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Sample records for junctional terminal cisternae

  1. Calcium and magnesium contents and volume of the terminal cisternae in caffeine-treated skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    (a) The effects of caffeine on the composition and volume of the terminal cisternae (TC) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in frog skeletal muscle were determined with rapid freezing, electron microscopy, and electron probe analysis. (b) Caffeine (5 mM) released approximately 65% of the Ca content of the TC in 1 min and 84% after 3 min. The release of Ca from the TC was associated with a highly significant increase in its Mg content. This increase in Mg was not reduced by valinomycin. There was also a small increase in the K content of the TC at 1 min, although not after 3 min of caffeine contracture. (c) On the basis of the increase in Mg content during caffeine contracture and during tetanus (Somlyo, A. V., H. Gonzalez- Serratos, H. Shuman, G. McClellan, and A. P. Somlyo, 1981, J. Cell Biol., 90:577-594), we suggest that both mechanisms of Ca release are associated with an increase in the Ca and Mg permeability of the SR membranes, the two ions possibly moving through a common channel. (d) There was a significant increase in the P content of the TC during caffeine contracture, while in tetanized muscle (see reference above) there was no increase in the P content of the TC. (e) Mitochondrial Ca content was significantly increased (at 1 and at 3 min) during caffeine contracture. Valinomycin (5 microM) blocked this mitochondrial Ca uptake. (f) The sustained Ca release caused by caffeine in situ contrasts with the transient Ca release observed in studies of fragmented SR preparations, and could be explained by mediation of the caffeine-induced Ca release by a second messenger produced more readily in intact muscle than in isolated SR. (g) The TC were not swollen in rapidly frozen, caffeine-treated muscles, in contrast to the swelling of the TC observed in conventionally fixed, caffeine-treated preparation, the latter finding being in agreement with previous studies. (h) The fractional volume of the TC in rapidly frozen control (resting) frog semitendinosus muscles

  2. Ca2+ transport and heat production in vesicles derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae: regulation by K+.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Mariana; Arruda, Ana Paula; de Meis, Leopoldo

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we compared the effect of K+ on vesicles derived from the longitudinal (LSR) and terminal cisternae (HSR) of rabbit white muscle. In HSR, K+ was found to inhibit both the Ca2+ accumulation and the heat released during ATP hydrolysis by the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). This was not observed in LSR. Valinomycin abolished the HSR Ca2+-uptake inhibition promoted by physiological K+ concentrations, but it did not modify the thermogenic activity of the Ca2+ pump. The results with HSR are difficult to interpret, assuming that a single K+ is binding to either the ryanodine channel or to the Ca2+-ATPase. It is suggested that an increase of K+ in the assay medium alters the interactions among the various proteins found in HSR, thus modifying the properties of both the ryanodine channel and SERCA1.

  3. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  4. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  5. Fabrication and measurement of multi-terminal mesoscopic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Natalya; Tetsuya, Mishima; Santos, Michael; Shabani, Javad; Manucharyan, Vladimir

    We present fabrication and characterization of 3- and 4-terminal mesoscopic Josephson junctions involving InAs quantum well heterostructures and superconducting Al contacts. A cross-shaped nanowire junction region with dimensions of order a few 100 nm is dry-etched in the 2DEG, followed by deposition of superconducting contacts and gating electrodes. These novel 0D devices have been recently predicted to have topological features in their Andreev spectra and finite-bias transport; they may also be useful in efforts towards observation and braiding of Majorana fermions in the solid state. // This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1207537.

  6. Multi-terminal Josephson junctions as topological matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    Topological materials and their unusual transport properties are now at the focus of modern experimental and theoretical research. Their topological properties arise from the bandstructure determined by the atomic composition of a material and as such are difficult to tune and naturally restricted to <= 3 dimensions. Here we demonstrate that n-terminal Josephson junctions with conventional superconductors may provide novel realizations of topology in n - 1 dimensions, which have similarities, but also marked differences with existing 2D or 3D topological materials. For n >= 4 , the Andreev subgap spectrum of the junction can accommodate Weyl singularities in the space of the n - 1 independent superconducting phases, which play the role of bandstructure quasimomenta. The presence of these Weyl singularities enables topological transitions that are manifested experimentally as changes of the quantized transconductance between two voltage-biased leads, the quantization unit being 4e2 / h .

  7. Multi-terminal Josephson junctions as topological matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-04-01

    Topological materials and their unusual transport properties are now at the focus of modern experimental and theoretical research. Their topological properties arise from the bandstructure determined by the atomic composition of a material and as such are difficult to tune and naturally restricted to <=3 dimensions. Here we demonstrate that n-terminal Josephson junctions with conventional superconductors may provide novel realizations of topology in n-1 dimensions, which have similarities, but also marked differences with existing 2D or 3D topological materials. For n>=4, the Andreev subgap spectrum of the junction can accommodate Weyl singularities in the space of the n-1 independent superconducting phases, which play the role of bandstructure quasimomenta. The presence of these Weyl singularities enables topological transitions that are manifested experimentally as changes of the quantized transconductance between two voltage-biased leads, the quantization unit being 4e2/h, where e is the electric charge and h is the Planck constant.

  8. Multi-terminal Josephson junctions as topological matter.

    PubMed

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S; Nazarov, Yuli V

    2016-04-04

    Topological materials and their unusual transport properties are now at the focus of modern experimental and theoretical research. Their topological properties arise from the bandstructure determined by the atomic composition of a material and as such are difficult to tune and naturally restricted to ≤3 dimensions. Here we demonstrate that n-terminal Josephson junctions with conventional superconductors may provide novel realizations of topology in n-1 dimensions, which have similarities, but also marked differences with existing 2D or 3D topological materials. For n≥4, the Andreev subgap spectrum of the junction can accommodate Weyl singularities in the space of the n-1 independent superconducting phases, which play the role of bandstructure quasimomenta. The presence of these Weyl singularities enables topological transitions that are manifested experimentally as changes of the quantized transconductance between two voltage-biased leads, the quantization unit being 4e(2)/h, where e is the electric charge and h is the Planck constant.

  9. Multi-terminal Josephson junctions as topological matter

    PubMed Central

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-01-01

    Topological materials and their unusual transport properties are now at the focus of modern experimental and theoretical research. Their topological properties arise from the bandstructure determined by the atomic composition of a material and as such are difficult to tune and naturally restricted to ≤3 dimensions. Here we demonstrate that n-terminal Josephson junctions with conventional superconductors may provide novel realizations of topology in n−1 dimensions, which have similarities, but also marked differences with existing 2D or 3D topological materials. For n≥4, the Andreev subgap spectrum of the junction can accommodate Weyl singularities in the space of the n−1 independent superconducting phases, which play the role of bandstructure quasimomenta. The presence of these Weyl singularities enables topological transitions that are manifested experimentally as changes of the quantized transconductance between two voltage-biased leads, the quantization unit being 4e2/h, where e is the electric charge and h is the Planck constant. PMID:27040917

  10. Topological transconductance quantization in a four-terminal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Erik; Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    Recently we predicted that the Andreev bound-state spectrum of four-terminal Josephson junctions may possess topologically protected zero-energy Weyl singularities, which manifest themselves in a quantized transconductance in units of 4 e2/h when two of the terminals are voltage biased [R.-P. Riwar, M. Houzet, J. S. Meyer, and Y. V. Nazarov, Nature Commun. 7, 11167 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms11167]. Here, using the Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory, we compute numerically the currents flowing through such a structure in order to assess the conditions for observing this effect. We show that the voltage below which the transconductance becomes quantized is determined by the interplay of nonadiabatic transitions between Andreev bound states and inelastic relaxation processes. We demonstrate that the topological quantization of the transconductance can be observed at voltages of the order of 10-2Δ /e ,Δ being the the superconducting gap in the leads.

  11. Invaginating Presynaptic Terminals in Neuromuscular Junctions, Photoreceptor Terminals, and Other Synapses of Animals.

    PubMed

    Petralia, Ronald S; Wang, Ya-Xian; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2017-06-13

    Typically, presynaptic terminals form a synapse directly on the surface of postsynaptic processes such as dendrite shafts and spines. However, some presynaptic terminals invaginate-entirely or partially-into postsynaptic processes. We survey these invaginating presynaptic terminals in all animals and describe several examples from the central nervous system, including giant fiber systems in invertebrates, and cup-shaped spines, electroreceptor synapses, and some specialized auditory and vestibular nerve terminals in vertebrates. We then examine mechanoreceptors and photoreceptors, concentrating on the complex of pre- and postsynaptic processes found in basal invaginations of the cell. We discuss in detail the role of vertebrate invaginating horizontal cell processes in both chemical and electrical feedback mechanisms. We also discuss the common presence of indenting or invaginating terminals in neuromuscular junctions on muscles of most kinds of animals, and especially discuss those of Drosophila and vertebrates. Finally, we consider broad questions about the advantages of possessing invaginating presynaptic terminals and describe some effects of aging and disease, especially on neuromuscular junctions. We suggest that the invagination is a mechanism that can enhance both chemical and electrical interactions at the synapse.

  12. Abordaje a la Cisterna Ambiens

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Bravo, Michael Cruz; Garategui, Lucas; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Isolan, Gustavo; Campero, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo: Describir paso a paso el abordaje a la cisterna ambiens por la vía suboccipital retrosigmoidea supracerebelosa infratentorial (SRSI). Descripción: El abordaje SRSI se realiza de la misma manera que el abordaje suboccipital retrosigmoideo (SR), utilizado habitualmente para acceder a la patología del ángulo pontocerebeloso, con las siguientes modificaciones: (1) utilizamos siempre la posición semisentado, (2) la craneotomia-craniectomia debe exponer el seno transverso y extenderse 5 cm medialmente hacia el inion, (3) al realizar la apertura dural es necesario rebatir la duramadre junto con el seno transverso hacia cefálico con puntos de tracción, (4) bajo magnificación con microscopio quirúrgico se debe realizar la apertura de la cisterna cerebelobulbar para drenar líquido cefalorraquídeo, (5) en el plano supracerebeloso es fundamental cortar las bridas aracnoidales y de ser necesario debemos coagular y cortar las venas puente, todas estas maniobras sumadas al efecto de la gravedad brindan mayor apertura del corredor supracerebeloso. Conclusión: El abordaje a la cisterna ambiens por la vía SRSI es una opción segura para el acceso de patologías tumorales que se alojan en esta zona con un componente predominantemente infratentorial. PMID:27999709

  13. Exogenous expression of the amino-terminal half of the tight junction protein ZO-3 perturbs junctional complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, E S; Haskins, J; Stevenson, B R

    2000-11-13

    The functional characteristics of the tight junction protein ZO-3 were explored through exogenous expression of mutant protein constructs in MDCK cells. Expression of the amino-terminal, PSD95/dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing half of the molecule (NZO-3) delayed the assembly of both tight and adherens junctions induced by calcium switch treatment or brief exposure to the actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Junction formation was monitored by transepithelial resistance measurements and localization of junction-specific proteins by immunofluorescence. The tight junction components ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, and occludin were mislocalized during the early stages of tight junction assembly. Similarly, the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin were also delayed in their recruitment to the cell membrane, and NZO-3 expression had striking effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. NZO-3 expression did not alter expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, occludin, or E-cadherin; however, the amount of Triton X-100-soluble, signaling-active beta-catenin was increased in NZO-3-expressing cells during junction assembly. In vitro binding experiments showed that ZO-1 and actin preferentially bind to NZO-3, whereas both NZO-3 and the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule (CZO-3) contain binding sites for occludin and cingulin. We hypothesize that NZO-3 exerts its dominant-negative effects via a mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton, ZO-1, and/or beta-catenin.

  14. Exogenous Expression of the Amino-Terminal Half of the Tight Junction Protein Zo-3 Perturbs Junctional Complex Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Erika S.; Haskins, Julie; Stevenson, Bruce R.

    2000-01-01

    The functional characteristics of the tight junction protein ZO-3 were explored through exogenous expression of mutant protein constructs in MDCK cells. Expression of the amino-terminal, PSD95/dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing half of the molecule (NZO-3) delayed the assembly of both tight and adherens junctions induced by calcium switch treatment or brief exposure to the actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Junction formation was monitored by transepithelial resistance measurements and localization of junction-specific proteins by immunofluorescence. The tight junction components ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, and occludin were mislocalized during the early stages of tight junction assembly. Similarly, the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin were also delayed in their recruitment to the cell membrane, and NZO-3 expression had striking effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. NZO-3 expression did not alter expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, occludin, or E-cadherin; however, the amount of Triton X-100–soluble, signaling-active β-catenin was increased in NZO-3–expressing cells during junction assembly. In vitro binding experiments showed that ZO-1 and actin preferentially bind to NZO-3, whereas both NZO-3 and the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule (CZO-3) contain binding sites for occludin and cingulin. We hypothesize that NZO-3 exerts its dominant-negative effects via a mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton, ZO-1, and/or β-catenin. PMID:11076967

  15. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-07-26

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions.

  16. Chemical control over the energy-level alignment in a two-terminal junction

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Li; Franco, Carlos; Crivillers, Núria; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Cao, Liang; Sangeeth, C. S. Suchand; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The energy-level alignment of molecular transistors can be controlled by external gating to move molecular orbitals with respect to the Fermi levels of the source and drain electrodes. Two-terminal molecular tunnelling junctions, however, lack a gate electrode and suffer from Fermi-level pinning, making it difficult to control the energy-level alignment of the system. Here we report an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude of the tunnelling current in a two-terminal junction via chemical molecular orbital control, changing chemically the molecular component between a stable radical and its non-radical form without altering the supramolecular structure of the junction. Our findings demonstrate that the energy-level alignment in self-assembled monolayer-based junctions can be regulated by purely chemical modifications, which seems an attractive alternative to control the electrical properties of two-terminal junctions. PMID:27456200

  17. Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansouri, Ibraheem; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    Theoretical calculation based on detailed balance and incorporating different realistic optical and electrical losses predicts conversion efficiency beyond 22% for single-junction perovskite devices. In dual-junction perovskite/silicon devices, theoretical conversion efficiency around 40% is been determined. However, dramatic drop in the conversion efficiency is shown to be due to the glass reflection and FTO parasitic absorption losses. Additionally, practical conversion efficiency limits of dual-junction two-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell of 30% are achievable as reported in this work using state-of-the-art demonstrated devices. Additionally, various crystalline silicon (industry and laboratory demonstrated) technologies are used as the bottom cell for the current matched tandem cell stacks with higher relative improvements when using commercial c-Si solar cells. Moreover, the effect of eliminating the parasitic resistances and enhancing the external radiative efficiency (ERE) in the perovskite junction on tandem performance are also investigated enhancing the stack efficiencies.

  18. Multi-terminal multi-junction dc SQUID for nanoscale magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Uri, Aviram; Zeldov, Eli

    2016-11-01

    Miniaturization of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is of major importance for the development of sensitive scanning nanoscale magnetometry tools. The high sensitivity of nanoSQUIDs is restricted, however, to only particular periodic values of the applied magnetic field, making accurate measurements at intermediate values of the field impossible. We present a theoretical investigation of a multi-terminal, multi-junction SQUID (mSQUID) that lifts this limitation by providing electrical means for a continuous shift of the quantum interference pattern with respect to the applied field. Analysis of 4-terminal, 4-junction and 3-terminal, 3-junction mSQUIDs shows that operation at maximum sensitivity can be obtained at any value of the magnetic field by applying control current to the extra terminals. The model describes the variation and the shift of the interference pattern as a function of the control currents, junction asymmetries, and the mSQUID inductance. The mSQUID is also shown to provide a direct measurement of the current-phase relations of superconducting junctions. The derived model provides a quantitative description of the recently developed multi-terminal nanoSQUID-on-tip.

  19. Closing the gap in the Andreev spectrum in a three-terminal superconducting junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padurariu, Ciprian; Melin, Régis; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Rech, Jérôme; Martin, Thierry; Feinberg, Denis; Douçot, Benoît; Nazarov, Yuli

    2015-03-01

    Quasiclassical circuit theory is used to investigate transport in a mesoscopic junction with three superconducting terminals. Our study reveals the closing of the gap in the Andreev spectrum for a wide range of phase-biases and transparencies, in agreement with previous work. In this regime a superconducting current flows in the junction, while the proximity mini-gap is closed. The corresponding parameter region is studied systematically, both analytically in the low transparency limit and numerically. We provide a microscopic explanation for the closing of the gap in terms of multiple pair processes that correlate the superconducting currents flowing between different pairs of terminals. We show that multi-terminal superconducting junctions provide unique opportunities for applications in quantum devices based on Josephson and/or Majorana physics.

  20. Multisubband transport and magnetic deflection of Fermi electron trajectories in three terminal junctions and rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poniedziałek, M. R.; Szafran, B.

    2012-02-01

    We study the electron transport in three terminal junctions and quantum rings looking for the classical deflection of electron trajectories in the presence of intersubband scattering. We indicate that although the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and the Lorentz force effects co-exist in the low subband transport, for higher Fermi energies a simultaneous observation of both effects is difficult and calls for carefully formed structures. In particular, in quantum rings with channels wider than the input lead the Lorentz force is well resolved but the Aharonov-Bohm periodicity is lost in chaotic scattering events. In quantum rings with equal lengths of the channels and T-shaped junctions the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are distinctly periodic but the Lorentz force effects are not well pronounced. We find that systems with wedge-shaped junctions allow for observation of both the periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and the magnetic deflection.

  1. All-Graphene Three-Terminal-Junction Field-Effect Devices as Rectifiers and Inverters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjae; Li, Changfeng; Chekurov, Nikolai; Arpiainen, Sanna; Akinwande, Deji; Lipsanen, Harri; Riikonen, Juha

    2015-06-23

    We present prominent tunable and switchable room-temperature rectification performed at 100 kHz ac input utilizing micrometer-scale three-terminal junction field-effect devices. Monolayer CVD graphene is used as both a channel and a gate electrode to achieve all-graphene thin-film structure. Instead of ballistic theory, we explain the rectification characteristics through an electric-field capacitive model based on self-gating in the high source-drain bias regime. Previously, nanoscale graphene three-terminal junctions with the ballistic (or quasi-ballistic) operation have shown rectifications with relatively low efficiency. Compared to strict nanoscale requirements of ballistic devices, diffusive operation gives more freedom in design and fabrication, which we have exploited in the cascading device architecture. This is a significant step for all-graphene thin-film devices for integrated monolithic graphene circuits.

  2. Dynamical properties of three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions: Spintronics meets spin-orbitronics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasello, R.; Carpentieri, M.; Finocchio, G.

    2013-12-16

    This Letter introduces a micromagnetic model able to characterize the magnetization dynamics in three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, where the effects of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque are taken into account. Our results predict that the possibility to separate electrically those two torque sources is very promising from a technological point of view for both next generation of nanoscale spintronic oscillators and microwave detectors. A scalable synchronization scheme based on the parallel connection of those three terminal devices is also proposed.

  3. Analysis of Full-Test tools and their limitations as applied to terminal junction blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Discovery of unlocked contacts in Deutsch Block terminal junctions in Solid Rocket Booster flight hardware prompted an investigation into pull test techniques to help insure against possible failures. Internal frictional forces between socket and pin and between wire and grommet were examined. Pull test force must be greater than internal friction yet less than the crimp strength of the pin or socket. For this reason, a 100 percent accurate test is impossible. Test tools were evaluated. Available tools are adequate for pull testing.

  4. Optimization of junction termination extension for ultrahigh voltage 4H-SiC planar power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tongtong; Bai, Song; Huang, Runhua

    2017-04-01

    Numerical simulations on the optimization of junction termination extension (JTE) have been performed. Various termination techniques have been applied and simulated in this paper, such as single-zone JTE (S-JTE), multi-zone JTE (M-JTE), and space-modulated JTE (SM-JTE). A completely novel and efficient method is demonstrated in this paper to determine total length of SM-JTE, and it is verified through simulation results. The simulation results show that the SM-JTE could provide a protection efficiency (defined in Section 2) of 95.2%, which is much higher than that of M-JTE (82.4%) and S-JTE (64.7%). Based on the fabricated MOSFETs, the interface charge density is extracted and the approximate range of charge density has been determined. The influences of different interface charge densities have been investigated for the three termination techniques respectively. According to the previous reports, the JTE is quite sensitive to the implanted dose, so the blocking capability of each termination structure with different implanted doses is also simulated. The results show that when interface charge is considered, the SM-JTE always shows an enormous advantage over the other two junction termination structures, however the interface charge densities varied. The space-modulated JTE is also applicable to the power planar devices such as MOSFETs and IGBTs, which would provide a very promising lower fabrication cost.

  5. Dual-channel current valve in a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L

    2017-02-08

    We theoretically propose a dual-channel current valve based on a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction driven by three asymmetric time-dependent pumping potentials. By means of the Keldysh Green's function method, we show that two asymmetric charge currents can be pumped in the different left-right terminals of the device at a zero bias, which mainly stems from the single photon-assisted pumping approximation and the valley valve effect in a ZGNR p-n junction. The ON and OFF states of pumped charge currents are crucially dependent on the even-odd chain widths of the three electrodes, the pumping frequency, the lattice potential and the Fermi level. Two-tunneling spin valves are also considered to spatially separate and detect 100% polarized spin currents owing to the combined spin pump effect and the valley selective transport in a three terminal ZGNR ferromagnetic junction. Our investigations might be helpful to control the spatial and spin degrees of freedom of electrons in graphene pumping devices.

  6. Neurally Evoked Calcium Transients in Terminal Schwann Cells at the Neuromuscular Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reist, Noreen E.; Smith, Stephen J.

    1992-08-01

    We examined the effects of motor-nerve stimulation on the intracellular Ca2+ levels of Schwann cells, the glial cells at the frog neuromuscular junction. Schwann cells, which were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 and examined by confocal microscopy, showed a transient increase in free Ca2+ within a few seconds of the onset of tetanic stimulation of the motor nerve. The Ca2+ response was specific to the synapse in that it was found in the terminal Schwann cells at the junction but not in the myelinating Schwann cells along the axon. The Ca2+ transients occurred in the presence of d-tubocurare, indicating that they were not mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and recurred when the stimulus was repeated. The Ca2+ response persisted after degeneration of the postsynaptic muscle fiber, demonstrating that the terminal Schwann cell was stimulated directly by presynaptic activity. The finding that terminal Schwann cells at the neuromuscular junction respond to presynaptic activity suggests that glial-cell function is modulated by synaptic transmission.

  7. Dual-channel current valve in a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically propose a dual-channel current valve based on a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction driven by three asymmetric time-dependent pumping potentials. By means of the Keldysh Green’s function method, we show that two asymmetric charge currents can be pumped in the different left-right terminals of the device at a zero bias, which mainly stems from the single photon-assisted pumping approximation and the valley valve effect in a ZGNR p-n junction. The ON and OFF states of pumped charge currents are crucially dependent on the even-odd chain widths of the three electrodes, the pumping frequency, the lattice potential and the Fermi level. Two-tunneling spin valves are also considered to spatially separate and detect 100% polarized spin currents owing to the combined spin pump effect and the valley selective transport in a three terminal ZGNR ferromagnetic junction. Our investigations might be helpful to control the spatial and spin degrees of freedom of electrons in graphene pumping devices.

  8. Conductance through two-terminal graphene junctions with wetting metal contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Kindermann, Markus; Chou, Mei-Yin

    2012-02-01

    Metallic contacts become a relevant factor for the behavior of nanoscale graphene devices. A thin layer of a wetting metal --a metal that forms covalent bonds to graphene-- is customarily placed in between graphene and bulk leads. The most common choices for this wetting metal are Titanium, Chromium, and Palladium. We will present the equilibrium conductance through crystalline (defect- and impurity-free) two-terminal graphene junctions attached to normal, spin-unpolarized Titanium metal leads. In addition, we discuss the equilibrium potential profile across the junctions, and the presence of Fabry-Perot oscillations. The conductance shows pronounced noise, and the Fano factor near the Dirac point is seen to fluctuate, as in experiment [1]. The distribution of transmission eigenvalues is bimodal, indicating a disordered-metal-like charge transport through nanoscale two-terminal graphene junctions with wetting metals.[4pt] [1] L. DiCarlo, J. R. Williams, Y. Zhang, D. T. McClure, and C. M. Marcus. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156801 (2008).[0pt] [2] S. Barraza-Lopez, M. Kindermann, and M.-Y. Chou. (Manuscript in preparation.)

  9. Tight-binding model for amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions formed with carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Deok Hyeon; Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-05-01

    We measured the conductance of a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junction formed with carbon electrodes by using a scanning tunneling microscope based break-junction technique. The tight-binding model that includes the molecular backbone states accurately captured the experimentally measured the molecular conductance and the exponential decay trend of the conductance with the molecular backbone length. Furthermore, we found that this model tracked successfully the shift of the highest occupied molecular orbital toward the Fermi energy as increasing the molecular length. Finally, we found that the tight-binding model explaining more week coupling strength with the graphite electrode than that with the Au electrode is in quantitative agreement with the density functional theory calculations.

  10. Connexin50 couples axon terminals of mouse horizontal cells by homotypic gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Dorgau, Birthe; Herrling, Regina; Schultz, Konrad; Greb, Helena; Segelken, Jasmin; Ströh, Sebastian; Bolte, Petra; Weiler, Reto; Dedek, Karin; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    Horizontal cells in the mouse retina are of the axon-bearing B-type and contribute to the gain control of photoreceptors and to the center-surround organization of bipolar cells by providing feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. Horizontal cells form two independent networks, coupled by dendro-dendritic and axo-axonal gap junctions composed of connexin57 (Cx57). In Cx57-deficient mice, occasionally the residual tracer coupling of horizontal cell somata was observed. Also, negative feedback from horizontal cells to photoreceptors, potentially mediated by connexin hemichannels, appeared unaffected. These results point to the expression of a second connexin in mouse horizontal cells. We investigated the expression of Cx50, which was recently identified in axonless A-type horizontal cells of the rabbit retina. In the mouse retina, Cx50-immunoreactive puncta were predominantly localized on large axon terminals of horizontal cells. Electron microscopy did not reveal any Cx50-immunolabeling at the membrane of horizontal cell tips invaginating photoreceptor terminals, ruling out the involvement of Cx50 in negative feedback. Moreover, Cx50 colocalized only rarely with Cx57 on horizontal cell processes, indicating that both connexins form homotypic rather than heterotypic or heteromeric gap junctions. To check whether the expression of Cx50 is changed when Cx57 is lacking, we compared the Cx50 expression in wildtype and Cx57-deficient mice. However, Cx50 expression was unaffected in Cx57-deficient mice. In summary, our results indicate that horizontal cell axon terminals form two independent sets of homotypic gap junctions, a feature which might be important for light adaptation in the retina. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Magnetic oscillations driven by the spin Hall effect in 3-terminal magnetic tunnel junction devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luqiao; Pai, Chi-Feng; Ralph, D C; Buhrman, R A

    2012-11-02

    We show that a direct current in a tantalum microstrip can induce steady-state magnetic oscillations in an adjacent nanomagnet through spin torque from the spin Hall effect (SHE). The oscillations are detected electrically via a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) contacting the nanomagnet. The oscillation frequency can be controlled using the MTJ bias to tune the magnetic anisotropy. In this 3-terminal device, the SHE torque and the MTJ bias therefore provide independent controls of the oscillation amplitude and frequency, enabling new approaches for developing tunable spin torque nano-oscillators.

  12. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Honjo, H. Nebashi, R.; Tokutome, K.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Fukami, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Murahata, M.; Kasai, N.; Ishihara, K.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  13. A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bailie, Colin D.; Johlin, Eric C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Akey, Austin J.; Nguyen, William H.; McGehee, Michael D.; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-03-24

    With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband tunnel junction that facilitates majority-carrier charge recombination between the perovskite and silicon sub-cells. We demonstrate a 1 cm2 2-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell with a VOC as high as 1.65 V. As a result, we achieve a stable 13.7% power conversion efficiency with the perovskite as the current-limiting sub-cell, and identify key challenges for this device architecture to reach efficiencies over 25%.

  14. A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction

    DOE PAGES

    Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bailie, Colin D.; Johlin, Eric C.; ...

    2015-03-24

    With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband tunnel junction that facilitates majority-carrier charge recombination between the perovskite and silicon sub-cells. We demonstrate a 1 cm2 2-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell with a VOC as high as 1.65 V. As a result, we achieve a stable 13.7% power conversion efficiency with the perovskite as the current-limiting sub-cell, and identify key challenges for this device architecture to reach efficiencies over 25%.

  15. Spin-orbit torque magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Cubukcu, Murat; Boulle, Olivier; Drouard, Marc; Mihai Miron, Ioan; Gaudin, Gilles; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold

    2014-01-27

    We report on the current-induced magnetization switching of a three-terminal perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction by spin-orbit torque and its read-out using the tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. The device is composed of a perpendicular Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB stack on top of a Ta current line. The magnetization of the bottom FeCoB layer can be switched reproducibly by the injection of current pulses with density 5 × 10{sup 11} A/m{sup 2} in the Ta layer in the presence of an in-plane bias magnetic field, leading to the full-scale change of the TMR signal. Our work demonstrates the proof of concept of a perpendicular spin-orbit torque magnetic memory cell.

  16. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honjo, H.; Fukami, S.; Ishihara, K.; Nebashi, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Tokutome, K.; Murahata, M.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Kasai, N.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  17. Partially resummed perturbation theory for multiple Andreev reflections in a short three-terminal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélin, Régis; Feinberg, Denis; Douçot, Benoît

    2016-03-01

    In a transparent three-terminal Josephson junction, modeling nonequilibrium transport is numerically challenging, owing to the interplay between multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) thresholds and multipair resonances in the pair current. An approximate method, coined as "partially resummed perturbation theory in the number of nonlocal Green's functions", is presented that can be operational on a standard computer and demonstrates compatibility with results existing in the literature. In a linear structure made of two neighboring interfaces (with intermediate transparency) connected by a central superconductor, tunneling through each of the interfaces separately is taken into account to all orders. On the contrary, nonlocal processes connecting the two interfaces are accounted for at the lowest relevant order. This yields logarithmically divergent contributions at the gap edges, which are sufficient as a semi-quantitative description. The method is able to describe the current in the full two-dimensional voltage range, including commensurate as well as incommensurate values. The results found for the multipair (for instance quartet) current-phase characteristics as well as the MAR thresholds are compatible with previous results. At intermediate transparency, the multipair critical current is much larger than the background MAR current, which supports an experimental observation of the quartet and multipair resonances. The paper provides a proof of principle for addressing in the future the interplay between quasiparticles and multipairs in four-terminal structures.

  18. The shaking B gene in Drosophila regulates the number of gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the lamina.

    PubMed

    Shimohigashi, M; Meinertzhagen, I A

    1998-04-01

    The molecular structure of insect gap junctions differs from that in vertebrates, and in Drosophila is possibly encoded by the shaking B (= Passover) locus. shaking B2 is a null allele that acts in the nervous system. In the shakB2 mutant, one site of action are gap junctions between photoreceptor terminals in the cartridges of the lamina, beneath the compound eye, which we assayed from the number of close-apposition profiles in thin-section EM. The number of profiles in the Canton-S (C-S) wild type is about 0.5 per cartridge per section in distal and mid-lamina depths, and significantly less, about one quarter this value, closer to the brain, in the proximal lamina. In shakB2, there are fewer profiles, approximately one quarter the number of appositions in distal and mid-lamina depths as in C-S, and their number does not differ significantly from those at the proximal depth in either the mutant or wild type. Thus mutant action is associated with a reduced number of appositions at distal and mid-lamina depths. We propose that R1-R6 gap junctions are partitioned into at least two strata, proximal and distal, and that two populations of gap junctions exist, one extending throughout the lamina that does not require shakB, and a second at distal and mid-depth levels, which does. The number of gap junctions is reduced in mutant shakB2, and surviving appositions at distal and middle lamina depths possibly have wider clefts than in C-S. Gap junctions are reduced equally between all R1-R6 terminals, so the two different types of junction proposed, shakB2- and non-shakB2-dependent, can apparently express in a single receptor terminal.

  19. [Cisterna chyli ablation in three cats with idiopathic chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Thiel, C; Held, S; Kramer, M

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of three cats with chronic, idiopathic chylothorax treated with ablation of the cisterna chyli as an additional or a sole surgical treatment. Results of clinical and diagnostic examination, therapy and course of disease in three cats as well as the surgical technique of ablation of the cisterna chyli in cats are described. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications regarding cisterna chyli ablation. Intraoperative visualization of the cisterna chyli is easily achieved by administering a small portion of a fatty aliment preoperatively or by injection of diluted methylene blue into the lymphatic system intraoperatively. Ablation of the cisterna chyli was performed following an unsuccessful ligation of the thoracic duct, in combination with the ligation of the thoracic duct and subtotal pericardectomy or as a single surgical treatment. Cisterna chyli ablation can be performed without complications in cats. This technique should be considered in cases of previously failed surgical therapy or as an adjunct therapy used with other surgical options to decrease the risk of recurrence.

  20. In-Operando Spatial Imaging of Edge Termination Electric Fields in GaN Vertical p-n Junction Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Francois; Dickerson, J. R.; King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Fischer, A. J.; Allerman, A. A.; Kaplar, R. J.; Talin, A. Albert

    2016-05-03

    Control of electric fields with edge terminations is critical to maximize the performance of high-power electronic devices. We proposed a variety of edge termination designs which makes the optimization of such designs challenging due to many parameters that impact their effectiveness. And while modeling has recently allowed new insight into the detailed workings of edge terminations, the experimental verification of the design effectiveness is usually done through indirect means, such as the impact on breakdown voltages. In this letter, we use scanning photocurrent microscopy to spatially map the electric fields in vertical GaN p-n junction diodes in operando. We also reveal the complex behavior of seemingly simple edge termination designs, and show how the device breakdown voltage correlates with the electric field behavior. Modeling suggests that an incomplete compensation of the p-type layer in the edge termination creates a bilayer structure that leads to these effects, with variations that significantly impact the breakdown voltage.

  1. In-Operando Spatial Imaging of Edge Termination Electric Fields in GaN Vertical p-n Junction Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Francois; Dickerson, J. R.; King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Fischer, A. J.; Allerman, A. A.; Kaplar, R. J.; Talin, A. Albert

    2016-05-03

    Control of electric fields with edge terminations is critical to maximize the performance of high-power electronic devices. We proposed a variety of edge termination designs which makes the optimization of such designs challenging due to many parameters that impact their effectiveness. And while modeling has recently allowed new insight into the detailed workings of edge terminations, the experimental verification of the design effectiveness is usually done through indirect means, such as the impact on breakdown voltages. In this letter, we use scanning photocurrent microscopy to spatially map the electric fields in vertical GaN p-n junction diodes in operando. We also reveal the complex behavior of seemingly simple edge termination designs, and show how the device breakdown voltage correlates with the electric field behavior. Modeling suggests that an incomplete compensation of the p-type layer in the edge termination creates a bilayer structure that leads to these effects, with variations that significantly impact the breakdown voltage.

  2. Progress toward a 30 percent-efficient, monolithic, three-junction, two-terminal concentrator solar cell for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partain, L. D.; Chung, B.-C.; Virshup, G. F.; Schultz, J. C.; Macmillan, H. F.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Kuryla, M. S.; Bertness, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    Component efficiencies of 0.2/sq cm cells at approximately 100x AMO light concentration and 80 C temperatures are not at 15.3 percent for a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top cell, 9.9 percent for a 1.4 eV GaAs middle cell under a 1.9 eV AlGaAs filter, and 2.4 percent for a bottom 1.0 eV InGaAs cell under a GaAs substrate. The goal is to continue improvement in these performance levels and to sequentially grow these devices on a single substrate to give 30 percent efficient, monolithic, two-terminal, three-junction space concentrator cells. The broad objective is a 30 percent efficient monolithic two-terminal cell that can operate under 25 to 100x AMO light concentrations and at 75 to 100 C cell temperatures. Detailed modeling predicts that this requires three junctions. Two options are being pursued, and both use a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top junction and a 1.4 eV GaAs middle junction grown by a 1 atm OMVPE on a lattice matched substrate. Option 1 uses a low-doped GaAs substrate with a lattice mismatched 1.0 eV InGaAs cell formed on the back of the substrate. Option 2 uses a Ge substrate to which the AlGaAs and GaAs top junctions are lattice matched, with a bottom 0.7 eV Ge junction formed near the substrate interface with the GaAs growth. The projected efficiency contributions are near 16, 11, and 3 percent, respectively, from the top, middle, and bottom junctions.

  3. Theoretical efficiency limit for a two-terminal multi-junction "step-cell" using detailed balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hadi, Sabina; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2016-02-01

    Here we present detailed balance efficiency limit for a novel two-terminal dual and triple junction "step-cell" under AM 1.5G and AM 0 incident spectrums. The step-cell is a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell in which part of the top cell is removed, exposing some of the bottom cell area to unfiltered incident light, thus increasing bottom cell's photogenerated current. Optical generation of the bottom cell is modeled in two parts: step part, limited by the bottom cell bandgap, and conventional part, additionally limited by the top cell absorption. Our results show that conventionally designed MJ cell with optimized bandgap combination of 1.64 eV/0.96 eV for dual junction and 1.91 eV/1.37 eV/0.93 eV for triple junction has the highest theoretical efficiency limit. However, the step-cell design provides significant efficiency improvement for cells with non-optimum bandgap values. For example, for 1.41 eV ( ˜GaAs)/Si dual junction under AM 1.5G, efficiency limit increases from ˜21% in a conventional design to 38.7% for optimized step-cell. Similar benefits are observed for three-junction step-cell and for AM 0 spectrum studied here. Step-cell relaxes bandgap requirements for efficient MJ solar cells, providing an opportunity for a wider selection of materials and cost reduction.

  4. Long terminal repeat of murine retroviral DNAs: sequence analysis, host-proviral junctions, and preintegration site.

    PubMed Central

    Van Beveren, C; Rands, E; Chattopadhyay, S K; Lowy, D R; Verma, I M

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of three murine retroviral DNAs has been determined. The data indicate that the U5 region (sequences originating from the 5' end of the genome) of various LTRs is more conserved than the U3 region (sequences from the 3' end of the genome). The location and sequence of the control elements such as the 5' cap, "TATA-like" sequences, "CCAAT-box," and presumptive polyadenylic acid addition signal AATAAA in the various LTRs are nearly identical. Some murine retroviral DNAs contain a duplication of sequences within the LTR ranging in size from 58 to 100 base pairs. A variant of molecularly cloned Moloney murine sarcoma virus DNA in which one of the two LTRs integrated into the viral DNA was also analyzed. A 4-base-pair duplication was generated at the site of integration of LTR in the viral DNA. The host-viral junction of two molecularly cloned AKR-murine leukemia virus DNAs (clones 623 and 614) was determined. In the case of AKR-623 DNA, a 3- or 4-base-pair direct repeat of cellular sequences flanking the viral DNA was observed. However, AKR-614 DNA contained a 5-base-pair repeat of cellular sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the preintegration site of AKR-623 DNA revealed that the cellular sequences duplicated during integration are present only once. Finally, a striking homology between the sequences flanking the preintegration site and viral LTRs was observed. Images PMID:6281466

  5. Analytically determined topological phase diagram of the proximity-induced gap in diffusive n-terminal Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Morten; Ouassou, Jabir Ali; Linder, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Multiterminal Josephson junctions have recently been proposed as a route to artificially mimic topological matter with the distinct advantage that its properties can be controlled via the superconducting phase difference, giving rise to Weyl points in 4-terminal geometries. A key goal is to accurately determine when the system makes a transition from a gapped to non-gapped state as a function of the phase differences in the system, the latter effectively playing the role of quasiparticle momenta in conventional topological matter. We here determine the proximity gap phase diagram of diffusive n-terminal Josephson junctions (), both numerically and analytically, by identifying a class of solutions to the Usadel equation at zero energy in the full proximity effect regime. We present an analytical equation which provides the phase diagram for an arbitrary number of terminals n. After briefly demonstrating the validity of the analytical approach in the previously studied 2- and 3-terminal cases, we focus on the 4-terminal case and map out the regimes where the electronic excitations in the system are gapped and non-gapped, respectively, demonstrating also in this case full agreement between the analytical and numerical approach. PMID:28094289

  6. Analytically determined topological phase diagram of the proximity-induced gap in diffusive n-terminal Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, Morten; Ouassou, Jabir Ali; Linder, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Multiterminal Josephson junctions have recently been proposed as a route to artificially mimic topological matter with the distinct advantage that its properties can be controlled via the superconducting phase difference, giving rise to Weyl points in 4-terminal geometries. A key goal is to accurately determine when the system makes a transition from a gapped to non-gapped state as a function of the phase differences in the system, the latter effectively playing the role of quasiparticle momenta in conventional topological matter. We here determine the proximity gap phase diagram of diffusive n-terminal Josephson junctions (), both numerically and analytically, by identifying a class of solutions to the Usadel equation at zero energy in the full proximity effect regime. We present an analytical equation which provides the phase diagram for an arbitrary number of terminals n. After briefly demonstrating the validity of the analytical approach in the previously studied 2- and 3-terminal cases, we focus on the 4-terminal case and map out the regimes where the electronic excitations in the system are gapped and non-gapped, respectively, demonstrating also in this case full agreement between the analytical and numerical approach.

  7. Hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Nagai, Y; Fujimoto, S; Sobajima, H; Kobayashi, M; Togari, H; Wada, Y

    1993-08-15

    This is the first report of hereditary nodular heterotopia accompanied by mega cisterna magna. Magnetic resonance imaging documented multiple bilateral subependymal nodules, which were isointense to gray matter. This disease entity is considered a dominant trait, since the mother and two daughters, half-sisters, were affected.

