4 refs.

  4. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  5. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  6. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  7. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, displays a piece of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  8. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, prepares layers of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  9. Kurt Goldstein's test battery.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures.

  10. The changing battery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report provides an economic and technological assessment of the electrical battery industry, highlighting major trends. Among those systems considered are lithium-based, sodium-sulfur nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, zinc-chloride, conductive polymer, and redox cells. Lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and manganese dioxide-based batteries and direct solar power and fuel cells are discussed in relation to these new techniques. New applications, including electric vehicles, solar power storage, utility load leveling, portable appliances, computer power and memory backup, and medical implants are discussed. Predictions and development scenarios for the next twenty years are provided for the U.S. market.

  11. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  12. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  13. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2016-05-11

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  14. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  15. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Summary Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality. PMID:24596690

  16. The role of the baryon junction in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Stephen Earl

    The non-perturbative nature of the conserved baryon number of nuclei is investigated by studying the role of the baryon junction in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The junction, J, of a baryon originates in the Standard Model of Strong Interactions (QCD) and is the vertex which connects the color flux (Wilson) lines flowing from the three valence quarks. In high energy interactions, the baryon junction can play a dynamical role through the Regge exchange of junction states. We show that the junction exchange provides a natural mechanism for the transport of baryon number into the central rapidity region and has the remarkable ability to produce valence hyperons, including W- baryons. This mechanism is used to describe the observed baryon stopping and associated hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. We also show that junction - antijunction excitations or JJ loops provide a new mechanism for baryon pair production and lead to enhanced hyperon and antihyperon production. The combination of these two mechanisms is able to explain part of the anomalous hyperon production observed in Pb + Pb collisions at the SPS. Using the junction initial state dynamics, final state strangeness exchange interactions are shown to further enhance hyperon production and are proposed as an explanation of the remaining anomalous hyperon production. With larger phase space (higher energy) accessible at the newly constructed BNL RHIC facility, we propose that the observation of valence W- baryons in pp collisions will be a decisive observable to confirm the junction exchange picture of baryon number transport. In addition, we note that novel rapidity correlations between baryons and antibaryons of completely different quark flavors, like D++(uuu) and W+( ss s) , are predicted by the JJ loop mechanism. For numerical calculations of multiparticle observables associated with these junction mechanisms, we developed the HIJING/BB¯ nuclear event generator. HIJING

  17. Cure for the AA battery blues. Six-volt battery pack from previously discarded Polaroid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, G D; Riddick, L

    1988-09-01

    The Polaroid Polapulse batteries obtained from exhausted Polaroid 600 or Polaroid SX-70 film cassettes can be used to power a 6-V camera flash. A method for attaching these previously discarded batteries is described.

  18. Inelastic effects of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Samir

    We have investigated the effects of the inelastic interaction of electrons with phonons in the barrier region of S-I-S and S-N-S Josephson junctions. We find that under suitable conditions this mechanism can cause substantial modifications of the temperature dependence of the critical current jsb{c} as the inevitable loss of coherence can be more than compensated by the enhancement of the tunneling probability resulting from the phonon absorption. The effect depends strongly on the ratio qsb{TF}a of the junction width a to the screening length in the barrier region. For a S-I-S junction, a monotonic decrease in the critical current with temperature is found for qsb{TF}a ≫ 1 whereas for qsb{TF}a ≪ 1, the appearance of a peak in jsb{c}(T) near Tsb{c} is predicted. This new interesting effect is the consequence of the competition between the decrease of the superconducting gap function and the increase in the number of phonons with temperature. A wide range of parameter values has been explored and contact with relevant experimental results has been made. For an S-N-S junction, there is a large increase in the coherence length in the non-superconducting region leading to a substantial enhancement of the critical current over a wide range of temperature. It turns out that the entire temperature range can be divided broadly into two regimes. At low temperatures, the electron predominantly exchanges energy with just one phonon and it is this process that mainly determines the critical current. At higher temperatures the critical current is determined by processes in which the electrons exchange energy with many phonons during their under barrier motion.

  19. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Robert G.; Paterson, James L.; Kaplan, S. B.

    1980-03-01

    The dc current through an S1-S2 tunnel junction, with Δ2 greater than Δ1, when biased with eV<Δ1+Δ2, will lower the energy in S1. This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π*~Δ1e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power Pc, the electrical power Pe supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency η=PcPe. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV=+/-(Δ2-Δ1) and t1=T1Tc1~0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T2-T1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al2O3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency η~=Δ1(Δ2-Δ1) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of η=T1(T2-T1). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the Al2O3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems.

  20. Thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Perroni, C A; Ninno, D; Cataudella, V

    2016-09-21

    Focus of the review is on experimental set-ups and theoretical proposals aimed to enhance thermoelectric performances of molecular junctions. In addition to charge conductance, the thermoelectric parameter commonly measured in these systems is the thermopower, which is typically rather low. We review recent experimental outcomes relative to several junction configurations used to optimize the thermopower. On the other hand, theoretical calculations provide estimations of all the thermoelectric parameters in the linear and non-linear regime, in particular of the thermoelectric figure of merit and efficiency, completing our knowledge of molecular thermoelectricity. For this reason, the review will mainly focus on theoretical studies analyzing the role of not only electronic, but also of the vibrational degrees of freedom. Theoretical results about thermoelectric phenomena in the coherent regime are reviewed focusing on interference effects which play a significant role in enhancing the figure of merit. Moreover, we review theoretical studies including the effects of molecular many-body interactions, such as electron-vibration couplings, which typically tend to reduce the efficiency. Since a fine tuning of many parameters and coupling strengths is required to optimize the thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions, new theoretically proposed set-ups are discussed in the conclusions.

  1. Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.

  2. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  4. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  5. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  6. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  7. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W. ); Aggarwal, S. )

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  8. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  9. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized.

  10. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, S. T. M.; Trees, B. R.

    2001-10-01

    There is considerable scientific and technological interest in the time-dependent behavior of arrays of non-identical Josephson junctions, whose voltages oscillate with individual bare frequencies that can be made, through interactions, to renormalize their frequencies to a common value. We have studied the degree of synchronization of a subset of overdamped junctions in a ladder geometry, in which the voltages across the ``rung'' junctions of the ladder oscillate with the same, renormalized frequency and a fixed phase difference. We measure the degree of synchronization of the junctions with an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of the nearest-neighbor junction coupling strength. We also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction (RSJ) equations could be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of the junction coupling strength and also demonstrated that the relationship between the array size N and the critical coupling strength for all junctions to oscillate with the same frequency scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  11. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  12. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  13. Advanced thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. M.