  8. Stretching of BDT-gold molecular junctions: thiol or thiolate termination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Amaury De Melo; Rungger, Ivan; Pontes, Renato Borges; Rocha, Alexandre Reily; da Silva, Antônio José Roque; Schwingenschlöegl, Udo; Sanvito, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    It is often assumed that the hydrogen atoms in the thiol groups of a benzene-1,4-dithiol dissociate when Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions are formed. We demonstrate, by stability and transport property calculations, that this assumption cannot be made. We show that the dissociative adsorption of methanethiol and benzene-1,4-dithiol molecules on a flat Au(111) surface is energetically unfavorable and that the activation barrier for this reaction is as high as 1 eV. For the molecule in the junction, our results show, for all electrode geometries studied, that the thiol junctions are energetically more stable than their thiolate counterparts. Due to the fact that density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) underestimates the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital by several electron-volts, and that it does not capture the renormalization of the energy levels due to the image charge effect, the conductance of the Au-benzene-1,4-dithiol-Au junctions is overestimated. After taking into account corrections due to image charge effects by means of constrained-DFT calculations and electrostatic classical models, we apply a scissor operator to correct the DFT energy level positions, and calculate the transport properties of the thiol and thiolate molecular junctions as a function of the electrode separation. For the thiol junctions, we show that the conductance decreases as the electrode separation increases, whereas the opposite trend is found for the thiolate junctions. Both behaviors have been observed in experiments, therefore pointing to the possible coexistence of both thiol and thiolate junctions. Moreover, the corrected conductance values, for both thiol and thiolate, are up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those calculated with DFT-LDA. This brings the theoretical results in quantitatively good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Potential distribution in voltage terminating structures with floating p-n junction rings of silicon radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Verbitskaya, E. V. Eremin, V. K.; Safonova, N. N.; Eremin, I. V.; Tuboltsev, Yu. V.; Golubkov, S. A.; Konkov, K. A.

    2011-04-15

    A model of the potential distribution in voltage terminating structures (VTSs) with floating p{sup +}-n junction rings in silicon radiation detectors is proposed. The model is based on experimental current-voltage characteristic of interring gaps, measured for detectors based on high-resistivity silicon with resistivities from 1 to 25 k{Omega} cm. The physical basis of the model is the injection principle of current flow through VTS interring gaps, which becomes possible at a certain electric field distribution in space charge regions of p{sup +}-n junctions of the sensitive contact and rings. It is shown that the injection current flow is a universal operation principle of the VTS with floating rings, which leads to rigid stabilization of potentials of individual rings. As a result, it becomes possible to divide the potential irrespective of the semiconductor material resistivity.

  10. Specific protein-protein interactions of calsequestrin with junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, E.; Margreth, A. )

    1990-11-15

    Minor protein components of triads and of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) terminal cisternae (TC), i.e. 47 and 37 kDa peptides and 31-30 kDa and 26-25 kDa peptide doublets, were identified from their ability to bind {sup 125}I calsequestrin (CS) in the presence of EGTA. The CS-binding peptides are specifically associated with the junctional membrane of TC, since they could not be detected in junctional transverse tubules and in longitudinal SR fragments. The 31-30 kDa peptide doublet, exclusively, did not bind CS in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. Thus, different types of protein-protein interactions appear to be involved in selective binding of CS to junctional TC.

  11. In-Operando Spatial Imaging of Edge Termination Electric Fields in GaN Vertical p-n Junction Diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Francois; Dickerson, J. R.; King, M. P.; ...

    2016-05-03

    Control of electric fields with edge terminations is critical to maximize the performance of high-power electronic devices. We proposed a variety of edge termination designs which makes the optimization of such designs challenging due to many parameters that impact their effectiveness. And while modeling has recently allowed new insight into the detailed workings of edge terminations, the experimental verification of the design effectiveness is usually done through indirect means, such as the impact on breakdown voltages. In this letter, we use scanning photocurrent microscopy to spatially map the electric fields in vertical GaN p-n junction diodes in operando. We alsomore » reveal the complex behavior of seemingly simple edge termination designs, and show how the device breakdown voltage correlates with the electric field behavior. Modeling suggests that an incomplete compensation of the p-type layer in the edge termination creates a bilayer structure that leads to these effects, with variations that significantly impact the breakdown voltage.« less

  12. Origin of the broad three-terminal Hanle signals in Fe/SiO{sub 2}/Si tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Nakane, Ryosho

    2015-07-20

    Lorentzian-shaped broader three-terminal Hanle (B-3TH) signals are observed in Fe/SiO{sub 2}/Si tunnel junction devices at 6–300 K. We propose a spin conducting model, which explains all the characteristics of our experimental results, such as field angle dependence and bias dependence of the B-3TH signals, as well as experimental results reported by other groups. It was found that the shape of the B-3TH signals is determined by the spin depolarization at the Fe/SiO{sub 2} interface caused by local magnetic fields, unlike the conventional understanding. The shape of the B-3TH signals, including narrower and inverted Hanle signals, reflects the magnetic order of an ultrathin paramagnetic layer formed at the Fe/SiO{sub 2} interface. Our model provides a unified explanation of the B-3TH signals observed in three-terminal Hanle measurements.

  13. Design of a low-power nonvolatile flip-flop using three-terminal magnetic-tunnel-junction-based self-terminated mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2017-04-01

    A nonvolatile flip-flop (NV-FF) using a three-terminal magnetic tunnel junction (3T-MTJ)-based self-terminated mechanism is proposed for a low-power logic LSI while maintaining almost the same performance as a conventional CMOS-based logic LSI. The use of a self-terminated mechanism, which continuously monitors the change in MTJ resistance, makes it possible not only to minimize the write energy consumption for the 3T-MTJ device but also to ensure a reliable write. Moreover, since the write current path is separated from the read current path in the 3T-MTJ device, the sensing circuit and the write driver are individually optimized, which makes it possible to minimize the performance overhead due to additional components. As a result, the write energy of the proposed NV-FF is reduced by 69% with a small performance overhead compared with that of a conventional NV-FF using a worst-case-oriented writing scheme.

  14. Tunable pseudogaps due to nonlocal coherent transport in voltage-biased three-terminal Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padurariu, C.; Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Martin, T.; Feinberg, D.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the proximity effect in junctions between N =3 superconductors under commensurate voltage bias. The bias is chosen to highlight the role of transport processes that exchange multiple Cooper pairs coherently between more than two superconductors. Such nonlocal processes can be studied in the dc response, where local transport processes do not contribute. We focus on the proximity-induced normal density of states that we investigate in a wide parameter space. We reveal the presence of deep and highly tunable pseudogaps and other rich structures. These are due to a static proximity effect that is absent for N =2 and is sensitive to an emergent superconducting phase associated to nonlocal coherent transport. In comparison with results for N =2 , we find similarities in the signature peaks of multiple Andreev reflections. We discuss the effect of electron-hole decoherence and of various types of junction asymmetries. Our predictions can be investigated experimentally using tunneling spectroscopy.

  15. Ohmic shunts in two-terminal dual-junction solar cells with current mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo, Felipe; Liu, Zhe; Ren, Zekun; Thway, Maung; Buonassisi, Tonio; Marius Peters, Ian

    2017-08-01

    The impact of ohmic shunts on the current-voltage characteristics of single junction solar cells is well understood. Yet, for monolithic dual-junction solar cells, the effects of shunts have far less been investigated, especially if there is a current mismatch between the two sub cells. In this work, we investigate theoretically and experimentally how current-voltage characteristics of a monolithic GaAs/GaAs tandem solar cell depend on shunts in the top or the bottom sub cell, when either of this sub cells is current limiting. The open-circuit voltage of the device is observed to transition to the open-circuit voltage of the non-shunted sub cell as the shunting increases. In the same way, the fill factor is found to be more significantly affected when ohmic shunts occur in the current-limiting sub cell. Finally, as the current-limiting sub cell is shunted, the short-circuit current of the device is observed to transition to the short-circuit current of the non-current-limiting sub cell. These results allow identifying the shunted sub cell and enable characterization of ohmic shunts under current limiting conditions in dual-junction solar cells.

  16. From junction to terminal: Extended reciprocity relations in solar cell operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, J.; Green, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic reciprocity relations for solar cells in their differential forms are extended to account for series-resistance effects. They are expressed in terms of the terminal current and voltage at any device-operating point. Three new reciprocity relations are derived for the carrier collection efficiency density, current transport efficiency, and the current conversion efficiency, whose definition and use are discussed. The potential usefulness of these relations in electroluminescence imaging, spectral response measurements, and solar cell modeling is outlined.

  17. Neuregulin1 displayed on motor axons regulates terminal Schwann cell-mediated synapse elimination at developing neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Il; Li, Yue; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H; Thompson, Wesley J

    2016-01-26

    Synaptic connections in the nervous system are rearranged during development and in adulthood as a feature of growth, plasticity, aging, and disease. Glia are implicated as active participants in these changes. Here we investigated a signal that controls the participation of peripheral glia, the terminal Schwann cells (SCs), at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice. Transgenic manipulation of the levels of membrane-tethered neuregulin1 (NRG1-III), a potent activator of SCs normally presented on motor axons, alters the rate of loss of motor inputs at NMJs during developmental synapse elimination. In addition, NMJs of adult transgenic mice that expressed excess axonal NRG1-III exhibited continued remodeling, in contrast to the more stable morphologies of controls. In fact, synaptic SCs of these adult mice with NRG1-III overexpression exhibited behaviors evident in wild type neonates during synapse elimination, including an affinity for the postsynaptic myofiber surface and phagocytosis of nerve terminals. Given that levels of NRG1-III expression normally peak during the period of synapse elimination, our findings identify axon-tethered NRG1 as a molecular determinant for SC-driven neuromuscular synaptic plasticity.

  18. Neuregulin1 displayed on motor axons regulates terminal Schwann cell-mediated synapse elimination at developing neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H.; Thompson, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic connections in the nervous system are rearranged during development and in adulthood as a feature of growth, plasticity, aging, and disease. Glia are implicated as active participants in these changes. Here we investigated a signal that controls the participation of peripheral glia, the terminal Schwann cells (SCs), at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice. Transgenic manipulation of the levels of membrane-tethered neuregulin1 (NRG1-III), a potent activator of SCs normally presented on motor axons, alters the rate of loss of motor inputs at NMJs during developmental synapse elimination. In addition, NMJs of adult transgenic mice that expressed excess axonal NRG1-III exhibited continued remodeling, in contrast to the more stable morphologies of controls. In fact, synaptic SCs of these adult mice with NRG1-III overexpression exhibited behaviors evident in wild type neonates during synapse elimination, including an affinity for the postsynaptic myofiber surface and phagocytosis of nerve terminals. Given that levels of NRG1-III expression normally peak during the period of synapse elimination, our findings identify axon-tethered NRG1 as a molecular determinant for SC-driven neuromuscular synaptic plasticity. PMID:26755586

  19. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo study of three-terminal junctions based on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadi, Toufik; Dessenne, François; Thobel, Jean-Luc

    2009-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional (3D) semiclassical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation method to study T-branch junctions based on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures and obtain an accurate insight into the physics behind the operation of such structures. Electron transport in these devices is investigated and their rectifying behavior is demonstrated at 77 and 300 K and for different branch sizes. Detailed device analysis is performed to establish the relationship between the extent of ballistic transport and the rectifying behavior of the junctions and show the influence of surface charge effects, which are carefully included in the model. Results from the simulation of a T-branch junction with a Schottky gate terminal are presented, demonstrating the necessity of using 3D simulation models to study the physics of semiconductor junctions.

  20. Tuned NV emission by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions on hydrogen terminated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyvogel, Christoph; Wolfer, Marco; Kato, Hiromitsu; Schreck, Matthias; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2014-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre exhibits outstanding optical and spin properties and thus is very attractive for applications in quantum optics. Up to now an active control of the charge state of near-surface NV centres is difficult and the centres switch in an uncontrolled way between different charge states. In this work, we demonstrate an active control of the charge state of NV centres (implanted 7 nm below the surface) by using an in-plane Schottky diode geometry from aluminium on hydrogen terminated diamond in combination with confocal micro-photoluminescence measurements. The partial quenching of NV-photoluminescence caused by the hole accumulation layer of the hydrogen terminated surface can be recovered by applying reverse bias potentials on this diode, i.e. the NV0 charge state is depleted while the NV- charge state is populated. This charge state conversion is caused by the bias voltage affected modulation of the band bending in the depletion region which shifts the Fermi level across the NV charge transition levels.

  1. Logic circuit prototypes for three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions with mobile domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currivan-Incorvia, J. A.; Siddiqui, S.; Dutta, S.; Evarts, E. R.; Zhang, J.; Bono, D.; Ross, C. A.; Baldo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Spintronic computing promises superior energy efficiency and nonvolatility compared to conventional field-effect transistor logic. But, it has proven difficult to realize spintronic circuits with a versatile, scalable device design that is adaptable to emerging material physics. Here we present prototypes of a logic device that encode information in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire. We show that a single three-terminal device can perform inverter and buffer operations. We demonstrate one device can drive two subsequent gates and logic propagation in a circuit of three inverters. This prototype demonstration shows that magnetic domain wall logic devices have the necessary characteristics for future computing, including nonlinearity, gain, cascadability, and room temperature operation.

  2. Logic circuit prototypes for three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions with mobile domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Currivan-Incorvia, J. A.; Siddiqui, S.; Dutta, S.; Evarts, E. R.; Zhang, J.; Bono, D.; Ross, C. A.; Baldo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Spintronic computing promises superior energy efficiency and nonvolatility compared to conventional field-effect transistor logic. But, it has proven difficult to realize spintronic circuits with a versatile, scalable device design that is adaptable to emerging material physics. Here we present prototypes of a logic device that encode information in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire. We show that a single three-terminal device can perform inverter and buffer operations. We demonstrate one device can drive two subsequent gates and logic propagation in a circuit of three inverters. This prototype demonstration shows that magnetic domain wall logic devices have the necessary characteristics for future computing, including nonlinearity, gain, cascadability, and room temperature operation. PMID:26754412

  3. Logic circuit prototypes for three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions with mobile domain walls.

    PubMed

    Currivan-Incorvia, J A; Siddiqui, S; Dutta, S; Evarts, E R; Zhang, J; Bono, D; Ross, C A; Baldo, M A

    2016-01-12

    Spintronic computing promises superior energy efficiency and nonvolatility compared to conventional field-effect transistor logic. But, it has proven difficult to realize spintronic circuits with a versatile, scalable device design that is adaptable to emerging material physics. Here we present prototypes of a logic device that encode information in the position of a magnetic domain wall in a ferromagnetic wire. We show that a single three-terminal device can perform inverter and buffer operations. We demonstrate one device can drive two subsequent gates and logic propagation in a circuit of three inverters. This prototype demonstration shows that magnetic domain wall logic devices have the necessary characteristics for future computing, including nonlinearity, gain, cascadability, and room temperature operation.

  4. The junction of Hellenic and Cyprus arcs: the Bey Daglari lineament, offshore termination of the Antalya Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogacz, A.; Hall, J.; Çifçi, G.; Yaşar, D.; Küçük, M.; Yaltırak, C.; Aksu, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Antalya Basin is one of a series of basins that sweep along the Cyprus Arc in the forearc region between the (formerly) volcanic Tauride Mountains on Turkey in the north and the subduction zone and associated suture between the African plate and the Aegean-Anatolian microplate in the eastern Mediterranean, south of Cyprus. Miocene contraction occurs widely on southwest verging thrusts. Pliocene-Quaternary structures vary from extension/transtension in the northeast, adjacent to the Turkish coastline, to transpression in the southwest, farther offshore. All these structures are truncated at the northwest end of the Antalya Basin by a broad zone of NNE-SSW-trending transverse structure that appears to represent a prolongation of the extreme easterly transform end of the Hellenic arc. Our mapping suggests that this broad zone links the Hellenic Arc with the Isparta Angle in southern Turkey, which we suggest is an earlier location of the junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs: the junction migrated to the southwest over time, as the Hellenic Arc rolled back. The Turkish coastline turns from parallel to the Antalya Basin structures in the east to a N-S orientation, cutting across the trend of the Antalya Basin. The Antalya Complex and the Bey Dağlari Mountains provide a spectacular backdrop to this edge of the offshore basin. Somewhere offshore lies the structural termination of the Antalya Basin. In 2001, we acquired around 400 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data across the western end of the Antalya Basin to explore the nature of the termination, which we call the Bey Dağlari lineament. We present a selection of the seismic profiles with interpretation of the nature and Neogene history of the lineament. Landward of the N-S-trending coastline, ophiolites of the Antalya Complex are exposed in a series of westerly-verging thrust slivers that extend to the carbonate sequences of the Bey Dağlari Mountains. Our seismic data indicate that N

  5. The Junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs: the Bey Daglari Lineament, Offshore Termination of the Antalya Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogacz, A.; Hall, J.; Cifci, G.; Yasar, D.; Kucuk, M.; Yaltirak, C.; Aksu, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Antalya Basin is one of a series of basins that sweep along the Cyprus Arc in the forearc region between the (formerly) volcanic Tauride Mountains on Turkey in the north and the subduction zone and associated suture between the African plate and the Aegean-Anatolian microplate in the eastern Mediterranean, south of Cyprus. Miocene contraction occurs widely on southwest verging thrusts. Pliocene-Quaternary structures vary from extension/transtension in the northeast, adjacent to the Turkish coastline, to transpression in the southwest, farther offshore. All these structures are truncated at the northwest end of the Antalya Basin by a broad zone of NNE-SSW-trending transverse structure that appears to represent a prolongation of the extreme easterly transform end of the Hellenic arc. Our mapping suggests that this broad zone links the Hellenic Arc with the Isparta Angle in southern Turkey, which we suggest is an earlier location of the junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs: the junction migrated to the southwest over time, as the Hellenic Arc rolled back. The Turkish coastline turns from parallel to the Antalya Basin structures in the east to a N-S orientation, cutting across the trend of the Antalya Basin. The Antalya Complex and the Bey Dağları Mountains provide a spectacular backdrop to this edge of the offshore basin. Somewhere offshore lies the structural termination of the Antalya Basin. In 2001, we acquired around 400 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data across the western end of the Antalya Basin to explore the nature of the termination, which we call the Bey Dağları lineament. We present a selection of the seismic profiles with interpretation of the nature and Neogene history of the lineament. Landward of the N-S-trending coastline, ophiolites of the Antalya Complex are exposed in a series of westerly-verging thrust slivers that extend to the carbonate sequences of the Bey Dağları Mountains. Our seismic data indicate that N

  6. Aging Drosophila melanogaster display altered pre- and postsynaptic ultrastructure at adult neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole; Laugks, Ulrike; Heckmann, Manfred; Asan, Esther; Neuser, Kirsa

    2015-11-01

    Although age-related changes in synaptic plasticity are an important focus within neuroscience, little is known about ultrastructural changes of synaptic morphology during aging. Here we report how aging affects synaptic ultrastructure by using fluorescence and electron microscopy at the adult Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of ventral abdominal muscles. Mainly four striking morphological changes of aging NMJs were revealed. 1) Bouton size increases with proportionally rising number of active zones (AZs). 2) Synaptic vesicle density at AZs is increased in old flies. 3) Late endosomes, cisternae, and multivesicular bodies accumulate in the presynaptic terminal, and vesicles accumulate between membranes of the terminal bouton and the subsynaptic reticulum. 4) The electron-dense pre- and postsynaptic apposition is expanded in aging NMJs, which is accompanied by an expansion of the postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. These findings suggest that aging is possibly accompanied by impaired synaptic vesicle release and recycling and a potentially compensatory expansion of AZs and postsynaptic densities.

  7. Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xing; Bower, Christopher A.; Bonafede, Salvatore; Wilson, John W.; Fisher, Brent; Meitl, Matthew; Yuen, Homan; Wang, Shuodao; Shen, Ling; Banks, Anthony R.; Corcoran, Christopher J.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Burroughs, Scott; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    Expenses associated with shipping, installation, land, regulatory compliance and on-going maintenance and operations of utility-scale photovoltaics can be significantly reduced by increasing the power conversion efficiency of solar modules through improved materials, device designs and strategies for light management. Single-junction cells have performance constraints defined by their Shockley-Queisser limits. Multi-junction cells can achieve higher efficiencies, but epitaxial and current matching requirements between the single junctions in the devices hinder progress. Mechanical stacking of independent multi-junction cells circumvents these disadvantages. Here we present a fabrication approach for the realization of mechanically assembled multi-junction cells using materials and techniques compatible with large-scale manufacturing. The strategy involves printing-based stacking of microscale solar cells, sol-gel processes for interlayers with advanced optical, electrical and thermal properties, together with unusual packaging techniques, electrical matching networks, and compact ultrahigh-concentration optics. We demonstrate quadruple-junction, four-terminal solar cells with measured efficiencies of 43.9% at concentrations exceeding 1,000 suns, and modules with efficiencies of 36.5%.

  8. Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xing; Bower, Christopher A; Bonafede, Salvatore; Wilson, John W; Fisher, Brent; Meitl, Matthew; Yuen, Homan; Wang, Shuodao; Shen, Ling; Banks, Anthony R; Corcoran, Christopher J; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Burroughs, Scott; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-01

    Expenses associated with shipping, installation, land, regulatory compliance and on-going maintenance and operations of utility-scale photovoltaics can be significantly reduced by increasing the power conversion efficiency of solar modules through improved materials, device designs and strategies for light management. Single-junction cells have performance constraints defined by their Shockley-Queisser limits. Multi-junction cells can achieve higher efficiencies, but epitaxial and current matching requirements between the single junctions in the devices hinder progress. Mechanical stacking of independent multi-junction cells circumvents these disadvantages. Here we present a fabrication approach for the realization of mechanically assembled multi-junction cells using materials and techniques compatible with large-scale manufacturing. The strategy involves printing-based stacking of microscale solar cells, sol-gel processes for interlayers with advanced optical, electrical and thermal properties, together with unusual packaging techniques, electrical matching networks, and compact ultrahigh-concentration optics. We demonstrate quadruple-junction, four-terminal solar cells with measured efficiencies of 43.9% at concentrations exceeding 1,000 suns, and modules with efficiencies of 36.5%.

  9. High-voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes with the etched implant junction termination extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juntao; Xiao, Chengquan; Xu, Xingliang; Dai, Gang; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, An; Yang, Yingkun; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of an etched implant junction termination extension (JTE) for high-voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes. Unlike the conventional JTE structure, the proposed structure utilizes multiple etching steps to achieve the optimum JTE concentration range. The simulation results show that the etched implant JTE method can improve the blocking voltage of SiC PiN diodes and also provides broad process latitude for parameter variations, such as implantation dose and activation annealing condition. The fabricated SiC PiN diodes with the etched implant JTE exhibit a highest blocking voltage of 4.5 kV and the forward on-state voltage of 4.6 V at room temperature. These results are of interest for understanding the etched implant method in the fabrication of high-voltage power devices. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2014A05011) and the Special Foundation of President of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2014-1-100).

  10. Thiol-terminated monolayers on oxide-free Si: assembly of semiconductor-alkyl-S-metal junctions.

    PubMed

    Böcking, Till; Salomon, Adi; Cahen, David; Gooding, J Justin

    2007-03-13

    Self-assembled monolayers formed by thermal hydrosilylation of a trifluoroacetyl-protected alkenylthiol on Si-H surfaces, followed by removal of the protecting groups, yield essentially oxide-free monolayers suitable for the formation of Si-C11H22-S-Hg and Si-C11H22-S-Au junctions in which the alkyl chains are chemically bound to the silicon surface (via Si-C bonds) and the metal electrode (via Hg-S or Au-S bonds). Two barriers to charge transport are present in the system: at low bias the current is temperature activated and hence limited by thermionic emission over the Schottky barrier in the silicon, whereas as at high bias transport is limited by tunneling through the organic monolayer. The thiol-terminated monolayer on oxide-free silicon provides a well-characterized system allowing a careful study of the importance of the interfacial bond to the metal electrode for current transport through saturated molecules.

  11. High-performance 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky diodes with double resistive termination extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Sheng-Bei; Dong, Lin; Liu, Xing-Fang; Fan, Zhong-Chao; Liu, Bin; Yan, Guo-Guo; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Wan-Shun; Sun, Guo-Sheng; He, Zhi; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with a high-temperature annealed resistive termination extension (HARTE) are designed, fabricated and characterized in this work. The differential specific on-state resistance of the device is as low as 3.64 mΩ·cm2 with a total active area of 2.46 × 10-3 cm2. Ti is the Schottky contact metal with a Schottky barrier height of 1.08 V and a low onset voltage of 0.7 V. The ideality factor is calculated to be 1.06. Al implantation annealing is performed at 1250°C in Ar, while good reverse characteristics are achieved. The maximum breakdown voltage is 1000 V with a leakage current of 9 × 10-5 A on chip level. These experimental results show good consistence with the simulation results and demonstrate that high-performance 4H-SiC JBS diodes can be obtained based on the double HARTE structure.

  12. Fuzzy-Logic Based Detection and Characterization of Junctions and Terminations in Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Neurons.

    PubMed

    Radojević, Miroslav; Smal, Ihor; Meijering, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Digital reconstruction of neuronal cell morphology is an important step toward understanding the functionality of neuronal networks. Neurons are tree-like structures whose description depends critically on the junctions and terminations, collectively called critical points, making the correct localization and identification of these points a crucial task in the reconstruction process. Here we present a fully automatic method for the integrated detection and characterization of both types of critical points in fluorescence microscopy images of neurons. In view of the majority of our current studies, which are based on cultured neurons, we describe and evaluate the method for application to two-dimensional (2D) images. The method relies on directional filtering and angular profile analysis to extract essential features about the main streamlines at any location in an image, and employs fuzzy logic with carefully designed rules to reason about the feature values in order to make well-informed decisions about the presence of a critical point and its type. Experiments on simulated as well as real images of neurons demonstrate the detection performance of our method. A comparison with the output of two existing neuron reconstruction methods reveals that our method achieves substantially higher detection rates and could provide beneficial information to the reconstruction process.

  13. Monosomy 1p36 breakpoint junctions suggest pre-meiotic breakage-fusion-bridge cycles are involved in generating terminal deletions.

    PubMed

    Ballif, Blake C; Yu, Wei; Shaw, Chad A; Kashork, Catherine D; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2003-09-01

    Terminal deletions of 1p36 result in a mental retardation syndrome that is presumably caused by haploinsufficiency of a number of genes. Although monosomy 1p36 is the most commonly observed terminal deletion syndrome in humans, the molecular mechanism(s) that generates and stabilizes terminal deletions of 1p36 is not completely understood. Our previous molecular analysis of a large cohort of monosomy 1p36 subjects demonstrated that deletion sizes vary widely from approximately 1 Mb to >10.5 Mb in the most distal portion of 1p36 with no single common breakpoint. In this report, we have identified the precise breakpoint junctions in three subjects with apparently pure terminal deletions of 1p36 ranging from 2.5 to 4.25 Mb. These junctions revealed one deletion to be stabilized by telomeric repeat sequences and two to have terminal deletions associated with cryptic interrupted inverted duplications at the ends of the chromosomes. These interrupted inverted duplication/deletion breakpoints are reminiscent of those seen in tumor cell lines that have undergone breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles leading to gene amplification. We propose a pre-meiotic model for the formation of these deletions in which a terminally deleted chromosome is generated in the germ line and passes through at least one BFB cycle to produce gametes with terminal deletions associated with interrupted inverted duplications. These data suggest that, on a molecular level, seemingly pure terminal deletions visualized cytogenetically may be more complex, and BFB cycles may play an important role in generating terminal deletions associated with genetic disease in humans.

  14. Fabrication of self-aligned graded junction termination extensions with applications to 4H-SiC P-N diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrett, J. N.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Sheridan, D. C.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-06-01

    The properties of SiC make this wide band-gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices, such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc., all of which require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power-handling capabilities. In this paper, we describe a technique for fabricating a graded junction termination extension (GJTE) that is effective and self-aligned, a feature that simplifies the implantation process during fabrication and, therefore, has the potential to reduce production costs. Implanted anode p-n diodes fabricated using this technique on 10-µm thick n- epitaxial layer had a maximum breakdown voltage of 1830 V. This was comparable to the ideal parallel-plane breakdown of 1900 V predicted by numerical simulation.

  15. Imaging neuromuscular junctions by confocal fluorescence microscopy: individual endplates seen in whole muscles with vital intracellular staining of the nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    MARQUES, M. J.; NETO, H. SANTO

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian neuromuscular junction has been extensively studied by different methods to understand better the biological aspects of its normal development, ageing and pathological conditions, such as disorders of neuromuscular transmission. In the present report, a new technique is described that combines confocal microscopy with the use of a vital nerve terminal dye (4-Di-2-ASP) and rhodamine-alpha-bungarotoxin to stain postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors in the same endplate. Nerve terminals in the sternomastoid muscles of living adult mice were stained with 4-Di-2-ASP, which labels intracellular compartments of the nerve terminal containing mitochondria. Slides of these muscles were viewed by confocal microscopy and images were stored on magnetic optical discs. This procedure was compatible with subsequent acetylcholine receptor staining with rhodamine-α-bungarotoxin and observation under the confocal microscope. Classical features of the adult neuromuscular junction were displayed, such as the branched-pattern distribution of the nerve terminals and receptors and their complete colocalisation. In addition, nerve fibres from intramuscular nerve branches with their neighbouring cells, nuclei and muscle fibre striations could also be visualised. We conclude that the present technique can complement existing methods of investigation of nerve terminal anatomy and pathology, particularly where preservation of 3-dimensional relationships is required and intracellular disturbances involving mitochondrial organisation, such as ageing or other degenerative disorders, may be present. PMID:9688508

  16. Three Contact Modes of Amino Terminal Groups on Gold in Single Molecular Junction of Au/1,4-Diaminobutane/Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yasuhiro; Tobita, Junichi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Akiba, Uichi; Fujihira, Masamichi

    2007-12-01

    The effect of the binding modes of two amino terminal groups present on two gold protrusions on currents passing through a single molecular junction of Au/1,4-diaminobutane/Au was studied via the repeated formation of a break junction using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under nitrogen at room temperature. In addition to the two reported (high and low) values of the single molecular conductance of diaminobutane, another lower conductance was found through a careful analysis of histograms in a low-current range (0-0.3 nA). The techniques used here to improve the determination of the values of single molecular conductance were the selection of valid i-s curves with current steps and the use of the robust statistical method to correct for the contribution of the background tunneling currents to the current histograms. These three single molecular conductance values are attributed to three different binding modes of the two terminal amino groups giving the three different contact resistances at room temperature. That is, each amino terminal group is likely to be bound to one or the other gold protrusion through a more or a less conductive contact mode. Thus, a single molecular junction between two gold electrodes has three different contact modes, i.e., i) more-more, ii) more-less (or less-more), and iii) less-less conductive contact modes at the two ends.

  17. C-terminal Src Kinase Gates Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity and Regulates Fasciclin II Expression at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Ashlyn M.; Brusich, Douglas J.; Frank, C. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Forms of homeostatic plasticity stabilize neuronal outputs and promote physiologically favorable synapse function. A well-studied homeostatic system operates at the Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). At the NMJ, impairment of postsynaptic glutamate receptor activity is offset by a compensatory increase in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. We aim to elucidate how this process operates on a molecular level and is preserved throughout development. In this study, we identified a tyrosine kinase-driven signaling system that sustains homeostatic control of NMJ function. We identified C-terminal Src Kinase (Csk) as a potential regulator of synaptic homeostasis through an RNAi- and electrophysiology-based genetic screen. We found that Csk loss-of-function mutations impaired the sustained expression of homeostatic plasticity at the NMJ, without drastically altering synapse growth or baseline neurotransmission. Muscle-specific overexpression of Src Family Kinase (SFK) substrates that are negatively regulated by Csk also impaired NMJ homeostasis. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic Csk-YFP can support homeostatic plasticity at the NMJ when expressed either in the muscle or in the nerve. However, only muscle-expressed Csk-YFP was able to localize to NMJ structures. By immunostaining, we found that Csk mutant NMJs had dysregulated expression of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule homolog Fasciclin II (FasII). By immunoblotting, we found that levels of a specific isoform of FasII were decreased in homeostatically challenged GluRIIA mutant animals–but markedly increased in Csk mutant animals. Additionally, we found that postsynaptic overexpression of FasII from its endogenous locus was sufficient to impair synaptic homeostasis, and genetically reducing FasII levels in Csk mutants fully restored synaptic homeostasis. Based on these data, we propose that Csk and its SFK substrates impinge upon homeostatic control of NMJ function by regulating

  18. Developmental outcome of children with enlargement of the cisterna magna identified in utero.

    PubMed

    Dror, Raheli; Malinger, Gustavo; Ben-Sira, Liat; Lev, Dorit; Pick, Chaim G; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2009-12-01

    An enlarged cisterna magna can be identified during routine ultrasound screening in the second half of pregnancy. It is important to be able to give an accurate prognosis. We evaluated the developmental outcome of these children. A total of 29 fetuses with a large cisterna magna identified in utero were compared to 35 children with a normal fetal ultrasound. The children were evaluated by the Gesell Developmental Schedules and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The study group showed a significantly worse performance in the Gesell test. However, the overall performance for both groups was within normal limits. Four children in the study group had a borderline developmental quotient. Both groups performed similarly in the Peabody test. Walking age was significantly delayed in the study group. Children with an enlarged cisterna magna may be at risk for mild developmental delay. In cases of nonisolated enlargement of the cisterna magna, the outcome may be guarded.

  19. An investigation of the SNS Josephson junction as a three-terminal device. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, H.; Prans, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    A particular phenomenon of the SNS Josephson junction was investigated; i.e., control by a current entering the normal region and leaving through one of the superconducting regions. The effect of the control current on the junction was found to be dependent upon the ration of the resistances of the two halves of the N layer. A low frequency, lumped, nonlinear model was proposed to describe the electrical characteristics of the device, and a method was developed to plot the dynamic junction resistance as a function of junction current. The effective thermal noise temperature of the sample was determined. Small signal linearized analysis of the device suggests its use as an impedance transformer, although geometric limitations must be overcome. Linear approximation indicates that it is reciprocal and no power gain is possible. It is felt that, with suitable metallurgical and geometrical improvements, the device has promise to become a superconducting transistor.

  20. Sphingomyelin metabolism controls the shape and function of the Golgi cisternae

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Felix; van Galen, Josse; Turacchio, Gabriele; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Kozlov, Michael M; García-Parajo, María F; Malhotra, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    The flat Golgi cisterna is a highly conserved feature of eukaryotic cells, but how is this morphology achieved and is it related to its function in cargo sorting and export? A physical model of cisterna morphology led us to propose that sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism at the trans-Golgi membranes in mammalian cells essentially controls the structural features of a Golgi cisterna by regulating its association to curvature-generating proteins. An experimental test of this hypothesis revealed that affecting SM homeostasis converted flat cisternae into highly curled membranes with a concomitant dissociation of membrane curvature-generating proteins. These data lend support to our hypothesis that SM metabolism controls the structural organization of a Golgi cisterna. Together with our previously presented role of SM in controlling the location of proteins involved in glycosylation and vesicle formation, our data reveal the significance of SM metabolism in the structural organization and function of Golgi cisternae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24603.001 PMID:28500756

  1. Multi-terminal magnetotransport measurements over a tunable graphene p-n junction created by AFM-nanomachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Smirnov, D.; Rode, J.; Haug, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    An Atomic Force Microscope is used to alter one part of a single layer graphene sample locally. Transport experiments at low temperatures are then used to characterize the different parts independently with field effect and Hall measurements. It is shown, that the nanomachining leads to an effective doping in the altered area and therefore to a difference in the charge carrier density of Δn = 3.5 ṡ 1015m-2 between the unchanged and changed part. These two parts can be tuned with a global backgate to form a junction of different polarity, i.e. a p-n junction.

  2. Identification of amino acids inserted during suppression of UAA and UGA termination codons at the gag-pol junction of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Y X; Copeland, T D; Oroszlan, S; Rein, A; Levin, J G

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the murine leukemia virus pol gene occurs by translational readthrough of an in-frame UAG codon between the gag and pol coding regions. In a previous study, we mutated the UAG codon to UAA or UGA and demonstrated that both of these termination codons could be suppressed in reticulocyte lysates and in infected cells with the same efficiency as UAG. We now report the identity of the amino acids inserted in vitro in response to UAA and UGA in fusion products containing the gag-pol junction region. The results show that UAA, like UAG, directs the incorporation of glutamine, whereas UGA directs the incorporation of three amino acids, arginine, cysteine, and tryptophan. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating misreading of UAA as glutamine and UGA as arginine and cysteine in higher eukaryotes. Interestingly, although our protein synthesis system presumably contains other known UAG and UGA suppressors, these tRNAs did not suppress the termination codons in our experiments. Thus, it seems possible that the sequence surrounding the gag-pol junction not only promotes suppression but also helps determine which tRNAs function in suppression. Images PMID:2247457

  3. Simple Floquet-Wannier-Stark-Andreev viewpoint and emergence of low-energy scales in a voltage-biased three-terminal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mélin, Régis; Caputo, Jean-Guy; Yang, Kang; Douçot, Benoît

    2017-02-01

    A three-terminal Josephson junction consists of three superconductors coupled coherently to a small nonsuperconducting island, such as a diffusive metal, a single or double quantum dot. A specific resonant single quantum dot three-terminal Josephson junction (Sa,Sb,Sc) biased with voltages (V ,-V ,0 ) is considered, but the conclusions hold more generally for resonant semiconducting quantum wire setups. A simple physical picture of the steady state is developed, using Floquet theory. It is shown that the equilibrium Andreev bound states (for V =0 ) evolve into nonequilibrium Floquet-Wannier-Stark-Andreev (FWS-Andreev) ladders of resonances (for V ≠0 ). These resonances acquire a finite width due to multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) processes. We also consider the effect of an extrinsic linewidth broadening on the quantum dot, introduced through a Dynes phenomenological parameter. The dc-quartet current manifests a crossover between the extrinsic relaxation dominated regime at low voltage to an intrinsic relaxation due to MAR processes at higher voltage. Finally, we study the coupling between the two FWS-Andreev ladders due to Landau-Zener-Stückelberg transitions, and its effect on the crossover in the relaxation mechanism. Three important low-energy scales are identified, and a perspective is to relate those low-energy scales to a recent noise cross-correlation experiment (Y. Cohen et al., arXiv:1606.08436).

  4. Peri-implant medullary cisternae at the interface of bone-smooth surface titanium endosseous implant.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, A; Strocchi, R; Franchi, M; Martini, D; Raspanti, M; Congiu, T; Ruggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    A histological and ultrastructural study was carried out on the spongy bone response to smooth titanium oral implant surfaces. The samples obtained both from monkeys and from patients at various times from the implant insertion revealed that the bone-implant integration developed through different morphological aspects. The implant surface appeared in contact with medullary lacunae, as well as with osteoid tissue or directly with bone matrix. The complementary ultrastructural techniques employed have shown that the medullary lacunae appeared as wide and flattened cisternae delimited by a continuous single layer of flattened cells forming a thin lamina adhering to the implant and an endosteal lamina facing the bone surface. For their position and flattened shape we named them peri-implant medullary cisternae. The presence of blood vessels, reticular cells and myeloid cells in their lumen suggested that these peri-implant medullary cisternae were functional sites of new bone formation.

  5. Traumatic Laceration of the Cisterna Chyli Treated by Lymphangiography and Percutaneous Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen Rainey, Matthew Aarabi, Shahram Padia, Siddharth A.

    2013-03-09

    Lymphangiography and percutaneous embolization has been described for the treatment of thoracic duct injury, usually occurring in the postsurgical period. We report a case of a traumatic gunshot-induced massive chylothorax. Inguinal lymphangiogram was performed demonstrating the site of injury at the cisterna chyli. The cisterna chyli was successfully accessed via a percutaneous approach, and embolization was performed. Chylothorax immediately resolved after two rounds of embolization. Although lymphangiography has been traditionally challenging and cumbersome, because of the need for pedal lymph access, the recent use of inguinal lymphangiography has made this technique more practical. Techniques used for embolization of the thoracic duct may be applied to the cisterna chyli, which is much more challenging to treat surgically.

  6. Longitudinal continuity of the subrhabdomeric cisternae in the photoreceptors of the compound eye of the drone, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Skalska-Rakowska, J M; Baumgartner, B

    1985-01-15

    It is shown that the subrhabdomeric cisternae of the honey bee drone photoreceptor cell constitute a single structure with a continuous lumen, that extends over at least 15 micron and perhaps the whole length of the cell. In this case, the structure of the cisternae might subserve the propagation of light adaptation along the cell.

  7. Ultrastructure of synaptic junctions in the cerebellar cortex in experimental valproate encephalopathy and after terminating chronic application of the antiepileptic.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse in TEM the evolution of changes in structural elements of synaptic junctions of the cerebellar cortex in rats in valproate encephalopathy induced by chronic 12-month administration of sodium valproate - VPA (once daily intragastrically, in a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w.) and after withdrawal of this antiepileptic for 1 and 3 months. After 9 and 12 months of the experiment, synaptic endings of both the symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses in the neuropil of the cerebellar cortex, especially in the molecular layer, showed signs of severe damage (mainly swelling) and even disintegration. They were mostly observed in axodendritic endings and axospinal endings on the dendritic spines of Purkinje cells, being manifested in the presence of large vacuolar structures, electron lucent areas and swollen mitochondria within the cytoplasm. A reduced number of axonal synaptic vesicles (with more type F vesicles preserved) could be seen. One and 3 months after the end of chronic application of VPA, the synaptic junctions did not show morphological exponents of the repair processes. The alterations observed in the synapticjunctions of the cerebellar cortex may suggest disorders in neurotransmission processes, such as exhaustion and damage caused by ischaemia due to damage to the blood-brain barrier induced by VPA and/or its toxic metabolites.

  8. Cisterna-specific localization of glycosylation-related proteins to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Hino, Miki; Abe, Masato; Shibano, Takako; Setoguchi, Yuka; Awano, Wakae; Ueda, Ryu; Okano, Hideyuki; Goto, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an intracellular organelle playing central roles in post-translational modification and in the secretion of membrane and secretory proteins. These proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to the cis-, medial-and trans-cisternae of the Golgi. While trafficking through the Golgi, proteins are sequentially modified with glycan moieties by different glycosyltransferases. Therefore, it is important to analyze the glycosylation function of the Golgi at the level of cisternae. Markers widely used for cis-, medial- and trans-cisternae/trans Golgi network (TGN) in Drosophila are GM130, 120 kDa and Syntaxin16 (Syx16); however the anti-120 kDa antibody is no longer available. In the present study, Drosophila Golgi complex-localized glycoprotein-1 (dGLG1) was identified as an antigen recognized by the anti-120 kDa antibody. A monoclonal anti-dGLG1 antibody suitable for immunohistochemistry was raised in rat. Using these markers, the localization of glycosyltransferases and nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) was studied at the cisternal level. Results showed that glycosyltransferases and NSTs involved in the same sugar modification are localized to the same cisternae. Furthermore, valuable functional information was obtained on the localization of novel NSTs with as yet incompletely characterized biochemical properties.

  9. Basilar impression associated with impacted cisterna magna, spastic paraparesis and distress of balance: case report.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva, José Alberto; de Almeida Holanda, Maurus Marques; do Desterro Leiros, Maria; Melo, Luiz Ricardo Santiago; de Araújo, Antônio Fernandes; de Almeida, Everardo Bandeira

    2006-09-01

    We report on a 48 years-old man with basilar impression without syringohydromyelia, in which the cisterna magna was impacted by the cerebellar tonsils. Six months after posterior fossa decompression there was the disappearance of nuchal rigidity, vertigo, spastic paraparesis and improvement of balance. Nevertheless hyperreflexia and diminished pallesthesia of the lower limbs persisted.

  10. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  11. Stimulation Induced Changes in Frog Neuromuscular Junctions: A Quantitative Ultrastructural Comparison of Rapid-Frozen and Chemically Fixed Nerve Terminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-06

    nerve terminals soaked or stimulated in high calcium Ringer’s solution and preserved by rapid-freezing the reduction of the number of synaptic...from electric organs and fixed in high calcium solutions. Politoff, Rose and Pappas (1974) have shown that when frog NMJs are fixed in the presence...stimulated preparations fixed in high calcium , the electron dense deposits in the synaptic vesicles disappeared, while those in the mitochondria and in

  12. Ziram, a pesticide associated with increased risk for Parkinson’s disease, differentially affects the presynaptic function of aminergic and glutamatergic nerve terminals at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Myers, Katherine M.; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Nathan T.; Barajas, Angel; Schweizer, Felix E.; Krantz, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple populations of aminergic neurons are affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD), with serotonergic and noradrenergic loci responsible for some non-motor symptoms. Environmental toxins, such as the dithiocarbamate fungicide ziram, significantly increase the risk of developing PD and the attendant spectrum of both motor and non-motor symptoms. The mechanisms by which ziram and other environmental toxins increase the risk of PD, and the potential effects of these toxins on aminergic neurons, remain unclear. To determine the relative effects of ziram on the synaptic function of aminergic versus non-aminergic neurons, we used live-imaging at the Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In contrast to nearly all other studies of this model synapse, we imaged presynaptic function at both glutamatergic Type Ib and aminergic Type II boutons, the latter responsible for storage and release of octopamine, the invertebrate equivalent of noradrenalin. To quantify the kinetics of exo- and endo- cytosis, we employed an acid-sensitive form of GFP fused to the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT-pHluorin). Additional genetic probes were used to visualize intracellular calcium flux (GCaMP) and voltage changes (ArcLight). We find that at glutamatergic Type Ib terminals, exposure to ziram increases exocytosis and inhibits endocytosis. By contrast, at octopaminergic Type II terminals, ziram has no detectable effect on exocytosis and dramatically inhibits endocytosis. In contrast to other reports on the neuronal effects of ziram, these effects do not appear to result from perturbation of the UPS or calcium homeostasis. Unexpectedly, ziram also caused spontaneous and synchronized bursts of calcium influx (measured by GCaMP) and electrical activity (measured by ArcLight) at aminergic Type II, but not glutamatergic Type Ib, nerve terminals. These events are sensitive to both tetrodotoxin and cadmium chloride, and thus appear to represent spontaneous

  13. Junctional diversity in signal joints from T cell receptor beta and delta loci via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and exonucleolytic activity

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The site-specific V(D)J recombination reaction necessary to assemble the genes coding for immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) variable regions is initiated by a precise double strand cut at the border of the recombination signals flanking the genes. Extensive processing of the coding ends before their ligation accounts for most of the Ig and TCR repertoire diversity. This processing includes both base additions to and loss from the coding ends. On the other hand, it has generally been thought that signal ends are not modified before they are fused, and that signal joints consist of a perfect head-to- head ligation of the recombination signals. In this study, we analyzed signal joints created during the rearrangement of different TCR-beta and TCR-delta genes in thymocytes. We show that a significant fraction (up to 24%) of these signal joints exhibits junctional diversity. This diversity results from N nucleotide additions for TCR-beta signal joints, and from N additions and exonucleolytic digestion for TCR-delta joints. Altogether, our findings suggest that: (a) signal ends can undergo some of the same modifications as coding ends, (b) inversional rearrangement generates more diversity than deletional events, and (c) fine differences exist in the recombinase/DNA complexes formed at each rearranging locus. PMID:8920879

  14. The N-terminal region of the RecU holliday junction resolvase is essential for homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Begoña; Cañas, Cristina; Sharples, Gary J; Alonso, Juan C; Ayora, Silvia

    2009-07-03

    The RecU Holliday junction (HJ)-resolving enzyme is highly conserved in the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the recU gene has two putative initiation codons, at positions 1 and 33. In rec(+) cells, only the full-length RecU polypeptide (206 residues, 23.9 kDa) was detected even after different stress treatments. To address the relevance of the flexible N-terminus, we constructed mutant variants. Experiments in vivo revealed that recUDelta1-32 (which initiates at Met33 and encodes RecUDelta1-32) and recU31 (the conserved Arg31 residue was substituted with alanine to give RecUR31A) are genuine RecU mutants, rendering cells impaired in DNA repair and chromosomal segregation. RecU has three activities: It (i) cleaves HJs, (ii) anneals complementary strands and (iii) modulates RecA activities. RecUR31A binds and cleaves HJ DNA in vitro as efficiently as wild-type RecU, but RuvB.ATPgammaS.Mg(2+) fails to stimulate the RecUR31A cleavage reaction. In contrast, RecUDelta1-32 forms unstable complexes with DNA and fails to cleave HJs. RecU and its variants are capable of promoting DNA strand annealing and exert a negative effect on deoxy-ATP-dependent RecA-mediated DNA strand exchange. This study shows that the flexible N-terminus of RecU is essential for protein activity.

  15. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-12-19

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner-this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.

  16. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-01-01

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner–this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging. PMID:27991496

  17. Nonequilibrium description of de novo biogenesis and transport through Golgi-like cisternae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barma, Mustansir; Rao, Madan

    2016-12-01

    A central issue in cell biology is the physico-chemical basis of organelle biogenesis in intracellular trafficking pathways, its most impressive manifestation being the biogenesis of Golgi cisternae. At a basic level, such morphologically and chemically distinct compartments should arise from an interplay between the molecular transport and chemical maturation. Here, we formulate analytically tractable, minimalist models, that incorporate this interplay between transport and chemical progression in physical space, and explore the conditions for de novo biogenesis of distinct cisternae. We propose new quantitative measures that can discriminate between the various models of transport in a qualitative manner–this includes measures of the dynamics in steady state and the dynamical response to perturbations of the kind amenable to live-cell imaging.

  18. Interplay of Rashba spin orbit coupling and disorder in the conductance properties of a four terminal junction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh

    2016-04-01

    We report a thorough theoretical investigation on the quantum transport of a disordered four terminal device in the presence of Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) in two dimensions. Specifically we compute the behaviour of the longitudinal (charge) conductance, spin Hall conductance and spin Hall conductance fluctuation as a function of the strength of disorder and Rashba spin orbit interaction using the Landauer Büttiker formalism via Green's function technique. Our numerical calculations reveal that both the conductances diminish with disorder. At smaller values of the RSOC parameter, the longitudinal and spin Hall conductances increase, while both vanish in the strong RSOC limit. The spin current is more drastically affected by both disorder and RSOC than its charge counterpart. The spin Hall conductance fluctuation does not show any universality in terms of its value and it depends on both disorder as well as on the RSOC strength. Thus the spin Hall conductance fluctuation has a distinct character compared to the fluctuation in the longitudinal conductance. Further one parameter scaling theory is studied to assess the transition to a metallic regime as claimed in literature and we find no confirmation about the emergence of a metallic state induced by RSOC.

  19. Curvature-driven lateral segregation of membrane constituents in Golgi cisternae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derganc, Jure

    2007-12-01

    Lateral segregation of mobile membrane constituents (e.g. lipids, proteins or membrane domains) into the regions of their preferred curvature relaxes stresses in the membrane. The equilibrium distribution of the constituents in the membrane is thus a balance between the gains in the membrane elastic energy and the segregation-induced loss of entropy. The membrane in the Golgi cisternae is particularly susceptible to the curvature-driven segregation because it possesses two very different curvatures—the highly curved membrane in the cisternal rims and the flat membrane in the cisternal sides. In this work, we calculate the extent of lateral segregation in the Golgi cisternae in the case where the segregation is driven by the Helfrich bending energy. It is assumed that the membrane bending constant and spontaneous curvature depend on the local membrane composition. A simple analytical expression for the extent of the lateral segregation is derived. The results show that the segregation depends on the ratio between the bending constant and the thermal energy, the difference of the preferred curvatures of the constituents and the sizes of the constituents. Applying the model to a typical Golgi cisterna, it was found that entropy can effectively limit the extent of the curvature-driven lateral segregation.

  20. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  1. Unique matrix structure in the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of pseudoachondroplasia chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Thomas M; Bick, Roger; Poindexter, Brian J; Alcorn, Joseph L; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED/EDM1). Because COMP exists as a homopentamer, only one mutant COMP subunit may result in an abnormal complex that is accumulated in expanded rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) cisternae, a hallmark of PSACH. Type IX collagen and matrilin-3 (MATN3), also accumulate in the rER cisternae of PSACH chondrocytes, but it is unknown how mutant COMP interacts with these proteins. The studies herein focus on defining the organization of these intracellularly retained proteins using fluorescence deconvolution microscopy. A unique matrix organization was identified in which type II procollagen formed a central core surrounded by a protein network of mutant COMP, type IX collagen, and MATN3. This pattern of matrix organization was found in multiple cisternae from single chondrocytes and in chondrocytes with different COMP mutations, indicating a common pattern of interaction. This suggests that stalling of mutant COMP and an interaction between mutant COMP and type II procollagen are initiating events in the assembly of matrix in the rER, possibly explaining why the material is not readily cleared from the rER. Altogether, these data suggest that mutant COMP initiates and perhaps catalyzes premature intracellular matrix assembly.

  2. Unique Matrix Structure in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Cisternae of Pseudoachondroplasia Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Thomas M.; Bick, Roger; Poindexter, Brian J.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED/EDM1). Because COMP exists as a homopentamer, only one mutant COMP subunit may result in an abnormal complex that is accumulated in expanded rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) cisternae, a hallmark of PSACH. Type IX collagen and matrilin-3 (MATN3), also accumulate in the rER cisternae of PSACH chondrocytes, but it is unknown how mutant COMP interacts with these proteins. The studies herein focus on defining the organization of these intracellularly retained proteins using fluorescence deconvolution microscopy. A unique matrix organization was identified in which type II procollagen formed a central core surrounded by a protein network of mutant COMP, type IX collagen, and MATN3. This pattern of matrix organization was found in multiple cisternae from single chondrocytes and in chondrocytes with different COMP mutations, indicating a common pattern of interaction. This suggests that stalling of mutant COMP and an interaction between mutant COMP and type II procollagen are initiating events in the assembly of matrix in the rER, possibly explaining why the material is not readily cleared from the rER. Altogether, these data suggest that mutant COMP initiates and perhaps catalyzes premature intracellular matrix assembly. PMID:17200202

  3. The rate of charge tunneling is insensitive to polar terminal groups in self-assembled monolayers in Ag(TS)S(CH2)(n)M(CH2)(m)T//Ga2O3/EGaIn junctions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyo Jae; Bowers, Carleen M; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Whitesides, George M

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes a physical-organic study of the effect of uncharged, polar, functional groups on the rate of charge transport by tunneling across self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based large-area junctions of the form Ag(TS)S(CH2)(n)M(CH2)(m)T//Ga2O3/EGaIn. Here Ag(TS) is a template-stripped silver substrate, -M- and -T are "middle" and "terminal" functional groups, and EGaIn is eutectic gallium-indium alloy. Twelve uncharged polar groups (-T = CN, CO2CH3, CF3, OCH3, N(CH3)2, CON(CH3)2, SCH3, SO2CH3, Br, P(O)(OEt)2, NHCOCH3, OSi(OCH3)3), having permanent dipole moments in the range 0.5 < μ < 4.5, were incorporated into the SAM. A comparison of the electrical characteristics of these junctions with those of junctions formed from n-alkanethiolates led to the conclusion that the rates of charge tunneling are insensitive to the replacement of terminal alkyl groups with the terminal polar groups in this set. The current densities measured in this work suggest that the tunneling decay parameter and injection current for SAMs terminated in nonpolar n-alkyl groups, and polar groups selected from common polar organic groups, are statistically indistinguishable.

  4. Iatrogenic Aorto-Cisterna Chyli Fistula During Percutaneous Balloon Aortoplasty in a Patient with Takayasu's Arteritis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Hye Sun; Shin, Sung Wook Kim, Eun Hui; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Ki; Park, Kwang Bo

    2007-04-15

    We present a case of iatrogenic aorto-cisterna chyli fistula that developed during percutaneous transluminal aortoplasty in a 16-year old girl with Takayasu's arteritis. The aorto-cisterna chyli fistula was angiographically confirmed and treated using a stent-graft, which successfully occluded the fistula. Her claudication then improved, although follow-up CT angiography at 10 months revealed mild recurrent aortic stenosis.

  5. Field-free spin-orbit torque switching of composite perpendicular CoFeB/Gd/CoFeB layers utilized for three-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun-Yang; DC, Mahendra; Zhang, Delin; Zhao, Zhengyang; Li, Mo; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT) induced magnetization switching has become a research focus in spintronics because it enables energy-efficient switching. There have been several experiments realizing field-free SOT-induced magnetization switching of materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a bilayer system, either using thin Co(Fe) and CoFeB layers with interfacial PMA or using Co/Ni multilayers. All of these stacks are ferromagnets with large saturation magnetization (MS). Here, we demonstrate SOT switching in a multilayer stack of CoFeB/Gd/CoFeB. This stack shows a good PMA and a low MS (370 ± 20 emu/cm3), where CoFeB and Gd layers are antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled with each other. SOT induced magnetization switching has been demonstrated in this stack at zero magnetic field with a switching current density of ˜9.6 × 106 A/cm2 by using antiferromagnetic PtMn as the spin Hall channel material. The spin Hall angle of PtMn was also determined to be ˜0.084 ± 0.005 by performing a second harmonic Hall measurement. This layer structure is compatible with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs), which could enable field-free three-terminal p-MTJs and lead to memory and logic devices based on SOT.

  6. Assembly of transverse tubule architecture in the middle and myotendinous junctional regions in developing rat skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Susumu; McGrath, Kelly F; Yuki, Atsumu; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Kasuga, Norikatsu; Takekura, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The transverse (t)-tubule is responsible for the rapid inward spread of excitation from the sarcolemma to the inside of the muscle fiber, and the compartments of the t-tubule become highly and regularly organized during development. Although it is known that skeletal muscle fibers lengthen by adding sarcomeres at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during development, no specific model exists for the assembly of new t-tubule architecture at the MTJ. We performed an electron-microscopic examination of the assembly of t-tubule architecture at the MTJ in developing rat skeletal muscle fibers. Although the longitudinally oriented t-tubule elements represent only a small fraction of the total t-tubule system in adult muscle fibers, they were observed at both A-band and I-band regions of middle and MTJ regions in early developmental stages, and gradually disappeared in the middle regions of muscle fibers during development; however, they remained in the MTJ even in adult muscle fibers. The frequency of pentads and heptads (two or three t-tubule elements with three or four elements of terminal cisternae, closely aligned with terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum) decreased during development, with sudden decrease between 7 and 10 weeks of age in the middle regions. Interestingly, although the frequency of decrease appeared to be higher in the middle region than in the MTJ regions in early (3- to 7-week) development, this pattern reversed, and the frequency of decrease was higher in the MTJ in later development (after 10 weeks of age). The MTJ maintained the features of immature membrane systems involved in e-c coupling much longer than the middle region of the fiber during development. The assembly of t-tubule architecture during postnatal development thus follows different processes in the middle and MTJ regions of skeletal muscle fibers.

  7. Trimethylsilyl-terminated oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s: an approach to single-molecule junctions with covalent Au-C σ-bonds.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wenjing; Li, Hui; Liu, Shi-Xia; Fu, Yongchun; Li, Jianfeng; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Decurtins, Silvio; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2012-11-28

    A new and efficient approach using cleaving of trimethylsilyl groups to create covalent Au-C anchoring sites has been developed for single-molecule junction conductance measurements. Employing the mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) technique in liquid, we demonstrate the formation of highly conducting single molecular junctions of several OPE derivatives. The created junctions are mechanically stable and exhibit conductances around one order of magnitude higher than those of their dithiol analogues. Extended assembly and reaction times lead to oligomerization. Combined STM imaging and gap-mode Raman experiments provide structure evidence to support the formation of covalent Au-C contacts and further oligomerization.

  8. InP/Ga0.47In0.53As monolithic, two-junction, three-terminal tandem solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanlaas, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Horner, G. S.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    The work presented has focussed on increasing the efficiency of InP-based solar cells through the development of a high-performance InP/Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As two-junction, three-terminal monolithic tandem cell. Such a tandem is particularly suited to space applications where a radiation-hard top cell (i.e., InP) is required. Furthermore, the InP/Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As materials system is lattice matched and offers a top cell/bottom cell bandgap differential (0.60 eV at 300 K) suitable for high tandem cell efficiencies under AMO illumination. A three-terminal configuration was chosen since it allows for independent power collection from each subcell in the monolithic stack, thus minimizing the adverse impact of radiation damage on the overall tandem efficiency. Realistic computer modeling calculations predict an efficiency boost of 7 to 11 percent from the Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As bottom cell under AMO illumination (25 C) for concentration ratios in the 1 to 1000 range. Thus, practical AMO efficiencies of 25 to 32 percent appear possible with the InP/Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As tandem cell. Prototype n/p/n InP/Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As monolithic tandem cells were fabricated and tested successfully. Using an aperture to define the illuminated areas, efficiency measurements performed on a non-optimized device under standard global illumination conditions (25 C) with no antireflection coating (ARC) give 12.2 percent for the InP top cell and 3.2 percent for the Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As bottom cell, yielding an overall tandem efficiency of 15.4 percent. With an ARC, the tandem efficiency could reach approximately 22 percent global and approximately 20 percent AMO. Additional details regarding the performance of individual InP and Ga(0.47)In(0.53)As component cells, fabrication and operation of complete tandem cells and methods for improving the tandem cell performance, are also discussed.

  9. An alternative method of chronic cerebrospinal fluid collection via the cisterna magna in conscious rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gilberto, David B; Zeoli, Angela H; Szczerba, Peter J; Gehret, John R; Holahan, Marie A; Sitko, Gary R; Johnson, Colena A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Motzel, Sherri L

    2003-07-01

    Models of chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection previously have been established for nonhuman primates and canines; many of these methods implement stainless-steel cannulas into the lateral or 4th ventricles or catheters into the cerebral or spinal subarachnoid space. These models have proved successful and reliable but unfortunately require invasive techniques to pass through the skull or require a laminectomy to enter the spinal subarachnoid space, involve the use of expensive and highly specialized stereotaxic equipment for the precise placement of the implants, and may require exteriorized hardware which is cumbersome to maintain and unaesthetic. The model we developed for the rhesus monkey allows for direct access to CSF outflow from the cisterna magna by using a 3.5-French fenestrated silicone catheter which was placed 1.0 cm into the cisterna. The catheter was attached to a titanium port placed subcutaneously between the scapulae to permit easy access for sampling CSF in a conscious, chaired rhesus monkey. We currently have instrumented animals from which we have consistently collected CSF for over 18 months. This novel, economical, less-invasive method permits chronic, reliable collection of CSF in conscious rhesus monkeys and has the additional advantages that the model is easier to maintain and more aesthetic.

  10. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalte

    2004-12-28

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  11. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  12. [Morphine in the inferior cerebellar cisterna for oncologic pain in the ORL area].

    PubMed

    De Cicco, M; Fracasso, A; Magri, D; Barzan, L; Testa, V

    1990-11-01

    The study aimed to assess whether the infusion of microdoses of morphine in the cisterna magna, close to the sensitive nuclei of the cranial nerves (V-VII-IX-X) involved in painful syndromes of the head and neck, is able to control severe oncological pain in this region which does not respond to traditional pain killing treatment or neurolesive practices. Cisternal catheters were inserted in eight patients with cancer of the head and neck. The intensity of pain was assessed using VAS and the quality of analgesia obtained using cisternal morphine was judged to be: excellent, good, inadequate or null. Treatment lasted a mean of 121 days. Good or excellent analgesia was achieved in 7 patients using a mean daily dose of 1.5 mg morphine during the initial stage and 4.8 mg during the final stage; in one patient with a large component of "deafferent pain", good pain relief was obtained by associating cisternal morphine with chlorimipramin per os. The side-effects observed were almost always short-term and easily resolved. Morphine treatment was begun in the hospital and in all cases continued at home. This efficacious pain killing method should be given adequate attention in the global strategies used to treat oncological pain in the head and neck region.

  13. Claudin-4 Overexpression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Is Associated with Hypomethylation and Is a Potential Target for Modulation of Tight Junction Barrier Function Using a C-Terminal Fragment of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin1

    PubMed Central

    Litkouhi, Babak; Kwong, Joseph; Lo, Chun-Min; Smedley, James G; McClane, Bruce A; Aponte, Margarita; Gao, Zhijian; Sarno, Jennifer L; Hinners, Jennifer; Welch, William R; Berkowitz, Ross S; Mok, Samuel C; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2007-01-01

    Background Claudin-4, a tight junction (TJ) protein and receptor for the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Previous research suggests DNA methylation is a mechanism for claudin-4 overexpression in cancer and that C-CPE acts as an absorption-enhancing agent in claudin-4-expressing cells. We sought to correlate claudin-4 overexpression in EOC with clinical outcomes and TJ barrier function, investigate DNA methylation as a mechanism for overexpression, and evaluate the effect of C-CPE on the TJ. Methods Claudin-4 expression in EOC was quantified and correlated with clinical outcomes. Claudin-4 methylation status was determined, and claudin-4-negative cell lines were treated with a demethylating agent. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was used to calculate junctional (paracellular) resistance (Rb) in EOC cells after claudin-4 silencing and after C-CPE treatment. Results Claudin-4 overexpression in EOC does not correlate with survival or other clinical endpoints and is associated with hypomethylation. Claudin-4 overexpression correlates with Rb and C-CPE treatment of EOC cells significantly decreased Rb in a dose- and claudin-4-dependent noncytotoxic manner. Conclusions C-CPE treatment of EOC cells leads to altered TJ function. Further research is needed to determine the potential clinical applications of C-CPE in EOC drug delivery strategies. PMID:17460774

  14. Method for cisterna magna perfusion of synthetic cerebrospinal fluid in the awake goat.

    PubMed

    Jameson, L C; Smith, C A; Dempsey, J A

    1983-11-01

    We developed a method to produce stable alterations in the ionic composition of the medullary chemoreceptor environment. A double-lumen catheter system (Hustead epidural needle and epidural catheter) was placed through a plastic cisternal guide tube into the cisterna magna of awake goats. A push-pull perfusion system using a modified infusion pump delivered matched cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfusate inflow and outflow of 3.1 ml/min. Ventilation changed within 15 min of the initiation of perfusion and reached steady state within 45-65 min. Steady-state ventilatory responses could be maintained for up to 240 min and were readily reversed in response to a change in [HCO-3]. Perfusions with normal mock CSF ( [HCO-3] = 23 meq/l) caused no change from nonperfused values. Over the range of CSF perfusate [HCO-3] used (13.5-34.4 meq/l), the gain of the steady-state ventilatory response averaged 0.6 Torr X meq-1 X l. [3H]inulin and [HCO-3] were equal in inflow and outflow by 20-30 min of perfusion indicating complete mixing of bulk CSF in the cistern. Anatomic study after methylene blue dye perfusion showed dye distribution to subarachnoid spaces of midbrain, cervical cord, cerebellum, medulla, and most of the cortex but not to any ventricles. This perfusion technique produces prolonged, stable, reproducible, and repeatable changes in the medullary chemoreceptor ionic environment of awake goats, is relatively atraumatic, and permits high flow through the cisternal subarachnoid space.

  15. Dissection of the Golgi complex. I. Monensin inhibits the transport of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells infected with Semliki Forest virus

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and, 2 h later, were treated for 4 h with 10 microM monensin. Each of the four to six flattened cisternae in the Golgi stack became swollen and separated from the others. Intracellular transport of the viral membrane proteins was almost completely inhibited, but their synthesis continued and they accumulated in the swollen Golgi cisternae before the monensin block. In consequence, these cisternae bound large numbers of viral nucleocapsids and were easily distinguished from other swollen cisternae such as those after the block. These intracellular capsid-binding membranes (ICBMs) were not stained by cytochemical markers for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (glucose-6-phosphatase) or trans Golgi cisternae (thiamine pyrophosphatase, acid phosphatase) but were labeled by Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) in thin, frozen sections. Since this lectin labels only Golgi cisternae in the middle and on the trans side of the stack (Griffiths, G., R. Brands, B. Burke, D. Louvard, and G. Warren, 1982, J. Cell Biol., 95:781-792), we conclude that ICBMs are derived from Golgi cisternae in the middle of the stack, which we term medial cisternae. The overall movement of viral membrane proteins appears to be from cis to trans Golgi cisternae (see reference above), so monensin would block movement from medial to the trans cisternae. It also blocked the trimming of the high-mannose oligosaccharides bound to the viral membrane proteins and their conversion to complex oligosaccharides. These functions presumably reside in trans Golgi cisternae. This is supported by data in the accompanying paper, in which we also show that fatty acids are covalently attached to the viral membrane proteins in the cis or medial cisternae. We suggest that the Golgi stack can be divided into three functionally distinct compartments, each comprising one or two cisternae. The viral membrane proteins, after leaving the ER, would all pass

  16. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  17. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, Joel R.; Plut, Thomas A.; Martens, Jon S.

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material.

  18. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Daniel A; Paul, David L

    2009-07-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell-cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology.

  19. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hexamers of medium-sized families of integral proteins: connexins in chordates and innexins in precordates. The functions of gap junctions have been explored by studying mutations in flies, worms, and humans, and targeted gene disruption in mice. These studies have revealed a wide diversity of function in tissue and organ biology. PMID:20066080

  20. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  1. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  2. Gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazumichi; Stopfer, Mark

    2013-12-02

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, signaling among neurons is most commonly mediated by chemical synapses. At these synapses neurotransmitter released by presynaptic neurons is detected by receptors on the postsynaptic neurons, leading to an influx of ions through the receptors themselves or through channels activated by intracellular signaling downstream of the receptors. But neurons can communicate with each other in a more direct way, by passing signals composed of small molecules and ions through pores called gap junctions. Gap junctions that transmit electrical signals are called electrical synapses. Unlike most chemical synapses, electrical synapses interact through axon-to-axon or dendrite-to-dendrite contacts. Found throughout the nervous system, they are probably best known for linking the relatively few inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons into large, effective networks within vertebrate brains. They are particularly important early in development before the formation of most chemical synapses, but recent work shows gap junctions play important roles in the adult nervous system, too. Gap junctions are sometimes thought to be mere passageways between cells. But, as recent work shows, their properties can be complex and surprising. Gap junctions help generate, propagate, and regulate neural oscillations, can filter electrical signals, and can be modulated in a variety of ways. Here we discuss recent work highlighting the diversity and importance of gap junctions throughout the nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insights into the C-terminal Peptide Binding Specificity of the PDZ Domain of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION WITH THE TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEIN CLAUDIN-3.

    PubMed

    Merino-Gracia, Javier; Costas-Insua, Carlos; Canales, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2016-05-27

    Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, displays a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain located at its N terminus involved in subcellular targeting. The C termini of various cellular proteins insert within the binding groove of this PDZ domain and determine the subcellular distribution of neuronal NOS (nNOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood because the PDZ domain of nNOS can apparently exhibit class I, class II, and class III binding specificity. In addition, it has been recently suggested that the PDZ domain of nNOS binds with very low affinity to the C termini of target proteins, and a necessary simultaneous lateral interaction must take place for binding to occur. We describe herein that the PDZ domain of nNOS can behave as a bona fide class III PDZ domain and bind to C-terminal sequences with acidic residues at the P-2 position with low micromolar binding constants. Binding to C-terminal sequences with a hydrophobic residue at the P-2 position plus an acidic residue at the P-3 position (class II) can also occur, although interactions involving residues extending up to the P-7 position mediate this type of binding. This promiscuous behavior also extends to its association to class I sequences, which must display a Glu residue at P-3 and a Thr residue at P-2 By means of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy, we have been able to identify the residues involved in each specific type of binding and rationalize the mechanisms used to recognize binding partners. Finally, we have analyzed the high affinity association of the PDZ domain of nNOS to claudin-3 and claudin-14, two tight junction tetraspan membrane proteins that are essential components of the paracellular barrier. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Widespread gene transfer in the central nervous system of cynomolgus macaques following delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna

    PubMed Central

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Vite, Charles H; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Grant, Rebecca; Bote, Erin; Yu, Hongwei; Pukenas, Bryan; Hurst, Robert; Wilson, James M

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors have recently been shown to transduce cells throughout the central nervous system of nonhuman primates when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a finding which could lead to a minimally invasive approach to treat genetic and acquired diseases affecting the entire CNS. We characterized the transduction efficiency of two routes of vector administration into the CSF of cynomolgus macaques—lumbar puncture, which is typically used in clinical practice, and suboccipital puncture, which is more commonly used in veterinary medicine. We found that delivery of vector into the cisterna magna via suboccipital puncture is up to 100-fold more efficient for achieving gene transfer to the brain. In addition, we evaluated the inflammatory response to AAV9-mediated GFP expression in the nonhuman primate CNS. We found that while CSF lymphocyte counts increased following gene transfer, there were no clinical or histological signs of immune toxicity. Together these data indicate that delivery of AAV9 into the cisterna magna is an effective method for achieving gene transfer in the CNS, and suggest that adapting this uncommon injection method for human trials could vastly increase the efficiency of gene delivery. PMID:26052519

  5. Maturation of late Golgi cisternae into RabERAB11 exocytic post-Golgi carriers visualized in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pantazopoulou, Areti; Pinar, Mario; Xiang, Xin; Peñalva, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the Golgi are incompletely understood. Using Aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late Golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose Golgi identity while acquiring post-Golgi RabERAB11 identity. This behavior of late Golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. Post-Golgi RabERAB11 carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. These carriers, which are loaded with kinesin, dynein, and MyoEMYO5, move on a microtubule-based bidirectional conveyor belt relaying them to actin, which ultimately focuses exocytosis at the apex. Dynein drags RabERAB11 carriers away if engagement of MyoEMYO5 to actin cables fails. Microtubules seemingly cooperating with F-actin capture can sustain secretion if MyoEMYO5 is absent. Thus, filamentous fungal secretion involving post-Golgi carriers is remarkably similar, mechanistically, to the transport of melanosomes in melanocyte dendrites, even though melanosome biogenesis involves lysosomes rather than Golgi. PMID:24943841

  6. In vivo injection of fibroblast growth factor-2 into the cisterna magna induces glypican-6 expression in mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zivar

    2009-05-01

    The proteoglycans (PGs) are multifunctional macromolecules composed of a core polypeptide and a variable number of glycosaminoglycan chains. In the nervous system, PGs regulate the structural organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate growth factor activities and cell proliferation and migration. Most cortical neurons are generated from neural precursor cells that reside in the ventricular zone of the embryonic brain. The proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells are regulated by various growth and neurotrophic factors. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an important mitogen for cortical neural precursor cells, and glypicans regulate the action of FGF-2 on neural precursor cells. Glypican-6 is one of the most abundant ECM molecules in the brain. In this study the effects of FGF-2 on glypican-6 expression in brain tissue have been investigated. FGF-2 was injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the cisterna magna of mouse pups. Using Western blotting, it was shown that the expression of glypican-6 is increased in response to infusion of FGF-2 into the CSF. The injection of anti-FGF-2 antibody into the cisterna magna decreased glypican-6 expression in brain tissue. The results from this study suggest that glypican-6 is important in regulating FGF-2 activity during cerebral cortical development.

  7. A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against Taiwan: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of Taiwan, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern Taiwan. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of Taiwan, closer to Taiwan, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with Taiwan difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the Taiwan side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the Taiwan side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern Taiwan the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in motions can be expected. The deformation of Taiwan as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of Taiwan, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. A comparative study of three-terminal Hanle signals in CoFe/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si and Cu/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, B. K.; He, Shumin; Grünberg, Peter; Jin, Mi-Jin; Yoo, Jung-Woo

    2016-01-18

    We performed three-terminal (3T) Hanle measurement for two types of sample series, CoFe/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si and Cu/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si, with various tunnel resistances. Clear Hanle signal and anomalous scaling between spin resistance-area product and tunnel resistance-area product were observed in CoFe/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si devices. In order to explore the origin of the Hanle signal and the impurity-assisted tunneling effect on the Hanle signal in our devices, Hanle measurement in Cu/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si devices was performed as well. However, no detectable Hanle signal was observed in Cu/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si, even though a lot of samples with various tunnel resistances were studied in wide temperature and bias voltage ranges. Through a comparative study, it is found that the impurity-assisted tunneling magnetoresistance mechanism would not play a dominant role in the 3T Hanle signal in CoFe/SiO{sub 2}/n{sup +}-Si tunnel junctions, where the SiO{sub 2} was formed by plasma oxidation to minimize impurities.

  9. Computed Tomography-Guided Access to the Cisterna Chyli: Introduction of a Technique for Direct Lymphangiography to Evaluate and Treat Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Maybody, Majid; Getrajdman, George I.; Bains, Manjit S.; Finley, David J.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to introduce a technique of direct lymphangiography to enable chylothorax treatment. Using a hybrid computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy imaging system, a 21-gauge needle was placed under CT guidance into the cisterna chyli to allow contrast lymphangiography and CT lymphangiography in two patients with presumed postoperative chylothorax. Water-soluble contrast media injection demonstrated the thoracic duct anatomy in both patients. Further successful needle disruption of the cisterna chyli was performed in one patient to interrupt lymph flow and stop the chylous leak, with subsequent resolution of the chylothorax.

  10. Interplay between tight junctions & adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hannah K; Maiers, Jessica L; DeMali, Kris A

    2017-09-01

    Cell-cell adhesions are critical for the development and maintenance of tissues. Present at sites of cell-cell contact are the adherens junctions and tight junctions. The adherens junctions mediate cell-cell adhesion via the actions of nectins and cadherins. The tight junctions regulate passage of ions and small molecules between cells and establish cell polarity. Historically, the adherens and tight junctions have been thought of as discrete complexes. However, it is now clear that a high level of interdependency exists between the two junctional complexes. The adherens junctions and tight junctions are physically linked, by the zonula occludens proteins, and linked via signaling molecules including several polarity complexes and actin cytoskeletal modifiers. This review will first describe the individual components of both the adherens and tight junctions and then discuss the coupling of the two complexes with an emphasis on the signaling links and physical interactions between the two junctional complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma Membrane Targeting of Endogenous NKCC2 in COS7 Cells Bypasses Functional Golgi Cisternae and Complex N-Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Richa; Kursan, Shams; Almiahoub, Mohamed Y.; Almutairi, Mohammed M.; Garzón-Muvdi, Tomás; Alvarez-Leefmans, Francisco J.; Di Fulvio, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Na+K+2Cl− co-transporters (NKCCs) effect the electroneutral movement of Na+-K+ and 2Cl− ions across the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells. There are two known NKCC isoforms, NKCC1 (Slc12a2) and NKCC2 (Slc12a1). NKCC1 is a ubiquitously expressed transporter involved in cell volume regulation, Cl− homeostasis and epithelial salt secretion, whereas NKCC2 is abundantly expressed in kidney epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, where it plays key roles in NaCl reabsorption and electrolyte homeostasis. Although NKCC1 and NKCC2 co-transport the same ions with identical stoichiometry, NKCC1 actively co-transports water whereas NKCC2 does not. There is growing evidence showing that NKCC2 is expressed outside the kidney, but its function in extra-renal tissues remains unknown. The present study shows molecular and functional evidence of endogenous NKCC2 expression in COS7 cells, a widely used mammalian cell model. Endogenous NKCC2 is primarily found in recycling endosomes, Golgi cisternae, Golgi-derived vesicles, and to a lesser extent in the endoplasmic reticulum. Unlike NKCC1, NKCC2 is minimally hybrid/complex N-glycosylated under basal conditions and yet it is trafficked to the plasma membrane region of hyper-osmotically challenged cells through mechanisms that require minimal complex N-glycosylation or functional Golgi cisternae. Control COS7 cells exposed to slightly hyperosmotic (~6.7%) solutions for 16 h were not shrunken, suggesting that either one or both NKCC1 and NKCC2 may participate in cell volume recovery. However, NKCC2 targeted to the plasma membrane region or transient over-expression of NKCC2 failed to rescue NKCC1 in COS7 cells where NKCC1 had been silenced. Further, COS7 cells in which NKCC1, but not NKCC2, was silenced exhibited reduced cell size compared to control cells. Altogether, these results suggest that NKCC2 does not participate in cell volume recovery and therefore, NKCC1 and NKCC2 are functionally different Na+K+2Cl

  12. Variety of horizontal cell gap junctions in the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Kim, Hong-Lim; Pan, Feng; Chun, Myung-Hoon; Massey, Stephen C; Kim, In-Beom

    2012-02-29

    In the rabbit retina, there are two types of horizontal cell (HC). The axonless A-type HCs form a coupled network via connexin 50 (Cx50) gap junctions in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). The axon-bearing B-type HCs form two independently coupled networks; the dendritic network via gap junctions consisted of unknown Cx and the axon terminal network via Cx57. The present study was conducted to examine the localization and morphological features of Cx50 and Cx57 gap junctions in rabbit HCs at cellular and subcellular levels. The results showed that each gap junction composed of Cx50 or Cx57 showed distinct features. The larger Cx50 gap junctions were located more proximally than the smaller Cx50 gap junctions. Both Cx50 plaques formed symmetrical homotypic gap junctions, but some small ones had an asymmetrical appearance, suggesting the presence of heterotypic gap junctions or hemichannels. In contrast, Cx57 gap junctions were found in the more distal part of the OPL but never on the axon terminal endings entering the rod spherules, and they were exclusively homotypic. Interestingly, about half of the Cx57 gap junctions appeared to be invaginated. These distinct features of Cx50 and Cx57 gap junctions show the variety of HC gap junctions and may provide insights into the function of different types of HCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sphingomyelin synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly at the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Futerman, A.H.; Stieger, B.; Hubbard, A.L.; Pagano, R.E. )

    1990-05-25

    The intracellular site of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis was examined in subcellular fractions from rat liver using a radioactive ceramide analog N-((1-14C)hexanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine. This lipid readily transferred from a complex with bovine serum albumin to liver fractions without disrupting the membranes, and was metabolized to radioactive SM. To prevent degradation of the newly synthesized SM to ceramide, all experiments were performed in the presence of EDTA to minimize neutral sphingomyelinase activity and at neutral pH to minimize acid sphingomyelinase activity. An intact Golgi apparatus fraction gave an 85-98-fold enrichment of SM synthesis and a 58-83-fold enrichment of galactosyltransferase activity. Controlled trypsin digestion demonstrated that SM synthesis was localized to the lumen of intact Golgi apparatus vesicles. Although small amounts of SM synthesis were detected in plasma membrane and rough microsome fractions, after accounting for contamination by Golgi apparatus membranes, their combined activity contributed less than 13% of the total SM synthesis in rat liver. Subfractions of the Golgi apparatus were obtained and characterized by immunoblotting and biochemical assays using cis/medial (mannosidase II) and trans (sialyltransferase and galactosyltransferase) Golgi apparatus markers. The specific activity of SM synthesis was highest in enriched cis and medial fractions but far lower in a trans fraction. We conclude that SM synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly in the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and not at the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum as has been previously suggested.