    1980-03-01

    The feasibility of building thermal batteries with cells composed of an anode of LiAl alloy, a cathode of a heavy metal chloride, and a NaAlCl4 electrolyte has been demonstrated. During the further investigation of this system some interesting problems have developed and had to be studied. The particle size growth of the catholyte developed into a major storage problem. MoCl5 was found to form a volatile catholyte which is not suited for thermal battery use. As a result of this problem other catholyte materials were experimented with. CuCl2 is the most successful alternate to MoCl5. Some alternate binder materials have been investigated: kaolin clay, Illinois Mineral Amorphous Silica, and magnesia. Some alternate electrolytes have been investigated including NaAlCl4 (containing 52 m/o AlCl3), LiAlCl4 and KCl-LiCl. This work indicates that each material has unique properties which lend themselves to a particular application. Among the alternate cathode materials experimented with are CrCl3, a number of heavy metal oxides, fluorocarbon, TiS2, TiS3, and sulfur. Some alternate process investigated have been freon blending, adding materials to the anode, cell and battery desiccation and filling batteries with an inert atmosphere.

  14. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  15. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  16. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  17. Solar batteries: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, M.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography with 621 references is presented on solar batteries. Listings are alphabetical according to the author's name and all types of solar cells (organic and inorganic) are considered as well as articles of general interest in the area. In addition, an author index and a journal index are included. (MJJ)

  18. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  19. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  20. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li-S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal-organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  1. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  2. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  3. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  4. Flow duct for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Straalsund, Jerry L.

    1978-01-01

    Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

  5. In vitro formation of gap junction vesicles.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, D A

    1976-02-01

    A method is described that uses trypsin digestion combined with collagenase-hyaluronidase which produces a population of gap junction vesicles. The hexagonal lattice of subunits ("connexons") comprising the gapjunctions appears unaltered by various structural criteria and by buoyant density measurements. The gap junction vesciles are closed by either a single or a double profile of nonjunctional "membrane," which presents a smooth, particle-free fracture face. Horseradish peroxidase and cytochrome c studies have revealed that about 20% of the gap junction vesicles are impermeable to proteins 12,000 daltons or larger. The increased purity of the trypsinized junction preparation suggests that one of the disulfide reduction products of the gap-junction principal protein may be a nonjunctional contaminating peptide. The gap junction appears to be composed of a single 18,000-dalton protein, connexin, which may be reduced to a single 9,000-dalton peak. The number of peptides in this reduced peak are still unknown.

  6. Physics and Applications of NIS Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ullom, J N

    2001-08-24

    This paper reviews the physics and applications of Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. The current-voltage properties of NIS junctions are diode-like with a strong temperature dependence. Hence, these structures can be used as sensitive thermometers at temperatures well below the energy gap, {Delta}, of the superconducting electrode. For junction voltages comparable to {Delta}/q, current flow removes energy from the normal electrode. This property has been exploited to build refrigerators capable of cooling thin-film circuits from 0.3 K to 0.1 K. Calorimeters and bolometers for the detection of X-rays and millimeter-wave radiation, respectively, have successfully been built from NIS junctions. NIS junctions have also been used to probe the superconducting state. Finally, recent ideas for the use of NIS junctions as simple circuit elements are described.

  7. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Bizard, Anna H.; Hickson, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known as “double Holliday junction dissolution.” This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called “dissolvasome” comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions. PMID:24984776

  8. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  9. [Gap junctions and cancer: implications and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mesnil, Marc

    2004-02-01

    Gap junctions are made of intercellular channels which permit the diffusion from cytoplasm to cytoplasm of small hydrophilic molecules (<1,200 Da) such as ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, second messengers (calcium, inositol triphosphate, etc.). Since their discovery in the early sixties, several groups have described the loss of their function in cancer cells. The accumulation of such data led to the hypothesis that gap junctions are involved in the carcinogenesis process. This assumption has been confirmed by data establishing that gap junctional intercellular communication is inhibited by most of the tumor promoters and that the restoration of such a communication, by transfection of cDNAs encoding gap junction proteins (connexins), inhibits the aberrant growth rates of tumorigenic cells. Despite these important informations, several fundamental questions remain still open. First, we do not know how gap junctions mediate such a tumor suppressor effect and whether it may depend either on the cell type or on the connexin type. Moreover, most of the data concerning a possible involvement of gap junctions in carcinogenesis have been obtained from in vitro and animal models. The very few results which have been currently collected from human tumors are not sufficient to have a clear idea concerning the real involvement of gap junctions in sporadic human cancers. These points as well as other unresolved questions about the role of gap junctional intercellular communication in carcinogenesis are mentioned. To bring some answers, some prospects are proposed with the objective to use gap junctions for increasing the effect of anticancer therapies.

  10. Ventral surgical approaches to craniovertebral junction chordomas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder; Harrop, James; Schiffmacher, Paul; Rosen, Marc; Evans, James

    2010-03-01

    Chordomas are primarily malignant tumors encountered at either end of the neural axis; the craniovertebral junction and the sacrococcygeal junction. In this article, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. In this paper, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. The following approaches are illustrated: transoral-transpalatopharyngeal approach, high anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach, endoscopic transoral approach, and endoscopic transnasal approach. No single operative approach can be used for all craniovertebral chordomas. Therefore, the location of the tumor dictates which approach or approaches should be used.

  11. Gap Junctions Couple Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L.; Abrams, Charles K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, a family of related proteins called connexins form gap junctions (GJs), which are intercellular channels. In the central nervous system (CNS), GJs couple oligodendrocytes and astrocytes (O/A junctions) and adjacent astrocytes (A/A junctions), but not adjacent oligodendrocytes, forming a “glial syncytium.” Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes each express different connexins. Mutations of these connexin genes demonstrate that the proper functioning of myelin and oligodendrocytes requires the expression of these connexins. The physiological function of O/A and A/A junctions, however, remains to be illuminated. PMID:18236012

  12. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions.

  13. Magnetic tunnel junction pattern technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Eugene; Schwarz, Benjamin; Choi, Chang Ju; Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Geha, Sam

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) pattern technique that involves transforming the magnetic layer above the tunnel barrier in unwanted areas into an insulator, thus providing insulation between different MTJ devices without suffering common tunnel barrier shorting problems. With this technique, 90%-100% yielding MTJ devices have been observed. MTJ results using this process are superior to an etching based process. Switching distribution of patterned magnetic bits is also narrower using this novel technique. Process control and the ability to stop on the tunnel barrier have been demonstrated.

  14. Operation Junction City, Vietnam, 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    a standard infantry rifle , the Soviet-made AK-47. They possessed some 7.62 machine guns in each battalion and very few .51 caliber machine guns, if... rifles , and Chinese-manufactured antitank mines. Fire support was provided by 6 0-mm, 82-mm, and for the first time in the war, 120-mm mortars. The...MINIHTHAN) ’ ~ 9j~ REPLACED BY ON I APRIL OL DAli TIENG AP’ GAU BANG’ OPERATION JUNCTION CITY TASK ORGANIZATION PHASE I II FIELD FORCE 1st Inf Div 25th

  15. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-10-29

    A doping sequence is disclosed that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated. 8 figs.

  16. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1996-01-01

    A doping sequence that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated.

  17. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  18. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2015-09-14

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  19. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Charles E.; Arif, Muhammad; Streque, Jeremy; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  20. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  1. SMM parallel battery operation in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel battery system for the SMM spacecraft is described. The battery system performance as a function of lifetime over orbit was evaluated. The following equipment performance specifications were examined during a typical orbit: battery current and discharges, voltage limitations, battery temperature variations, and current sensor performance. Tabulated battery performance data is also included.

  2. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  3. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  4. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  5. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  6. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  7. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  8. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  9. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  13. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  14. The environmentally safe battery

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  16. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  17. 14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the northeast. The original battery charger is the center cabinet on the left side of photograph, with the new charger on the far left of photograph and a circuit breaker unit for the chargers is visible in the center of the photograph. The batteries are visible on three racks through the open doorway. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  18. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  19. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Ganesh

    2002-01-01

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35μ CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  20. In situ mechanical investigation of carbon nanotube-graphene junction in three-dimensional carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingchao; Kim, Nam Dong; Varshney, Vikas; Sihn, Sangwook; Li, Yilun; Roy, Ajit K; Tour, James M; Lou, Jun

    2017-02-23

    Hierarchically organized three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotubes/graphene (CNTs/graphene) hybrid nanostructures hold great promises in composite and battery applications. Understanding the junction strength between CNTs and graphene is crucial for utilizing such special nanostructures. Here, in situ pulling an individual CNT bundle out of graphene is carried out for the first time using a nanomechanical tester developed in-house, and the measured junction strength of CNTs/graphene is 2.23 ± 0.56 GPa. The post transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of remained graphene after peeling off CNT forest confirms that the failure during pull-out test occurs at the CNT-graphene junction. Such a carefully designed study makes it possible to better understand the interfacial interactions between CNTs and graphene in the 3D CNTs/graphene nanostructures. The coupled experimental and computational effort suggests that the junction between the CNTs and the graphene layer is likely to be chemically bonded, or at least consisting of a mixture of chemical bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  1. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  2. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    c . THIS PAGE U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code...cells vs. lithium foil 3.2 C abric annot be used as cathodes since it can act as an anode and short the battery. Instead, a metal bstrate is...theoretical values. Increasing the volume athode The cathodes must be electrically conductive and structurally robust. Carbon f c su permeable thin film of

  5. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  6. Modular Battery Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  7. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  8. Silver-Zinc Batteries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-06-01

    ANTIDOTES. Obtain medical attention at once. 3ive large quantities of water and a weak acid solution , such as vinegar , lemon juice or orange juice ...wash the affected area with large quantities of water. Neutral ize with vinegar , lemon juice or 5 percent solution of acetic acid and wash with water...for aircraft app lications. However , technolo gical advances in the alkaline f a m i l y of batteries have introduced new electrochemical sys tems

  9. Batteries not included.

    PubMed

    Hand, F; McDowell, D; Gillick, J

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of oesophageal lodgement of ingested button batteries (BB) in young children. In one case the diagnosis and subsequent treatment was made in a timely fashion and the patient suffered no sequelae. In the second case there was a delay in diagnosis and the patient subsequently suffered both early and late complications. The purpose of this report is to highlight theingestion importance of the correct management of suspected BB ingestion.

  10. Electrodeposited, Transverse Nanowire Electroluminescent Junctions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shaopeng; Xu, Qiang; Dutta, Rajen K; Le Thai, Mya; Li, Xiaowei; Penner, Reginald M

    2016-09-27

    The preparation by electrodeposition of transverse nanowire electroluminescent junctions (tn-ELJs) is described, and the electroluminescence (EL) properties of these devices are characterized. The lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition process is first used to prepare long (millimeters), linear, nanocrystalline CdSe nanowires on glass. The thickness of these nanowires along the emission axis is 60 nm, and the width, wCdSe, along the electrical axis is adjustable from 100 to 450 nm. Ten pairs of nickel-gold electrical contacts are then positioned along the axis of this nanowire using lithographically directed electrodeposition. The resulting linear array of nickel-CdSe-gold junctions produces EL with an external quantum efficiency, EQE, and threshold voltage, Vth, that depend sensitively on wCdSe. EQE increases with increasing electric field and also with increasing wCdSe, and Vth also increases with wCdSe and, therefore, the electrical resistance of the tn-ELJs. Vth down to 1.8(±0.2) V (for wCdSe ≈ 100 nm) and EQE of 5.5(±0.5) × 10(-5) (for wCdSe ≈ 450 nm) are obtained. tn-ELJs produce a broad EL emission envelope, spanning the wavelength range from 600 to 960 nm.

  11. θ0 thermal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaev, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    We predict the thermal counterpart of the anomalous Josephson effect in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junctions with noncoplanar magnetic texture. The heat current through the junction is shown to have the phase-sensitive interference component proportional to cos(θ -θ0) , where θ is the Josephson phase difference and θ0 is the texture-dependent phase shift. In the generic trilayer magnetic structure with the spin-filtering tunnel barrier θ0 is determined by the spin chirality of magnetic configuration and can be considered as the direct manifestation of the energy transport with participation of spin-triplet Cooper pairs. In case of the ideal spin filter the phase shift is shown to be robust against spin relaxation caused by the spin-orbital scattering. Possible applications of the coupling between heat flow and magnetic precession are discussed. For the nonideal spin filters with practically relevant parameters we show that θ0 is much larger than the phase shift of the equilibrium Josephson current.

  12. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  13. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  14. A polyoxometalate flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Fang, Xikui; Anderson, Travis M.

    2013-08-01

    A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples (SiVV3WVI9O407–/SiVIV3WVI9O4010- and SiVIV3WVI9O4010-/SiVIV3WV3WVI6O4013-) was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multi-electron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.

  15. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  16. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  17. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  18. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  19. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzenets, I. V.; Amet, F.; Ke, C. T.; Draelos, A. W.; Wei, M. T.; Seredinski, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Bomze, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.; Finkelstein, G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the critical current IC of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, IC is found to scale as ∝exp (-kBT /δ E ). The extracted energies δ E are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T →0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δ E (or Δ ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  20. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  1. Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PRIMARY BATTERIES , TEMPERATURE, LITHIUM , CATHODES, ELECTRODES, PROTECTIVE COATINGS, PLATINUM, NICKEL, SULFUR, STORAGE, GOLD, RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS...CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, CARBON BLACK, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, THIONYL CHLORIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY).

  2. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  3. Summary of LDEF battery analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

    1992-01-01

    Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

  4. Fuzzy control of battery chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Jack

    1996-03-01

    The increasing reliance on battery power for portable terrestrial purposes, such as portable tools, portable computers, and telecommunications, provides motivation to optimize the battery charging process with respect to speed of charging and charging cycle lifetime of the battery. Fuzzy control, implemented on a small microcomputer, optimizes charging in the presence of nonlinear effects and large uncertainty in the voltage vs. charge state characteristics for the battery. Use of a small microcontroller makes possible a small, capable, and affordable package for the charger. Microcontroller-based chargers provide improved performance by adjusting both charging voltage and charging current during the entire charging process depending on a current estimate of the state of charge of the battery. The estimate is derived from the zero-current voltage of the battery and the temperature and their rates of change. All of these quantities are uncertain due to the variation in condition between the individual cells in a battery, the rapid and nonlinear dependence of the fundamental electrochemistry on the internal temperature, and the placement of a single temperature sensor within the battery package. While monitoring the individual cell voltages and temperatures would be desirable, cost and complexity considerations preclude the practice. NASA has developed considerable technology in batteries for supplying significant amounts of power for spacecraft and in fuzzy control techniques for the space applications. In this paper, we describe how we are using both technologies to build an optimal charger prototype as a precursor to a commercial version.