  14. [Total proteins of the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by punction of the cisterna magna: normal values. Variations related to sex].

    PubMed

    Vermes, L M; Ferri, R G; Aisen, J; Marlet, J M

    1976-12-01

    The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid) of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females) with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne--Appelt and Takata-Ara) were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females). The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and factors that could interfere in the different results mentioned in the literature are briefly discussed. Since the statistical analysis of the results showed that the mean total protein concentration in males (28.76 mg/100 ml) was higher than in females (23.91 mg/100 ml), normal limits for each sex were established: 16.96 to 47.13 mg/100 ml for males and 14.76 to 42.76 mg/100 ml for females.

  15. The Rab GTPase YPT-1 associates with Golgi cisternae and Spitzenkörper microvesicles in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-León, Eddy; Bowman, Barry; Seidel, Constanze; Fischer, Reinhard; Novick, Peter; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2015-02-01

    Vesicle traffic involves budding, transport, tethering and fusion of vesicles with acceptor membranes. GTP-bound small Rab GTPases interact with the membrane of vesicles, promoting their association with other factors before their subsequent fusion. Filamentous fungi contain at their hyphal apex the Spitzenkörper (Spk), a multivesicular structure to which vesicles concentrate before being redirected to specific cell sites. The regulatory mechanisms ensuring the directionality of the vesicles that travel to the Spk are still unknown. Hence, we analyzed YPT-1, the Neurospora crassa homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ypt1p (Rab1), which regulates different secretory pathway events. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed fluorescently tagged YPT-1 at the Spk and putative Golgi cisternae. Co-expression of YPT-1 and predicted post-Golgi Rab GTPases showed YPT-1 confined to the Spk microvesicular core, while SEC-4 (Rab8) and YPT-31 (Rab11) occupied the Spk macrovesicular peripheral layer, suggesting that trafficking and organization of macro and microvesicles at the Spk are regulated by distinct Rabs. Partial colocalization of YPT-1 with USO-1 (p115) and SEC-7 indicated the additional participation of YPT-1 at early and late Golgi trafficking steps. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Implantation of a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft for treatment of obstructions of the teat and mammary gland cisternae in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirsbrunner, G; Metzger, L; Steiner, A

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate use of an artificial vascular graft as treatment for obstructions of the teat and mammary gland cisternae in lactating cattle. Prospective clinical study. 14 lactating dairy cows. After physical examination that included palpation, ultrasonography, evaluation of milk flow, and California mastitis test, each cow underwent surgical excision of obstructive tissue and implantation of a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft. Milk drained passively for 10 to 14 days after surgery. Follow-up evaluation was performed by telephone questionnaire of owners 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery regarding somatic cell count, time needed to milk affected quarter, compared with that of the contralateral quarter, and frequency of mastitis. After the subsequent nonlactation period and calving, milk flow was tested, using a quarter milking machine, and ultrasonographic examination of the affected teat was performed. Milk could be obtained from affected quarters from all cows 14 days after surgery, from 13 (93%) cows 1 month after surgery, from 10 (71%) cows 6 months after surgery, and from 3 (21%) cows 12 months after surgery, but milk flow in these 3 cows was considerably reduced. This technique failed because of collapse of the implant (4 cows), chronic mastitis (1), migration of the implant (4), and ingrowth of obstructive tissue between the distal aspect of the implant and the ridges of mucous membrane that radiate from the internal orifice of the streak canal (4), or a combination of these. Implantation of this vascular graft is a useful technique to restore teat patency for 6 months. A longer period of passive drainage of milk appears necessary for sufficient ingrowth of the graft. Lesions that extend to the distal most aspect of the teat cistern have a poor prognosis, because this area cannot be sufficiently overlapped by the graft.

  17. Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice...AChE +/+) and acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE -/-) mice to determine the compensatory mechanism manifested by the neuromuscular junction to...had smaller nerve terminals and diminished pre- and postsynaptic surface contacts relative to neuromuscular junctions of AChE +/+ mice. The

  18. Theoretical performance of multi-junction solar cells combining III-V and Si materials.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ian; O'Mahony, Donagh; Corbett, Brian; Morrison, Alan P

    2012-09-10

    A route to improving the overall efficiency of multi-junction solar cells employing conventional III-V and Si photovoltaic junctions is presented here. A simulation model was developed to consider the performance of several multi-junction solar cell structures in various multi-terminal configurations. For series connected, 2-terminal triple-junction solar cells, incorporating an AlGaAs top junction, a GaAs middle junction and either a Si or InGaAs bottom junction, it was found that the configuration with a Si bottom junction yielded a marginally higher one sun efficiency of 41.5% versus 41.3% for an InGaAs bottom junction. A significant efficiency gain of 1.8% over the two-terminal device can be achieved by providing an additional terminal to the Si bottom junction in a 3-junction mechanically stacked configuration. It is shown that the optimum performance can be achieved by employing a four-junction series-connected mechanically stacked device incorporating a Si subcell between top AlGaAs/GaAs and bottom In0.53Ga0.47As cells.

  19. Electrostatic control of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsang; Jeong, Wonho; Kim, Kyeongtae; Lee, Woochul; Reddy, Pramod

    2014-11-01

    Molecular junctions hold significant promise for efficient and high-power-output thermoelectric energy conversion. Recent experiments have probed the thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions. However, electrostatic control of thermoelectric properties via a gate electrode has not been possible due to technical challenges in creating temperature differentials in three-terminal devices. Here, we show that extremely large temperature gradients (exceeding 1 × 10(9) K m(-1)) can be established in nanoscale gaps bridged by molecules, while simultaneously controlling their electronic structure via a gate electrode. Using this platform, we study prototypical Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au and Au-fullerene-Au junctions to demonstrate that the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductance of molecular junctions can be simultaneously increased by electrostatic control. Moreover, from our studies of fullerene junctions, we show that thermoelectric properties can be significantly enhanced when the dominant transport orbital is located close to the chemical potential (Fermi level) of the electrodes. These results illustrate the intimate relationship between the thermoelectric properties and charge transmission characteristics of molecular junctions and should enable systematic exploration of the recent computational predictions that promise extremely efficient thermoelectric energy conversion in molecular junctions.

  20. Epithelial adhesive junctions

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Christopher T.; Farkas, Attila E.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesive cell-to-cell contacts contain large, plasma membrane-spanning multiprotein aggregates that perform vital structural and signaling functions. Three prominent adhesive contacts are the tight junction, adherens junction, and the desmosome. Each junction type has unique cellular functions and a complex molecular composition. In this review, we comment on recent and exciting advances in our understanding of junction composition and function. PMID:24592313

  1. Regulation of Cx43 gap junctions: the gatekeeper and the password.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Boynton, A L

    2000-10-17

    Gap junctions are regulatable pores that connect the cytoplasms of neighboring cells. Hossain and Boynton focus on connexin 43 gap junctions and their regulation by changing the phosphorylation status of the COOH-terminal domain of connexin 43 or by altering protein-protein interactions in this region. The COOH-terminal domain of connexin 43 appears to be a key player in regulating gap junctional communication (GJC) because many divergent signals in many different cell types modify this domain to inhibit GJC.

  2. Wideband rotating junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochernyaev, V. N.

    1993-06-01

    Rotating junctions of coaxial-waveguide and waveguide type with a traveling wave coefficient exceeding 0.8 in a wide frequency range are considered. The design of these junctions is based on a method of the theory of electrodynamic circuits. Numerical results are obtained for rotating junctions of partially filled rectangular waveguide type and their particular cases.

  3. PKCζ PHOSPHORYLATES OCCLUDIN AND PROMOTES ASSEMBLY OF EPITHELIAL TIGHT JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Suneet; Suzuki, Takuya; Seth, Ankur; Samak, Geetha; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Evidence indicates that protein kinases play an important role in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of PKCζ in tight junction regulation in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers. Inhibition of PKCζ by a specific PKCζ-pseudosubstrate peptide results in redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the intercellular junctions and disruption of barrier function without affecting cell viability. Reduced expression of PKCζ by antisense oligonucleotide or shRNA also results in compromised tight junction integrity. Inhibition or knock down of PKCζ delays calcium-induced assembly of tight junctions. Tight junction disruption by PKCζ-pseudosubstrate is associated with the dephosphorylation of occludin and ZO-1 on Ser and Thr residues. PKCζ directly binds to the C-terminal domain of occludin and phosphorylates it on Thr residues. T403, T404, T424 and T438 in occludin C-terminal domain are the predominant sites of PKCζ-dependent phosphorylation. T424A or T438A mutation in full length occludin delays its assembly into the tight junctions. Inhibition of PKCζ also induces redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the tight junctions and dissociates these proteins from the detergent-insoluble fractions in mouse ileum. This study demonstrates that PKCζ phosphorylates occludin on specific Thr residues and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions. PMID:21545357

  4. YBCO Josephson Junction Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-14

    Conductus 969 West Maude Avenue ř ’AEOTR. 19 4 0 0 75 Sunnyvale CA 94086 9. SPONSORING MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ’C 510 N’_ ; i )N !’->.G...the primary junction being investigated at Conductus (and one of the better performing junctions in the community) was the bi-epitaxial structure [4...achieved. 2.1 Junctions At the time of proposal, the primary junction being investigated at Conductus (and one of the better performing junctions in

  5. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase regulate the accumulation of a tight junction protein, ZO-1, in cell-cell contacts in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Minakami, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Norio; Iida, Hiroshi; Anan, Hisashi; Inai, Tetsuichiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the involvement of stress-activated protein kinases, JNK and p38 MAPK, in the assembly of tight junctions in keratinocytes, we treated HaCaT cells with various combinations of SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), SB202190 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) and anisomycin (an activator of both JNK and p38 MAPK) and examined the localization of ZO-1, an undercoat constitutive protein of the tight junction. Short-term (8h) incubation with SP600125, SB202190 or anisomycin induced the accumulation of ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts, with reduced ZO-1 staining in the cytoplasm, while only long-term (24h) incubation with SP600125 induced the accumulation of ZO-1. SP600125, SB202190 or SP600125 plus SB202190 treatment induced thin linear staining for ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts. Anisomycin treatment induced thick and irregular linear staining for ZO-1, while anisomycin plus SP600125 treatment induced zipper-like staining for ZO-1. Anisomycin plus SB202190 treatment or anisomycin plus both SP600125 and SB202190 treatment for 8h failed to lead to the accumulation of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts, but induced thin linear staining with several gaps 16 h after removal of these agents. These results suggest that the localization of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts is differently regulated by activation and inhibition of JNK and/or p38 MAPK depending on the incubation period.

  6. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  7. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  8. Mechanisms of elimination, remodeling, and competition at frog neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Herrera, A A; Werle, M J

    1990-01-01

    Mechanisms governing synapse elimination, synaptic remodeling, and polyneuronal innervation were examined in anatomical and electrophysiological studies of frog neuromuscular junctions. There was a substantial level of polyneuronal innervation in adult junctions and this varied seasonally. Nerve terminal retraction and synapse elimination occurred during normal growth and following reinnervation. Synapse elimination was not inevitable, however. Repeated in vivo observations of some identified junctions showed that polyneuronal innervation could persist for over a year, while at other junctions it arose de novo by terminal sprouting. We concluded that polyneuronal innervation in adult muscles was governed by an equilibrium between processes of retraction and elimination on one hand, and sprouting and synaptogenesis on the other. Other observations revealed that structural remodeling was a common feature of adult junctions. Most often, remodeling involved the simultaneous growth and retraction of different parts of the same junction. The net result was usually junctional growth that, in small frogs, appeared to provide a good match between synaptic size and the electrical demands of transmission. In larger animals, pre- and postsynaptic sizes were not as well matched, providing morphological evidence for a growth-associated decline in synaptic efficacy. Finally, electrophysiology was used to describe some of the functional correlates and consequences of competitive interactions between the terminals of different axons. These results are explained by a hypothetical mechanism that involves trophic support provided by the muscle to the motoneuron, the overall level of nerve-muscle activity, and the synchrony of pre- and postsynaptic activity.

  9. Myosins in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions. PMID:22954512

  10. Tunnel junction based memristors as artificial synapses

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andy; Niehörster, Stefan; Fabretti, Savio; Shepheard, Norman; Kuschel, Olga; Küpper, Karsten; Wollschläger, Joachim; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We prepared magnesia, tantalum oxide, and barium titanate based tunnel junction structures and investigated their memristive properties. The low amplitudes of the resistance change in these types of junctions are the major obstacle for their use. Here, we increased the amplitude of the resistance change from 10% up to 100%. Utilizing the memristive properties, we looked into the use of the junction structures as artificial synapses. We observed analogs of long-term potentiation, long-term depression and spike-time dependent plasticity in these simple two terminal devices. Finally, we suggest a possible pathway of these devices toward their integration in neuromorphic systems for storing analog synaptic weights and supporting the implementation of biologically plausible learning mechanisms. PMID:26217173

  11. Switching and Rectification in Carbon-Nanotube Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Multi-terminal carbon-nanotube junctions are under investigation as candidate components of nanoscale electronic devices and circuits. Three-terminal "Y" junctions of carbon nanotubes (see Figure 1) have proven to be especially interesting because (1) it is now possible to synthesize them in high yield in a controlled manner and (2) results of preliminary experimental and theoretical studies suggest that such junctions could exhibit switching and rectification properties. Following the preliminary studies, current-versus-voltage characteristics of a number of different "Y" junctions of single-wall carbon nanotubes connected to metal wires were computed. Both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes of various chiralities were considered. Most of the junctions considered were symmetric. These computations involved modeling of the quantum electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotubes and junctions, taking account of such complicating factors as the topological defects (pentagons, heptagons, and octagons) present in the hexagonal molecular structures at the junctions, and the effects of the nanotube/wire interfaces. A major component of the computational approach was the use of an efficient Green s function embedding scheme. The results of these computations showed that symmetric junctions could be expected to support both rectification and switching. The results also showed that rectification and switching properties of a junction could be expected to depend strongly on its symmetry and, to a lesser degree, on the chirality of the nanotubes. In particular, it was found that a zigzag nanotube branching at a symmetric "Y" junction could exhibit either perfect rectification or partial rectification (asymmetric current-versus-voltage characteristic, as in the example of Figure 2). It was also found that an asymmetric "Y" junction would not exhibit rectification.

  12. Tunneling in Organic Conductor/superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Sato, K.; Friedman, B.

    2003-03-01

    We report the nonequilibrium effect of polaronic quasiparticle (QP) injection using an organic injector in a high Tc three terminal device. The organic, copper (II) phthalocyanine (Cu-Pc), used as the injector, is a photoconductor and a p-type semiconductor. The transport properties of Au/Cu-Pc/Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (BSCCO) tunnel junctions were investigated in the dark and under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We observed that the injection of polaronic QP from the organic Cu-Pc film into the BSCCO film generated a substantially larger nonequilibrium effect as compared to the normal QP injection current. We could increase the current gain by UV excitation of the organic photoconductor injector. The tunneling spectroscopy of a Cu-Pc/BSCCO junction exhibited a small enhancement of the zero bias conductance peak under the UV excitation. The above phenomena are of importance in developing optically controlled three terminal superconducting devices.

  13. Functional Molecular Junctions Derived from Double Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sohyeon; Hwang, Eunhee; Cho, Yunhee; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-09-25

    Information processing using molecular junctions is becoming more important as devices are miniaturized to the nanoscale. Herein, we report functional molecular junctions derived from double self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) intercalated between soft graphene electrodes. Newly assembled molecular junctions are fabricated by placing a molecular SAM/(top) electrode on another molecular SAM/(bottom) electrode by using a contact-assembly technique. Double SAMs can provide tunneling conjugation across the van der Waals gap between the terminals of each monolayer and exhibit new electrical functions. Robust contact-assembled molecular junctions can act as platforms for the development of equivalent contact molecular junctions between top and bottom electrodes, which can be applied independently to different kinds of molecules to enhance either the structural complexity or the assembly properties of molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Temperature dependence of charge transport in conjugated single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Eek; Kamenetska, Masha; Venkataraman, Latha

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, the break junction technique using a scanning tunneling microscope geometry has proven to be an important tool to understand electron transport through single molecule junctions. Here, we use this technique to probe transport through junctions at temperatures ranging from 5K to 300K. We study three amine-terminated (-NH2) conjugated molecules: a benzene, a biphenyl and a terphenyl derivative. We find that amine groups bind selectively to undercoordinate gold atoms gold all the way down to 5K, yielding single molecule junctions with well-defined conductances. Furthermore, we find that the conductance of a single molecule junction increases with temperature and we present a mechanism for this temperature dependent transport result. Funded by a Rubicon Grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the NSEC program of NSF under grant # CHE-0641523.

  15. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  16. Switch in Gap Junction Protein Expression is Associated with Selective Changes in Junctional Permeability During Keratinocyte Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissette, Janice L.; Kumar, Nalin M.; Gilula, Norton B.; Hall, James E.; Dotto, G. Paolo

    1994-07-01

    Gap junctional communication provides a mechanism for regulating multicellular activities by allowing the exchange of small diffusible molecules between neighboring cells. The diversity of gap junction proteins may exist to form channels that have different permeability properties. We report here that induction of terminal differentiation in mouse primary keratinocytes by calcium results in a specific switch in gap junction protein expression. Expression of α_1 (connexin 43) and β_2 (connexin 26) gap junction proteins is down-modulated, whereas that of β_3 (connexin 31) and β_4 (connexin 31.1) proteins is induced. Although both proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes are electrically coupled, there are significant changes in the permeability properties of the junctions to small molecules. In parallel with the changes in gap junction protein expression during differentiation, the intercellular transfer of the small dyes neurobiotin, carboxyfluorescein, and Lucifer yellow is significantly reduced, whereas that of small metabolites, such as nucleotides and amino acids, proceeds unimpeded. Thus, a switch in gap junction protein expression in differentiating keratinocytes is accompanied by selective changes in junctional permeability that may play an important role in the coordinate control of the differentiation process.

  17. Structure activity relationship of synaptic and junctional neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Raj K; Chaudhury, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Chemical neurotransmission may include transmission to local or remote sites. Locally, contact between ‘bare’ portions of the bulbous nerve terminal termed a varicosity and the effector cell may be in the form of either synapse or non-synaptic contact. Traditionally, all local transmissions between nerves and effector cells are considered synaptic in nature. This is particularly true for communication between neurons. However, communication between nerves and other effectors such as smooth muscles has been described as nonsynaptic or junctional in nature. Nonsynaptic neurotransmission is now also increasing recognized in the CNS. This review focuses on the relationship between structure and function that orchestrate synaptic and junctional neurotransmissions. A synapse is a specialized focal contact between the presynaptic active zone capable for ultrafast release of soluble transmitters and the postsynaptic density that cluster ionotropic receptors. The presynaptic and the postsynaptic areas are separated by the ‘closed’ synaptic cavity. The physiological hallmark of the synapse is ultrafast postsynaptic potentials lasting in milliseconds. In contrast, junctions are juxtapositions of nerve terminals and the effector cells without clear synaptic specializations and the junctional space is ‘open’ to the extracellular space. Based on the nature of the transmitters, postjunctional receptors and their separation from the release sites, the junctions can be divided into ‘close’ and ‘wide’ junctions. Functionally, the ‘close’ and the ‘wide’ junctions can be distinguished by postjunctional potentials lasting ~1 second and 10s of seconds, respectively. Both synaptic and junctional communications are common between neurons; however, junctional transmission is the rule at many neuro-non-neural effectors. PMID:23535140

  18. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  19. Quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics.

  20. Single molecule junction conductance and binding geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetska, Maria

    This Thesis addresses the fundamental problem of controlling transport through a metal-organic interface by studying electronic and mechanical properties of single organic molecule-metal junctions. Using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) we image, probe energy-level alignment and perform STM-based break junction (BJ) measurements on molecules bound to a gold surface. Using Scanning Tunneling Microscope-based break-junction (STM-BJ) techniques, we explore the effect of binding geometry on single-molecule conductance by varying the structure of the molecules, metal-molecule binding chemistry and by applying sub-nanometer manipulation control to the junction. These experiments are performed both in ambient conditions and in ultra high vacuum (UHV) at cryogenic temperatures. First, using STM imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements we explore binding configurations and electronic properties of an amine-terminated benzene derivative on gold. We find that details of metal-molecule binding affect energy-level alignment at the interface. Next, using the STM-BJ technique, we form and rupture metal-molecule-metal junctions ˜104 times to obtain conductance-vs-extension curves and extract most likely conductance values for each molecule. With these measurements, we demonstrated that the control of junction conductance is possible through a choice of metal-molecule binding chemistry and sub-nanometer positioning. First, we show that molecules terminated with amines, sulfides and phosphines bind selectively on gold and therefore demonstrate constant conductance levels even as the junction is elongated and the metal-molecule attachment point is modified. Such well-defined conductance is also obtained with paracyclophane molecules which bind to gold directly through the pi system. Next, we are able to create metal-molecule-metal junctions with more than one reproducible conductance signatures that can be accessed by changing junction geometry. In the

  1. The adherens junction is lost during normal pregnancy but not during ovarian hyperstimulated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dowland, Samson N; Madawala, Romanthi J; Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    During early pregnancy in the rat, the luminal uterine epithelial cells (UECs) must transform to a receptive state to permit blastocyst attachment and implantation. The implantation process involves penetration of the epithelial barrier, so it is expected that the transformation of UECs includes alterations in the lateral junctional complex. Previous studies have demonstrated a deepening of the tight junction (zonula occludens) and a reduction in the number of desmosomes (macula adherens) in UECs at the time of implantation. However, the adherens junction (zonula adherens), which is primarily responsible for cell-cell adhesion, has been little studied during early pregnancy. This study investigated the adherens junction in rat UECs during the early stages of normal pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulated (OH) pregnancy using transmission electron microscopy. The adherens junction is present in UECs at the time of fertilisation, but is lost at the time of blastocyst implantation during normal pregnancy. Interestingly, at the time of implantation after OH, adherens junctions are retained and may impede blastocyst penetration of the epithelium. The adherens junction anchors the actin-based terminal web, which is known to be disrupted in UECs during early pregnancy. However, artificial disruption of the terminal web, using cytochalasin D, did not cause removal of the adherens junction in UECs. This study revealed that adherens junction disassembly occurs during early pregnancy, but that this process does not occur during OH pregnancy. Such disassembly does not appear to depend on the disruption of the terminal web.

  2. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    among all four ports, and to strong parasitic couplings at the microstrip/slotline T junction, where four microstrip lines and a slotline are combined. The present improved broadband magic-T junction (see figure) includes a microstrip ring structure and two microstrip- to-slotline transitions. One of the microstrip/slotline transitions is a small T junction between the ring and a slotline; the other microstrip/slotline transition effects coupling between the slotline and port E. The smallness of the T junction and the use of minimum-size slotline terminations help to minimize radiation loss. An impedance-transformation network that includes multiple quarter-wavelength sections is used to increase the operating bandwidth and minimize the parasitic coupling around the microstrip/slotline T junction. As a result, the improved junction has greater bandwidth and lower phase imbalance at the sum and difference ports than did the prior junction.

  3. [Paroxysmal junctional reciprocal tachycardia and fetoplacental anasarca].

    PubMed

    Maurier, F; Delisle, G; Guay, M

    1985-02-01

    Foeto-placental anasarca was diagnosed at 34 weeks gestation in a patient with acute hydramnios. Foetal tachycardia at 300 bpm was recorded. This obstetrical problem led to the birth of a premature baby with generalised oedema, for which the only apparent cause was the tachycardia. This was identified as a paroxysmal junctional reciprocating tachycardia, initiating on atrial extrasystolic echos, terminating on R waves, with lengthening of the PR interval at the onset of tachycardia, without acceleration of the sinus rate and P'R = RP'. Paroxysmal junctional reciprocating tachycardia in utero was responsible for congestive cardiac failure and foeto-placental anasarca. The cardiac failure was treated by foetal delivery, artificial respiration and digoxin. The association of digoxin-disopyramide reduces the frequency of attacks of tachycardia and treatment may be stopped after one year's follow-up.

  4. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit.

  5. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  6. Dot junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1986-01-01

    A design of solar cells with reduced junction area on the cell surface is investigated for reduction of saturation current and increase in open-circuit voltage. Equidiameter dot junctions distributed across the surface of the cell offer an efficient alternative, with variations in dot diameter and in the spacing between dots giving the required variations in the ratio of junction area to total surface area. A simplified analysis for short-circuit current and other cell parameters, which enables cell design optimization, is presented. Experimental solar-cell performance results, as functions of different area ratios, are presented and compared with the model. It is shown that saturation current reduction is possible for achieving efficiencies as high as 18 percent in flat-plate terrestrial applications.

  7. Terminal structure

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  8. Terminal Ballistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    ballistics doe, little to c~plaini the workings of explosike pro jectiles. The termni,iaf phase (of di esplodling tbalfftic weapon is comiposed of esents...citterior, and terminal baillistic phases, and the study of this n’!w systemn hius useful parallel% it) the proiecoile ballistic sysStem. The...charge liner collapse Vi Jet velocity V, Slug velocity W Work Wp Weight of projecti!e Z A length variable a, bi Empirical constants. (In Chap. 5, Eq

  9. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  10. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  11. Brain barriers: Crosstalk between complex tight junctions and adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Silvia; Engelhardt, Britta

    2015-05-25

    Unique intercellular junctional complexes between the central nervous system (CNS) microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells form the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), respectively. These barriers inhibit paracellular diffusion, thereby protecting the CNS from fluctuations in the blood. Studies of brain barrier integrity during development, normal physiology, and disease have focused on BBB and BCSFB tight junctions but not the corresponding endothelial and epithelial adherens junctions. The crosstalk between adherens junctions and tight junctions in maintaining barrier integrity is an understudied area that may represent a promising target for influencing brain barrier function. © 2015 Tietz and Engelhardt.

  12. Intercellular junctions in myriapods.

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Bigliardi, E; Lane, N J

    1990-01-01

    Tissue from the intestinal tract of myriapods, including millipedes, centipedes and pauropods were examined in tracer-impregnated sections and freeze-fracture replicas. The foregut and hindgut of all three classes exhibit pleated septate junctions; these display undulating intercellular ribbons in thin sections. In replicas they show discrete intramembranous particle (IMP) arrays aligned in rows in parallel; with one another. The tissues of the hindgut also possess scalariform junctions, characterized by cross-striated intercellular clefts in sections and IMP-enriched membranes in replicas. Gap junctions occur in all groups, but they are atypical in replicas in that their component IMPs do not always fracture onto the E face, as is characteristic of other arthropods; some IMPs cleave to the P face and others to the E face. The midgut of these organisms exhibits smooth septate junctions with conventional straight septal ribbons and occasional interseptal columns. However the intramembranous appearance in replicas is variable, particularly in centipedes, in that the rows of IMPs in chemically-unfixed propanecryofixed tissues, are prominent and adhere preferentially to the E face, with complementary P face grooves, while in fixed tissues the IMPs are much less distinct and fracture to either P face or E face. They tend not to protrude far beyond the mid-plane of the membrane bilayer and lie in rows which commonly take on the form of a network. Individual rows of the network sometimes curve to run beside a second row, over a short distance, before bending away into another part of the network. The aligned particle rows, which are much more prominent in millipedes, where they frequently lie in close parallel appositions, do not fuse into ridges as often occurs in insect tissues. The myriapod junctions, therefore, are of the same general kind as are found in the gut tract of other arthropod groups, but differ with respect to the subtleties of their intramembranous

  13. Protein kinase Cζ phosphorylates occludin and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Jain, Suneet; Suzuki, Takuya; Seth, Ankur; Samak, Geetha; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2011-07-15

    Protein kinases play an important role in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of PKCζ (protein kinase Cζ) in tight junction regulation in Caco-2 and MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cell monolayers. Inhibition of PKCζ by a specific PKCζ pseudosubstrate peptide results in redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 (zona occludens 1) from the intercellular junctions and disruption of barrier function without affecting cell viability. Reduced expression of PKCζ by antisense oligonucleotide or shRNA (short hairpin RNA) also results in compromised tight junction integrity. Inhibition or knockdown of PKCζ delays calcium-induced assembly of tight junctions. Tight junction disruption by PKCζ pseudosubstrate is associated with the dephosphorylation of occludin and ZO-1 on serine and threonine residues. PKCζ directly binds to the C-terminal domain of occludin and phosphorylates it on threonine residues. Thr403, Thr404, Thr424 and Thr438 in the occludin C-terminal domain are the predominant sites of PKCζ-dependent phosphorylation. A T424A or T438A mutation in full-length occludin delays its assembly into the tight junctions. Inhibition of PKCζ also induces redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the tight junctions and dissociates these proteins from the detergent-insoluble fractions in mouse ileum. The present study demonstrates that PKCζ phosphorylates occludin on specific threonine residues and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions.

  14. Josephson effect in a Weyl SNS junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kevin A.; Bergholtz, Emil J.; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the Josephson current density j (ϕ ) for a Weyl superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor junction for which the outer terminals are superconducting Weyl metals and the normal layer is a Weyl (semi)metal. We describe the Weyl (semi)metal using a simple model with two Weyl points. The model has broken time-reversal symmetry, but inversion symmetry is present. We calculate the Josephson current for both zero and finite temperature for the two pairing mechanisms inside the superconductors that have been proposed in the literature, zero-momentum BCS-like pairing and finite-momentum FFLO-like pairing, and assuming the short-junction limit. For both pairing types we find that the current is proportional to the normal-state junction conductivity, with a proportionality coefficient that shows quantitative differences between the two pairing mechanisms. The current for the BCS-like pairing is found to be independent of the chemical potential, whereas the current for the FFLO-like pairing is not.

  15. Holliday Junction Resolvases

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Haley D.M.; West, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. PMID:25183833

  16. Holliday junction resolvases.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Haley D M; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-02

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  18. Thermoelectricity in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod; Jang, Sung-Yeon; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arun

    2007-03-16

    By trapping molecules between two gold electrodes with a temperature difference across them, the junction Seebeck coefficients of 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT), 4,4'-dibenzenedithiol, and 4,4''-tribenzenedithiol in contact with gold were measured at room temperature to be +8.7 +/- 2.1 microvolts per kelvin (muV/K), +12.9 +/- 2.2 muV/K, and +14.2 +/- 3.2 muV/K, respectively (where the error is the full width half maximum of the statistical distributions). The positive sign unambiguously indicates p-type (hole) conduction in these heterojunctions, whereas the Au Fermi level position for Au-BDT-Au junctions was identified to be 1.2 eV above the highest occupied molecular orbital level of BDT. The ability to study thermoelectricity in molecular junctions provides the opportunity to address these fundamental unanswered questions about their electronic structure and to begin exploring molecular thermoelectric energy conversion.

  19. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  20. Dissecting contact mechanics from quantum interference in single-molecule junctions of stilbene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Sriharsha V; Meisner, Jeffrey S; Krikorian, Markrete; Ahn, Seokhoon; Parameswaran, Radha; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    2012-03-14

    Electronic factors in molecules such as quantum interference and cross-conjugation can lead to dramatic modulation and suppression of conductance in single-molecule junctions. Probing such effects at the single-molecule level requires simultaneous measurements of independent junction properties, as conductance alone cannot provide conclusive evidence of junction formation for molecules with low conductivity. Here, we compare the mechanics of the conducting para-terminated 4,4'-di(methylthio)stilbene and moderately conducting 1,2-bis(4-(methylthio)phenyl)ethane to that of insulating meta-terminated 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene single-molecule junctions. We simultaneously measure force and conductance across single-molecule junctions and use force signatures to obtain independent evidence of junction formation and rupture in the meta-linked cross-conjugated molecule even when no clear low-bias conductance is measured. By separately quantifying conductance and mechanics, we identify the formation of atypical 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene molecular junctions that are mechanically stable but electronically decoupled. While theoretical studies have envisaged many plausible systems where quantum interference might be observed, our experiments provide the first direct quantitative study of the interplay between contact mechanics and the distinctively quantum mechanical nature of electronic transport in single-molecule junctions.

  1. Inelastic insights for molecular tunneling pathways: bypassing the terminal groups.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Alessandro; Ratner, Mark A

    2007-05-21

    As an example of the use of inelastic transport to deduce structure in molecular transport junctions, we compute the orientation dependence of the Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) spectrum of the 1-pentane monothiolate. We find that upon increasing the tilting angle of the molecule with respect to the normal to the electrode the spectrum changes as the intensity of some vibrations is enhanced. These differences occur because for higher tilting angles the tunneling path that bypasses the terminal group grows in importance. IETS can therefore be used to establish the molecular orientation in junctions terminating with alkyl chains and to investigate experimentally the relative importance of the available tunneling paths.

  2. Signatures of topological Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yang; Pientka, Falko; Berg, Erez; Oreg, Yuval; von Oppen, Felix

    2016-08-01

    Quasiparticle poisoning and diabatic transitions may significantly narrow the window for the experimental observation of the 4 π -periodic dc Josephson effect predicted for topological Josephson junctions. Here, we show that switching-current measurements provide accessible and robust signatures for topological superconductivity which persist in the presence of quasiparticle poisoning processes. Such measurements provide access to the phase-dependent subgap spectrum and Josephson currents of the topological junction when incorporating it into an asymmetric SQUID together with a conventional Josephson junction with large critical current. We also argue that pump-probe experiments with multiple current pulses can be used to measure the quasiparticle poisoning rates of the topological junction. The proposed signatures are particularly robust, even in the presence of Zeeman fields and spin-orbit coupling, when focusing on short Josephson junctions. Finally, we also consider microwave excitations of short topological Josephson junctions which may complement switching-current measurements.

  3. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A processing system capable of producing solar cell junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing was developed and constructed. The machine was to be capable of processing 4-inch diameter single-crystal wafers at a rate of 10(7) wafers per year. A microcomputer-controlled pulsed electron beam annealer with a vacuum interlocked wafer transport system was designed, built and demonstrated to produce solar cell junctions on 4-inch wafers with an AMI efficiency of 12%. Experiments showed that a non-mass-analyzed (NMA) ion beam could implant 10 keV phosphorous dopant to form solar cell junctions which were equivalent to mass-analyzed implants. A NMA ion implanter, compatible with the pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system was designed in detail but was not built because of program termination.

  4. Interface states in carbon nanotube junctions: Rolling up graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, H.; Ayuela, A.; Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, L.

    2009-07-01

    We study the origin of interface states in carbon nanotube intramolecular junctions between achiral tubes. By applying the Born-von Karman boundary condition to an interface between armchair- and zigzag-terminated graphene layers, we are able to explain their number and energies. We show that these interface states, costumarily attributed to the presence of topological defects, are actually related to zigzag-edge states, as those of graphene zigzag nanoribbons. Spatial localization of interface states is seen to vary greatly and may extend appreciably into either side of the junction. Our results give an alternative explanation to the unusual decay length measured for interface states of semiconductor nanotube junctions and could be further tested by local probe spectroscopies.

  5. Termination unit

    DOEpatents

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  6. The terminal crest: morphological features relevant to electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Anderson, R H; Cabrera, J A; Climent, V; Martin, R; Farré, J; Ho, S Y

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detailed anatomy of the terminal crest (crista terminalis) and its junctional regions with the pectinate muscles and intercaval area to provide the yardstick for structural normality. Design: 97 human necropsy hearts were studied from patients who were not known to have medical histories of atrial arrhythmias. The dimensions of the terminal crest were measured in width and thickness from epicardium to endocardium, at the four points known to be chosen as sites of ablation. Results: The pectinate muscles originating from the crest and extending along the wall of the appendage towards the vestibule of the tricuspid valve had a non-uniform trabecular pattern in 80% of hearts. Fine structure of the terminal crest studied using light and scanning electron microscopy consisted of much thicker and more numerous fibrous sheaths of endomysium with increasing age of the patient. 36 specimens of 45 (80%) specimens studied by electron microscopy had a predominantly uniform longitudinal arrangement of myocardial fibres within the terminal crest. In contrast, in all specimens, the junctional areas of the terminal crest with the pectinate muscles and with the intercaval area had crossing and non-uniform architecture of myofibres. Conclusions: The normal anatomy of the muscle fibres and connective tissue in the junctional area of the terminal crest/pectinate muscles and terminal crest/intercaval bundle favours non-uniform anisotropic properties. PMID:12231604

  7. The terminal crest: morphological features relevant to electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Anderson, R H; Cabrera, J A; Climent, V; Martin, R; Farré, J; Ho, S Y

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the detailed anatomy of the terminal crest (crista terminalis) and its junctional regions with the pectinate muscles and intercaval area to provide the yardstick for structural normality. 97 human necropsy hearts were studied from patients who were not known to have medical histories of atrial arrhythmias. The dimensions of the terminal crest were measured in width and thickness from epicardium to endocardium, at the four points known to be chosen as sites of ablation. The pectinate muscles originating from the crest and extending along the wall of the appendage towards the vestibule of the tricuspid valve had a non-uniform trabecular pattern in 80% of hearts. Fine structure of the terminal crest studied using light and scanning electron microscopy consisted of much thicker and more numerous fibrous sheaths of endomysium with increasing age of the patient. 36 specimens of 45 (80%) specimens studied by electron microscopy had a predominantly uniform longitudinal arrangement of myocardial fibres within the terminal crest. In contrast, in all specimens, the junctional areas of the terminal crest with the pectinate muscles and with the intercaval area had crossing and non-uniform architecture of myofibres. The normal anatomy of the muscle fibres and connective tissue in the junctional area of the terminal crest/pectinate muscles and terminal crest/intercaval bundle favours non-uniform anisotropic properties.

  8. Josephson junctions with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Blackburn, James A.; Huberman, Bernardo A.; Smith, H. J. T.

    1992-12-01

    We study a simple model of an overdamped Josephson junction coupled to a transmission line, which is regarded as a delayed feedback to the junction. It is demonstrated analytically how the nonlocal time dependence can give rise to hysteresis and steps in the current-voltage characteristics of the junction and the fundamental difference between positive and negative feedback is discussed. Excellent agreement between the analytical results and the results of numerical simulations is found.

  9. Biomechanics and anatomy of cladode junctions for two Opuntia (Cactaceae) species and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Bobich, E G; Nobel, P S

    2001-03-01

    Hybridization between the introduced arborescent Opuntia ficus-indica and the native shrubby O. littoralis has led to populations, referred to as O. "occidentalis," which form thickets that can dominate hillsides of chaparral and that can survive fires. Because the thickets apparently develop via vegetative reproduction, O. "occidentalis" was hypothesized to have a greater ability than its parent species to reproduce vegetatively due to weaker cladode junctions. Of the three taxa, the junctions for O. "occidentalis" had the least amount of wood, despite having cladode masses and junction cross-sectional areas similar to those of O. littoralis. The cladodes of O. "occidentalis" resisted deflection about their junctions the least and their junctions required the least amount of applied mass and the smallest bending moment to fail mechanically. The junction wood for all three taxa consisted mostly of parenchyma, with lesser amounts of cells with thickened secondary cell walls, indicating that some junction strength depended on hydrostatic pressure, especially for terminal junctions. Libriform fibers, which contribute to support and resist bending moments, were about 80% less frequent in the sub-subterminal junctions of O. "occidentalis" than in O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis. Vascular tracheids, which probably reduced shear among cells in the wood, were 90% less frequent in the terminal and sub-subterminal junction wood of O. "occidentalis" compared to O. littoralis. Thus wood characteristics can account for the weaker junctions of O. "occidentalis" compared to those of O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis, which apparently increases the ability of the hybrid to reproduce vegetatively.

  10. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  11. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  12. Two-dimensional simulations of the superconducting proximity in superconductor-semiconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Victor; Vissers, Michael; Law, Stephanie A.; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Eckstein, James N.

    2015-03-01

    We simulate the consequences of the superconducting proximity effect on the DC current response of a semiconductor-superconductor proximity device within the quasiclassical formalism in the diffusively disordered limit. The device is modeled on in-situ fabricated NS junctions of superconducting Nb films on metallic doped InAs films, with electrical terminals placed in an N-S-N T-junction configuration. Due to the non-collinear configuration of this three terminal device, a theoretical model based on coupled two dimensional spectral and distributional Usadel equations was constructed and numerically solved using Finite-Elements methods. In the regime of high junction conductance, our numerical results demonstrate strong temperature and spatial dependencies of the proximity induced modifications to spectral and transport properties. Such characteristics deviate strongly from usual tunnel junction behavior and aspects of this have been observed in prior experiments[arXiv:1402.6055].

  13. V(D)J recombination coding junction formation without DNA homology: processing of coding termini.

    PubMed Central

    Boubnov, N V; Wills, Z P; Weaver, D T

    1993-01-01

    Coding junction formation in V(D)J recombination generates diversity in the antigen recognition structures of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules by combining processes of deletion of terminal coding sequences and addition of nucleotides prior to joining. We have examined the role of coding end DNA composition in junction formation with plasmid substrates containing defined homopolymers flanking the recombination signal sequence elements. We found that coding junctions formed efficiently with or without terminal DNA homology. The extent of junctional deletion was conserved independent of coding ends with increased, partial, or no DNA homology. Interestingly, G/C homopolymer coding ends showed reduced deletion regardless of DNA homology. Therefore, DNA homology cannot be the primary determinant that stabilizes coding end structures for processing and joining. PMID:8413286

  14. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-23

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  15. Synaptic competition and the persistence of polyneuronal innervation at frog neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Werle, M J; Herrera, A A

    1987-07-01

    Mechanisms governing the elimination of polyneuronal innervation were examined by correlating the morphology and physiology of competing nerve terminals at identified dually innervated neuromuscular junctions in sartorius muscles of adult frogs (Rana pipiens). Synaptic efficacy (endplate potential amplitude per unit nerve terminal length) was presumed to reflect the ability of a terminal to compete for synaptic space. The synaptic efficacies of two terminals at the same synaptic site were found to be surprisingly equal, with a median difference of 33%. Much more variation would be expected if dually innervated junctions were randomly innervated by pairs of terminals having the same range of synaptic efficacy as that found at singly innervated junctions in the same muscle. This finding supports the hypothesis that the weaker input is eliminated from dually innervated junctions when there is a large discrepancy in competitive efficacy, and that both inputs may persist if competitive efficacies are relatively equal. We also tested but failed to find support for the hypothesis that spatial proximity between competing terminals intensifies competition for synaptic space during synapse elimination.