  5. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  6. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-10-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  7. Some properties of Cosmic String Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouby, Johanna

    2011-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear concentrations of energy of macroscopic size. Since cosmic superstrings can form junctions, observing them would give some support to string theory. In the following, we study the lensing cosmic string junctions create, the shift in photons' wavelength passing through (leading to the Kaiser-Stebbins effect), and the gravitational radiation they emit.

  8. Dressed fluxon in a Josephson window junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Flytzanis, Nikos; Devoret, Michel

    1994-09-01

    The static fluxon solutions of a Josephson window junction have been studied numerically. We show that the effect of the idle region surrounding the junction is to ``dress'' the fluxon causing its energy to increase. This effect can be predicted accurately by a simple model.

  9. Slit Diaphragms Contain Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Bornheimer, Scott; Kudlicka, Krystyna; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2009-01-01

    Slit diaphragms are essential components of the glomerular filtration apparatus, as changes in these junctions are the hallmark of proteinuric diseases. Slit diaphragms, considered specialized adherens junctions, contain both unique membrane proteins (e.g., nephrin, podocin, and Neph1) and typical adherens junction proteins (e.g., P-cadherin, FAT, and catenins). Whether slit diaphragms also contain tight junction proteins is unknown. Here, immunofluorescence, immunogold labeling, and cell fractionation demonstrated that rat slit diaphragms contain the tight junction proteins JAM-A (junctional adhesion molecule A), occludin, and cingulin. We found these proteins in the same protein complexes as nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, ZO-1, and Neph1 by cosedimentation, coimmunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. PAN nephrosis increased the protein levels of JAM-A, occludin, cingulin, and ZO-1 several-fold in glomeruli and loosened their attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. These data extend current information about the molecular composition of slit diaphragms by demonstrating the presence of tight junction proteins, although slit diaphragms lack the characteristic morphologic features of tight junctions. The contribution of these proteins to the assembly of slit diaphragms and potential signaling cascades requires further investigation. PMID:19478094

  10. The tight junction: a multifunctional complex.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Eveline E; Lynch, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Multicellular organisms are separated from the external environment by a layer of epithelial cells whose integrity is maintained by intercellular junctional complexes composed of tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, whereas gap junctions provide for intercellular communication. The aim of this review is to present an updated overview of recent developments in the area of tight junction biology. In a relatively short time, our knowledge of the tight junction has evolved from a relatively simple view of it being a permeability barrier in the paracellular space and a fence in the plane of the plasma membrane to one of it acting as a multicomponent, multifunctional complex that is involved in regulating numerous and diverse cell functions. A group of integral membrane proteins-occludin, claudins, and junction adhesion molecules-interact with an increasingly complex array of tight junction plaque proteins not only to regulate paracellular solute and water flux but also to integrate such diverse processes as gene transcription, tumor suppression, cell proliferation, and cell polarity.

  11. Analysis of Tight Junction Formation and Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Kerekes, Ryan A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Foster, Carmen M; Retterer, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study segmentation of tight junctions and analyze the formation and integrity of tight junctions in large-scale confocal image stacks, a challenging biological problem because of the low spatial resolution images and the presence of breaks in tight junction structure. We present an automated, three-step processing approach for tight junction analysis. In our approach, we first localize each individual nucleus in the image by using thresholding, morphological filters and active contours. By using each nucleus position as a seed point, we automatically segment the cell body based on the active contour. We then use an intensity-based skeletonization algorithm to generate the boundary regions for each cell, and features are extracted from tight junctions associated with each cell to assess tight junction continuity. Based on qualitative results and quantitative comparisons, we show that we are able to automatically segment tight junctions and compute relevant features that provide a quantitative measure of tight junction formation to which the permeability of the cell monolayer can ultimately be correlated.

  12. An ampere-hour meter for batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, B. D.

    1973-01-01

    Up-down counter records charge as well as discharge in tests of rechargeable batteries. System uses reversible counter preset to represent 100% charge. As battery discharges, total count decreases; as battery is recharged, counter moves back to 100% indication.

  13. Zipper and freeway shear zone junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees; Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    Ductile shear zones are usually presented as isolated planar high-strain domains in a less deformed wall rock, characterised by shear sense indicators such as characteristic deflected foliation traces. Many shear zones, however, form branched systems and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting geometry can be complicated and lead to unusual fabric geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone junctions with three simultaneously operating branches, and with slip directions at a high angle to the branch line, eight basic types of shear zone triple junctions are possible, divided into three groups. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense on all three branches. If shear sense is different on the three branches, this can lead to space problems. Some of these junctions have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch, named zipper junctions, or a single shear zone which splits to form two, known as wedge junctions. Closing zipper junctions are most unusual, since they form a non-active high-strain zone with opposite deflection of foliations. Shear zipper and shear wedge junctions have two shear zones with similar shear sense, and one with the opposite sense. All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic flow patterns in the shear zone and its wall rock. Shear zone junctions with slip directions normal to the branch line can easily be studied, since ideal sections of shear sense indicators lie in the plane normal to the shear zone branches and the branch line. Expanding the model to allow slip oblique and parallel to the branch line in a full 3D setting gives rise to a large number of geometries in three main groups. Slip directions can be parallel on all branches but oblique to the branch line: two slip directions can be parallel and a third oblique, or all three branches can have slip in different directions. Such more complex shear zone junctions cannot be studied to advantage in a

  14. The Human "Cochlear Battery" - Claudin-11 Barrier and Ion Transport Proteins in the Lateral Wall of the Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies; Glueckert, Rudolf; Benav, Heval; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Background: The cochlea produces an electric field potential essential for hair cell transduction and hearing. This biological "battery" is situated in the lateral wall of the cochlea and contains molecular machinery that secretes and recycles K(+) ions. Its functioning depends on junctional proteins that restrict the para-cellular escape of ions. The tight junction protein Claudin-11 has been found to be one of the major constituents of this barrier that maintains ion gradients (Gow et al., 2004; Kitajiri et al., 2004a). We are the first to elucidate the human Claudin-11 framework and the associated ion transport machinery using super-resolution fluorescence illumination microscopy (SR-SIM). Methods: Archival cochleae obtained during meningioma surgery were used for SR-SIM together with transmission electron microscopy after ethical consent. Results: Claudin-11-expressing cells formed parallel tight junction lamellae that insulated the epithelial syncytium of the stria vascularis and extended to the suprastrial region. Intercellular gap junctions were found between the barrier cells and fibrocytes. Conclusion: Transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and SR-SIM revealed exclusive cell specialization in the various subdomains of the lateral wall of the human cochlea. The Claudin-11-expressing cells exhibited both conductor and isolator characteristics, and these micro-porous separators may selectively mediate the movement of charged units to the intrastrial space in a manner that is analogous to a conventional electrochemical "battery." The function and relevance of this battery for the development of inner ear disease are discussed.

  15. Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.

  16. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-09

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...experimented between 1989 and 1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in

  17. Ex-situ and in-situ observations of the effects of gamma radiation on lithium ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuting; Bashian, Nicholas H.; Hemmelgarn, Chase W.; Thio, Wesley J.; Lyons, Daniel J.; Zheng, Yuan F.; Cao, Lei R.; Co, Anne C.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation effects induced by gamma rays on battery performance were investigated by measuring the capacity and resistance of a series of battery coin cells in-situ directly under gamma radiation and ex-situ. An experimental setup was developed to charge and discharge batteries directly under gamma radiation, equipped with precise temperature control, at The Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Lab. Latent effects induced by gamma radiation on battery components directly influence their performance. Charge and discharge capacity and overall resistance throughout a time span of several weeks post irradiation were monitored and compared to control groups. It was found that exposure to gamma radiation does not significantly alter the available capacity and the overall cell resistance immediately, however, battery performance significantly decreases with time post irradiation. Also, batteries exposed to a higher cumulative dose showed close-to-zero capacity at two-week post irradiation.

  18. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  19. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  20. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  1. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  2. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-10-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  3. Moisture Battery Formed by Direct Contact of Magnesium with Foamed Polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2016-01-26

    The present communication reports a concept battery made by direct contact of magnesium foil with ultralight polyaniline (PANI) foam in the absence of additional electrolyte. Electrical current is allowed to be steadily released from the junction with a specific energy of 646 mWh g(-1) and specific capacity of 1247 mAh g(-1). Additionally, the battery offers an environmentally friendly route of hydrogen production along with discharging. Mechanistic studies indicated that the ubiquitous galvanic corrosion combined with decomposition of adsorbed trace water in the semi-conducting polymer foam enabled the generation of electricity, which overturns the traditional view. The higher moisture level is conducive to the discharge. This work is believed to open up new possibilities for the design of electrochemical batteries.

  4. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  5. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  6. LOW RESISTANCE JUNCTIONS IN CRAYFISH

    PubMed Central

    Peracchia, Camillo

    1973-01-01

    Low resistance junctions between axons of crayfish ganglia are studied by freeze-fracture and negative staining. In freeze-fracture, fracture planes that go through a junctional membrane expose two faces, both internal, called face A and face B. Face A belongs to the internal membrane leaflet and faces the gap. Face B belongs to the external membrane leaflet and faces the axoplasm. Face A displays pits, 60–100 Å in diameter, arranged in a hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼200 Å. An ∼25 Å bump is frequently seen at the center of each pit. Some pits are occupied by a globule ∼125 Å in diameter, which displays a central depression ∼25 Å in size. Face B contains globules also arranged in a fairly regular hexagonal pattern. The center-to-center distance between adjacent globules is most frequently ∼200 Å; however, occasionally certain globules are seen separated by a distance as short as ∼125 Å. The top surface of the globules occasionally displays a starlike profile and seems to contain a central depression ∼25 Å in diameter. In negatively stained preparations of membranes from the nerve cord, two types of membranes are seen containing a fairly regular pattern. In one, globules ∼95 Å in diameter form a hexagonal close packing with a unit cell of ∼95 Å. In the other, globules of the same size are organized in a larger hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼155 Å (swollen arrangement). Some of the globules forming the swollen arrangement are seen containing six subunits. The six subunits form a hexagon which is skewed with respect to the main rows of hexagons in such a way that the subunits lie on rows which make an angle of ∼37° with the main rows. PMID:4120611

  7. Junctophilin-4, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane junctions, regulates Ca2+ dynamics in T cells

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jin Seok; Srikanth, Sonal; Nishi, Miyuki; Ping, Peipei; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Gwack, Yousang

    2016-01-01

    Orai1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) mediate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in immune cells. STIM1, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor, detects store depletion and interacts with plasma membrane (PM)-resident Orai1 channels at the ER–PM junctions. However, the molecular composition of these junctions in T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we show that junctophilin-4 (JP4), a member of junctional proteins in excitable cells, is expressed in T cells and localized at the ER–PM junctions to regulate Ca2+ signaling. Silencing or genetic manipulation of JP4 decreased ER Ca2+ content and SOCE in T cells, impaired activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways, and diminished expression of activation markers and cytokines. Mechanistically, JP4 directly interacted with STIM1 via its cytoplasmic domain and facilitated its recruitment into the junctions. Accordingly, expression of this cytoplasmic fragment of JP4 inhibited SOCE. Furthermore, JP4 also formed a complex with junctate, a Ca2+-sensing ER-resident protein, previously shown to mediate STIM1 recruitment into the junctions. We propose that the junctate–JP4 complex located at the junctions cooperatively interacts with STIM1 to maintain ER Ca2+ homeostasis and mediate SOCE in T cells. PMID:26929330

  8. Industrial batteries in the electric power system of 'Electricité de France'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnol, P.

    More than 5000 industrial batteries are operating in the different power plants, substations and distribution centres of 'Electricité de France' (EDF). 2 V lead/ acid and 1.2V alkaline systems are used for different stationary stand-by applications: power station control, communication, etc. In nuclear plants, these batteries are part of the ultimate safety system ensuring the safe control of the reactor. The operating conditions of the industrial batteries at EDF, the different related battery technologies and the testing methods used to assess their operating ability are described. For selection, batteries undergo electric, seismic and ageing tests. Ageing sequences involve successive floating phases at a high temperature. Results on absorptive glass mat valve-regulated lead/acid battery testing are given. On-line monitoring methods are studied in order to evaluate the remaining available autonomy of the battery according to its state of ageing. In addition to these stand-by applications, EDF is also investigating the potential of future energy and quality applications of stationary batteries such as load levelling or storage of energy produced from renewable sources.

  9. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  10. Battery system with temperature sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  11. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  12. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  13. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  14. Household-battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Antenen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Batrec operates a plant for the recycling of used dry batteries with a capacity of 3,000 tons per year. The plant is situated in a tourist area of Switzerland and has complied with all the strict emission restrictions. The process yields four products: FeMn, Zn, Hg and slag. No hazardous waste is produced. All types of batteries can be treated.