  16. Length dependence of conductance and thermopower of hybrid alkyl-thiophene single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotiuga, Michele; Chang, William B.; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Pauly, Fabian; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2014-03-01

    Single-molecule junctions are novel, controllable testbeds for understanding mixed electronic and thermal transport at interfaces. Here, we study a set of newly-synthesized molecules containing alkyl and thiophene units of increasing length in order to control junction level alignment and electronic coupling with a combination of theory and experiment. Using a first-principles scattering-state approach, based on self-energy corrected density functional theory, we calculate the conductance and thermopower of thiol-terminated alkyl-thiophene-Au junctions, elucidating the relationship between length and thermopower. We compare our work to statistical measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction technique, and discuss the impact of junction geometry on our results. Work supported by ONR/AFOSR BAA 10-026 and computational resources provided by NERSC.

  17. Snake states in graphene quantum dots in the presence of a p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarenia, M.; Pereira, J. M., Jr.; Peeters, F. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic interface states of graphene quantum dots that contain p-n junctions. Within a tight-binding approach, we consider rectangular quantum dots in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field containing p-n as well as p-n-p and n-p-n junctions. The results show the interplay between the edge states associated with the zigzag terminations of the sample and the snake states that arise at the p-n junction due to the overlap between electron and hole states at the potential interface. Remarkable localized states are found at the crossing of the p-n junction with the zigzag edge having a dumb-bell-shaped electron distribution. The results are presented as a function of the junction parameters and the applied magnetic flux.

  18. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  19. Gold nanocrystal arrays as a macroscopic platform for molecular junction thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Chang, W B; Russ, B; Ho, V; Urban, J J; Segalman, R A

    2015-03-07

    Efficiencies of bulk thermoelectric systems have been limited because the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are typically inversely correlated in traditional materials. Decoupling of these properties has been demonstrated in molecular junctions by capitalizing on the unique electronic transport at organic-inorganic interfaces. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of gold nanocrystal arrays with varying thiol-terminated ligands are compared to molecular junction experiments. The experimental results and supporting theory demonstrate that gold nanocrystal arrays are a valuable model system for mapping the applicability of molecular junction design rules to the design of macroscale organic-inorganic hybrid thermoelectric materials.

  20. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples, or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single-atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent, which is a consequence of strong intervalley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce intervalley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudomagnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e., existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short-range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.

  1. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  2. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  3. Gate-modulated transport properties and mechanism for nanowire cross junction based on SnO2 semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Tong, Yanhong; Wang, Guorui; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties and mechanism of the three-terminal field-effect nanowire cross junction have been systematically investigated. An interesting phenomenon, such as applied voltage bias on nanowire cross junction makes the ON/OFF current ratio of the transistor improved by over 2 orders of magnitude, has been observed. Different from the two-terminal nanowire cross junctions, the cross junction induced potential barrier in three-terminal counterparts is found to be capable to prevent the current of the top semiconductor nanowire from injecting into the bottom nanowire at off state, while to make the current of the top semiconductor nanowire contribute to the current of the bottom nanowire at on state, resulting in the current switch between on state and off state by the gate voltage modulation.

  4. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Roberto A; Santos, Luis F N; Perego, Manuela

    2013-09-01

    A 5-year-old male English Bulldog was presented with a 1-year history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) partially responsive to amiodarone. At admission the surface ECG showed sustained runs of a narrow QRS complex tachycardia, with a ventricular cycle length (R-R interval) of 260 ms, alternating with periods of sinus rhythm. Endocardial mapping identified the electrogenic mechanism of the SVT as a circus movement tachycardia with retrograde and decremental conduction along a concealed postero-septal atrioventricular pathway (AP) and anterograde conduction along the atrioventricular node. These characteristics were indicative of a permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the AP successfully terminated the PJRT, with no recurrence of tachycardia on Holter monitoring at 12 months follow-up.

  5. Magnetoelectrics in disordered topological insulator Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkova, I. V.; Bobkov, A. M.; Zyuzin, Alexander A.; Alidoust, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We study theoretically the coupling of electric charge and spin polarization in an equilibrium and nonequilibrium electric transport across a two-dimensional Josephson configuration comprised of disordered surface channels of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In the equilibrium state of the system, we predict the Edelstein effect, which is much more pronounced than its counterpart in conventional spin-orbit coupled materials. Employing a quasiclassical Keldysh technique, we demonstrate that the ground state of the system can be shifted experimentally into arbitrary macroscopic superconducting phase differences other than the standard "0" or "π ," constituting a ϕ0 junction, solely by modulating a quasiparticle flow injection into the junction. We propose a feasible experiment in which the quasiparticles are injected into the topological insulator surface by means of a normal electrode and voltage gradient so that oppositely oriented stationary spin densities can be developed along the interfaces and allow for direct use of the spin-momentum locking nature of Dirac fermions in the surface channels. The ϕ0 state is proportional to the voltage difference applied between the injector electrode and superconducting terminals that calibrates the injection rate of particles and, therefore, the ϕ0 shift.

  6. EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE SCALE IS LOCATED AT CENTER RIGHT, AGAINST THE SECOND SUPPORT TIMBER FROM THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE JAW CRUSHER FOUNDATION CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN AT CENTER LEFT WITH A CONVEYOR TO CARRY CRUSHED ORE UP TO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN,LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND TRAM TRESTLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. WINCHING ENGINE AND ITS FOUNDATION IS AT TOP CENTER. SEE CA-291-28 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Paradoxical responses to pacing maneuvers differentiating atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia and junctional tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Yamane, Teiichi; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Tokutake, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Hioki, Mika; Narui, Ryohsuke; Tanigawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamashita, Seigo; Inada, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-02-01

    A 40-year-old female presented at our hospital because of heart palpitations. During an electrophysiological study, atrioventricular (AV) conduction showed dual AV nodal physiology. Three types of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) were induced. The initiation of SVT was reproducibility dependent on a critical A-H interval prolongation. An early premature atrial contraction during SVT repeatedly advanced the immediate His potential with termination of the tachycardia, indicating AV node reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). However, after atrial overdrive pacing during SVT without termination of the tachycardia, the first return electrogram resulted in an AHHA response, consistent with junctional tachycardia. The mechanism of paradoxical responses to pacing maneuvers differentiating AVNRT and junctional tachycardia was discussed.

  10. Gap junctions, pannexins and pain.

    PubMed

    Spray, David C; Hanani, Menachem

    2017-06-22

    Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels have been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds. Moreover, targeted modulation of Cx43 expression was shown to modulate pain thresholds, albeit in somewhat contradictory ways, and mice lacking Panx1 expression globally or in specific cell types show depressed hyperalgesia. We here review the evidence for involvement of gap junctions and Panx channels in a variety of animal pain studies and then discuss ways in which gap junctions and Panx channels may mediate their action in pain processing. This discussion focusses on spread of signals among satellite glial cells, in particular intercellular Ca(2+) waves, which are propagated through both gap junction and Panx1-dependent routes and have been associated with the phenomenon of spreading depression and the malady of migraine headache with aura. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Metallic Junction Thermoelectric Device Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric junctions made of semiconductors have existed in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) for deep space missions, but are currently being adapted for terrestrial energy harvesting. Unfortunately, these devices are inefficient, operating at only 7% efficiency. This low efficiency has driven efforts to make high-figure-of-merit thermoelectric devices, which require a high electrical conductivity but a low thermal conductivity, a combination that is difficult to achieve. Lowered thermal conductivity has increased efficiency, but at the cost of power output. An alternative setup is to use metallic junctions rather than semiconductors as thermoelectric devices. Metals have orders of magnitude more electrons and electronic conductivities higher than semiconductors, but thermal conductivity is higher as well. To evaluate the viability of metallic junction thermoelectrics, a two dimensional heat transfer MATLAB simulation was constructed to calculate efficiency and power output. High Seebeck coefficient alloys, Chromel (90%Ni-10%Cr) and Constantan (55%Cu-45%Ni), produced efficiencies of around 20-30%. Parameters such as the number of layers of junctions, lateral junction density, and junction sizes for both series- and parallel-connected junctions were explored.

  12. Thermopower measurements in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Rincón-García, Laura; Evangeli, Charalambos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás

    2016-08-07

    The measurement of thermopower in molecular junctions offers complementary information to conductance measurements and is becoming essential for the understanding of transport processes at the nanoscale. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the study of the thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions. After presenting the theoretical background for thermoelectricity at the nanoscale, we review the experimental techniques for measuring the thermopower in these systems and discuss the main results. Finally, we consider the challenges in the application of molecular junctions in viable thermoelectric devices.

  13. A Plasma Display Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    A graphics terminal designed for use as a remote computer input/output terminal is described. Although the terminal is intended for use in teaching applications, it has several features which make it useful in many other computer terminal applications. These features include: a 10-inch square plasma display panel, permanent storage of information…

  14. Terminals for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred M.

    The effectiveness of different types of computer terminals in programing learning is discussed with special reference to the experience of the Physics Computer Development Project. Experience with ten types of terminals including hardcopy terminals of several speeds, alphanumeric and graphic terminals is reviewed. Special consideration is given to…

  15. Structure of the three-way helical junction of the hepatitis C virus IRES element

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jonathan; Melcher, Sonya; Iqbal, Asif; Ding, Yiliang; Lilley, David M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element contains a three-way junction that is important in the overall RNA conformation, and for its role in the internal initiation of translation. The junction also illustrates some important conformational principles in the folding of three-way helical junctions. It is formally a 3HS4 junction, with the possibility of two alternative stacking conformers. However, in principle, the junction can also undergo two steps of branch migration that would form 2HS1HS3 and 2HS2HS2 junctions. Comparative gel electrophoresis and ensemble fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies show that the junction is induced to fold by the presence of Mg2+ ions in low micromolar concentrations, and suggest that the structure adopted is based on coaxial stacking of the two helices that do not terminate in a hairpin loop (i.e., helix IIId). Single-molecule FRET studies confirm this conclusion, and indicate that there is no minor conformer present based on an alternative choice of helical stacking partners. Moreover, analysis of single-molecule FRET data at an 8-msec resolution failed to reveal evidence for structural transitions. It seems probable that this junction adopts a single conformation as a unique and stable fold. PMID:20581129

  16. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River Junction...

  17. 27 CFR 9.164 - River Junction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River Junction. 9.164... River Junction. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “River Junction.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the River Junction...

  18. Thermal conductance of superlattice junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Simon; McGaughey, Alan J. H.

    2015-05-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and the lattice-based scattering boundary method to compute the thermal conductance of finite-length Lennard-Jones superlattice junctions confined by bulk crystalline leads. The superlattice junction thermal conductance depends on the properties of the leads. For junctions with a superlattice period of four atomic monolayers at temperatures between 5 and 20 K, those with mass-mismatched leads have a greater thermal conductance than those with mass-matched leads. We attribute this lead effect to interference between and the ballistic transport of emergent junction vibrational modes. The lead effect diminishes when the temperature is increased, when the superlattice period is increased, and when interfacial disorder is introduced, but is reversed in the harmonic limit.

  19. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, J.; Hilbert, C.; Hahn, E.L.; Sleator, T.

    1986-03-25

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  20. Shalbatana/Simud Vallis Junction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-11

    The sinuous channels and streamlined islands at the junction of Shalbatana and Simud Vallis, seen in this NASA Mars Odyssey image, present an erosional history of the catastrophic floods that scoured the Martian surface hundreds of millions of years ago.

  1. Josephson junction Q-spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; Hilbert, Claude; Hahn, Erwin L.; Sleator, Tycho

    1988-01-01

    An automatic Q-spoiler comprising at least one Josephson tunnel junction connected in an LC circuit for flow of resonant current therethrough. When in use in a system for detecting the magnetic resonance of a gyromagnetic particle system, a high energy pulse of high frequency energy irradiating the particle system will cause the critical current through the Josephson tunnel junctions to be exceeded, causing the tunnel junctions to act as resistors and thereby damp the ringing of the high-Q detection circuit after the pulse. When the current has damped to below the critical current, the Josephson tunnel junctions revert to their zero-resistance state, restoring the Q of the detection circuit and enabling the low energy magnetic resonance signals to be detected.

  2. Tunable φ Josephson junction ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menditto, R.; Sickinger, H.; Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Goldobin, E.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the operation of a deterministic Josephson ratchet with tunable asymmetry. The ratchet is based on a φ Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic barrier operating in the underdamped regime. The system is probed also under the action of an additional dc current, which acts as a counterforce trying to stop the ratchet. Under these conditions the ratchet works against the counterforce, thus producing a nonzero output power. Finally, we estimate the efficiency of the φ Josephson junction ratchet.

  3. LOW RESISTANCE JUNCTIONS IN CRAYFISH

    PubMed Central

    Peracchia, Camillo

    1973-01-01

    The ultrastructure of low resistance junctions between segments of lateral giant fibers in crayfish is studied in sections from specimens fixed either by conventional methods or by glutaraldehyde-H2O2 or by glutaraldehyde-lanthanum. Cross sections through junctions fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde display the usual trilaminar profile of two parallel membranes separated by a narrow gap. Most of the junctional regions appear covered by 500–800 Å vesicles which lie on both sides of the junction in rows adjacent to the membranes. Gross sections through junctions fixed by glutaraldehyde-H2O2 display, in regions containing vesicles, membranes with a beaded profile. The beads correspond to globules ∼125 Å in width and ∼170 Å in height arranged in a hexagonal pattern with a unit cell of ∼200 Å. The globules of one membrane match precisely with those of the adjacent membrane, and opposite globules seem to come in contact with each other at the center of the junction. The membrane of the vesicles also contains globules. Occasionally the globules of the vesicles seem to join with those of the junctional membranes, apparently forming intracellular junctions. Injunctions negatively stained by lanthanum the globules are seen organized into two arrangements. Areas containing globules in a hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼200 Å (swollen pattern) are seen adjacent to areas in which the globules are more closely and disorderly packed (close packing), the minimum center-to-center distance between adjacent globules being ∼125 Å. At higher magnification each globule appears composed of six subunits arranged in a circle around a central region occupied by lanthanum (possibly a pit). PMID:4120610

  4. Tight junctions as regulators of tissue remodelling.

    PubMed

    Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2016-10-01

    Formation of tissue barriers by epithelial and endothelial cells requires neighbouring cells to interact via intercellular junctions, which includes tight junctions. Tight junctions form a semipermeable paracellular diffusion barrier and act as signalling hubs that guide cell behaviour and differentiation. Components of tight junctions are also expressed in cell types not forming tight junctions, such as cardiomyocytes, where they associate with facia adherens and/or gap junctions. This review will focus on tight junction proteins and their importance in tissue homeostasis and remodelling with a particular emphasis on what we have learned from animal models and human diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain.

    PubMed

    Rash, J E; Kamasawa, N; Vanderpool, K G; Yasumura, T; O'Brien, J; Nannapaneni, S; Pereda, A E; Nagy, J I

    2015-01-29

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at "large myelinated club ending (LMCE)" synapses on Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical "pre-potentials" immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified "mixed" (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with connexin35 (Cx35) restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and connexin34.7 (Cx34.7) restricted to apposing M-cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of connexin36 (Cx36) on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on

  6. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain

    PubMed Central

    Rash, John E.; Kamasawa, Naomi; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Yasumura, Thomas; O'Brien, John; Nannapaneni, Srikant; Pereda, Alberto E.; Nagy, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at “large myelinated club ending” synapses on Mauthner cells of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical “pre-potentials” immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified “mixed” (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with Cx35 restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and Cx34.7 restricted to apposing Mauthner cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of Cx36 on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on opposite sides of the same gap junction or

  7. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  8. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-03

    many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for single molecule rectification of the current, inelastic electron spectra and SERS spectroscopy. Three terminal architectures allowing (electrochemical) gating and transistor effects. Electrochemical nanojunctions and gating: intermolecular electron transfer in multi-redox metalloproteins, contact force modulation, characteristic current-noise patterns due to conformational fluctuations, resonance effects and electrocatalysis. Novel architectures: linear coupled quantum-dot-bridged junctions, electrochemical redox mediated transfer in two center systems leading to double maxima current-voltage plots and negative differential resistance, molecular-nanoparticle hybrid junctions and unexpected mesoscopic effects in polymeric wires. Device integration: techniques for creating stable metal/molecule/metal junctions using 'nano-alligator clips' and integration with 'traditional' silicon-based technology. The Guest Editors would like to thank all of the authors and referees of this special issue for their meticulous work in making each paper a valuable contribution to this research area, the early-bird authors for their patience, and Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter editorial staff in Bristol for their continuous support.

  9. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF). The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system. PMID:24089604

  10. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals...

  14. Cell accumulation in the junctional region of denervated muscle

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    If skeletal muscles are denervated, the number of mononucleated cells in the connective tissue between muscle fibers increases. Since interstitial cells might remodel extracellular matrix, and since extracellular matrix in nerve and muscle plays a direct role in reinnervation of the sites of the original neuromuscular junctions, we sought to determine whether interstitial cell accumulation differs between junctional and extrajunctional regions of denervated muscle. We found in muscles from frog and rat that the increase in interstitial cell number was severalfold (14-fold for frog, sevenfold for rat) greater in the vicinity of junctional sites than in extrajunctional regions. Characteristics of the response at the junctional sites of frog muscles are as follows. During chronic denervation, the accumulation of interstitial cells begins within 1 wk and it is maximal by 3 wk. Reinnervation 1-2 wk after nerve damage prevents the maximal accumulation. Processes of the cells form a multilayered veil around muscle fibers but make little, if any, contact with the muscle cell or its basal lamina sheath. The results of additional experiments indicate that the accumulated cells do not originate from terminal Schwann cells or from muscle satellite cells. Most likely the cells are derived from fibroblasts that normally occupy the space between muscle fibers and are known to make and degrade extracellular matrix components. PMID:3491825

  15. Drosophila Nesprin-1 controls glutamate receptor density at neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Morel, Véronique; Lepicard, Simon; Rey, Alexandre N; Parmentier, Marie-Laure; Schaeffer, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Nesprin-1 is a core component of a protein complex connecting nuclei to cytoskeleton termed LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton). Nesprin-1 is anchored to the nuclear envelope by its C-terminal KASH domain, the disruption of which has been associated with neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies, including autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Here, we describe a new and unexpected role of Drosophila Nesprin-1, Msp-300, in neuromuscular junction. We show that larvae carrying a deletion of Msp-300 KASH domain (Msp-300 (∆KASH) ) present a locomotion defect suggestive of a myasthenia, and demonstrate the importance of muscle Msp-300 for this phenotype, using tissue-specific RNAi knock-down. We show that Msp-300 (∆KASH) mutants display abnormal neurotransmission at the larval neuromuscular junction, as well as an imbalance in postsynaptic glutamate receptor composition with a decreased percentage of GluRIIA-containing receptors. We could rescue Msp-300 (∆KASH) locomotion phenotypes by GluRIIA overexpression, suggesting that the locomotion impairment associated with the KASH domain deletion is due to a reduction in junctional GluRIIA. In summary, we found that Msp-300 controls GluRIIA density at the neuromuscular junction. Our results suggest that Drosophila is a valuable model for further deciphering how Nesprin-1 and LINC disruption may lead to neuronal and neuromuscular pathologies.

  16. Effect of Length and Contact Chemistry on the Electronic Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Molecular Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Aaron; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Sadat, Seid; Gavini, Vikram; Dunietz, Barry D.; Jang, Sung-Yeon; Reddy, Pramod

    2011-06-15

    We present a combined experimental and computational study that probes the thermoelectric and electrical transport properties of molecular junctions. Experiments were performed on junctions created by trapping aromatic molecules between gold electrodes. The end groups (-SH, -NC) of the aromatic molecules were systematically varied to study the effect of contact coupling strength and contact chemistry. When the coupling of the molecule with one of the electrodes was reduced by switching the terminal chemistry from -SH to -H, the electrical conductance of molecular junctions decreased by an order of magnitude, whereas the thermopower varied by only a few percent. This has been predicted computationally in the past and is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Further, our experiments and computational modeling indicate the prospect of tuning thermoelectric properties at the molecular scale. In particular, the thiol-terminated aromatic molecular junctions revealed a positive thermopower that increased linearly with length. This positive thermopower is associated with charge transport primarily through the highest occupied molecular orbital, as shown by our computational results. In contrast, a negative thermopower was observed for a corresponding molecular junction terminated by an isocyanide group due to charge transport primarily through the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital.

  17. OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND RELATIONSHIP TO WATER TANK,LOOKING NORTH FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THIS IS HOW THE TERMINAL AND MILL SITE FIRST APPEAR TO VISITORS WHEN APPROACHING FROM THE ROAD FROM THE SITE'S PARKING LOT. THIS IS CONSIDERED THE FRONT END OF THE TERMINAL. ORIGINALLY THERE WAS A SECOND WATER TANK NEAR THE ONE IN UPPER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. The functional organization of motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Slater, Clarke R

    2015-11-01

    Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) have long been studied as particularly accessible examples of chemical synapses. Nonetheless, some important features of neuromuscular transmission are still poorly understood. One of these is the low statistical variability of the number of transmitter quanta released from motor nerve terminals by successive nerve impulses. This variability is well-described by a binomial distribution, suggesting that the quanta released are drawn, at high probability, from a small subset of those in the terminals. However, the nature of that subset remains unclear. In an effort to clarify what is understood, and what is not, about quantal release at NMJs, this review addresses the relationship between NMJ structure and function. After setting the biological context in which NMJs operate, key aspects of the variability of release and the structure of the motor nerve terminals are described. These descriptions are then used to explore the functional logic of motor nerve terminal organization and the structural basis of the low variability of release. This analysis supports the suggestion that the probability of release differs significantly at the different 'active zones' from which quanta are released. Finally, after a brief consideration of how release is maintained in the long term, a comparison is made of the features of NMJs with those of some well-studied neuronal synapses. An important conclusion is that NMJs share some important features with neuronal synapses, so continuing efforts to understand how motor nerve terminals work are likely to have much more general implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topological Phases in Graphene Nanoribbons: Junction States, Spin Centers, and Quantum Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ting; Zhao, Fangzhou; Louie, Steven G.

    2017-08-01

    We show that semiconducting graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of different width, edge, and end termination (synthesizable from molecular precursors with atomic precision) belong to different electronic topological classes. The topological phase of GNRs is protected by spatial symmetries and dictated by the terminating unit cell. We have derived explicit formulas for their topological invariants and shown that localized junction states developed between two GNRs of distinct topology may be tuned by lateral junction geometry. The topology of a GNR can be further modified by dopants, such as a periodic array of boron atoms. In a superlattice consisting of segments of doped and pristine GNRs, the junction states are stable spin centers, forming a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin 1 /2 chain with tunable exchange interaction. The discoveries here not only are of scientific interest for studies of quasi-one-dimensional systems, but also open a new path for design principles of future GNR-based devices through their topological characters.

  20. Atomic structure of the innexin-6 gap junction channel determined by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Atsunori; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Innexins, a large protein family comprising invertebrate gap junction channels, play an essential role in nervous system development and electrical synapse formation. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Caenorhabditis elegans innexin-6 (INX-6) gap junction channels at atomic resolution. We find that the arrangements of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the INX-6 monomeric structure are highly similar to those of connexin-26 (Cx26), despite the lack of significant sequence similarity. The INX-6 gap junction channel comprises hexadecameric subunits but reveals the N-terminal pore funnel, consistent with Cx26. The helix-rich cytoplasmic loop and C-terminus are intercalated one-by-one through an octameric hemichannel, forming a dome-like entrance that interacts with N-terminal loops in the pore. These observations suggest that the INX-6 cytoplasmic domains are cooperatively associated with the N-terminal funnel conformation, and an essential linkage of the N-terminal with channel activity is presumably preserved across gap junction families. PMID:27905396

  1. Extended Majorana zero modes in a topological superconducting-normal T-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spånslätt, Christian; Ardonne, Eddy

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the sub gap properties of a three terminal Josephson T-junction composed of topologically superconducting wires connected by a normal metal region. This system naturally hosts zero energy Andreev bound states which are of self-conjugate Majorana nature and we show that they are, in contrast to ordinary Majorana zero modes, spatially extended in the normal metal region. If the T-junction respects time-reversal symmetry, we show that a zero mode is distributed only in two out of three arms in the junction and tuning the superconducting phases allows for transfer of the mode between the junction arms. We further provide tunneling conductance calculations showing that these features can be detected in experiments. Our findings suggest an experimental platform for studying the nature of spatially extended Majorana zero modes.

  2. ACTS Mobile Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Agan, Martin J.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) and its follow-on, the Broadband Aeronautical Terminal (BAT), have provided an excellent testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications systems. An overview of both of these terminals is presented in this paper.

  3. ACTS Mobile Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, Brian S.; Agan, Martin J.; Jedrey, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) and its follow-on, the Broadband Aeronautical Terminal (BAT), have provided an excellent testbed for the evaluation of K- and Ka-band mobile satellite communications systems. An overview of both of these terminals is presented in this paper.

  4. The PLATO V Terminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, J. E.

    This report provides a detailed description of the architecture and programming of the PLATO V terminal, which contains an 8080 microprocessor and is capable of being operated by programs located in a host computer. The terminal contains 8k of memory for storing local programs, a 4k ROM resident program which supervises terminal operation, a 2k…

  5. Transport in Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, K. H.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2008-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of carbon nanotube thin films as transparent electrical conductors and thin-film transistors owing to their high optical transmittance, low sheet resistivity, and ease of fabrication. [1,2] A major contribution to the sheet resistivity originates at nanotube junctions, as electrical contact is typically poor between adjacent nanotubes. It is thus important to characterize carbon nanotube junctions in order to understand the conduction properties of nanotube thin films. To this end, we have performed ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the structural, electronic and transport properties of carbon nanotube junctions as a function of nanotube chirality and contact geometry [1] Z. Wu et al., Science 305, 1273 (2004) [2] E. S. Snow, J. P. Novak, P. M. Campbell, and D. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2145 (2003).

  6. Gap junctions - guards of excitability.

    PubMed

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus; Delmar, Mario; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2015-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane.

  7. Conducting polyaniline nanowire electrode junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Sumedh; Bodkhe, Gajanan; Deshmukh, Megha; Patil, Harshada; Rushi, Arti; Shirsat, Mahendra D.; Koinkar, Pankaj; Kim, Yun-Hae; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a synthesis of conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction (CPNEJ) has been reported. Conducting polyaniline nanowires electrode junction on Si/SiO2 substrate (having 3 μm gap between two gold microelectrodes) is prepared. Polyaniline nanowires with diameter (ca. 140 nm to 160 nm) were synthesized by one step electrochemical polymerization using galvanostatic (constant current) technique to bridge this gap. The surface morphology of CPNEJ was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synthesized CPNEJ is an excellent platform for biosensor applications.

  8. Predicting coaxial helical stacking in RNA junctions

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian; Wen, Dongrong; Wang, Jason T. L.; Schlick, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements that form when three or more helices come together in space in the tertiary structures of RNA molecules. Determining their structural configuration is important for predicting RNA 3D structure. We introduce a computational method to predict, at the secondary structure level, the coaxial helical stacking arrangement in junctions, as well as classify the junction topology. Our approach uses a data mining approach known as random forests, which relies on a set of decision trees trained using length, sequence and other variables specified for any given junction. The resulting protocol predicts coaxial stacking within three- and four-way junctions with an accuracy of 81% and 77%, respectively; the accuracy increases to 83% and 87%, respectively, when knowledge from the junction family type is included. Coaxial stacking predictions for the five to ten-way junctions are less accurate (60%) due to sparse data available for training. Additionally, our application predicts the junction family with an accuracy of 85% for three-way junctions and 74% for four-way junctions. Comparisons with other methods, as well applications to unsolved RNAs, are also presented. The web server Junction-Explorer to predict junction topologies is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/junction. PMID:21917853

  9. Snake states and Majorana's in graphene quantum dots in the presence of a p-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Francois; Zarenia, M.; Pereira, J. M., Jr.; Farias, G. A.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the magnetic interface states of graphene quantum dots that contain p-n junctions. Within a tight-binding approach, we consider rectangular quantum dots in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field containing p-n, as well as p-n-p and n-p-n junctions. The results show the interplay between the edge states associated with the zigzag terminations of the sample and the snake states that arise at the p-n junction, due to the overlap between electron and hole states at the potential interface. Remarkable localized states are found at the crossing of the p-n junction with the zigzag edge having a dumb-bell shaped electron distribution. These states are localized Majorana states. The results are presented as function of the junction parameters and the applied magnetic flux.

  10. Acetylcholine-Induced Inhibition of Presynaptic Calcium Signals and Transmitter Release in the Frog Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Khaziev, Eduard; Samigullin, Dmitry; Zhilyakov, Nikita; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Bukharaeva, Ellya; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), released from axonal terminals of motor neurons in neuromuscular junctions regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission through activation of presynaptic nicotinic and muscarinic autoreceptors. Receptor-mediated presynaptic regulation could reflect either direct action on exocytotic machinery or modulation of Ca2+ entry and resulting intra-terminal Ca2+ dynamics. We have measured free intra-terminal cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) using Oregon-Green 488 microfluorimetry, in parallel with voltage-clamp recordings of spontaneous (mEPC) and evoked (EPC) postsynaptic currents in post-junctional skeletal muscle fiber. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors with exogenous acetylcholine and its non-hydrolized analog carbachol reduced amplitude of the intra-terminal [Ca2+]i transients and decreased quantal content (calculated by dividing the area under EPC curve by the area under mEPC curve). Pharmacological analysis revealed the role of muscarinic receptors of M2 subtype as well as d-tubocurarine-sensitive nicotinic receptor in presynaptic modulation of [Ca2+]i transients. Modulation of synaptic transmission efficacy by ACh receptors was completely eliminated by pharmacological inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. We conclude that ACh receptor-mediated reduction of Ca2+ entry into the nerve terminal through N-type Ca2+ channels represents one of possible mechanism of presynaptic modulation in frog neuromuscular junction. PMID:28018246

  11. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  12. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  13. The Yolla Bolly junction revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, M.C.; Jayko, A.S. ); Jones, D.L. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Engebretson, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    West of Red Bluff, California, rocks of the northern Coast Ranges, Klamath-Sierra Nevada, and Great Valley provinces come together at what has been called the Yolla Bolly junction. Mapping of the Red Bluff and Willows 1:100,000 quadrangles has greatly clarified the enigmatic features of this complex area. Terranes of the Klamath Mountains and their Cretaceous sedimentary cover have been thrust northwestward over the Elder Creek terrane and Franciscan rocks, north of the left-lateral Cold Fork fault zone. The Condrey Mountain window (Franciscan Pickett Peak terrane) provides a measure of the magnitude of this thrusting (ca 90 km). South of the Cold Fork fault zone, the Franciscan and Elder Creek terranes were driven southeastward as tectonic wedges onto Sierran-Klamath basement. Timing of this scissor-tectonics is not constrained near the junction, but further north in southwest Oregon, Lower Eocene strata were deformed by overthrusting of the Klamath block whereas Upper Eocene strata overlap the thrust, indicating that thrusting occurred between about 52 and 60 Ma. Plate reconstructions for this time interval indicate the close proximity of the Kula-Farallon-North America triple junction and that old (ca 100 m.y.) Farallon lithosphere was being subducted north of the junction whereas to the south, very young (ca 10 m.y.) Kula plate was presumably obducted onto North America.

  14. Improved Solar-Cell Tunnel Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Kachare, A.

    1986-01-01

    Efficiency of multiple-junction silicon solar cells increased by inclusion of p+/n+ tunnel junctions of highly doped GaP between component cells. Relatively low recombination velocity at GaP junction principal reason for recommending this material. Relatively wide band gap also helps increase efficiency by reducing optical losses.

  15. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion

    PubMed Central

    Martí, A.; Luque, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base–emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions. PMID:25902374

  16. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion.

    PubMed

    Martí, A; Luque, A

    2015-04-22

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions.

  17. MYONEURAL JUNCTIONS OF TWO ULTRASTRUCTURALLY DISTINCT TYPES IN EARTHWORM BODY WALL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Jack

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal muscle of the earthworm body wall is innervated by nerve bundles containing axons of two types which form two corresponding types of myoneural junction with the muscle fibers Type I junctions resemble cholinergic neuromuscular junctions of vertebrate skeletal muscle and are characterized by three features: (a) The nerve terminals contain large numbers of spherical, clear, ∼500 A vesicles plus a small number of larger dense-cored vesicles (b) The junctional gap is relatively wide (∼900 A), and it contains a basement membrane-like material, (c) The postjunctional membrane, although not folded, displays prominent specializations on both its external and internal surfaces The cytoplasmic surface is covered by a dense matrix ∼200 A thick which appears to be the site of insertion of fine obliquely oriented cytoplasmic filaments The external surface exhibits rows of projections ∼200 A long whose bases consist of hexagonally arrayed granules seated in the outer dense layer of the plasma membrane The concentration of these hexagonally disposed elements corresponds to the estimated concentration of both receptor sites and acetylcholinesterase sites at cholinergic junctions elsewhere. Type II junctions resemble the adrenergic junctions in vertebrate smooth muscle and exhibit the following structural characteristics: (a) The nerve fibers contain predominantly dense-cored vesicles ∼1000 A in diameter (b) The junctional gap is relatively narrow (∼150 A) and contains no basement membrane-like material, (c) Postjunctional membrane specialization is minimal. It is proposed that the structural differences between the two types of myoneural junction reflect differences in the respective transmitters and corresponding differences in the mechanisms of transmitter action and/or inactivation. PMID:5044759

  18. Netrin and Frazzled regulate presynaptic gap junctions at a Drosophila giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Orr, Brian O; Borgen, Melissa A; Caruccio, Phyllis M; Murphey, Rodney K

    2014-04-16

    Netrin and its receptor, Frazzled, dictate the strength of synaptic connections in the giant fiber system (GFS) of Drosophila melanogaster by regulating gap junction localization in the presynaptic terminal. In Netrin mutant animals, the synaptic coupling between a giant interneuron and the "jump" motor neuron was weakened and dye coupling between these two neurons was severely compromised or absent. In cases in which Netrin mutants displayed apparently normal synaptic anatomy, half of the specimens exhibited physiologically defective synapses and dye coupling between the giant fiber (GF) and the motor neuron was reduced or eliminated, suggesting that gap junctions were disrupted in the Netrin mutants. When we examined the gap junctions with antibodies to Shaking-B (ShakB) Innexin, they were significantly decreased or absent in the presynaptic terminal of the mutant GF. Frazzled loss of function mutants exhibited similar defects in synaptic transmission, dye coupling, and gap junction localization. These data are the first to show that Netrin and Frazzled regulate the placement of gap junctions presynaptically at a synapse.

  19. Shortstop recruits EB1/APC1 and promotes microtubule assembly at the muscle-tendon junction.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arul; Prokop, Andreas; Yamamoto, Misato; Sugimura, Kaoru; Uemura, Tadashi; Betschinger, Joerg; Knoblich, Juergen A; Volk, Talila

    2003-07-01

    Shot (previously named Kakapo), is a Drosophila Plakin family member containing both Actin binding and microtubule binding domains. In Drosophila, it is required for a wide range of processes, including axon extension, dendrite formation, axonal terminal arborization at the neuromuscular junction, tendon cell development, and adhesion of wing epithelium. To address how Shot exerts its activity at the molecular level, we investigated the molecular interactions of Shot with candidate proteins in mature larval tendon cells. We show that Shot colocalizes with EB1/APC1 and with a compact microtubule array extending between the muscle-tendon junction and the cuticle. Shot forms a protein complex with EB1 via its C-terminal EF-hands and GAS2-containing domains. In tendon cells with reduced Shot activity, EB1/APC1 dissociate from the muscle-tendon junction, and the microtubule array elongates. The resulting tendon cell, although associated with the muscle and the cuticle ends, loses its stress resistance and elongates. Our results suggest that Shot mediates tendon stress resistance by the organization of a compact microtubule network at the muscle-tendon junction. This is achieved by Shot association with the cytoplasmic faces of the basal hemiadherens junction and with the EB1/APC1 complex.

  20. Charge transport through dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes bound to graphene-gold nanogap electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longlong; Zhang, Qian; Tao, Shuhui; Zhao, Cezhou; Almutib, Eman; Al-Galiby, Qusiy; Bailey, Steven W. D.; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J.; Du, Jun; Yang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Graphene-based electrodes are attractive for single-molecule electronics due to their high stability and conductivity and reduced screening compared with metals. In this paper, we use the STM-based matrix isolation I(s) method to measure the performance of graphene in single-molecule junctions with one graphene electrode and one gold electrode. By measuring the length dependence of the electrical conductance of dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes, we find that the transport is consistent with phase-coherent tunneling, but with an attenuation factor of βN = 0.69 per methyl unit, which is lower than the value measured for Au-molecule-Au junctions. Comparison with density-functional-theory calculations of electron transport through graphene-molecule-Au junctions and Au-molecule-Au junctions reveals that this difference is due to the difference in Fermi energies of the two types of junction, relative to the frontier orbitals of the molecules. For most molecules, their electrical conductance in graphene-molecule-Au junctions is higher than that in Au-molecule-Au junctions, which suggests that graphene offers superior electrode performance, when utilizing carboxylic acid anchor groups.Graphene-based electrodes are attractive for single-molecule electronics due to their high stability and conductivity and reduced screening compared with metals. In this paper, we use the STM-based matrix isolation I(s) method to measure the performance of graphene in single-molecule junctions with one graphene electrode and one gold electrode. By measuring the length dependence of the electrical conductance of dicarboxylic-acid-terminated alkanes, we find that the transport is consistent with phase-coherent tunneling, but with an attenuation factor of βN = 0.69 per methyl unit, which is lower than the value measured for Au-molecule-Au junctions. Comparison with density-functional-theory calculations of electron transport through graphene-molecule-Au junctions and Au

  1. Terminal automation system maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J.

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  2. Spin-crossover molecule based thermoelectric junction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Dibyajyoti; Parida, Prakash; Pati, Swapan K.

    2015-05-11

    Using ab-initio numerical methods, we explore the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric properties of a spin-crossover molecule (i.e., iron complex of 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine) based nano-junction. We demonstrate a large magnetoresistance, efficient conductance-switching, and spin-filter activity in this molecule-based two-terminal device. The spin-crossover process also modulates the thermoelectric entities. It can efficiently switch the magnitude as well as spin-polarization of the thermocurrent. We find that thermocurrent is changed by ∼4 orders of magnitude upon spin-crossover. Moreover, it also substantially affects the thermopower and consequently, the device shows extremely efficient spin-crossover magnetothermopower generation. Furthermore, by tuning the chemical potential of electrodes into a certain range, a pure spin-thermopower can be achieved for the high-spin state. Finally, the reasonably large values of figure-of-merit in the presence and absence of phonon demonstrate a large heat-to-voltage conversion efficiency of the device. We believe that our study will pave an alternative way of tuning the transport and thermoelectric properties through the spin-crossover process and can have potential applications in generation of spin-dependent current, information storage, and processing.

  3. Tight junction proteins: from barrier to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Runkle, E Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-08-28

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis.

  4. Tight Junction Proteins: From Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, E. Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-01-01

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis. PMID:23743355

  5. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-49 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Tight Junction Proteins in Human Schwann Cell Autotypic Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Alanne, Maria H.; Pummi, Kati; Heape, Anthony M.; Grènman, Reidar; Peltonen, Juha; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of ions, water, and molecules. Myelinating Schwann cells form highly organized structures, including compact myelin, nodes of Ranvier, paranodal regions, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, periaxonal cytoplasmic collars, and mesaxons. Autotypic TJs are formed in non-compacted myelin compartments between adjacent membrane lamellae of the same Schwann cell. Using indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, we analyzed the expression of adherens junction (E-cadherin) and TJ [claudins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin] components in human peripheral nerve endoneurium, showing clear differences with published rodent profiles. Adult nerve paranodal regions contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and ZO-1. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin. Mesaxons contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin. None of the proteins studied were associated with nodal inter-Schwann cell junctions. Fetal nerve expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin was predominantly punctate, with a mesaxonal labeling pattern, but paranodal (ZO-1, claudin-3) and Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (claudins-1 and -3) expression profiles typical of compact myelin were visible by gestational week 37. The clear differences observed between human and published rodent nerve profiles emphasize the importance of human studies when translating the results of animal models to human diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:523–529, 2009) PMID:19153196

  8. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  9. Role of gap junctions in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Miao-Miao; Chen, Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by periodic and unpredictable seizures. Gap junctions have recently been proposed to be involved in the generation, synchronization and maintenance of seizure events. The present review mainly summarizes recent reports concerning the contribution of gap junctions to the pathophysiology of epilepsy, together with the regulation of connexin after clinical and experimental seizure activity. The anticonvulsant effects of gap junction blockers both in vitro and in vivo suggest that the gap junction is a candidate target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. It is also of interest that the roles of neuronal and astrocytic gap junctions in epilepsy have been investigated independently, based on evidence from pharmacological manipulations and connexin-knockout mice. Further studies using more specific manipulations of gap junctions in different cell types and in human epileptic tissue are needed to fully uncover the role of gap junctions in epilepsy.