  15. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  16. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  17. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  18. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. Electrostatic control of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsang; Jeong, Wonho; Kim, Kyeongtae; Lee, Woochul; Reddy, Pramod

    2014-11-01

    Molecular junctions hold significant promise for efficient and high-power-output thermoelectric energy conversion. Recent experiments have probed the thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions. However, electrostatic control of thermoelectric properties via a gate electrode has not been possible due to technical challenges in creating temperature differentials in three-terminal devices. Here, we show that extremely large temperature gradients (exceeding 1 × 10(9) K m(-1)) can be established in nanoscale gaps bridged by molecules, while simultaneously controlling their electronic structure via a gate electrode. Using this platform, we study prototypical Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au and Au-fullerene-Au junctions to demonstrate that the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductance of molecular junctions can be simultaneously increased by electrostatic control. Moreover, from our studies of fullerene junctions, we show that thermoelectric properties can be significantly enhanced when the dominant transport orbital is located close to the chemical potential (Fermi level) of the electrodes. These results illustrate the intimate relationship between the thermoelectric properties and charge transmission characteristics of molecular junctions and should enable systematic exploration of the recent computational predictions that promise extremely efficient thermoelectric energy conversion in molecular junctions.

  1. Microtubules regulate disassembly of epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; McCall, Ingrid C; Babbin, Brian; Samarin, Stanislav N; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) form the apical junctional complex (AJC) which regulates cell-cell adhesion, paracellular permeability and cell polarity. The AJC is anchored on cytoskeletal structures including actin microfilaments and microtubules. Such cytoskeletal interactions are thought to be important for the assembly and remodeling of apical junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of microtubules in disassembly of the AJC in intestinal epithelial cells using a model of extracellular calcium depletion. Results Calcium depletion resulted in disruption and internalization of epithelial TJs and AJs along with reorganization of perijunctional F-actin into contractile rings. Microtubules reorganized into dense plaques positioned inside such F-actin rings. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole prevented junctional disassembly and F-actin ring formation. Stabilization of microtubules with either docetaxel or pacitaxel blocked contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated internalization of junctional proteins into a subapical cytosolic compartment. Likewise, pharmacological inhibition of microtubule motors, kinesins, prevented contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated disassembly of apical junctions. Kinesin-1 was enriched at the AJC in cultured epithelial cells and it also accumulated at epithelial cell-cell contacts in normal human colonic mucosa. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated association of kinesin-1 with the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Conclusion Our data suggest that microtubules play a role in disassembly of the AJC during calcium depletion by regulating formation of contractile F-actin rings and internalization of AJ/TJ proteins. PMID:16509970

  2. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  3. Anosmia in Alkaline Battery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R. G.; Crabtree, Norman

    1961-01-01

    The sense of smell of 106 alkaline battery workmen exposed at their work to cadmium and nickel dust has been compared with a control group of 84 men matched for age. The battery workers reported significantly more anosmia than the controls (15% to zero) and did less well in the phenol smelling test (27·3% to 4·8%). Cadmium proteinuria was found in 17 of the battery workers, 11 of whom showed virtual anosmia. Figures of recent concentrations of cadmium and nickel in the atmosphere are given. The noses of 85 battery workers and 75 controls were examined. Signs of non-specific chronic irritation were more frequent in the battery workers but no significant relationship was established between this appearance and the presence of anosmia. It is concluded that the anosmia is due to exposure to cadmium or nickel dust or a mixture of the two. PMID:13681418

  4. Battery performance models in ADVISOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, V. H.

    This paper summarizes battery modeling capabilities in ADVISOR—the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's advanced vehicle simulator written in the Matlab/Simulink environment. ADVISOR's Matlab-oriented battery models consist of the following: (1) an internal resistance model, (2) a resistance-capacitance ( RC) model, (3) a PNGV capacitance model, (4) a neural network (nnet) lead acid model, and (5) a fundamental lead acid battery model. For the models, the electric schematics (where applicable), thermal models, accuracy, existing datasets, and sample validation plots are presented. A brief summary of ADVISOR's capabilities for co-simulation with Saber is presented, which links ADVISOR with Saber's lead acid battery model. The models outlined in this paper were presented at the workshop on 'Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models' in August 2001.

  5. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  6. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  7. Constraints on string networks with junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.

    2007-03-15

    We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/{radical}(2), the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.

  8. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  9. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  10. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  11. Circuit Theory of Unconventional Superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Nazarov, Yu. V.; Kashiwaya, S.

    2003-04-01

    We extend the circuit theory of superconductivity to cover transport and proximity effect in mesoscopic systems that contain unconventional superconductor junctions. The approach fully accounts for zero-energy Andreev bound states forming at the surface of unconventional superconductors. As a simple application, we investigate the transport properties of a diffusive normal metal in series with a d-wave superconductor junction. We reveal the competition between the formation of Andreev bound states and proximity effect that depends on the crystal orientation of the junction interface.

  12. Efficient photonic crystal Y-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rab; Karle, Tim J.; Moerman, I.; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2003-07-01

    A highly efficient Y-junction based on a planar photonic crystal (PhC) platform is presented. The PhC consists of a triangular array of holes etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, with a typical period of 322 nm and ~35% fill factor. The Y-junction has smaller holes positioned at the centre of the junction, giving rise to very uniform splitting and high transmission. The performance is very encouraging, with experimental transmission of approximately 40% for each arm of the Y-splitter relative to a comparable single-defect PhC waveguide.

  13. Molecular mechanism of double Holliday junction dissolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Processing of homologous recombination intermediates is tightly coordinated to ensure that chromosomal integrity is maintained and tumorigenesis avoided. Decatenation of double Holliday junctions, for example, is catalysed by two enzymes that work in tight coordination and belong to the same ‘dissolvasome’ complex. Within the dissolvasome, the RecQ-like BLM helicase provides the translocase function for Holliday junction migration, while the topoisomerase III alpha-RMI1 subcomplex works as a proficient DNA decatenase, together resulting in double-Holliday-junction unlinking. Here, we review the available architectural and biochemical knowledge on the dissolvasome machinery, with a focus on the structural interplay between its components. PMID:25061510

  14. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  15. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  16. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  17. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; DiStefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  18. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY...: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be held March 1-2, 2011, from 9 a...

  19. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  20. NASA battery testbed: A designed experiment for the optimization of LEO battery operational parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deligiannis, F.; Perrone, D.; DiStefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft battery operation is implemented. Robust design experiment to obtain optimum battery operational parameters is performed. It is found that short term tests using robust design of experiments can provide guidelines for optimum battery operation. It is decided to use robust design approach to provide guidelines for battery operation on current spacecraft in orbit as batteries age (GRO, UARS, EUVE, TOPEX).

  1. STS lithium/CF(x) battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnacek, Dee

    1991-01-01

    Lithium carbon fluoride batteries are used on Space Shuttle Rocket Boosters and external tanks. These batteries have been extremely successful in terms of mission reliability with the exception of cell yield variances. The function/system and battery descriptions are given. A description is given of the battery range safety system.

  2. NASA/Marshall's lithium battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    A general lithium battery is described and a summary of lithium battery applications is presented. Four aspects of a particular lithium battery, the inducement environmental contamination monitoring battery, are discussed-design and construction details, thermal vacuum tests, projection tests, and acceptance tests.

  3. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  4. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... quantity, size, watt hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium...

  5. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  6. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  7. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  8. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  9. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  10. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  11. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  12. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  13. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  14. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  15. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely...