  10. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

    PubMed

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2014-03-03

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

  11. Kinase programs spatiotemporally regulate gap junction assembly and disassembly: effects on wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Joell L.; Lampe, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are highly ordered plasma membrane domains that are constantly assembled, remodeled and turned over due to the short half-life of connexins, the integral membrane proteins that form gap junctions. Connexin 43 (Cx43), by far the most widely expressed connexin, is phosphorylated at multiple serine residues in the cytoplasmic, C-terminal region allowing for exquisite cellular control over gap junctional communication. This is evident during epidermal wounding where spatiotemporal changes in connexin expression occur as cells are instructed whether to die, proliferate or migrate to promote repair. Early gap junctional communication is required for initiation of keratinocyte migration, but accelerated Cx43 turnover is also critical for proper wound healing at later stages. These events are controlled via a "kinase program" where sequential phosphorylation of Cx43 leads to reductions in Cx43’s half-life and significant depletion of gap junctions from the plasma membrane within several hours. The complex regulation of gap junction assembly and turnover affords several steps where intervention might speed wound healing. PMID:26706150

  12. Probing the rupture of a Ag atomic junction in a Ag-Au mixed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-09-01

    We probed that the atomic junction in Ag part ruptures during stretching of atomic sized contacts of Ag-Au mixed electrodes, resulting in Ag-Ag electrodes through a scanning tunneling microscope breaking junction (STM-BJ) technique. We observed that the conductance and tunneling decay constant for a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions are essentially the same for the Ag-Au mixed and the Ag-Ag electrodes. We also found the molecular plateau length and the evolution patterns with the Ag-Au mixed electrodes are similar to those with Ag-Ag electrodes rather than the Au-Au electrodes in the molecular junction elongation. This result is attributed to the smaller binding energy of Ag atoms compared to that of Au atoms, so the Ag junction part is more easily broken than that of Au part in stretching of Ag-Au mixed electrodes. Furthermore, we successfully observed that the rupture force of the atomic junction for the Ag-Au mixed electrodes was identical to that for the Ag-Ag electrodes and smaller than that for the Au-Au electrodes. This study may advance the understanding of the electrical and the mechanical properties in molecular devices with Ag and Au electrodes in future.

  13. Trafficking of gap junction channels at a vertebrate electrical synapse in vivo.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carmen E; Nannapaneni, Srikant; Davidson, Kimberly G V; Yasumura, Thomas; Bennett, Michael V L; Rash, John E; Pereda, Alberto E

    2012-02-28

    Trafficking and turnover of transmitter receptors required to maintain and modify the strength of chemical synapses have been characterized extensively. In contrast, little is known regarding trafficking of gap junction components at electrical synapses. By combining ultrastructural and in vivo physiological analysis at identified mixed (electrical and chemical) synapses on the goldfish Mauthner cell, we show here that gap junction hemichannels are added at the edges of GJ plaques where they dock with hemichannels in the apposed membrane to form cell-cell channels and, simultaneously, that intact junctional regions are removed from centers of these plaques into either presynaptic axon or postsynaptic dendrite. Moreover, electrical coupling is readily modified by intradendritic application of peptides that interfere with endocytosis or exocytosis, suggesting that the strength of electrical synapses at these terminals is sustained, at least in part, by fast (in minutes) turnover of gap junction channels. A peptide corresponding to a region of the carboxy terminus that is conserved in Cx36 and its two teleost homologs appears to interfere with formation of new gap junction channels, presumably by reducing insertion of hemichannels on the dendritic side. Thus, our data indicate that electrical synapses are dynamic structures and that their channels are turned over actively, suggesting that regulated trafficking of connexons may contribute to the modification of gap junctional conductance.

  14. F-actin binding protein, anillin, regulates integrity of intercellular junctions in human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Feygin, Alex; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2015-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) are key morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells that regulate the integrity and permeability of tissue barriers. Structure and remodeling of epithelial junctions depends on their association with the underlying actomyosin cytoskeleton. Anillin is a unique scaffolding protein interacting with different cytoskeletal components, including actin filaments and myosin motors. Its role in the regulation of mammalian epithelial junctions remains unexplored. Downregulation of anillin expression in human prostate, colonic, and lung epithelial cells triggered AJ and TJ disassembly without altering the expression of junctional proteins. This junctional disassembly was accompanied by dramatic disorganization of the perijunctional actomyosin belt; while the general architecture of the actin cytoskeleton, and activation status of non-muscle myosin II, remained unchanged. Furthermore, loss of anillin disrupted the adducin-spectrin membrane skeleton at the areas of cell-cell contact, selectively decreased γ-adducin expression, and induced cytoplasmic aggregation of αII-spectrin. Anillin knockdown activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and JNK inhibition restored AJ and TJ integrity and cytoskeletal organization in anillin-depleted cells. These findings suggest a novel role for anillin in regulating intercellular adhesion in model human epithelia by mechanisms involving the suppression of JNK activity and controlling the assembly of the perijunctional cytoskeleton. PMID:25809162

  15. Conductance and Geometry of Pyridine-Linked Single Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenetska, M.; Hybertsen, M.; Quek, S.Y.; Whalley, A.C.; Steigerwald, M.L.; Choi, H.J.; Louie, S.G.; Nuckolls, C.; Neaton, J.B.; Venkataraman, L.

    2010-05-19

    We have measured the conductance and characterized molecule-electrode binding geometries of four pyridine-terminated molecules by elongating and then compressing gold point contacts in a solution of molecules. We have found that all pyridine-terminated molecules exhibit bistable conductance signatures, signifying that the nature of the pyridine-gold bond allows two distinct conductance states that are accessed as the gold-molecule-gold junction is elongated. We have identified the low-conductance state as corresponding to a molecule fully stretched out between the gold electrodes, where the distance between contacts correlates with the length of the molecule; the high-conductance state is due to a molecule bound at an angle. For all molecules, we have found that the distribution of junction elongations in the low-conductance state is the same, while in the high-conductance state, the most likely elongation length increases linearly with molecule length. The results of first-principles conductance calculations for the four molecules in the low-conductance geometry agree well with the experimental results and show that the dominant conducting channel in the conjugated pyridine-linked molecules is through the {pi}* orbital.

  16. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  17. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  18. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2016-05-11

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  19. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  20. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction

    PubMed Central

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Summary Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality. PMID:24596690

  1. Inelastic effects of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Samir

    We have investigated the effects of the inelastic interaction of electrons with phonons in the barrier region of S-I-S and S-N-S Josephson junctions. We find that under suitable conditions this mechanism can cause substantial modifications of the temperature dependence of the critical current jsb{c} as the inevitable loss of coherence can be more than compensated by the enhancement of the tunneling probability resulting from the phonon absorption. The effect depends strongly on the ratio qsb{TF}a of the junction width a to the screening length in the barrier region. For a S-I-S junction, a monotonic decrease in the critical current with temperature is found for qsb{TF}a ≫ 1 whereas for qsb{TF}a ≪ 1, the appearance of a peak in jsb{c}(T) near Tsb{c} is predicted. This new interesting effect is the consequence of the competition between the decrease of the superconducting gap function and the increase in the number of phonons with temperature. A wide range of parameter values has been explored and contact with relevant experimental results has been made. For an S-N-S junction, there is a large increase in the coherence length in the non-superconducting region leading to a substantial enhancement of the critical current over a wide range of temperature. It turns out that the entire temperature range can be divided broadly into two regimes. At low temperatures, the electron predominantly exchanges energy with just one phonon and it is this process that mainly determines the critical current. At higher temperatures the critical current is determined by processes in which the electrons exchange energy with many phonons during their under barrier motion.

  2. Superconducting Cable Termination

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Uday K.; Tolbert, Jerry

    2005-08-30

    Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

  3. Flight termination receiver catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-02-01

    This catalog provides reference information on ultra-high frequency flight termination receivers used at various U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all available flight termination receivers. Inclusion in this catalog does not constitute approval or endorsement for use at any government installation. Information in this catalog was extracted from manufacturers' specifications.

  4. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Robert G.; Paterson, James L.; Kaplan, S. B.

    1980-03-01

    The dc current through an S1-S2 tunnel junction, with Δ2 greater than Δ1, when biased with eV<Δ1+Δ2, will lower the energy in S1. This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π*~Δ1e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power Pc, the electrical power Pe supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency η=PcPe. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV=+/-(Δ2-Δ1) and t1=T1Tc1~0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T2-T1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al2O3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency η~=Δ1(Δ2-Δ1) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of η=T1(T2-T1). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the Al2O3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems.

  5. Thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Perroni, C A; Ninno, D; Cataudella, V

    2016-09-21

    Focus of the review is on experimental set-ups and theoretical proposals aimed to enhance thermoelectric performances of molecular junctions. In addition to charge conductance, the thermoelectric parameter commonly measured in these systems is the thermopower, which is typically rather low. We review recent experimental outcomes relative to several junction configurations used to optimize the thermopower. On the other hand, theoretical calculations provide estimations of all the thermoelectric parameters in the linear and non-linear regime, in particular of the thermoelectric figure of merit and efficiency, completing our knowledge of molecular thermoelectricity. For this reason, the review will mainly focus on theoretical studies analyzing the role of not only electronic, but also of the vibrational degrees of freedom. Theoretical results about thermoelectric phenomena in the coherent regime are reviewed focusing on interference effects which play a significant role in enhancing the figure of merit. Moreover, we review theoretical studies including the effects of molecular many-body interactions, such as electron-vibration couplings, which typically tend to reduce the efficiency. Since a fine tuning of many parameters and coupling strengths is required to optimize the thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions, new theoretically proposed set-ups are discussed in the conclusions.

  6. Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.

  7. Ultrastructure of identified fast excitatory, slow excitatory and inhibitory neuromuscular junctions in the locust.

    PubMed

    Titmus, M J

    1981-06-01

    The specialized jumping muscle of the locust, the metathoracic extensor tibiae (ETi), is innervated by four physiologically different motoneurons, including FETi, a phasic excitor, SETi, a tonic excitor, and CI, a tonic common inhibitor. FETi neuromuscular junctions were examined in three phasic ETi bundles innervated by FETi. FETi terminals were characterized by patchy contacts on to granular sarcoplasm. The ETi accessory extensor, innervated by both SETi and CI, contains two morphologically different types of axon ending. When this muscle was soaked in horseradish peroxidase, stimulation of SETi led to selective uptake in vesicles in terminals similar to those of FETi axons but containing smaller vesicles, while stimulation by CI caused increased uptake into terminals with more extensive contact directly on to fibrillar sarcoplasm. As has been observed in excitatory and inhibitory synapses in some crustacean and vertebrate nervous systems, the synaptic vesicles in the locust excitatory endings are round and electron-lucent while those in the inhibitory endings are more irregular in shape. The tonic neuromuscular junctions, SETi and CI, are more densely packed with vesicles, larger in cross-sectional area and appear to be of more complex shape than the smaller, vesicle-sparse, phasic FETi terminals. Following long duration stimulation at 10 Hz, the tonic neuromuscular junctions showed little morphological change. FETi endings, which fatigue within minutes at the same stimulation frequency, showed a 20% decrease in synaptic vesicle density and an increase in irregularly shaped membrane inclusions.

  8. Ice crystal terminal velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and most any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The general equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The specific equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  9. Ice crystal terminal velocities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated, using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and almost any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The 'general' equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The 'specific' equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  10. Isolation of Synaptosomes, Synaptic Plasma Membranes, and Synaptic Junctional Complexes.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Mary L; Jiang, Lei; Michaelis, Elias K

    2017-01-01

    Isolation of synaptic nerve terminals or synaptosomes provides an opportunity to study the process of neurotransmission at many levels and with a variety of approaches. For example, structural features of the synaptic terminals and the organelles within them, such as synaptic vesicles and mitochondria, have been elucidated with electron microscopy. The postsynaptic membranes are joined to the presynaptic "active zone" of transmitter release through cell adhesion molecules and remain attached throughout the isolation of synaptosomes. These "post synaptic densities" or "PSDs" contain the receptors for the transmitters released from the nerve terminals and can easily be seen with electron microscopy. Biochemical and cell biological studies with synaptosomes have revealed which proteins and lipids are most actively involved in synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The functional properties of the nerve terminals, such as responses to depolarization and the uptake or release of signaling molecules, have also been characterized through the use of fluorescent dyes, tagged transmitters, and transporter substrates. In addition, isolated synaptosomes can serve as the starting material for the isolation of relatively pure synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) that are devoid of organelles from the internal environment of the nerve terminal, such as mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. The isolated SPMs can reseal and form vesicular structures in which transport of ions such as sodium and calcium, as well as solutes such as neurotransmitters can be studied. The PSDs also remain associated with the presynaptic membranes during isolation of SPM fractions, making it possible to isolate the synaptic junctional complexes (SJCs) devoid of the rest of the plasma membranes of the nerve terminals and postsynaptic membrane components. Isolated SJCs can be used to identify the proteins that constitute this highly specialized region of neurons. In this chapter, we describe the steps involved

  11. Analysis of the Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminus of the DNA Junction-Resolving Enzyme T7 Endonuclease I: Identification of Structure Formed upon DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The four-way (Holliday) DNA junction of homologous recombination is processed by the symmetrical cleavage of two strands by a nuclease. These junction-resolving enzymes bind to four-way junctions in dimeric form, distorting the structure of the junction in the process. Crystal structures of T7 endonuclease I have been determined as free protein, and the complex with a DNA junction. In neither crystal structure was the N-terminal 16-amino acid peptide visible, yet deletion of this peptide has a marked effect on the resolution process. Here we have investigated the N-terminal peptide by inclusion of spin-label probes at unique sites within this region, studied by electron paramagnetic resonance. Continuous wave experiments show that these labels are mobile in the free protein but become constrained on binding a DNA junction, with the main interaction occurring for residues 7–10 and 12. Distance measurements between equivalent positions within the two peptides of a dimer using PELDOR showed that the intermonomeric distances for residues 2–12 are long and broadly distributed in the free protein but are significantly shortened and become more defined on binding to DNA. These results suggest that the N-terminal peptides become more organized on binding to the DNA junction and nestle into the minor grooves at the branchpoint, consistent with the biochemical data indicating an important role in the resolution process. This study demonstrates the presence of structure within a protein region that cannot be viewed by crystallography. PMID:27387136

  12. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, S. T. M.; Trees, B. R.

    2001-10-01

    There is considerable scientific and technological interest in the time-dependent behavior of arrays of non-identical Josephson junctions, whose voltages oscillate with individual bare frequencies that can be made, through interactions, to renormalize their frequencies to a common value. We have studied the degree of synchronization of a subset of overdamped junctions in a ladder geometry, in which the voltages across the ``rung'' junctions of the ladder oscillate with the same, renormalized frequency and a fixed phase difference. We measure the degree of synchronization of the junctions with an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of the nearest-neighbor junction coupling strength. We also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction (RSJ) equations could be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of the junction coupling strength and also demonstrated that the relationship between the array size N and the critical coupling strength for all junctions to oscillate with the same frequency scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  13. Charge transport and rectification in molecular junctions formed with carbon-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyeong; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Lee, Chulho; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Venkataraman, Latha

    2014-07-29

    Molecular junctions formed using the scanning-tunneling-microscope-based break-junction technique (STM-BJ) have provided unique insight into charge transport at the nanoscale. In most prior work, the same metal, typically Au, Pt, or Ag, is used for both tip and substrate. For such noble metal electrodes, the density of electronic states is approximately constant within a narrow energy window relevant to charge transport. Here, we form molecular junctions using the STM-BJ technique, with an Au metal tip and a microfabricated graphite substrate, and measure the conductance of a series of graphite/amine-terminated oligophenyl/Au molecular junctions. The remarkable mechanical strength of graphite and the single-crystal properties of our substrates allow measurements over few thousand junctions without any change in the surface properties. We show that conductance decays exponentially with molecular backbone length with a decay constant that is essentially the same as that for measurements with two Au electrodes. More importantly, despite the inherent symmetry of the oligophenylamines, we observe rectification in these junctions. State-of-art ab initio conductance calculations are in good agreement with experiment, and explain the rectification. We show that the highly energy-dependent graphite density of states contributes variations in transmission that, when coupled with an asymmetric voltage drop across the junction, leads to the observed rectification. Together, our measurements and calculations show how functionality may emerge from hybrid molecular-scale devices purposefully designed with different electrodes beyond the so-called "wide band limit," opening up the possibility of assembling molecular junctions with dissimilar electrodes using layered 2D materials.

  14. Flight Termination Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Larson, Erik

    2013-09-01

    The first line of defense in protecting the public against the threat of injury from a failing space booster is the flight termination system. Consequently, these systems must be highly reliable and the criteria for flight termination must be carefully formulated. Criteria must be developed based on observable data that allows adequate time for the data to be assessed and a flight termination action to be triggered. Criteria should be set so that 1) the chance a good vehicle will be terminated is small, 2) the chance of failing to terminate an errant vehicle before it can hazard population centers or valuable assets is minimal, and 3) there is assurance that the combination of the planned trajectory and mission rules do not induce excessive risks to land based populations, air lanes, and shipping lanes should the vehicle need to be terminated [1].This paper provides an overview of the approaches to developing and implement flight termination criteria and a tool for understanding risk implications of proposed criteria.

  15. Phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Four phenylethynyl amine compounds - 3 and 4-aminophenoxy-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, and 3 and 4-amino-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone - were readily prepared and were used to endcap imide oligomers. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers and phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers with various molecular weights and compositions were prepared and characterized. These oligomers were cured at 300 to 400 C to provide crosslinked polyimides with excellent solvent resistance, high strength and modulus, and good high temperature properties. Adhesive panels, composites, films, and moldings from these phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers gave excellent mechanical performance.

  16. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  17. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  18. Intimacy and terminal care

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Judy

    1988-01-01

    Four cases are summarized in which the general practitioner is involved in the terminal care of one partner of a stable marital relationship. The need to conceptualize the expectations of the patient, the family and the doctor in terminal care is stressed. An attempt is made to illustrate how the quality of the pre-existing sexual relationship, the dying person's own sexuality, and ultimately the capacity for physical expression of intimacy in the marriage profoundly influence choices in terminal care and the quality of dying. PMID:3204583

  19. In vitro formation of gap junction vesicles.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, D A

    1976-02-01

    A method is described that uses trypsin digestion combined with collagenase-hyaluronidase which produces a population of gap junction vesicles. The hexagonal lattice of subunits ("connexons") comprising the gapjunctions appears unaltered by various structural criteria and by buoyant density measurements. The gap junction vesciles are closed by either a single or a double profile of nonjunctional "membrane," which presents a smooth, particle-free fracture face. Horseradish peroxidase and cytochrome c studies have revealed that about 20% of the gap junction vesicles are impermeable to proteins 12,000 daltons or larger. The increased purity of the trypsinized junction preparation suggests that one of the disulfide reduction products of the gap-junction principal protein may be a nonjunctional contaminating peptide. The gap junction appears to be composed of a single 18,000-dalton protein, connexin, which may be reduced to a single 9,000-dalton peak. The number of peptides in this reduced peak are still unknown.

  20. Physics and Applications of NIS Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ullom, J N

    2001-08-24

    This paper reviews the physics and applications of Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. The current-voltage properties of NIS junctions are diode-like with a strong temperature dependence. Hence, these structures can be used as sensitive thermometers at temperatures well below the energy gap, {Delta}, of the superconducting electrode. For junction voltages comparable to {Delta}/q, current flow removes energy from the normal electrode. This property has been exploited to build refrigerators capable of cooling thin-film circuits from 0.3 K to 0.1 K. Calorimeters and bolometers for the detection of X-rays and millimeter-wave radiation, respectively, have successfully been built from NIS junctions. NIS junctions have also been used to probe the superconducting state. Finally, recent ideas for the use of NIS junctions as simple circuit elements are described.

  1. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Bizard, Anna H.; Hickson, Ian D.

    2014-01-01

    Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known as “double Holliday junction dissolution.” This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called “dissolvasome” comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions. PMID:24984776

  2. Interplay between quantum interference and conformational fluctuations in single-molecule break junctions.

    PubMed

    Berritta, Marco; Manrique, David Zs; Lambert, Colin J

    2015-01-21

    We theoretically explored the combined role of conformational fluctuations and quantum interference in determining the electrical conductance of single-molecule break junctions. In particular we computed the conductance of a family of methylsulfide-functionalized trans-α,ω-diphenyloligoene molecules, with terminal phenyl rings containing meta or para linkages, for which (at least in the absence of fluctuations) destructive interference in the former is expected to decrease their electrical conductance compared with the latter. We compared the predictions of density functional theory (DFT), in which fluctuational effects are absent, with results for the conformationally-averaged conductance obtained from an ensemble of conformations obtained from classical molecular dynamics. We found that junctions formed from these molecules exhibit distinct transport regimes during junction evolution and the signatures of quantum interference in these molecules survive the effect of conformational fluctuations. Furthermore, the agreement between theory and experiment is significantly improved by including conformational averaging.

  3. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight

  4. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  5. First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenova, Maria; Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that an all-antiferromagnetic tunnel junction with current perpendicular to the plane geometry can be used as an efficient spintronic device with potential high-frequency operation. By using state-of-the-art density functional theory combined with quantum transport, we show that the Néel vector of the electrodes can be manipulated by spin-transfer torque. This is staggered over the two different magnetic sublattices and can generate dynamics and switching. At the same time the different magnetization states of the junction can be read by standard tunneling magnetoresistance. Calculations are performed for CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions with different surface terminations between the antiferromagnetic CuMnAs electrodes and the insulating GaP spacer. We find that the torque remains staggered regardless of the termination, while the magnetoresistance depends on the microscopic details of the interface.

  6. Nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Rauf A; Parray, Fazl Q; Bhat, Nadeem A; Wani, Mehmood A; Bhat, Tasaduq H; Farzana, Fowzia

    2006-01-01

    Background There is still confusion and controversy over the diagnosis and optimal surgical treatment of non traumatic terminal ileal perforation-a cause of obscure peritonitis. Methods This study was a prospective study aimed at evaluating the clinical profile, etiology and optimal surgical management of patients with nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation. Results There were 79 cases of nontraumatic terminal ileal perforation; the causes for perforation were enteric fever(62%), nonspecific inflammation(26%), obstruction(6%), tuberculosis(4%) and radiation enteritis (1%). Simple closure of the perforation (49%) and end to side ileotransverse anastomosis(42%) were the mainstay of the surgical management. Conclusion Terminal ileal perforation should be suspected in all cases of peritonitis especially in developing countries and surgical treatment should be optimized taking various accounts like etiology, delay in surgery and operative findings into consideration to reduce the incidence of deadly complications like fecal fistula. PMID:16759405

  7. Tirawa on the Terminator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-07-04

    Rhea sports an immense impact scar on its leading hemisphere, like several other major Saturnian moons. The impact basin, seen above center on the day-night dividing line, or terminator, is named Tirawa

  8. 77 FR 65446 - Decatur Junction Railway Co.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Illinois Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Assumption, Ill.\\1\\ DJR also has incidental trackage rights over the Line and over IC's trackage north of... DJR's line between Decatur and Cisco, Ill. \\1\\ See Decatur Terminal Ry.--Lease and Operation Exemption...--Line of Illinois Central Railroad Company Decatur Junction Railway Co. (DJR), a Class III rail carrier...

  9. [Gap junctions and cancer: implications and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mesnil, Marc

    2004-02-01

    Gap junctions are made of intercellular channels which permit the diffusion from cytoplasm to cytoplasm of small hydrophilic molecules (<1,200 Da) such as ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, second messengers (calcium, inositol triphosphate, etc.). Since their discovery in the early sixties, several groups have described the loss of their function in cancer cells. The accumulation of such data led to the hypothesis that gap junctions are involved in the carcinogenesis process. This assumption has been confirmed by data establishing that gap junctional intercellular communication is inhibited by most of the tumor promoters and that the restoration of such a communication, by transfection of cDNAs encoding gap junction proteins (connexins), inhibits the aberrant growth rates of tumorigenic cells. Despite these important informations, several fundamental questions remain still open. First, we do not know how gap junctions mediate such a tumor suppressor effect and whether it may depend either on the cell type or on the connexin type. Moreover, most of the data concerning a possible involvement of gap junctions in carcinogenesis have been obtained from in vitro and animal models. The very few results which have been currently collected from human tumors are not sufficient to have a clear idea concerning the real involvement of gap junctions in sporadic human cancers. These points as well as other unresolved questions about the role of gap junctional intercellular communication in carcinogenesis are mentioned. To bring some answers, some prospects are proposed with the objective to use gap junctions for increasing the effect of anticancer therapies.

  10. Ventral surgical approaches to craniovertebral junction chordomas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder; Harrop, James; Schiffmacher, Paul; Rosen, Marc; Evans, James

    2010-03-01

    Chordomas are primarily malignant tumors encountered at either end of the neural axis; the craniovertebral junction and the sacrococcygeal junction. In this article, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. In this paper, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. The following approaches are illustrated: transoral-transpalatopharyngeal approach, high anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach, endoscopic transoral approach, and endoscopic transnasal approach. No single operative approach can be used for all craniovertebral chordomas. Therefore, the location of the tumor dictates which approach or approaches should be used.

  11. Gap Junctions Couple Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L.; Abrams, Charles K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, a family of related proteins called connexins form gap junctions (GJs), which are intercellular channels. In the central nervous system (CNS), GJs couple oligodendrocytes and astrocytes (O/A junctions) and adjacent astrocytes (A/A junctions), but not adjacent oligodendrocytes, forming a “glial syncytium.” Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes each express different connexins. Mutations of these connexin genes demonstrate that the proper functioning of myelin and oligodendrocytes requires the expression of these connexins. The physiological function of O/A and A/A junctions, however, remains to be illuminated. PMID:18236012

  12. Thermoelectric effects in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Dubi, Yonatan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic nonequilibrium origin, thermoelectricity in nanoscale systems is usually described within a static scattering approach which disregards the dynamical interaction with the thermal baths that maintain energy flow. Using the theory of open quantum systems, we show instead that unexpected properties, such as a resonant structure and large sign sensitivity, emerge if the nonequilibrium nature of this problem is considered. Our approach also allows us to define and study a local temperature, which shows hot spots and oscillations along the system according to the coupling of the latter to the electrodes. This demonstrates that Fourier's lawa paradigm of statistical mechanicsis generally violated in nanoscale junctions.

  13. Magnetic tunnel junction pattern technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Eugene; Schwarz, Benjamin; Choi, Chang Ju; Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Geha, Sam

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) pattern technique that involves transforming the magnetic layer above the tunnel barrier in unwanted areas into an insulator, thus providing insulation between different MTJ devices without suffering common tunnel barrier shorting problems. With this technique, 90%-100% yielding MTJ devices have been observed. MTJ results using this process are superior to an etching based process. Switching distribution of patterned magnetic bits is also narrower using this novel technique. Process control and the ability to stop on the tunnel barrier have been demonstrated.

  14. Operation Junction City, Vietnam, 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    a standard infantry rifle , the Soviet-made AK-47. They possessed some 7.62 machine guns in each battalion and very few .51 caliber machine guns, if... rifles , and Chinese-manufactured antitank mines. Fire support was provided by 6 0-mm, 82-mm, and for the first time in the war, 120-mm mortars. The...MINIHTHAN) ’ ~ 9j~ REPLACED BY ON I APRIL OL DAli TIENG AP’ GAU BANG’ OPERATION JUNCTION CITY TASK ORGANIZATION PHASE I II FIELD FORCE 1st Inf Div 25th

  15. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-10-29

    A doping sequence is disclosed that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated. 8 figs.

  16. Method for shallow junction formation

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1996-01-01

    A doping sequence that reduces the cost and complexity of forming source/drain regions in complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit technologies. The process combines the use of patterned excimer laser annealing, dopant-saturated spin-on glass, silicide contact structures and interference effects creates by thin dielectric layers to produce source and drain junctions that are ultrashallow in depth but exhibit low sheet and contact resistance. The process utilizes no photolithography and can be achieved without the use of expensive vacuum equipment. The process margins are wide, and yield loss due to contact of the ultrashallow dopants is eliminated.

  17. Interplay between quantum interference and conformational fluctuations in single-molecule break junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berritta, Marco; Manrique, David Zs.; Lambert, Colin J.

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically explored the combined role of conformational fluctuations and quantum interference in determining the electrical conductance of single-molecule break junctions. In particular we computed the conductance of a family of methylsulfide-functionalized trans-α,ω-diphenyloligoene molecules, with terminal phenyl rings containing meta or para linkages, for which (at least in the absence of fluctuations) destructive interference in the former is expected to decrease their electrical conductance compared with the latter. We compared the predictions of density functional theory (DFT), in which fluctuational effects are absent, with results for the conformationally-averaged conductance obtained from an ensemble of conformations obtained from classical molecular dynamics. We found that junctions formed from these molecules exhibit distinct transport regimes during junction evolution and the signatures of quantum interference in these molecules survive the effect of conformational fluctuations. Furthermore, the agreement between theory and experiment is significantly improved by including conformational averaging.We theoretically explored the combined role of conformational fluctuations and quantum interference in determining the electrical conductance of single-molecule break junctions. In particular we computed the conductance of a family of methylsulfide-functionalized trans-α,ω-diphenyloligoene molecules, with terminal phenyl rings containing meta or para linkages, for which (at least in the absence of fluctuations) destructive interference in the former is expected to decrease their electrical conductance compared with the latter. We compared the predictions of density functional theory (DFT), in which fluctuational effects are absent, with results for the conformationally-averaged conductance obtained from an ensemble of conformations obtained from classical molecular dynamics. We found that junctions formed from these molecules exhibit distinct

  18. Control of Andreev-level occupation in a Josephson junction by a normal-metal probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.; Bagwell, P.F.

    1997-05-01

    We calculate the electrical current flowing through a mesoscopic superconductor{endash}normal-metal{endash}superconductor (SNS) junction coupled to a normal-metal probe. This additional normal terminal models either a scanning tunneling microscope probe or the gate electrode of a three-terminal SNS junction. We find the Josephson current switches between two different values as the probe voltage V is varied. This switching occurs because the Andreev energy levels are populated with an effective electrochemical potential eV. When the probe voltage {vert_bar}eV{vert_bar}{gt}{Delta}, so that all of the Andreev levels are either filled or emptied, we show it is possible to directly measure the {open_quotes}continuum{close_quotes} contribution to the Josephson current. The differential conductance dI/dV at the normal probe can also be used to detect the density of Andreev levels. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Peptides and peptide-derived molecules targeting the intracellular domains of Cx43: gap junctions versus hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Iyyathurai, Jegan; D'hondt, Catheleyne; Wang, Nan; De Bock, Marijke; Himpens, Bernard; Retamal, Mauricio A; Stehberg, Jimmy; Leybaert, Luc; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-12-01

    About a decade ago, the molecular determinants controlling the opening and closing of Cx43 gap junction channels have been identified. Advanced biophysical approaches revealed a critical role for structural rearrangements in the cytoplasmic loop and dimerization of the C-terminal tail, resulting in binding of the C-terminal tail to the cytoplasmic loop and Cx43 gap junction channel closure during cellular acidosis. This has spurred the development of Cx43-mimetic peptides and peptidomimetics that interfere with these loop/tail interactions, thereby preventing the closure of Cx43 gap junctions, e.g. in the heart upon ischemia. Recently, we found that loop/tail interactions control Cx43-hemichannel activity but with an opposite effect. Binding of the C-terminal tail to the cytoplasmic loop is a requisite for the opening of Cx43 hemichannels in response to different stimuli, like decreased extracellular [Ca2+], increased intracellular [Ca2+], positive membrane potentials or ischemia. Strikingly, peptides that favor the open state of Cx43 gap junctions like the L2 peptide inhibit Cx43-hemichannel opening. These tools now provide unprecedented opportunities to selectively inhibit Cx43 hemichannels while maintaining Cx43 gap junction communication, impossible to achieve with siRNA or knockdown approaches both affecting gap junctions and hemichannels. These tools not only are very helpful to unravel the role of Cx43 hemichannels in complex biological systems, but also hold therapeutic potential to counteract excessive Cx43-hemichannel activity like in ischemia/reperfusion in the brain and the heart or to prevent Cx43 hemichannel-mediated gliotransmitter release in the basal amygdala during memory consolidation in response to emotional events. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Current Pharmacology of Gap Junction Channels and Hemichannels'. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measurements of contact specific low-bias negative differential resistance of single metalorganic molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Samanta, Satyabrata; Guo, Cunlan; Locklin, Jason; Xu, Bingqian

    2013-06-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviors of single molecule junctions composed of a thiol-terminated Ru(ii) bis-terpyridine (Ru(tpy-SH)2) molecule sandwiched between two gold electrodes are measured using a specifically modified scanning probe microscope break junction technique (SPMBJ) at room temperature. The low-bias (0.623 +/- 0.135 V) NDR observed for one of the three conductance groups is contact specific and is caused by a bias induced electrode-molecule coupling changes.Negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviors of single molecule junctions composed of a thiol-terminated Ru(ii) bis-terpyridine (Ru(tpy-SH)2) molecule sandwiched between two gold electrodes are measured using a specifically modified scanning probe microscope break junction technique (SPMBJ) at room temperature. The low-bias (0.623 +/- 0.135 V) NDR observed for one of the three conductance groups is contact specific and is caused by a bias induced electrode-molecule coupling changes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01284k

  1. TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ORE CHUTE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. TRAM MACHINERY AND GEARS ARE AT LOWER CENTER. A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR AT THE REAR LEFT OF THE TERMINAL PROBABLY WAS ADDED AFTER THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. THE MOVING CABLE OF THE TRAM WAS DRIVEN BY THESE GEARS AND THE LARGE WHEEL UNDERNEATH (SEE CA-291-31 FOR DETAIL). EMPTY TRAM BUCKETS CAME IN FROM THE LEFT, SWINGING AROUND TO THE CHUTES FROM THE ORE BIN TO BE LOADED FOR THE TRIP DOWN TO THE MILL (SEE CA-291-35 FOR DETAIL). THE BREAK OVER TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT TOP LEFT. THE SUPPORT TOWER BETWEEN THE UPPER TERMINAL AND THE BREAK OVER TOWER IS COLLAPSED. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Strength and precision of neurotransmission at mammalian presynaptic terminals

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Classically, the basic concept of chemical synaptic transmission was established at the frog neuromuscular junction, and direct intracellular recordings from presynaptic terminals at the squid giant presynaptic terminal have further clarified principles of neurotransmitter release. More recently, whole-cell patch-camp recordings from the calyx of Held in rodent brainstem slices have extended the classical concept to mammalian synapses providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying strength and precision of neurotransmission and developmental changes therein. This review summarizes findings from our laboratory and others on these subjects, mainly at the calyx of Held, with a particular focus on precise, high-fidelity, fast neurotransmission. The mechanisms by which presynaptic terminals acquire strong, precise neurotransmission during postnatal development are also discussed. PMID:26194855

  3. Incessant junctional reciprocating tachycardia caused by dual atrioventricular nodal pathways and atrio-nodal bypass tract.

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, P; Sosa, E; Denes, P

    1982-01-01

    A case is described with clinical and electrocardiographic findings of incessant junctional reciprocating tachycardia. Electrophysiological study showed that longitudinal dissociation of the atrioventricular node into two pathways was responsible for the maintenance of the arrhythmia. The two intranodal pathways had different refractory periods but reciprocally related and overlapping conduction times (anterograde fast, retrograde slow, and vice versa). Induction and termination of the arrhythmia was related to the presence of a partial atrio-nodal bypass tract. Images PMID:7082510

  4. Electrodeposited, Transverse Nanowire Electroluminescent Junctions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shaopeng; Xu, Qiang; Dutta, Rajen K; Le Thai, Mya; Li, Xiaowei; Penner, Reginald M

    2016-09-27

    The preparation by electrodeposition of transverse nanowire electroluminescent junctions (tn-ELJs) is described, and the electroluminescence (EL) properties of these devices are characterized. The lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition process is first used to prepare long (millimeters), linear, nanocrystalline CdSe nanowires on glass. The thickness of these nanowires along the emission axis is 60 nm, and the width, wCdSe, along the electrical axis is adjustable from 100 to 450 nm. Ten pairs of nickel-gold electrical contacts are then positioned along the axis of this nanowire using lithographically directed electrodeposition. The resulting linear array of nickel-CdSe-gold junctions produces EL with an external quantum efficiency, EQE, and threshold voltage, Vth, that depend sensitively on wCdSe. EQE increases with increasing electric field and also with increasing wCdSe, and Vth also increases with wCdSe and, therefore, the electrical resistance of the tn-ELJs. Vth down to 1.8(±0.2) V (for wCdSe ≈ 100 nm) and EQE of 5.5(±0.5) × 10(-5) (for wCdSe ≈ 450 nm) are obtained. tn-ELJs produce a broad EL emission envelope, spanning the wavelength range from 600 to 960 nm.

  5. θ0 thermal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaev, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    We predict the thermal counterpart of the anomalous Josephson effect in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junctions with noncoplanar magnetic texture. The heat current through the junction is shown to have the phase-sensitive interference component proportional to cos(θ -θ0) , where θ is the Josephson phase difference and θ0 is the texture-dependent phase shift. In the generic trilayer magnetic structure with the spin-filtering tunnel barrier θ0 is determined by the spin chirality of magnetic configuration and can be considered as the direct manifestation of the energy transport with participation of spin-triplet Cooper pairs. In case of the ideal spin filter the phase shift is shown to be robust against spin relaxation caused by the spin-orbital scattering. Possible applications of the coupling between heat flow and magnetic precession are discussed. For the nonideal spin filters with practically relevant parameters we show that θ0 is much larger than the phase shift of the equilibrium Josephson current.

  6. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  7. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN PILE, AND DEBRIS SCATTER,LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THE MAIN ACCESS TRAIL BETWEEN THE LOWER MILL AREA GOES ACROSS THE CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT. WINCHING ENGINE AND FOUNDATION IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER (SEE CA-291-37). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN,AND TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN,AND TRAM TRESTLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. WINCHING ENGINE AND ITS FOUNDATION IS AT TOP CENTER. SEE CA-291-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Na+ current in presynaptic terminals of the crayfish opener cannot initiate action potentials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) propagation in presynaptic axons of the crayfish opener neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was investigated by simultaneously recording from a terminal varicosity and a proximal branch. Although orthodromically conducting APs could be recorded in terminals with amplitudes up to 70 mV, depolarizing steps in terminals to −20 mV or higher failed to fire APs. Patch-clamp recordings did detect Na+ current (INa) in most terminals. The INa exhibited a high threshold and fast activation rate. Local perfusion of Na+-free saline showed that terminal INa contributed to AP waveform by slightly accelerating the rising phase and increasing the peak amplitude. These findings suggest that terminal INa functions to “touch up” but not to generate APs. PMID:26561611

  10. Computational model of erratic arrhythmias in a cardiac cell network: the role of gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Casaleggio, Aldo; Hines, Michael L; Migliore, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality increases with the population age. To investigate the underlying pathological mechanisms, and suggest new ways to reduce clinical risks, computational approaches complementing experimental and clinical investigations are becoming more and more important. Here we explore the possible processes leading to the occasional onset and termination of the (usually) non-fatal arrhythmias widely observed in the heart. Using a computational model of a two-dimensional network of cardiac cells, we tested the hypothesis that an ischemia alters the properties of the gap junctions inside the ischemic area. In particular, in agreement with experimental findings, we assumed that an ischemic episode can alter the gap junctions of the affected cells by reducing their average conductance. We extended these changes to include random fluctuations with time, and modifications in the gap junction rectifying conductive properties of cells along the edges of the ischemic area. The results demonstrate how these alterations can qualitatively give an account of all the main types of non-fatal arrhythmia observed experimentally, and suggest how premature beats can be eliminated in three different ways: a) with a relatively small surgical procedure, b) with a pharmacological reduction of the rectifying conductive properties of the gap-junctions, and c) by pharmacologically decreasing the gap junction conductance. In conclusion, our model strongly supports the hypothesis that non-fatal arrhythmias can develop from post-ischemic alteration of the electrical connectivity in a relatively small area of the cardiac cell network, and suggests experimentally testable predictions on their possible treatments.

  11. Loss of neurofilaments in the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of proximal axonopathy.

    PubMed

    Soler-Martín, C; Vilardosa, U; Saldaña-Ruíz, S; Garcia, N; Llorens, J

    2012-02-01

    Rodents exposed to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) develop an axonopathy similar to that observed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neurones, in which neurofilaments accumulate in swollen proximal axon segments. This study addressed the hypotheses that this proximal axonopathy is associated with loss of neurofilament proteins in the neuromuscular junctions and a progressive loss of neurofilaments advancing in a distal-proximal direction from the distal motor nerve. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0 or 15 mM of IDPN in drinking water for 1, 3 or 5 weeks, and their distal axons and neuromuscular junction organization studied by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative data were obtained by confocal microscopy on whole mounts of the Levator auris longus. Muscles showed no change in the distribution of acetylcholine receptor labelling in the neuromuscular junctions after IDPN. In contrast, the amount of neurofilament labelling in the junctions was significantly reduced by IDPN, assessed with two different anti-neurofilament antibodies. In preterminal axons and in more proximal axon levels, no statistically significant reductions in neurofilament content were observed. The proximal neurofilamentous axonopathy induced by IDPN is associated with an abnormally low content of neurofilaments in the motor terminals, with a potential impact in the function or stability of the neuromuscular junction. In contrast, neurofilaments are significantly maintained in the distal axon. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological Society.