  16. STS lithium/CF(x) battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnacek, Dee

    1991-01-01

    Lithium carbon fluoride batteries are used on Space Shuttle Rocket Boosters and external tanks. These batteries have been extremely successful in terms of mission reliability with the exception of cell yield variances. The function/system and battery descriptions are given. A description is given of the battery range safety system.

  17. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely...

  18. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely...

  19. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely...

  20. 46 CFR 183.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installations. 183.354 Section 183.354 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely...

  1. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  2. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  3. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1992-01-01

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  4. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  5. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  6. Enhancement at the junction of silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Suh, Jung Sang

    2008-08-19

    The enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at the junction of linearly joined silver nanorods (31 nm in diameter) deposited in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates was studied systematically by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The single and joined silver nanorod arrays showed a similar extinction spectrum when their length was the same. Maximum enhancement was observed from the junction system of two nanorods of the same size with a total length of 62 nm. This length also corresponded to the optimum length of single nanorods for SERS by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The enhancement at the junction was approximately 40 times higher than that of the 31 nm single nanorod, while it was 4 times higher than that of the 62 nm single nanorod. The enhancement factor at the junction after oxide removal was approximately 3.9 x 10 (9).

  7. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A

    1989-08-24

    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  8. UTE MRI of the Osteochondral Junction

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Reni; Chen, Karen; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    The osteochondral junction is composed of numerous tissue components and serves important functions relating to structural stability and proper nutrition in joints such as the knee and spine. Conventional MR techniques have been inadequate at imaging the tissues of the osteochondral junction primarily because of the intrinsically short T2 nature of these tissues, rendering them “invisible” with the standard acquisitions. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) MR techniques acquire sufficient MR signal of osteochondral tissues, thereby allowing direct evaluation. This article reviews the anatomy of the osteochondral junction of the knee and the spine, technical aspects of UTE MRI, and the application of UTE MRI for evaluation of the osteochondral junction. PMID:25061547

  9. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Wen

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon.

  10. Adrenocortical Gap Junctions and Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Cheryl L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortical steroidogenesis and proliferation are thought to be modulated by gap junction-mediated direct cell–cell communication of regulatory molecules between cells. Such communication is regulated by the number of gap junction channels between contacting cells, the rate at which information flows between these channels, and the rate of channel turnover. Knowledge of the factors regulating gap junction-mediated communication and the turnover process are critical to an understanding of adrenal cortical cell functions, including development, hormonal response to adrenocorticotropin, and neoplastic dedifferentiation. Here, we review what is known about gap junctions in the adrenal gland, with particular attention to their role in adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Information and insight gained from electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging (immunocytochemical, freeze fracture, transmission electron microscopic, and live cell) techniques will be provided. PMID:27445985

  11. Tight junctions in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Brandner, Johanna M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e.g., in autoimmune responses. Often, it is also triggered by a combination of both. The specific processes, which mean the kind of cytokines and immune cells involved and the extent of the reaction, depend not only on the trigger but also on the predisposition of the individual. Tight junctions (TJs) in the skin have been shown to form a barrier in the granular cell layer of the epidermis. Furthermore, TJ proteins were found in several additional epidermal layers. Besides barrier function, TJ proteins have been shown to be involved in proliferation, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, and apoptosis in keratinocytes. In inflamed skin, TJ proteins are often affected. We summarize here the impact of skin inflammation on TJs, e.g., in various forms of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, in skin infection, and in UV-irradiated skin, and discuss the role of TJs in these inflammatory processes.

  12. Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert

    2007-04-01

    Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La(0.1)Bi(0.9)MnO(3) (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2 nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.

  13. Gap junctions, homeostasis, and injury.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Antonio; Vega, Virginia L; Contreras, Jorge E

    2002-06-01

    Gap junctions (Gj) play an important role in the communication between cells of many tissues. They are composed of channels that permit the passage of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells, without exposure to the extracellular environment. These pathways are formed by the interaction between two hemichannels on the surface of opposing cells. These hemichannels are formed by the association of six identical subunits, named connexins (Cx), which are integral membrane proteins. Cell coupling via Gj is dependent on the specific pattern of Cx gene expression. This pattern of gene expression is altered during several pathological conditions resulting in changes of cell coupling. The regulation of Cx gene expression is affected at different levels from transcription to post translational processes during injury. In addition, Gj cellular communication is regulated by gating mechanisms. The alteration of Gj communication during injury could be rationalized by two opposite theories. One hypothesis proposes that the alteration of Gj communication attenuates the spread of toxic metabolites from the injured area to healthy organ regions. The alternative proposition is that a reduction of cellular communication reduces the loss of important cellular metabolisms, such as ATP and glucose. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  15. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  16. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    PubMed

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. [Clinical anatomy of the esophagogastric junction].

    PubMed

    Tănase, M; Aldea, A S

    2012-01-01

    The esophagogastric junction is a controversial anatomical area, due to its sphincteric mechanism which does not show an obvious anatomical basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomical components that endoscopically indicate the mucosal esophagogastric junction in hiatal hernia patients. The esophagogastric junction was investigated in 27 hiatal hernia patients undergoing surgery. Hiatal hernia is an extension of the stomach situated between the esophagogastric junction and the diaphragmatic indentation. The following types of hiatal hernia were found: sliding hiatal hernia (type I) in 4 patients (14.81%), rolling hiatal hernia (type II) in 2 (7.4%), mixed hiatal hernia (type III) in 12 (44.44%), type IV hiatal hernia in 4 (14.81%) and recurrent hiatal hernia in 5 (18.51%). Of the 27 hiatal hernia patients, 8 (29.6%) were operated using classical procedures: laparotomy--6 (75%) and laparoscopic surgery--2 (25%). The angle of His cannot be used for marking the mucosal esophagogastric junction due to the severe damage of the lower esophageal sphincter in hiatal hernia patients. The squamocolumnar junction is displaced in hiatal hernia patients and was not an option for the study group. The distal end of the esophageal longitudinal palisading vessels needs medication (proton pump inhibitors that reduce the gastric acid production), in order to enhance the visibility of these vessels. The proximal end of gastric longitudinal mucosal folds proved to be the most reliable site to identify endoscopically the mucosal esophagogastric junction. The anatomical structure of the esophagogastric junction differs in hiatal hernia patients and these peculiarities are very important in surgery.