  12. 29 CFR 4043.24 - Termination or partial termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury determines that there has been a termination or partial termination of a plan... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination or partial termination. 4043.24 Section 4043.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN...

  13. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzenets, I. V.; Amet, F.; Ke, C. T.; Draelos, A. W.; Wei, M. T.; Seredinski, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Bomze, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.; Finkelstein, G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the critical current IC of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, IC is found to scale as ∝exp (-kBT /δ E ). The extracted energies δ E are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T →0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δ E (or Δ ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  14. Substrate roughness induces the development of defective E-cadherin junctions in human gingival keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The entry of bacteria or harmful substances through the epithelial seal of human gingival keratinocytes (HGKs) in the junctional epithelium (JE) is blocked by specialized intercellular junctions such as E-cadherin junctions (ECJs). However, the influence of roughened substrates, which may occur due to apical migration of the JE, root planing, or peri-implantitis, on the development of the ECJs of HGKs remains largely unknown. Methods HGKs were cultured on substrates with varying levels of roughness, which were prepared by rubbing hydrophobic polystyrene dishes with silicon carbide papers. The activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was inhibited with SP600125 or by transfection with JNK short hairpin RNA. The development of intercellular junctions was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy after immunohistochemical staining of the cells for E-cadherin. The expression level of phospho-JNK was assessed by immunoblotting. Results HGKs developed tight intercellular junctions devoid of wide intercellular gaps on smooth substrates and on rough substrates with low-nanometer dimensions (average roughness [Ra]=121.3±13.4 nm), although the ECJs of HGKs on rough substrates with low-nanometer dimensions developed later than those of HGKs on smooth substrates. In contrast, HGKs developed short intercellular junctions with wide intercellular gaps on rough substrates with mid- or high-nanometer dimensions (Ra=505.3±115.3 nm, 867.0±168.6 nm). Notably, the stability of the ECJs was low on the rough substrates, as demonstrated by the rapid destruction of the cell junction following calcium depletion. Inhibition of JNK activity promoted ECJ development in HGKs. JNK was closely associated with cortical actin in the regulation of ECJs in HGKs. Conclusions These results indicate that on rough substrates with nanometer dimensions, the ECJs of HGKs develop slowly or defectively, and that this effect can be reversed by inhibiting JNK

  15. Tandem Terminal Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-23

    OAK-B135 Tandem Terminal Ion Source. The terminal ion source (TIS) was used in several experiments during this reporting period, all for the {sup 7}Be({gamma}){sup 8}B experiment. Most of the runs used {sup 1}H{sup +} at terminal voltages from 0.3 MV to 1.5 MV. One of the runs used {sup 2}H{sup +} at terminal voltage of 1.4 MV. The other run used {sup 4}He{sup +} at a terminal voltage of 1.37 MV. The list of experiments run with the TIS to date is given in table 1 below. The tank was opened four times for unscheduled source repairs. On one occasion the tank was opened to replace the einzel lens power supply which had failed. The 10 kV unit was replaced with a 15 kV unit. The second time the tank was opened to repair the extractor supply which was damaged by a tank spark. On the next occasion the tank was opened to replace a source canal which had sputtered away. Finally, the tank was opened to replace the discharge bottle which had been coated with aluminum sputtered from the exit canal.

  16. Some properties of Cosmic String Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouby, Johanna

    2011-07-01

    Cosmic strings are linear concentrations of energy of macroscopic size. Since cosmic superstrings can form junctions, observing them would give some support to string theory. In the following, we study the lensing cosmic string junctions create, the shift in photons' wavelength passing through (leading to the Kaiser-Stebbins effect), and the gravitational radiation they emit.

  17. Dressed fluxon in a Josephson window junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Flytzanis, Nikos; Devoret, Michel

    1994-09-01

    The static fluxon solutions of a Josephson window junction have been studied numerically. We show that the effect of the idle region surrounding the junction is to ``dress'' the fluxon causing its energy to increase. This effect can be predicted accurately by a simple model.

  18. Slit Diaphragms Contain Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Bornheimer, Scott; Kudlicka, Krystyna; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2009-01-01

    Slit diaphragms are essential components of the glomerular filtration apparatus, as changes in these junctions are the hallmark of proteinuric diseases. Slit diaphragms, considered specialized adherens junctions, contain both unique membrane proteins (e.g., nephrin, podocin, and Neph1) and typical adherens junction proteins (e.g., P-cadherin, FAT, and catenins). Whether slit diaphragms also contain tight junction proteins is unknown. Here, immunofluorescence, immunogold labeling, and cell fractionation demonstrated that rat slit diaphragms contain the tight junction proteins JAM-A (junctional adhesion molecule A), occludin, and cingulin. We found these proteins in the same protein complexes as nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, ZO-1, and Neph1 by cosedimentation, coimmunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. PAN nephrosis increased the protein levels of JAM-A, occludin, cingulin, and ZO-1 several-fold in glomeruli and loosened their attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. These data extend current information about the molecular composition of slit diaphragms by demonstrating the presence of tight junction proteins, although slit diaphragms lack the characteristic morphologic features of tight junctions. The contribution of these proteins to the assembly of slit diaphragms and potential signaling cascades requires further investigation. PMID:19478094

  19. The tight junction: a multifunctional complex.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Eveline E; Lynch, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Multicellular organisms are separated from the external environment by a layer of epithelial cells whose integrity is maintained by intercellular junctional complexes composed of tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, whereas gap junctions provide for intercellular communication. The aim of this review is to present an updated overview of recent developments in the area of tight junction biology. In a relatively short time, our knowledge of the tight junction has evolved from a relatively simple view of it being a permeability barrier in the paracellular space and a fence in the plane of the plasma membrane to one of it acting as a multicomponent, multifunctional complex that is involved in regulating numerous and diverse cell functions. A group of integral membrane proteins-occludin, claudins, and junction adhesion molecules-interact with an increasingly complex array of tight junction plaque proteins not only to regulate paracellular solute and water flux but also to integrate such diverse processes as gene transcription, tumor suppression, cell proliferation, and cell polarity.

  20. Analysis of Tight Junction Formation and Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Kerekes, Ryan A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Foster, Carmen M; Retterer, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study segmentation of tight junctions and analyze the formation and integrity of tight junctions in large-scale confocal image stacks, a challenging biological problem because of the low spatial resolution images and the presence of breaks in tight junction structure. We present an automated, three-step processing approach for tight junction analysis. In our approach, we first localize each individual nucleus in the image by using thresholding, morphological filters and active contours. By using each nucleus position as a seed point, we automatically segment the cell body based on the active contour. We then use an intensity-based skeletonization algorithm to generate the boundary regions for each cell, and features are extracted from tight junctions associated with each cell to assess tight junction continuity. Based on qualitative results and quantitative comparisons, we show that we are able to automatically segment tight junctions and compute relevant features that provide a quantitative measure of tight junction formation to which the permeability of the cell monolayer can ultimately be correlated.

  1. HGF signaling regulates Claudin-3 dynamics through its C-terminal tyrosine residues.

    PubMed

    Twiss, Floor; Oldenkamp, Michiel; Hiemstra, Annemieke; Zhou, Houjiang; Matheron, Lucrèce; Mohammed, Shabaz; de Rooij, Johan

    2013-10-01

    The hormone HGF regulates morphogenesis and regeneration of multiple organs and increased HGF signaling is strongly associated with metastatic cancer. At the cellular level, one of the distinct effects of HGF is the de-stabilization of cell-cell junctions. Several molecular mechanisms have been shown to be involved that mostly culminate at the E-cadherin adhesion complex. One of the key determinants in HGF-driven morphological changes is the actomyosin cytoskeleton whose organization and physical parameters changes upon stimulation. Here we have investigated how HGF affects the different actomyosin-associated cell-cell junction complexes, Nectin Junctions, Adherens Junctions and Tight Junctions in MDCK cells. We find that components of all complexes stay present at cell-cell contacts until their physical dissociation. We find that at cell-cell junctions, the mobility of Claudin-3, but not that of other cell-cell adhesion receptors, is affected by HGF. This depends on tyrosine residues that likely affect PDZ-domain interactions at the C-terminal tail of Claudin-3, although their phosphorylation is not directly regulated by HGF. Thus we uncovered Claudins as novel targets of HGF signaling at cell-cell junctions.

  2. Zipper and freeway shear zone junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees; Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    Ductile shear zones are usually presented as isolated planar high-strain domains in a less deformed wall rock, characterised by shear sense indicators such as characteristic deflected foliation traces. Many shear zones, however, form branched systems and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting geometry can be complicated and lead to unusual fabric geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone junctions with three simultaneously operating branches, and with slip directions at a high angle to the branch line, eight basic types of shear zone triple junctions are possible, divided into three groups. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense on all three branches. If shear sense is different on the three branches, this can lead to space problems. Some of these junctions have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch, named zipper junctions, or a single shear zone which splits to form two, known as wedge junctions. Closing zipper junctions are most unusual, since they form a non-active high-strain zone with opposite deflection of foliations. Shear zipper and shear wedge junctions have two shear zones with similar shear sense, and one with the opposite sense. All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic flow patterns in the shear zone and its wall rock. Shear zone junctions with slip directions normal to the branch line can easily be studied, since ideal sections of shear sense indicators lie in the plane normal to the shear zone branches and the branch line. Expanding the model to allow slip oblique and parallel to the branch line in a full 3D setting gives rise to a large number of geometries in three main groups. Slip directions can be parallel on all branches but oblique to the branch line: two slip directions can be parallel and a third oblique, or all three branches can have slip in different directions. Such more complex shear zone junctions cannot be studied to advantage in a

  3. Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.

  4. The last glacial termination.

    PubMed

    Denton, G H; Anderson, R F; Toggweiler, J R; Edwards, R L; Schaefer, J M; Putnam, A E

    2010-06-25

    A major puzzle of paleoclimatology is why, after a long interval of cooling climate, each late Quaternary ice age ended with a relatively short warming leg called a termination. We here offer a comprehensive hypothesis of how Earth emerged from the last global ice age. A prerequisite was the growth of very large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whose subsequent collapse created stadial conditions that disrupted global patterns of ocean and atmospheric circulation. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies shifted poleward during each northern stadial, producing pulses of ocean upwelling and warming that together accounted for much of the termination in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica. Rising atmospheric CO2 during southern upwelling pulses augmented warming during the last termination in both polar hemispheres.

  5. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  6. Acoustic minor losses in high amplitude resonators with single-sided junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doller, Andrew J.

    Steady flow engineering handbooks like Idelchik20 do not exist for investigators interested in acoustic (oscillating) fluid flows in complex resonators. Measurements of acoustic minor loss coefficients are presented in this dissertation for a limited number of resonator configurations having single-sided junctions. While these results may be useful, the greater purpose of this work is to provide a set of controlled measurements that can be used to benchmark computational models of acoustic flows used for more complicated resonator structures. The experiments are designed around a driver operating at 150 Hz enabling acoustic pressures in excess of 10k Pa in liquid cooled, temperature controlled resonators with 90°, 45° and 25° junctions. These junctions join a common 109 cm long 4.7 cm diameter section to a section of 8.4 mm diameter tube making two sets of resonators: one set with a small diameter length approximately a quarter-wavelength (45 cm), the other approximately a half-wavelength (112 cm). The long resonators have a velocity node at the junction; the short resonators have a velocity anti-node generating the greatest minor losses. Input power is measured by an accelerometer and a pressure transducer at the driver. A pressure sensor at the rigid termination measures radiation pressure from the driver and static junction pressure, as well as the acoustic pressure used to calculate linear thermal and viscous resonator wall losses. At the largest amplitudes, the 90° junction was found to dissipate as much as 0.3 Watt, 1/3 the power of linear losses alone. For each junction, the power dissipation depends on acoustic pressure differently: pressure cubed for the 90°, pressure to the 3.76 for the 45° and pressure to the 4.48 for the 25°. Common among all resonators, blowing acoustic half-cycle minor losses (KB) are excited at lower amplitudes than the suction half-cycle (KS) minor losses. Data collected for the 90° junction shows KB reaches an asymptotic

  7. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  8. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  9. ALSEP termination report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Lauderdale, W. W.; Kernaghan, H.

    1979-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) final report was prepared when support operations were terminated September 30, 1977, and NASA discontinued the receiving and processing of scientific data transmitted from equipment deployed on the lunar surface. The ALSEP experiments (Apollo 11 to Apollo 17) are described and pertinent operational history is given for each experiment. The ALSEP data processing and distribution are described together with an extensive discussion on archiving. Engineering closeout tests and results are given, and the status and configuration of the experiments at termination are documented. Significant science findings are summarized by selected investigators. Significant operational data and recommendations are also included.

  10. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  11. LOW RESISTANCE JUNCTIONS IN CRAYFISH

    PubMed Central

    Peracchia, Camillo

    1973-01-01

    Low resistance junctions between axons of crayfish ganglia are studied by freeze-fracture and negative staining. In freeze-fracture, fracture planes that go through a junctional membrane expose two faces, both internal, called face A and face B. Face A belongs to the internal membrane leaflet and faces the gap. Face B belongs to the external membrane leaflet and faces the axoplasm. Face A displays pits, 60–100 Å in diameter, arranged in a hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼200 Å. An ∼25 Å bump is frequently seen at the center of each pit. Some pits are occupied by a globule ∼125 Å in diameter, which displays a central depression ∼25 Å in size. Face B contains globules also arranged in a fairly regular hexagonal pattern. The center-to-center distance between adjacent globules is most frequently ∼200 Å; however, occasionally certain globules are seen separated by a distance as short as ∼125 Å. The top surface of the globules occasionally displays a starlike profile and seems to contain a central depression ∼25 Å in diameter. In negatively stained preparations of membranes from the nerve cord, two types of membranes are seen containing a fairly regular pattern. In one, globules ∼95 Å in diameter form a hexagonal close packing with a unit cell of ∼95 Å. In the other, globules of the same size are organized in a larger hexagonal array with a unit cell of ∼155 Å (swollen arrangement). Some of the globules forming the swollen arrangement are seen containing six subunits. The six subunits form a hexagon which is skewed with respect to the main rows of hexagons in such a way that the subunits lie on rows which make an angle of ∼37° with the main rows. PMID:4120611

  12. Neuronal activity-dependent membrane traffic at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Miana-Mena, Francisco Javier; Roux, Sylvie; Benichou, Jean-Claude; Osta, Rosario; Brûlet, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    During development and also in adulthood, synaptic connections are modulated by neuronal activity. To follow such modifications in vivo, new genetic tools are designed. The nontoxic C-terminal fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC) fused to a reporter gene such as LacZ retains the retrograde and transsynaptic transport abilities of the holotoxin itself. In this work, the hybrid protein is injected intramuscularly to analyze in vivo the mechanisms of intracellular and transneuronal traffics at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Traffic on both sides of the synapse are strongly dependent on presynaptic neural cell activity. In muscle, a directional membrane traffic concentrates β-galactosidase-TTC hybrid protein into the NMJ postsynaptic side. In neurons, the probe is sorted across the cell to dendrites and subsequently to an interconnected neuron. Such fusion protein, sensitive to presynaptic neuronal activity, would be extremely useful to analyze morphological changes and plasticity at the NMJ. PMID:11880654

  13. Measuring Schottky barrier height at graphene/SiC junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, D.; Hudy, L.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.

    2014-03-01

    When graphene is interfaced with a semiconductor, a Schottky junction forms with rectifying properties. In this work, we measured the Schottky barrier heights of graphene/SiC Schottky diodes using current-voltage (I-V) measurement. Chemical vapor deposited graphene was transferred onto semiconductor surfaces of opposite polarization: the hydrogen-terminated Si- and C-faces of α-SiC, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The Schottky barrier height is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the substrate and surface preparation. On the Si-face, a barrier of 0.47 eV is found. These results will be compared with earlier work as well as our in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy results. Supported by DOE (DE-FG02-07ER46228).

  14. Band-Engineered Local Cooling in Nanoscale Junctions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bailey C; Chen, Yu-Chang

    2017-02-15

    The stability and performance of nanoscale junctions are closely related to the local effective temperature. The local effective temperature is mainly caused by the competition between heating and cooling processes in inelastic electron-phonon scat- tering. Local cooling occurs when the rate of energy in cooling exceeds that in heating. Previous research has been done using either specific potential configuration or an adatom to achieve local cooling. We propose an engineer-able local-cooling mechanism in asymmetric two-terminal tunneling junctions, in which one electrode is made of metal, whereas the other is made of a selectable bad-metal, such as heavily-doped polysilicon. The width of energy window of the selectable material, defined as the width covering all possible energy states counting from the conduction band minimum, can be engineered through doping. Interestingly, we have shown that substantial local cooling can be achieved at room temperature when the width of energy window of the low-density electrode is comparable to the energy of the phonon. The unusual local cooling is caused by the narrowed width of energy window, which obstructs the inelastic scattering for heating.

  15. Band-Engineered Local Cooling in Nanoscale Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Bailey C.; Chen, Yu-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The stability and performance of nanoscale junctions are closely related to the local effective temperature. The local effective temperature is mainly caused by the competition between heating and cooling processes in inelastic electron-phonon scat- tering. Local cooling occurs when the rate of energy in cooling exceeds that in heating. Previous research has been done using either specific potential configuration or an adatom to achieve local cooling. We propose an engineer-able local-cooling mechanism in asymmetric two-terminal tunneling junctions, in which one electrode is made of metal, whereas the other is made of a selectable bad-metal, such as heavily-doped polysilicon. The width of energy window of the selectable material, defined as the width covering all possible energy states counting from the conduction band minimum, can be engineered through doping. Interestingly, we have shown that substantial local cooling can be achieved at room temperature when the width of energy window of the low-density electrode is comparable to the energy of the phonon. The unusual local cooling is caused by the narrowed width of energy window, which obstructs the inelastic scattering for heating. PMID:28198445

  16. Theoretical Approach to Electroresistance in Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sou-Chi; Naeemi, Azad; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Gruverman, Alexei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a theoretical approach comprising the nonequilibrium Green's function method for electronic transport and the Landau-Khalatnikov equation for electric polarization dynamics is presented to describe polarization-dependent tunneling electroresistance (TER) in ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Using appropriate contact, interface, and ferroelectric parameters, the measured current-voltage characteristic curves in both inorganic (Co /BaTi O3/La0.67Sr0.33 MnO3 ) and organic (Au /PVDF /W ) ferroelectric tunnel junctions can be well described by the proposed approach. Furthermore, under this theoretical framework, the controversy of opposite TER signs observed experimentally by different groups in Co /BaTi O3/La0.67Sr0.33 MnO3 systems is addressed by considering the interface termination effects using the effective contact ratio defined through the effective screening length and dielectric response at the metal-ferroelectric interfaces. Finally, our approach is extended to investigate the role of a CoOx buffer layer at the Co /BaTi O3 interface in a ferroelectric tunnel memristor. It is shown that in order to have a significant memristor behavior not only the interface oxygen vacancies but also the CoOx layer thickness may vary with the applied bias.

  17. Mechanically Stacked Four-Junction Concentrator Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F.; Ward, J. Scott; Garcia, Ivan; Friedman, Daniel J.; King, Richard R.; Chiu, Philip T.; France, Ryan M.; Duda, Anna; Olavarria, Waldo J.; Young, Michelle; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Multijunction solar cells can be fabricated by bonding together component cells that are grown separately. Because the component cells are each grown lattice-matched to suitable substrates, this technique allows alloys of different lattice constants to be combined without the structural defects introduced when using metamorphic buffers. Here we present results on the fabrication and performance of four-junction mechanical stacks composed of GaInP/GaAs and GaInAsP/GaInAs tandems, grown on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively. The two tandems were bonded together with a low-index, transparent epoxy that acts as an omni-directional reflector to the GaAs bandedge luminescence, while simultaneously transmitting nearly all of the sub-bandgap light. As determined by electroluminescence measurements and optical modeling, the GaAs subcell demonstrates a higher internal radiative limit and thus higher subcell voltage, compared with GaAs subcells without enhanced internal optics; all four subcells exhibit excellent material quality. The device was fabricated with four contact terminals so that each tandem can be operated at its maximum power point, which raises the cumulative efficiency and decreases spectral sensitivity. Efficiencies exceeding 38% at one-sun have been demonstrated. Eliminating the series resistance is the key challenge for the concentrator cells. We will discuss the performance of one-sun and concentrator versions of the device, and compare the results to recently fabricated monolithic four-junction cells.

  18. Band-Engineered Local Cooling in Nanoscale Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bailey C.; Chen, Yu-Chang

    2017-02-01

    The stability and performance of nanoscale junctions are closely related to the local effective temperature. The local effective temperature is mainly caused by the competition between heating and cooling processes in inelastic electron-phonon scat- tering. Local cooling occurs when the rate of energy in cooling exceeds that in heating. Previous research has been done using either specific potential configuration or an adatom to achieve local cooling. We propose an engineer-able local-cooling mechanism in asymmetric two-terminal tunneling junctions, in which one electrode is made of metal, whereas the other is made of a selectable bad-metal, such as heavily-doped polysilicon. The width of energy window of the selectable material, defined as the width covering all possible energy states counting from the conduction band minimum, can be engineered through doping. Interestingly, we have shown that substantial local cooling can be achieved at room temperature when the width of energy window of the low-density electrode is comparable to the energy of the phonon. The unusual local cooling is caused by the narrowed width of energy window, which obstructs the inelastic scattering for heating.

  19. Reduction in gap junction intercellular communication promotes glioma migration

    PubMed Central

    Aftab, Qurratulain; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), an aggressive form of adult brain tumor, is difficult to treat due to its invasive nature. One of the molecular changes observed in GBM is a decrease in the expression of the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43); however, how a reduction in Cx43 expression contributes to glioma malignancy is still unclear. In this study we examine whether a decrease in Cx43 protein expression has a role in enhanced cell migration, a key feature associated with increased tumorigenicity. We used a 3D spheroid migration model that mimics the in vivo architecture of tumor cells to quantify migration changes. We found that down-regulation of Cx43 expression in the U118 human glioma cell line increased migration by reducing cell-ECM adhesion, and changed the migration pattern from collective to single cell. In addition gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) played a more prominent role in mediating migration than the cytoplasmic interactions of the C-terminal tail. Live imaging revealed that reducing Cx43 expression enhanced relative migration by increasing the cell speed and affecting the direction of migration. Taken together our findings reveal an unexplored role of GJIC in facilitating collective migration. PMID:25926558

  20. A superconducting-nanowire three-terminal electrothermal device.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Adam N; Berggren, Karl K

    2014-10-08

    Superconducting electronics based on Josephson junctions are used to sense and process electronic signals with minimal loss; however, they are ultrasensitive to magnetic fields, limited in their amplification capabilities, and difficult to manufacture. We have developed a 3-terminal, nanowire-based superconducting electrothermal device which has no Josephson junctions. This device, which we call the nanocryotron, can be patterned from a single thin film of superconducting material with conventional electron-beam lithography. The nanocryotron has a demonstrated gain of >20, can drive impedances of 100 kΩ, and operates in typical ambient magnetic fields. We have additionally applied it both as a digital logic element in a half-adder circuit, and as a digital amplifier for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors pulses. The nanocryotron has immediate applications in classical and quantum communications, photon sensing, and astronomy, and its input characteristics are suitable for integration with existing superconducting technologies.

  1. Photodetection in p-n junctions formed by electrolyte-gated transistors of two-dimensional crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Daichi; Pu, Jiang; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Shota; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Matsuki, Keiichiro; Wada, Yoshifumi; Sakanoue, Tomo; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Li, Lain-Jong; Takenobu, Taishi

    2016-11-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers have attracted much attention due to their strong light absorption and excellent electronic properties. These advantages make this type of two-dimensional crystal a promising one for optoelectronic device applications. In the case of photoelectric conversion devices such as photodetectors and photovoltaic cells, p-n junctions are one of the most important devices. Here, we demonstrate photodetection with WSe2 monolayer films. We prepare the electrolyte-gated ambipolar transistors and electrostatic p-n junctions are formed by the electrolyte-gating technique at 270 K. These p-n junctions are cooled down to fix the ion motion (and p-n junctions) and we observed the reasonable photocurrent spectra without the external bias, indicating the formation of p-n junctions. Very interestingly, two-terminal devices exhibit higher photoresponsivity than that of three-terminal ones, suggesting the formation of highly balanced anion and cation layers. The maximum photoresponsivity reaches 5 mA/W in resonance with the first excitonic peak. Our technique provides important evidence for optoelectronics in atomically thin crystals.

  2. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  3. Settings for Terminal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corless, Inge B.

    1988-01-01

    Examines topics related to delivery of terminal care services: ability of various hospice programs to survive financially, contributions of various models of hospice care, impact of Medicare legislation on hospice movement, demonstration of unique hospice intervention, integration of spiritual care into hospice, and role of hospice in care of…

  4. Trauma and termination.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  5. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  6. Shipboard regasification terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.; Zednik, J.

    1999-07-01

    Mobil Technology Company and Mobil Shipping and Transportation Company have jointly developed a new combination of existing proven equipment to regasify LNG. Advantages of this Shipboard Regasification Terminal (SRT) include accelerated initial gas delivery schedule, low capital cost, delivery of smaller quantities of LNG at a competitive price and shorter term of LNG purchase and improved financing options. These advantages benefit both the supplier of LNG and the purchaser. SRT can be used as an interim supply to developing markets allowing the demand to grow while developing downstream infrastructure. This concept does not involve offshore transfer of cryogenic fluids while delivering near-ambient temperature pipeline quality gas at typical pipeline pressures. During times when gas is not required, the SRT ship can easily be returned to the trade of transporting and delivering LNG to conventional land based terminals. This paper will discuss the merits of Shipboard Regasification Terminals in general, cover the development of this concept and review the factors guiding the use of SRT vs. an onshore terminal.

  7. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K. )

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland.

  8. Microtubules regulate disassembly of epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei I; McCall, Ingrid C; Babbin, Brian; Samarin, Stanislav N; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Background Epithelial tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) form the apical junctional complex (AJC) which regulates cell-cell adhesion, paracellular permeability and cell polarity. The AJC is anchored on cytoskeletal structures including actin microfilaments and microtubules. Such cytoskeletal interactions are thought to be important for the assembly and remodeling of apical junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of microtubules in disassembly of the AJC in intestinal epithelial cells using a model of extracellular calcium depletion. Results Calcium depletion resulted in disruption and internalization of epithelial TJs and AJs along with reorganization of perijunctional F-actin into contractile rings. Microtubules reorganized into dense plaques positioned inside such F-actin rings. Depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole prevented junctional disassembly and F-actin ring formation. Stabilization of microtubules with either docetaxel or pacitaxel blocked contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated internalization of junctional proteins into a subapical cytosolic compartment. Likewise, pharmacological inhibition of microtubule motors, kinesins, prevented contraction of F-actin rings and attenuated disassembly of apical junctions. Kinesin-1 was enriched at the AJC in cultured epithelial cells and it also accumulated at epithelial cell-cell contacts in normal human colonic mucosa. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated association of kinesin-1 with the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Conclusion Our data suggest that microtubules play a role in disassembly of the AJC during calcium depletion by regulating formation of contractile F-actin rings and internalization of AJ/TJ proteins. PMID:16509970

  9. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  10. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  11. Constraints on string networks with junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.

    2007-03-15

    We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/{radical}(2), the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.

  12. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  13. Circuit Theory of Unconventional Superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Nazarov, Yu. V.; Kashiwaya, S.

    2003-04-01

    We extend the circuit theory of superconductivity to cover transport and proximity effect in mesoscopic systems that contain unconventional superconductor junctions. The approach fully accounts for zero-energy Andreev bound states forming at the surface of unconventional superconductors. As a simple application, we investigate the transport properties of a diffusive normal metal in series with a d-wave superconductor junction. We reveal the competition between the formation of Andreev bound states and proximity effect that depends on the crystal orientation of the junction interface.

  14. Efficient photonic crystal Y-junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rab; Karle, Tim J.; Moerman, I.; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2003-07-01

    A highly efficient Y-junction based on a planar photonic crystal (PhC) platform is presented. The PhC consists of a triangular array of holes etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, with a typical period of 322 nm and ~35% fill factor. The Y-junction has smaller holes positioned at the centre of the junction, giving rise to very uniform splitting and high transmission. The performance is very encouraging, with experimental transmission of approximately 40% for each arm of the Y-splitter relative to a comparable single-defect PhC waveguide.

  15. Molecular mechanism of double Holliday junction dissolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Processing of homologous recombination intermediates is tightly coordinated to ensure that chromosomal integrity is maintained and tumorigenesis avoided. Decatenation of double Holliday junctions, for example, is catalysed by two enzymes that work in tight coordination and belong to the same ‘dissolvasome’ complex. Within the dissolvasome, the RecQ-like BLM helicase provides the translocase function for Holliday junction migration, while the topoisomerase III alpha-RMI1 subcomplex works as a proficient DNA decatenase, together resulting in double-Holliday-junction unlinking. Here, we review the available architectural and biochemical knowledge on the dissolvasome machinery, with a focus on the structural interplay between its components. PMID:25061510

  16. Josephson effect in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet junctions coupled via triplet components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, Andreas; Volkov, Anatoly F.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2016-03-01

    On the basis of the Usadel equation we study a multiterminal Josephson junction. This junction is composed by "magnetic" superconductors Sm, which have singlet pairing and are separated from the normal n wire by spin filters so that the Josephson coupling is caused only by fully polarized triplet components. We show that there is no interaction between triplet Cooper pairs with antiparallel total spin orientations. The presence of an additional singlet superconductor S attached to the n wire leads to a finite Josephson current IQ with an unusual current-phase relation. The density of states in the n wire for different orientations of spins of Cooper pairs is calculated. We derive a general formula for the current IQ in a multiterminal Josephson contact and apply this formula for analysis of two four-terminal Josephson junctions of different structures. It is shown in particular that both the "nematic" and the "magnetic" cases can be realized in these junctions. In a two-terminal structure with parallel filter orientations and in a three-terminal structure with antiparallel filter orientations of the "magnetic" superconductors with attached additional singlet superconductor, we find a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the critical current. Also, in these structures, the critical current shows a Riedel peak like dependence on the exchange field in the "magnetic" superconductors. Although there is no current through the S/n interface due to orthogonality of the singlet and triplet components, the phase of the order parameter in the superconuctor S is shown to affect the Josephson current in a multiterminal structure.

  17. Correlation between amplitude of spin accumulation signals investigated by Hanle effect measurement and effective junction barrier height in CoFe/MgO/n{sup +}-Si junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y. Ishikawa, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Inokuchi, T.; Hamaya, K.; Tezuka, N.

    2015-05-07

    Correlation between the amplitude of the spin accumulation signals and the effective barrier height estimated from the slope of the log (RA) - t{sub MgO} plot (RA: resistance area product, t{sub MgO}: thickness of MgO tunnel barrier) in CoFe/MgO/n{sup +}-Si junctions was investigated. The amplitude of spin accumulation signals increases with increasing effective barrier heights. This increase of the amplitude of spin accumulation is originated from the increase of the spin polarization (P{sub Si}) in Si. The estimated absolute values of P{sub Si} using three-terminal Hanle signals are consistent with those estimated by four-terminal nonlocal-magnetoresistance (MR) and two-terminal local-MR. To demonstrate large spin accumulation in Si bulk band and enhance the local-MR through Si channel, these results indicate that the increase of the effective barrier height at ferromagnet/(tunnel barrier)/n{sup +}-Si junction electrode is important.

  18. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival

    PubMed Central

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C.; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E.

    2014-01-01

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1–c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival. PMID:24567356

  19. Active Forearc Response to CO-NZ-CA Triple Junction Migration, Southern Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K.; Fisher, D.; Gardner, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    Southeast migration of the CO-NZ-CA triple junction at a rate of ~55 mm/yr results in an abrupt increase in convergence rate, slab thickness and subduction direction within the upper plate of the Central American convergent margin. At the triple junction, an active transform fault (the dextral Panama Fracture Zone) subducts beneath the Caribbean plate at the Middle America Trench, and juxtaposes the thick, orthogonal and shallow subduction of the Cocos plate against the thin, oblique and steeper subduction of the Nazca plate. New bedrock geology, Quaternary mapping and Ar/Ar dates of fluvial and volcanic deposits inboard of the triple junction provide evidence that both the outer and inner forearc of this system is actively responding to the dynamic changes presented by triple junction migration. Our results confirm that the Fila Costeña, a thin-skinned inner forearc thrust belt, is active and likely propagating in concert with triple junction migration. Mapping within the area overriding the Panama Fracture Zone indicates that thrusting develops only in those areas experiencing Cocos subduction; the thrust belt dies out coincident with the on-shore projection of the Panama Fracture Zone, and balanced cross-sections indicate a lateral gradient in the amount of shortening near the termination of the thrust belt. Along-strike variations in drainage basin morphometry suggest that drainage divides of the Fila Costeña are propagating to the southeast with the triple junction, resulting in hook-shaped drainage patterns and asymmetric basin shapes. A survey of a flight of 3-4 fluvial terraces along the Río Chiriquí Viejo indicates recent thrusting along a prominent thrust fault of the Fila Costeña. These terraces are also inset into multiple lahar flows with an upper surface tentatively constrained at ~507 ka based on an Ar/Ar hornblende plateau age. Recent work indicates that this thrust fault displaces surficial lahar deposits, suggesting that it must have become

  20. Graphics Software For VT Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Caroline

    1991-01-01

    VTGRAPH graphics software tool for DEC/VT computer terminal or terminals compatible with it, widely used by government and industry. Callable in FORTRAN or C language, library program enabling user to cope with many computer environments in which VT terminals used for window management and graphic systems. Provides PLOT10-like package plus color or shade capability for VT240, VT241, and VT300 terminals. User can easily design more-friendly user-interface programs and design PLOT10 programs on VT terminals with different computer systems. Requires ReGis graphics set terminal and FORTRAN compiler.

  1. Effect of disorder on longitudinal resistance of a graphene p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Chai; Yeung, T. C. Au; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    The longitudinal resistances of a six-terminal graphene p-n junction under a perpendicular magnetic field are investigated. Because of the chirality of the Hall edge states, the longitudinal resistances on top and bottom edges of the graphene ribbon are not equal. In the presence of suitable disorder, the top-edge and bottom-edge resistances well show the plateau structures in the both unipolar and bipolar regimes, and the plateau values are determined by the Landau filling factors only. These plateau structures are in excellent agreement with the recent experiment. For the unipolar junction, the resistance plateaus emerge in the absence of impurity and they are destroyed by strong disorder. But for the bipolar junction, the resistances are very large without the plateau structures in the clean junction. The disorder can strongly reduce the resistances and leads the formation of the resistance plateaus due to the mixture of the Hall edge states in virtue of the disorder. In addition, the size effect of the junction on the resistances is studied and some extra resistance plateaus are found in the long graphene junction case. This is explained by the fact that only part of the edge states participate in the full mixing.

  2. Shipboard fisheries management terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Sager, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    The needs of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMGS), National Weather Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard for locational, biological, and environmental data were assessed. The fisheries conservation zones and the yellowfin tuna jurisdiction of the NMFS operates observer programs on foreign and domestic fishing vessels. Data input terminal and data transfer and processing technology are reviewed to establish available capability. A matrix of implementation options is generated to identify the benefits of each option, and preliminary cost estimates are made. Recommendations are made for incremental application of available off the shelf hardware to obtain improved performance and benefits within a well bounded cost. Terminal recommendations are made for three interdependent shipboard units emphasizing: (1) the determination of location and fishing activity; (2) hand held data inputting and formatting in the fishing work areas; and (3) data manipulation, merging, and editing.

  3. Ice age terminations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  4. Mobile Phone Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  5. Dusty Termination Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    2004-09-15

    In astrophysical settings, termination shocks where strong stellar wind outflows interact with the surrounding environments tend to take place in dusty regions. Just to name a few, star formation regions, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei are all good examples. Dynamics and evolution of the associated dust clouds could have important influences on the acceleration and composition of energetic particles resulting from the diffusive shock acceleration at the termination shocks. In this note we provide a brief review of previous work predating the recent detection of ACR Mg, Na, Si and S ions which might have originated from the Kuiper belt dust. Their compositional abundance might be diagnostic of the collisional history of the Kupier belt objects.

  6. Flight termination receiver catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    This catalog provides reference information on ultrahigh-frequency flight termination receivers used at various U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all available flight termination receivers, and inclusion of hardware in this catalog does not constitute approval or endorsement for use at any government installation. Use of a specific receiver at a missile range or test facility requires the approval of the Commander of that installation. Approval for use of a particular receiver on a given missile at one installation does not constitute automatic approval for use of the same receiver on other missiles at the same installation or on the same missile at other installations. The information in this catalog has been extracted from manufacturers' specifications. It is provided as reference material only and is not intended as an endorsement of any model.

  7. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1992-01-01

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  8. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD THE REAR OF THE STRUCTURE. THE WHEELS AT THE TOP OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE OFF THE STATIONARY CABLES ONTO THE TRACK SUPPORTED BY THE "C" IRONS SUSPENDED FROM THE TOP TIMBERS, CLEARLY SEEN AT THE TOP OF THE FRAME. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE TWO STATIONARY CABLES ARE AT BOTTOM CENTER, JUST BELOW THE CABLE WHEEL. THE MAIN CABLE WHEEL IS IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER LEFT. THE ORE CHUTES COMING FROM THE ORE BIN ARE AT LEFT CENTER EDGE. TRAM BUCKETS WERE CHARGED HERE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  11. Enhancement at the junction of silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Suh, Jung Sang

    2008-08-19

    The enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at the junction of linearly joined silver nanorods (31 nm in diameter) deposited in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates was studied systematically by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The single and joined silver nanorod arrays showed a similar extinction spectrum when their length was the same. Maximum enhancement was observed from the junction system of two nanorods of the same size with a total length of 62 nm. This length also corresponded to the optimum length of single nanorods for SERS by excitation with a 632.8 nm laser line. The enhancement at the junction was approximately 40 times higher than that of the 31 nm single nanorod, while it was 4 times higher than that of the 62 nm single nanorod. The enhancement factor at the junction after oxide removal was approximately 3.9 x 10 (9).

  12. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A

    1989-08-24

    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  13. UTE MRI of the Osteochondral Junction

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Reni; Chen, Karen; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    The osteochondral junction is composed of numerous tissue components and serves important functions relating to structural stability and proper nutrition in joints such as the knee and spine. Conventional MR techniques have been inadequate at imaging the tissues of the osteochondral junction primarily because of the intrinsically short T2 nature of these tissues, rendering them “invisible” with the standard acquisitions. Ultrashort time to echo (UTE) MR techniques acquire sufficient MR signal of osteochondral tissues, thereby allowing direct evaluation. This article reviews the anatomy of the osteochondral junction of the knee and the spine, technical aspects of UTE MRI, and the application of UTE MRI for evaluation of the osteochondral junction. PMID:25061547

  14. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Wen

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon.

  15. Adrenocortical Gap Junctions and Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Cheryl L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortical steroidogenesis and proliferation are thought to be modulated by gap junction-mediated direct cell–cell communication of regulatory molecules between cells. Such communication is regulated by the number of gap junction channels between contacting cells, the rate at which information flows between these channels, and the rate of channel turnover. Knowledge of the factors regulating gap junction-mediated communication and the turnover process are critical to an understanding of adrenal cortical cell functions, including development, hormonal response to adrenocorticotropin, and neoplastic dedifferentiation. Here, we review what is known about gap junctions in the adrenal gland, with particular attention to their role in adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Information and insight gained from electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging (immunocytochemical, freeze fracture, transmission electron microscopic, and live cell) techniques will be provided. PMID:27445985

  16. Tight junctions in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Brandner, Johanna M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e.g., in autoimmune responses. Often, it is also triggered by a combination of both. The specific processes, which mean the kind of cytokines and immune cells involved and the extent of the reaction, depend not only on the trigger but also on the predisposition of the individual. Tight junctions (TJs) in the skin have been shown to form a barrier in the granular cell layer of the epidermis. Furthermore, TJ proteins were found in several additional epidermal layers. Besides barrier function, TJ proteins have been shown to be involved in proliferation, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, and apoptosis in keratinocytes. In inflamed skin, TJ proteins are often affected. We summarize here the impact of skin inflammation on TJs, e.g., in various forms of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, in skin infection, and in UV-irradiated skin, and discuss the role of TJs in these inflammatory processes.

  17. Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert

    2007-04-01

    Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La(0.1)Bi(0.9)MnO(3) (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2 nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.

  18. Gap junctions, homeostasis, and injury.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Antonio; Vega, Virginia L; Contreras, Jorge E

    2002-06-01

    Gap junctions (Gj) play an important role in the communication between cells of many tissues. They are composed of channels that permit the passage of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells, without exposure to the extracellular environment. These pathways are formed by the interaction between two hemichannels on the surface of opposing cells. These hemichannels are formed by the association of six identical subunits, named connexins (Cx), which are integral membrane proteins. Cell coupling via Gj is dependent on the specific pattern of Cx gene expression. This pattern of gene expression is altered during several pathological conditions resulting in changes of cell coupling. The regulation of Cx gene expression is affected at different levels from transcription to post translational processes during injury. In addition, Gj cellular communication is regulated by gating mechanisms. The alteration of Gj communication during injury could be rationalized by two opposite theories. One hypothesis proposes that the alteration of Gj communication attenuates the spread of toxic metabolites from the injured area to healthy organ regions. The alternative proposition is that a reduction of cellular communication reduces the loss of important cellular metabolisms, such as ATP and glucose. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Amine terminated bisaspartimide polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D. (Inventor); Fohlen, G. M. (Inventor); Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Novel amine terminated bisaspartimides are prepared by a Michael-type reaction of an aromatic bismalteimide and an aromatic diamine in an aprotic solvent. These bisaspartimides are thermally polymerized to yield tough, resinous polymers cross-lined through -NH- groups. Such polymers are useful in applications requiring materials with resistance to change at elevated temperatures, e.g., as lightweight laminates with graphite cloth, molding material prepregs, adhesives and insulating material.