  18. Noise and Chaos in Driven Josephson Junctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    induced step ( n = integer), the corresponding Fokker - Planck equation is essentially the same as that for a purely dc biased junction in the zero... Planck equation which governs the two-dimensional distribution function P((j), d(t)/dt, t) will reduce to the one-dimensional Smoluchowski equation ...Junction). Its equation of motion turns out exacdy the same as a damped driven pendulum, except its characteristic frequency is about 10^-10^^ times

  19. Degradation of connexins and gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Matthias M.; Kells, Rachael M.; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin proteins are short-lived within the cell, whether present in the secretory pathway or in gap junction plaques. Their levels can be modulated by their rate of degradation. Connexins, at different stages of assembly, are degraded through the proteasomal, endo-/lysosomal, and phago-/lysosomal pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about connexin and gap junction degradation including the signals and protein-protein interactions that participate in their targeting for degradation. PMID:24486527

  20. Anaesthesia management in craniovertebral junctional anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Craniovertebral Junctional (CVJ) anomalies are developmental disorders that affect the skeleton and enclosed neuraxis at the junction of cranium and cervical spine. The high prevalence of airway obstruction and restrictive pulmonary disease in combination with cardiovascular manifestations poses a high anaesthetic risk to these patients. This article provides a discussion of management of anaesthesia in patients with craniovertebral anomalies, the evaluation of risk factors in these patients and their management, including emergency airway issues. PMID:27891026

  1. Heat dissipation in atomic-scale junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woochul; Kim, Kyeongtae; Jeong, Wonho; Zotti, Linda Angela; Pauly, Fabian; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Reddy, Pramod

    2013-06-13

    Atomic and single-molecule junctions represent the ultimate limit to the miniaturization of electrical circuits. They are also ideal platforms for testing quantum transport theories that are required to describe charge and energy transfer in novel functional nanometre-scale devices. Recent work has successfully probed electric and thermoelectric phenomena in atomic-scale junctions. However, heat dissipation and transport in atomic-scale devices remain poorly characterized owing to experimental challenges. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with integrated nanoscale thermocouples to investigate heat dissipation in the electrodes of single-molecule ('molecular') junctions. We find that if the junctions have transmission characteristics that are strongly energy dependent, this heat dissipation is asymmetric--that is, unequal between the electrodes--and also dependent on both the bias polarity and the identity of the majority charge carriers (electrons versus holes). In contrast, junctions consisting of only a few gold atoms ('atomic junctions') whose transmission characteristics show weak energy dependence do not exhibit appreciable asymmetry. Our results unambiguously relate the electronic transmission characteristics of atomic-scale junctions to their heat dissipation properties, establishing a framework for understanding heat dissipation in a range of mesoscopic systems where transport is elastic--that is, without exchange of energy in the contact region. We anticipate that the techniques established here will enable the study of Peltier effects at the atomic scale, a field that has been barely explored experimentally despite interesting theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the experimental advances described here are also expected to enable the study of heat transport in atomic and molecular junctions--an important and challenging scientific and technological goal that has remained elusive.

  2. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.; Zolper, John C.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

  3. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, J.F.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-21

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling. 5 figs.

  4. Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic superstrings with Y-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.

    2009-12-15

    Cosmic superstring loops generically contain strings of different tensions that meet at Y-junctions. These loops evolve nonperiodically in time, and have cusps and kinks that interact with the junctions. We study the effect of junctions on the gravitational wave signal emanating from cosmic string cusps and kinks. We find that earlier results on the strength of individual bursts from cusps and kinks on strings without junctions remain largely unchanged, but junctions give rise to additional contributions to the gravitational wave signal coming from strings expanding at the speed of light at a junction and kinks passing through a junction.

  5. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  6. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  7. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  8. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  9. Evaluating the Correspondence of Different Cognitive Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that abilities are a meaningful level of abstraction for distinguishing among individuals with respect to their levels of cognitive functioning. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which different combinations of tests reflect the same cognitive abilities, or about the relation of cognitive abilities in one test battery with specific tests in another battery. Data from two cognitive batteries were analyzed to determine the correspondence of ability factors in the two batteries, and to evaluate the relative influence of cognitive abilities from one battery on the subtest scores in the other battery. Although the batteries involved different combinations of tests, correlations between the theoretically similar ability factors in the two batteries were very high (i.e., r > .84). Furthermore, with only a few exceptions, the primary influences on the subtest scores in one battery were from the theoretically relevant ability factor in the other battery. PMID:23630399

  10. Storage battery market: profiles and trade opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonfer, D.

    1985-04-01

    The export market for domestically produced storage batteries is a modest one, typically averaging 6 to 7% of domestic industry shipments. Exports in 1984 totalled about $167 million. Canada and Mexico were the largest export markets for US storage batteries in 1984, accounting for slightly more than half of the total. The United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and the Netherlands round out the top five export markets. Combined, these five markets accounted for two-thirds of all US exports of storage batteries in 1984. On a regional basis, the North American (Canada), Central American, and European markets accounted for three-quarters of total storage battery exports. Lead-acid batteries accounted for 42% of total battery exports. Battery parts followed lead-acid batteries with a 29% share. Nicad batteries accounted for 16% of the total while other batteries accounted for 13%.

  11. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  12. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  13. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  14. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  15. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  16. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  17. Cell junctions in the gut of Protura.

    PubMed

    Xué, L; Romano, D

    1992-01-01

    The main cell junctions in the intestinal tract of a small group of apterygotan insects, Protura, were examined in conventional thin sections, tracer-infiltrated sections and freeze-fracture replicas. The smooth septate junctions in the midgut of collembolan Tomocerus minor were also studied for comparison. Pleated septate junctions are found in foregut, hindgut and Malpighian papillae. They exhibit regular septa crossing the intercellular clefts in thin sections; and the septa with a pronounced zig-zag appearance run parallel to form a honeycomb structure in tracer-impregnated sections. After freeze-fracture undulating rows of intramembranous particles (IMPs) are visible on the P face. Smooth septate junctions are observed in the midgut. The intercellular septa often run in pairs for long tracts and exhibit a wavy course in lanthanum impregnated sections. The IMPs exhibited on the E face are usually separated one from another. Twin arrangement of particle rows is also apparent on the replicas. Gap junctions are frequent in both the midgut and hindgut and possess the conventional characteristics of 'inverted gap junction' with E face connexons. These results provide further evidence relating Protura closely to Collembola as well as to primitive arthropods.

  18. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Brandner, J M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, L A; De Benedetto, A

    2015-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions.

  19. Predictive modelling of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velev, Julian P.; Burton, John D.; Zhuravlev, Mikhail Ye; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions combine the phenomena of quantum-mechanical tunnelling and switchable spontaneous polarisation of a nanometre-thick ferroelectric film into novel device functionality. Switching the ferroelectric barrier polarisation direction produces a sizable change in resistance of the junction—a phenomenon known as the tunnelling electroresistance effect. From a fundamental perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions and their version with ferromagnetic electrodes, i.e., multiferroic tunnel junctions, are testbeds for studying the underlying mechanisms of tunnelling electroresistance as well as the interplay between electric and magnetic degrees of freedom and their effect on transport. From a practical perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions hold promise for disruptive device applications. In a very short time, they have traversed the path from basic model predictions to prototypes for novel non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories with non-destructive readout. This remarkable progress is to a large extent driven by a productive cycle of predictive modelling and innovative experimental effort. In this review article, we outline the development of the ferroelectric tunnel junction concept and the role of theoretical modelling in guiding experimental work. We discuss a wide range of physical phenomena that control the functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions and summarise the state-of-the-art achievements in the field.

  20. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.