  20. Remote terminal system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Grams, H. L.; Lindenlaub, J. C.; Schwingendorf, S. K.; Swain, P. H.; Simmons, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Earth Resources Data Processing System was developed to evaluate the system for training, technology transfer, and data processing. In addition to the five sites included in this project two other sites were connected to the system under separate agreements. The experience of these two sites is discussed. The results of the remote terminal project are documented in seven reports: one from each of the five project sites, Purdue University, and an overview report summarizing the other six reports.

  1. Navy Multiband Terminal (NMT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng...Memo Note for Shore (for MTBF and MTBCF): Represents IOT &E and Verification of Correction of Deficiencies testing results; mission impact deemed...insignificant due to multiple terminals at Shore site. Note for Sub (for MTBF, MTBCF and MTTR): Represents IOT &E hours; test duration limit for

  2. Detergent-Resistant Microdomains Determine the Localization of σ-1 Receptors to the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria JunctionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Michiko

    2010-01-01

    σ-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) that bind diverse synthetic and endogenous compounds have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several human diseases such as drug addiction, depression, neurodegenerative disorders, pain-related disorders, and cancer. Sig-1Rs were identified recently as novel ligand-operated molecular chaperones. Although Sig-1Rs are predominantly expressed at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomains apposing mitochondria [i.e., the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM)], they dynamically change the cellular distribution, thus regulating both MAM-specific and plasma membrane proteins. However, what determines the location of Sig-1R at the MAM and how the receptor translocation is initiated is unknown. Here we report that the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) play an important role in anchoring Sig-1Rs to the MAM. The MAM, which is highly capable of accumulating ceramides, is enriched with both cholesterol and simple sphingolipids, thus forming Triton X-114-resistant DRMs. Sig-1Rs associate with MAM-derived DRMs but not with those from microsomes. A lipid overlay assay found that solubilized Sig-1Rs preferentially associate with simple sphingolipids such as ceramides. Disrupting DRMs by lowering cholesterol or inhibiting de novo synthesis of ceramides at the ER largely decreases Sig-1R at DRMs and causes translocation of Sig-1R from the MAM to ER cisternae. These findings suggest that the MAM, bearing cholesterol and ceramide-enriched microdomains at the ER, may use the microdomains to anchor Sig-1Rs to the location; thus, it serves to stage Sig-1R at ER-mitochondria junctions. PMID:20053954

  3. [Clinical anatomy of the esophagogastric junction].

    PubMed

    Tănase, M; Aldea, A S

    2012-01-01

    The esophagogastric junction is a controversial anatomical area, due to its sphincteric mechanism which does not show an obvious anatomical basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomical components that endoscopically indicate the mucosal esophagogastric junction in hiatal hernia patients. The esophagogastric junction was investigated in 27 hiatal hernia patients undergoing surgery. Hiatal hernia is an extension of the stomach situated between the esophagogastric junction and the diaphragmatic indentation. The following types of hiatal hernia were found: sliding hiatal hernia (type I) in 4 patients (14.81%), rolling hiatal hernia (type II) in 2 (7.4%), mixed hiatal hernia (type III) in 12 (44.44%), type IV hiatal hernia in 4 (14.81%) and recurrent hiatal hernia in 5 (18.51%). Of the 27 hiatal hernia patients, 8 (29.6%) were operated using classical procedures: laparotomy--6 (75%) and laparoscopic surgery--2 (25%). The angle of His cannot be used for marking the mucosal esophagogastric junction due to the severe damage of the lower esophageal sphincter in hiatal hernia patients. The squamocolumnar junction is displaced in hiatal hernia patients and was not an option for the study group. The distal end of the esophageal longitudinal palisading vessels needs medication (proton pump inhibitors that reduce the gastric acid production), in order to enhance the visibility of these vessels. The proximal end of gastric longitudinal mucosal folds proved to be the most reliable site to identify endoscopically the mucosal esophagogastric junction. The anatomical structure of the esophagogastric junction differs in hiatal hernia patients and these peculiarities are very important in surgery.

  4. Noise and Chaos in Driven Josephson Junctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    induced step ( n = integer), the corresponding Fokker - Planck equation is essentially the same as that for a purely dc biased junction in the zero... Planck equation which governs the two-dimensional distribution function P((j), d(t)/dt, t) will reduce to the one-dimensional Smoluchowski equation ...Junction). Its equation of motion turns out exacdy the same as a damped driven pendulum, except its characteristic frequency is about 10^-10^^ times

  5. Degradation of connexins and gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Matthias M.; Kells, Rachael M.; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin proteins are short-lived within the cell, whether present in the secretory pathway or in gap junction plaques. Their levels can be modulated by their rate of degradation. Connexins, at different stages of assembly, are degraded through the proteasomal, endo-/lysosomal, and phago-/lysosomal pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about connexin and gap junction degradation including the signals and protein-protein interactions that participate in their targeting for degradation. PMID:24486527

  6. Anaesthesia management in craniovertebral junctional anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Craniovertebral Junctional (CVJ) anomalies are developmental disorders that affect the skeleton and enclosed neuraxis at the junction of cranium and cervical spine. The high prevalence of airway obstruction and restrictive pulmonary disease in combination with cardiovascular manifestations poses a high anaesthetic risk to these patients. This article provides a discussion of management of anaesthesia in patients with craniovertebral anomalies, the evaluation of risk factors in these patients and their management, including emergency airway issues. PMID:27891026

  7. Heat dissipation in atomic-scale junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woochul; Kim, Kyeongtae; Jeong, Wonho; Zotti, Linda Angela; Pauly, Fabian; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Reddy, Pramod

    2013-06-13

    Atomic and single-molecule junctions represent the ultimate limit to the miniaturization of electrical circuits. They are also ideal platforms for testing quantum transport theories that are required to describe charge and energy transfer in novel functional nanometre-scale devices. Recent work has successfully probed electric and thermoelectric phenomena in atomic-scale junctions. However, heat dissipation and transport in atomic-scale devices remain poorly characterized owing to experimental challenges. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with integrated nanoscale thermocouples to investigate heat dissipation in the electrodes of single-molecule ('molecular') junctions. We find that if the junctions have transmission characteristics that are strongly energy dependent, this heat dissipation is asymmetric--that is, unequal between the electrodes--and also dependent on both the bias polarity and the identity of the majority charge carriers (electrons versus holes). In contrast, junctions consisting of only a few gold atoms ('atomic junctions') whose transmission characteristics show weak energy dependence do not exhibit appreciable asymmetry. Our results unambiguously relate the electronic transmission characteristics of atomic-scale junctions to their heat dissipation properties, establishing a framework for understanding heat dissipation in a range of mesoscopic systems where transport is elastic--that is, without exchange of energy in the contact region. We anticipate that the techniques established here will enable the study of Peltier effects at the atomic scale, a field that has been barely explored experimentally despite interesting theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the experimental advances described here are also expected to enable the study of heat transport in atomic and molecular junctions--an important and challenging scientific and technological goal that has remained elusive.

  8. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.; Zolper, John C.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

  9. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOEpatents

    Klem, J.F.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-21

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling. 5 figs.

  10. Gravitational wave bursts from cosmic superstrings with Y-junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, P.; Bohe, A.; Hertog, T.; Steer, D. A.

    2009-12-15

    Cosmic superstring loops generically contain strings of different tensions that meet at Y-junctions. These loops evolve nonperiodically in time, and have cusps and kinks that interact with the junctions. We study the effect of junctions on the gravitational wave signal emanating from cosmic string cusps and kinks. We find that earlier results on the strength of individual bursts from cusps and kinks on strings without junctions remain largely unchanged, but junctions give rise to additional contributions to the gravitational wave signal coming from strings expanding at the speed of light at a junction and kinks passing through a junction.

  11. Cell junctions in the gut of Protura.

    PubMed

    Xué, L; Romano, D

    1992-01-01

    The main cell junctions in the intestinal tract of a small group of apterygotan insects, Protura, were examined in conventional thin sections, tracer-infiltrated sections and freeze-fracture replicas. The smooth septate junctions in the midgut of collembolan Tomocerus minor were also studied for comparison. Pleated septate junctions are found in foregut, hindgut and Malpighian papillae. They exhibit regular septa crossing the intercellular clefts in thin sections; and the septa with a pronounced zig-zag appearance run parallel to form a honeycomb structure in tracer-impregnated sections. After freeze-fracture undulating rows of intramembranous particles (IMPs) are visible on the P face. Smooth septate junctions are observed in the midgut. The intercellular septa often run in pairs for long tracts and exhibit a wavy course in lanthanum impregnated sections. The IMPs exhibited on the E face are usually separated one from another. Twin arrangement of particle rows is also apparent on the replicas. Gap junctions are frequent in both the midgut and hindgut and possess the conventional characteristics of 'inverted gap junction' with E face connexons. These results provide further evidence relating Protura closely to Collembola as well as to primitive arthropods.

  12. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Brandner, J M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, L A; De Benedetto, A

    2015-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions.

  13. Predictive modelling of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velev, Julian P.; Burton, John D.; Zhuravlev, Mikhail Ye; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions combine the phenomena of quantum-mechanical tunnelling and switchable spontaneous polarisation of a nanometre-thick ferroelectric film into novel device functionality. Switching the ferroelectric barrier polarisation direction produces a sizable change in resistance of the junction—a phenomenon known as the tunnelling electroresistance effect. From a fundamental perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions and their version with ferromagnetic electrodes, i.e., multiferroic tunnel junctions, are testbeds for studying the underlying mechanisms of tunnelling electroresistance as well as the interplay between electric and magnetic degrees of freedom and their effect on transport. From a practical perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions hold promise for disruptive device applications. In a very short time, they have traversed the path from basic model predictions to prototypes for novel non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories with non-destructive readout. This remarkable progress is to a large extent driven by a productive cycle of predictive modelling and innovative experimental effort. In this review article, we outline the development of the ferroelectric tunnel junction concept and the role of theoretical modelling in guiding experimental work. We discuss a wide range of physical phenomena that control the functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions and summarise the state-of-the-art achievements in the field.

  14. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  15. Gap junctions: structure and function (Review).

    PubMed

    Evans, W Howard; Martin, Patricia E M

    2002-01-01

    Gap junctions are plasma membrane spatial microdomains constructed of assemblies of channel proteins called connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates. The channels provide direct intercellular communication pathways allowing rapid exchange of ions and metabolites up to approximately 1 kD in size. Approximately 20 connexins are identified in the human or mouse genome, and orthologues are increasingly characterized in other vertebrates. Most cell types express multiple connexin isoforms, making likely the construction of a spectrum of heteromeric hemichannels and heterotypic gap junctions that could provide a structural basis for the charge and size selectivity of these intercellular channels. The precise nature of the potential signalling information traversing junctions in physiologically defined situations remains elusive, but extensive progress has been made in elucidating how connexins are assembled into gap junctions. Also, participation of gap junction hemichannels in the propagation of calcium waves via an extracellular purinergic pathway is emerging. Connexin mutations have been identified in a number of genetically inherited channel communication-opathies. These are detected in connexin 32 in Charcot Marie Tooth-X linked disease, in connexins 26 and 30 in deafness and skin diseases, and in connexins 46 and 50 in hereditary cataracts. Biochemical approaches indicate that many of the mutated connexins are mistargeted to gap junctions and/or fail to oligomerize correctly into hemichannels. Genetic ablation approaches are helping to map out a connexin code and point to specific connexins being required for cell growth and differentiation as well as underwriting basic intercellular communication.

  16. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise.

  17. Gap junctions and blood-tissue barriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle W M; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2012-01-01

    Gap junction is a cell-cell communication junction type found in virtually all mammalian epithelia and endothelia and provides the necessary "signals" to coordinate physiological events to maintain the homeostasis of an epithelium and/or endothelium under normal physiological condition and following changes in the cellular environment (e.g., stimuli from stress, growth, development, inflammation, infection). Recent studies have illustrated the significance of this junction type in the maintenance of different blood-tissue barriers, most notably the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, which are dynamic ultrastructures, undergoing restructuring in response to stimuli from the environment. In this chapter, we highlight and summarize the latest findings in the field regarding how changes at the gap junction, such as the result of a knock-out, knock-down, knock-in, or gap junction inhibition and/or its activation via the use of inhibitors and/or activators, would affect the integrity or permeability of the blood-tissue barriers. These findings illustrate that much research is needed to delineate the role of gap junction in the blood-tissue barriers, most notably its likely physiological role in mediating or regulating the transport of therapeutic drugs across the blood-tissue barriers.

  18. GAP JUNCTIONS AND BLOOD-TISSUE BARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction is a cell-cell communication junction type found in virtually all mammalian epithelia and endothelia and provides the necessary “signals” to coordinate physiological events to maintain the homeostasis of an epithelium and/or endothelium under normal physiological condition and following changes in the cellular environment (e.g., stimuli from stress, growth, development, inflammation, infection). Recent studies have illustrated the significance of this junction type in the maintenance of different blood-tissue barriers, most notably the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, which are dynamic ultrastructures, undergoing restructuring in response to stimuli from the environment. In this chapter, we highlight and summarize the latest findings in the field regarding how changes at the gap junction, such as the result of a knock-out, knock-down, knock-in, or gap junction inhibition and/or its activation via the use of inhibitors and/or activators, would affect the integrity or permeability of the blood-tissue barriers. These findings illustrate that much research is needed to delineate the role of gap junction in the blood-tissue barriers, most notably its likely physiological role in mediating or regulating the transport of therapeutic drugs across the blood-tissue barriers. PMID:23397629

  19. Graphene tunnel junctions with aluminum oxide barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ying; Trainer, Daniel J.; Chen, Ke

    2016-10-01

    We report a development of graphene tunnel junctions made by chemical vapor deposition grown graphene and sputtered aluminum insulating by an in-situ grown aluminum oxide. The thin oxide layer formed in between the metal layer and the two-dimensional material is a crucial part of a tunnel junction. We characterized surface morphology of oxide layers and studied tunneling spectra of lead and silver tunnel junctions to estimate the quality of the aluminum oxide. The Brinkman-Rowell-Dynes model was applied to fit the conductance-voltage plots to calculate the thickness of oxide layers. Junctions with graphene both on bottom and on top were fabricated and their tunneling properties were characterized after exposure to air for weeks to test time stability. Furthermore, the resistances of graphene tunnel junctions with aluminum oxide formed naturally and in an oxygen atmosphere were studied. Our results demonstrate that in-situ aluminum oxide is an effective barrier for graphene tunnel junctions. The methods of barrier formation enable the realization of more tunnel devices and circuits based on graphene.

  20. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trees, B. R.; Dissanayake, S. T. M.

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a ladder array of overdamped Josephson junctions with periodic boundary conditions. The junctions have critical current and resistive disorder, are current biased above the critical current, and their voltages oscillate with nonidentical bare frequencies. We have been interested in the onset of synchronization in the rung junctions of the ladder, in which nearest neighbor interactions of strength α renormalize the bare frequencies to a common value. The degree of synchronization of the array is measured by an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of α and the spread of bare frequencies. For a given frequency spread, a synchronization phase transition is clearly visible with an increase in α. We have also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction equations can be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of values of α and also demonstrate that the relationship between the array size, N, and the critical coupling strength for the onset of synchronization scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  1. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, JM; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, LA; De Benedetto, A

    2014-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. PMID:25838981

  2. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for single molecule rectification of the current, inelastic electron spectra and SERS spectroscopy. Three terminal architectures allowing (electrochemical) gating and transistor effects. Electrochemical nanojunctions and gating: intermolecular electron transfer in multi-redox metalloproteins, contact force modulation, characteristic current-noise patterns due to conformational fluctuations, resonance effects and electrocatalysis. Novel architectures: linear coupled quantum-dot-bridged junctions, electrochemical redox mediated transfer in two center systems leading to double maxima current-voltage plots and negative differential resistance, molecular-nanoparticle hybrid junctions and unexpected mesoscopic effects in polymeric wires. Device integration: techniques for creating stable metal/molecule/metal junctions using 'nano-alligator clips' and integration with 'traditional' silicon-based technology. The Guest Editors would like to thank all of the authors and referees of this special issue for their meticulous work in making each paper a valuable contribution to this research area, the early-bird authors for their patience, and Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter editorial staff in Bristol for their continuous support.

  3. Radiation effects on bipolar junction transistors induced by 25 MeV carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Li, Xingji; Geng, Hongbin; Zhao, Zhiming; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2010-12-01

    The characteristic degradation in silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) of 3DG112 type is examined under the irradiation with 25 MeV carbon (C) ions and various bias conditions. Different electrical parameters were measured in-situ during the exposure under each bias condition. From the experimental data, larger variation of base current ( IB) is observed after irradiation at a given value of base-emitter voltage ( VBE), while the collector current is only slightly affected by irradiation at a given VBE. The gain degradation is mostly affected by the behavior of the base current. The change in the reciprocal of current gain (Δ(1/ β)) increases linearly with increasing the C ions fluence. The degradation of the NPN BJTs under various bias conditions during irradiation was studied. Compared to the case where the terminals are grounded, at a given fluence, the change in the reciprocal of current gain varies slightly less when the base-emitter junction is forward biased. On the other hand, there is no distinction for the change in the reciprocal of current gain between the case of reverse-biased base-emitter junction and that of all terminals grounded for the NPN BJTs at a given fluence.

  4. Experimental Platform for Studying Thermoelectric Properties in Vacuum Gaps and Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Wonho; Kim, Youngsang; Kim, Kyeongtae; Lee, Woochul; Reddy, Pramod

    2014-03-01

    Electromigrated break junction (EBJ) based molecular devices have enabled many research groups to study nanoscale charge transport. Although EBJ devices have been extensively used due to the advantages of a three terminal configuration in tuning the electronic structure, it has not been possible to use them to study thermoelectric properties. This is because creating temperature differentials across the nanogap of EBJs is technically challenging. In order to overcome this experimental limitation, we carefully designed and created a new experimental platform (EBJIH, EBJ with integrated heater) that enables us to study thermoelectric properties in vacuum gaps and molecular junctions. To prove that temperature differentials can be established in these three terminal devices, we performed nanometer resolution thermal imaging using scanning thermal microscopy under UHV conditions. The results clearly show that temperature differentials can indeed be established in the devices. Further, we have used these devices to study the thermoelectric properties of vacuum gaps between gold electrodes and found that the thermoelectric properties were very sensitive to gap dimensions. We are also currently adopting this platform to study thermoelectric properties in molecular junctions.

  5. Eternal inflation with arrival terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the cosmological role of terminal vacua in the string theory landscape, and point out that existing work on this topic makes very strong assumptions about the properties of the terminal vacua. We explore the implications of relaxing these assumptions (by including "arrival" as well as "departure" terminals) and demonstrate that the results in earlier work are highly sensitive to their assumption of no arrival terminals. We use our discussion to make some general points about tuning and initial conditions in cosmology.

  6. Schwann Cells in Neuromuscular Junction Formation and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Barik, Arnab; Li, Lei; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2016-09-21

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a tripartite synapse that is formed by motor nerve terminals, postjunctional muscle membranes, and terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover the nerve-muscle contact. NMJ formation requires intimate communications among the three different components. Unlike nerve-muscle interaction, which has been well characterized, less is known about the role of SCs in NMJ formation and maintenance. We show that SCs in mice lead nerve terminals to prepatterned AChRs. Ablating SCs at E8.5 (i.e., prior nerve arrival at the clusters) had little effect on aneural AChR clusters at E13.5, suggesting that SCs may not be necessary for aneural clusters. SC ablation at E12.5, a time when phrenic nerves approach muscle fibers, resulted in smaller and fewer nerve-induced AChR clusters; however, SC ablation at E15.5 reduced AChR cluster size but had no effect on cluster density, suggesting that SCs are involved in AChR cluster maturation. Miniature endplate potential amplitude, but not frequency, was reduced when SCs were ablated at E15.5, suggesting that postsynaptic alterations may occur ahead of presynaptic deficits. Finally, ablation of SCs at P30, after NMJ maturation, led to NMJ fragmentation and neuromuscular transmission deficits. Miniature endplate potential amplitude was reduced 3 d after SC ablation, but both amplitude and frequency were reduced 6 d after. Together, these results indicate that SCs are not only required for NMJ formation, but also necessary for its maintenance; and postsynaptic function and structure appeared to be more sensitive to SC ablation. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are critical for survival and daily functioning. Defects in NMJ formation during development or maintenance in adulthood result in debilitating neuromuscular disorders. The role of Schwann cells (SCs) in NMJ formation and maintenance was not well understood. We genetically ablated SCs during development and after NMJ formation to investigate the consequences

  7. Schwann Cells in Neuromuscular Junction Formation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Arnab; Li, Lei; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a tripartite synapse that is formed by motor nerve terminals, postjunctional muscle membranes, and terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover the nerve-muscle contact. NMJ formation requires intimate communications among the three different components. Unlike nerve-muscle interaction, which has been well characterized, less is known about the role of SCs in NMJ formation and maintenance. We show that SCs in mice lead nerve terminals to prepatterned AChRs. Ablating SCs at E8.5 (i.e., prior nerve arrival at the clusters) had little effect on aneural AChR clusters at E13.5, suggesting that SCs may not be necessary for aneural clusters. SC ablation at E12.5, a time when phrenic nerves approach muscle fibers, resulted in smaller and fewer nerve-induced AChR clusters; however, SC ablation at E15.5 reduced AChR cluster size but had no effect on cluster density, suggesting that SCs are involved in AChR cluster maturation. Miniature endplate potential amplitude, but not frequency, was reduced when SCs were ablated at E15.5, suggesting that postsynaptic alterations may occur ahead of presynaptic deficits. Finally, ablation of SCs at P30, after NMJ maturation, led to NMJ fragmentation and neuromuscular transmission deficits. Miniature endplate potential amplitude was reduced 3 d after SC ablation, but both amplitude and frequency were reduced 6 d after. Together, these results indicate that SCs are not only required for NMJ formation, but also necessary for its maintenance; and postsynaptic function and structure appeared to be more sensitive to SC ablation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are critical for survival and daily functioning. Defects in NMJ formation during development or maintenance in adulthood result in debilitating neuromuscular disorders. The role of Schwann cells (SCs) in NMJ formation and maintenance was not well understood. We genetically ablated SCs during development and after NMJ formation to

  8. The Ethics of Terminal Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agich, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Need for a critical and analytical approach to ethics of terminal care is suggested by considering a series of unexamined questions regarding justification of terminal care. If terminal care is a moral and ethical enterprise, such considerations must be given a more prominent place in discussions of the hospice movement. (Author)

  9. Electronic transport properties of molecular junctions based on the direct binding of aromatic ring to electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tran Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    We have used the non-equilibrium Green's function in combination with the density functional theory to investigate the quantum transport properties of the molecular junctions including a terminated benzene ring directly coupled to surface of metal electrodes (physisorption). The other side of molecule was connected to electrode via thiolate bond (chemisorption). Two different electrodes have been studied, namely Cu and Al. Rectification and negative differential resistance behavior have been observed. We found that the electron transport mechanism is affected by the nature of benzene-electrode coupling. In other words, the transport mechanism depends on the nature of metallic electrode. Changing from sp- to sd-metallic electrode, the molecular junction changes from the Schottky to p-n junction-like diode. The transmission spectra, projected density of state, molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian, transmission eigenchannel, and Muliken population have been analyzed for explanation of electronic transport properties. Understanding the transport mechanism in junction having direct coupling of π-conjugate to electrode will be useful to design the future molecular devices.

  10. Side-stream smoking reduces intestinal inflammation and increases expression of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of side-stream smoking on gut microflora composition, intestinal inflammation and expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoking for one hour daily over eight weeks. Cecal contents were collected for microbial composition analysis. Large intestine was collected for immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses of the inflammatory pathway and tight junction proteins. RESULTS: Side-stream smoking induced significant changes in the gut microbiota with increased mouse intestinal bacteria, Clostridium but decreased Fermicutes (Lactoccoci and Ruminococcus), Enterobacteriaceae family and Segmented filamentous baceteria compared to the control mice. Meanwhile, side-stream smoking inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway with reduced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα, accompanied with unchanged mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. The contents of tight junction proteins, claudin3 and ZO2 were up-regulated in the large intestine of mice exposed side-stream smoking. In addition, side-stream smoking increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK kinase signaling, while inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase in the large intestine. CONCLUSION: Side-stream smoking altered gut microflora composition and reduced the inflammatory response, which was associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:22611310

  11. Molecular dissection of transjunctional voltage dependence in the connexin-32 and connexin-43 junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, A; Castro, C; Barrio, L C

    1999-01-01

    Most gap junction channels are sensitive to the voltage difference between the two cellular interiors, termed the transjunctional voltage (V(j)). In several junctions, the conductance transitions induced by V(j) show more than one kinetic component. To elucidate the structural basis of the fast and slow components that characterize the V(j )dependence of connexin-32 (Cx32) and connexin-43 (Cx43) junctions, we created deletions of both connexins, where most of the carboxy-terminal (CT) domain was removed. The wild-type and "tailless" mutants were expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes, and the macroscopic gating properties were analyzed using the dual voltage clamp technique. Truncation of the CT domain of Cx32 and Cx43 abolished the fast mechanism of conductance transitions and induced novel gating properties largely attributable to the slow mechanism of gating. The formation of hybrid junctions comprising wild-type and truncated hemichannels allowed us to infer that the fast and slow components of gating reside in each hemichannel and that both gates close at a negative V(j) on the cytoplasmic side. Thus we conclude that the two kinetic components of V(j)-sensitive conductance are a result of the action of two different gating mechanisms. They constitute separate structures in the Cx32 and Cx43 molecules, the CT domain being an integral part of fast V(j) gating. PMID:10465749

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    PubMed Central

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; Liu, Patricia; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that Indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and SIRs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  13. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN.

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. Three-terminal stand-alone superconducting terahertz emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianjing; Zhu, Qiang; Ji, Min; An, Deyue; Hao, Luyao; Sun, Hancong; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Rudau, Fabian; Wieland, Raphael; Li, Jun; Koelle, Dieter; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Hatano, Takeshi; Kleiner, Reinhold; Wang, Huabing; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-09-01

    We report on the electrothermal behavior and the terahertz emission properties of a stand-alone Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 intrinsic Josephson junction stack contacted in a three-terminal configuration. One terminal is used as a collective ground while the other two, contacting the stack from its right and left side, allow to vary the current injection profile. At high bias, a hot spot forms in the stack. Its appearance and position can be controlled by varying the ratios of the injected currents. Depending on this ratio, the emitted power can vary by an order of magnitude. Further, for a given total injection current, the device allows to vary the emission frequency on a 10% level by altering the injection profile. The overall tunability of the emission frequency, varying also the total bias current, is on the order of 20%.

  16. Structure and flexibility of the tropomyosin overlap junction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Orzechowski, Marek; Lehman, William; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    To be effective as a gatekeeper regulating the access of binding proteins to the actin filament, adjacent tropomyosin molecules associate head-to-tail to form a continuous super-helical cable running along the filament surface. Chimeric head-to-tail structures have been solved by NMR and X-ray crystallography for N- and C-terminal segments of smooth and striated muscle tropomyosin spliced onto non-native coiled-coil forming peptides. The resulting 4-helix complexes have a tight coiled-coil N-terminus inserted into a separated pair of C-terminal helices, with some helical unfolding of the terminal chains in the striated muscle peptides. These overlap complexes are distinctly curved, much more so than elsewhere along the superhelical tropomyosin cable. To verify whether the non-native protein adducts (needed to stabilize the coiled-coil chimeras) perturb the overlap, we carried out Molecular Dynamics simulations of head-to-tail structures having only native tropomyosin sequences We observe that the splayed chains all refold and become helical. Significantly, the curvature of both the smooth and the striated muscle overlap domain is reduced and becomes comparable to that of the rest of the tropomyosin cable. Moreover, the measured flexibility across the junction is small. This and the reduced curvature ensure that the super-helical cable matches the contours of F-actin without manifesting localized kinking and excessive flexibility, thus enabling the high degree of cooperativity in the regulation of myosin accessibility to actin filaments. PMID:24607906

  17. Termination of employment.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P J; Birt, K M

    1995-01-01

    The following questions and recommendations, taken from Jeffrey Hirsch & William Farrell's Labor and Employment in Rhode Island, provide a synopsis of the basic issues which employers should consider before making a decision to fire an employee: 1. Review all documentation and other company records considered when making the decision. Make sure all stated policies were followed by management. 2. Interview all managers who provided input on the decisions. 3. Be satisfied that the decision was made for the correct reason. 4. Was the employee aware that termination was likely? Can you document that awareness? 5. Was the individual given an opportunity to improve his or her performance? 6. Has the company discharged others for similar reasons in the past? 7. Has the company acted promptly and avoided relying on "stale" offense? 8. Is the employee protected by anti-discrimination statutes? (i.e. race, age, sex, national origin, handicapped or religion)? 9. Meet with the employee personally; do not discharge by phone or letter unless absolutely necessary. 10. Have a "passive" management witness at the meeting. 11. Conduct the meeting in a private area where other employees will not be able to see or hear the discussion. 12. Both the executive and management witness should prepare file memoranda concerning what is said at the discharge meeting. 13. Always tell the employee the reason for her or his discharge. 14. Discuss health insurance continuation (COBRA). 15. Discuss life and disability insurance, and pension/profit sharing status. 16. Discuss other issues, such as references and out placement policies. By taking the time to follow these suggestions and answer these questions, an employer can feel more secure that the termination has been conducted properly, and minimize the chances of becoming implicated in legal action related to the termination.

  18. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  19. Terminal weather information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  20. Correlation between quantal secretion and vesicle loss at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbut, W P; Iezzi, N; Fesce, R; Ceccarelli, B

    1990-01-01

    1. We measured the rate of occurrence of miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) at identified endplates in frog cutaneous pectoris muscles treated with crude black widow spider venom (BWSV) or purified alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX) in calcium-free solutions, and we examined the relationship between the length of the nerve terminal and the total number of quanta secreted, and the relationship between the number of quanta secreted and the number of vesicles remaining at different times. 2. The venom, or toxin, was applied in a modified Ringer solution with tetrodotoxin, 1 mM-EGTA and no divalent cations, and quantal secretion was started by applying Ca2(+)-free solutions with Mg2+. This was done to synchronize the quantal discharge at the various junctions in a muscle. Ringer solution was applied after the MEPP rate had declined to low levels, and then the muscle fibre was injected with Lucifer Yellow, the endplate stained for acetylcholinesterase and the length of the nerve terminal and the length of a sarcomere were measured on the fluorescent fibre. 3. The total number of quanta secreted by a terminal was measured under a wide variety of experimental conditions: the weights of the frogs ranged from 13 to 68 g, the temperature from 9 to 28 degrees C, and the concentration of Mg2+ from 2 to 10 mM. In one series of experiments the Mg2+ was withdrawn after 3-4 min and reapplied 35-40 min later in order to divide the total output of quanta into two approximately equal bouts of secretion that were well separated in time. 4. The total number of MEPPs recorded at a junction was loosely correlated with the length of its nerve terminal, but it was not affected by the temperature, the concentration of Mg2+ or the division of secretion into well-separated bouts of quantal release. The average total secretion per unit length was about 3700 quanta/sarcomere or about 1200 quanta/microns. 5. The average time course of quantal secretion per micrometre of terminal was determined at

  1. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  2. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  3. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.

    PubMed

    Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  4. Termination: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  5. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  6. Terminator View of Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Date acquired: May 05, 2014 Today's color image features both Mercury's terminator and limb. The terminator is the striking separation of night and day on Mercury. It is seen in this image with the change from dark, on the left of the image, to light. Mercury's limb is also captured, as we can see the edge between sunlit Mercury and space. The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft's seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System's innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015. Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. A General Method for Insertion of Functional Proteins within Proteins via Combinatorial Selection of Permissive Junctions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingjie; Zeng, Wenwen; Ye, Hui; Han, Kyung Ho; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Novick, Scott; Wilson, Ian A; Griffin, Patrick R; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Lerner, Richard A

    2015-08-20

    A major goal of modern protein chemistry is to create new proteins with different functions. One approach is to amalgamate secondary and tertiary structures from different proteins. This is difficult for several reasons, not the least of which is the fact that the junctions between secondary and tertiary structures are not degenerate and usually affect the function and folding of the entire complex. Here, we offer a solution to this problem by coupling a large combinatorial library of about 10(7) different N- and C-terminal junctions to a powerful system that selects for function. Using this approach, the entire Leptin and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were inserted into an antibody. Complexes with full retention of function in vivo and in vitro, although rare, were found easily by using an autocrine selection system to search for hormonal activity. Such large diversity systems, when coupled to robust selection systems, should enable construction of novel therapeutic proteins.

  8. Specificity of Interaction between Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Claudin-Family Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Koval, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a major cause of food poisoning, forms physical pores in the plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The ability of CPE to recognize the epithelium is due to the C-terminal binding domain, which binds to a specific motif on the second extracellular loop of tight junction proteins known as claudins. The interaction between claudins and CPE plays a key role in mediating CPE toxicity by facilitating pore formation and by promoting tight junction disassembly. Recently, the ability of CPE to distinguish between specific claudins has been used to develop tools for studying roles for claudins in epithelial barrier function. Moreover, the high affinity of CPE to selected claudins makes CPE a useful platform for targeted drug delivery to tumors expressing these claudins. PMID:22069652

  9. Characterization of deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Sochacki, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    Conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique was used to study deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, doped with nitrogen and grown on standard n+-4H-SiC substrates were exposed to low-dose aluminum ion implantation process under the Schottky contact in order to form both JBS grid and junction termination extension (JTE), and assure good rectifying properties of the diodes. Several deep electron traps were revealed and attributed to impurities or intrinsic defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, on the basis of comparison of their electrical parameters (i.e. activation energies, apparent capture cross sections and concentrations) with previously published results.

  10. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans.

  11. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  12. Tunnel junctions, cantilevers, and potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Shawn

    We have developed a process for making sub-micrometer dimensional cantilevers, clamped beams, and more complicate electro-mechanical structures that carry integrated electrical leads. Such objects are perhaps useful as test structures for connecting to and measuring the electrical properties of molecular sized objects, as high frequency electromechanical components for radio and microwave frequency applications, and as sensor components for studying the fluctuation physics of small machines. Our process uses two realigned electron-beam lithography steps, a thin film angled deposition system, and differential removal of sacrificial aluminum layers to produce freely suspended sub-micron electromechanical components. We have produced cantilevers and beams on a variety of substrates (silica, silicon, and poly-imide) and have produced insulating, conductive, and multi-layer mechanical structures. We have measured mechanical resonances in the 10 MHz range by electrostatically actuating the cantilevers while in a magnetic field (3500 gauss) and measuring the voltage that results across the front edge of the cantilever. Two structures are fabricated sharing a common ground so that a balanced detection technique can be used to eliminate background signals. Due to the square dependence of the electrostatic force on the voltage, they can be resonated by a drive voltage of 1/2 the natural frequency or at the natural frequency. Two separate attempts have been made to apply these resonators. First, a process was developed to integrate a tunnel junction with the cantilever. These devices can possibly be used for probing small-scale systems such as molecules. We have verified the exponential variation of the tunneling resistance with both substrate flex and electrostatic gating. Second, a novel gate structure was developed to create a double potential well for resonator motion. This is accomplished by placing a multilayer structure in front of the hairpin cantilever consisting two

  13. YBCO step-edge junctions with high IcRn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. E.; Foley, C. P.

    2010-06-01

    Step-edge junctions represent one type of grain boundary Josephson junction employed in high-temperature superconducting junction technology. To date, the majority of results published in the literature focus on [001]-tilt grain boundary junctions (GBJs) produced using bicrystal substrates. We investigate the step morphology and YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) film structure of YBCO-based step-edge junctions on MgO [001] substrates which structurally resemble [100]-tilt junctions. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals a clean GBJ interface of width ~ 1 nm and a single junction at the top edge. The dependence of the transport properties on the MgO step-edge and junction morphology is examined at 4.2 K, to enable direct comparison with results for other junction studies such as [001]-tilt and [100]-tilt junctions and building on previously published 77 K data. MgO step-edge junctions show a slower reduction in critical current density with step angle compared with [001]-tilt junctions. For optimized step parameters, transport measurements revealed large critical current and normal resistance (IcRN) products (~3-5 mV), comparable with the best results obtained in other kinds of [100]-tilt GBJs in YBCO at 4.2 K. Junction-based devices such as SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) and THz imagers show excellent performance when MgO-based step-edge junctions are used.

  14. The discovery of epidermal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Sugawara, Koji; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    It was previously thought that the skin barrier is composed singly by the stratum corneum. However, this concept was overturned by the report of Tsukita's group in 2002. They convinced us that tight junctions exist in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis, with the constituent proteins being occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-4. However, more than 30 years before this, Hashimoto et al. described the possible existence of tight junctions in the epidermis in 'Intercellular spaces of the human epidermis as demonstrated with lanthanum' in 1971. Dr. Hashimoto observed lanthanum nitrate-injected human skin by electron microscopy. He discovered that the injected lanthanum penetrated the intercellular spaces of the basal and spinous layers of the epidermis and then moved towards the skin surface until penetration was halted in the granular cell layer near the stratum corneum. He described the cell-to-cell adhesion structures that blocked the movement of lanthanum as 'truly tight junctions'. Thus, this was the first description of the existence of tight junctions in the epidermis. However, the presence of these structures was denied by others and was forgotten. Thanks to the discovery of claudin, the existence of tight junctions between epidermal keratinocytes was finally confirmed. It is interesting that Hashimoto's finding was eventually proved to be correct three decades later as a result of progress in molecular biology. This article encourages us to recognize the importance of careful observation in the molecular biology era. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dislocation Multi-junctions and Strain Hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Hsiung, L; Tang, M; Arsenlis, A; Bartelt, M; Cai, W; Florando, J; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Hommes, G; Pierce, T; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2006-06-20

    At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects--dislocations. First theorized in 1934 to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed only two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in strain hardening: a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates strain hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions tying dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed hereafter multi-junctions. The existence of multi-junctions is first predicted by Dislocation Dynamics (DD) and atomistic simulations and then confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments in single crystal molybdenum. In large-scale Dislocation Dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of strain hardening in BCC crystals.

  16. Dislocation multi-junctions and strain hardening.

    PubMed

    Bulatov, Vasily V; Hsiung, Luke L; Tang, Meijie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; Bartelt, Maria C; Cai, Wei; Florando, Jeff N; Hiratani, Masato; Rhee, Moon; Hommes, Gregg; Pierce, Tim G; de la Rubia, Tomas Diaz

    2006-04-27

    At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects called dislocations. First proposed theoretically in 1934 (refs 1-3) to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in strain hardening, a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates strain hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions that tie the dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed 'multi-junctions'. We first predict the existence of multi-junctions using dislocation dynamics and atomistic simulations and then confirm their existence by transmission electron microscopy experiments in single-crystal molybdenum. In large-scale dislocation dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication, thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of strain hardening in body-centred cubic crystals.

  17. Semiconductor Lasers Containing Quantum Wells in Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Qiu, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    In a recent improvement upon In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP semiconductor lasers of the bipolar cascade type, quantum wells are added to Esaki tunnel junctions, which are standard parts of such lasers. The energy depths and the geometric locations and thicknesses of the wells are tailored to exploit quantum tunneling such that, as described below, electrical resistances of junctions and concentrations of dopants can be reduced while laser performances can be improved. In(x)Ga(1-x)As/InP bipolar cascade lasers have been investigated as sources of near-infrared radiation (specifically, at wavelengths of about 980 and 1,550 nm) for photonic communication systems. The Esaki tunnel junctions in these lasers have been used to connect adjacent cascade stages and to enable transport of charge carriers between them. Typically, large concentrations of both n (electron-donor) and p (electron-acceptor) dopants have been necessary to impart low electrical resistances to Esaki tunnel junctions. Unfortunately, high doping contributes free-carrier absorption, thereby contributing to optical loss and thereby, further, degrading laser performance. In accordance with the present innovation, quantum wells are incorporated into the Esaki tunnel junctions so that the effective heights of barriers to quantum tunneling are reduced (see figure).

  18. Connexin43 PDZ2 Binding Domain Mutants Create Functional Gap Junctions and Exhibit Altered Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chengshi; Martyn, Kendra D.; Kurata, Wendy E.; Warn-Cramer, Bonnie J.; Lau, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundantly expressed gap junction protein. The C-terminal tail of Cx43 is important for regulation of gap junctions via phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and serine residues and through interactions with cellular proteins. The C-terminus of Cx43 has been shown to interact with the PDZ2 domain of the tight and adherens junction associated zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) protein. Analysis of the PDZ2 binding domain of Cx43 indicated that positions −3 and −2, and the final hydrophobic amino acid at the C-terminus, are critical for ZO-1 binding. In addition, the C-termini of connexins 40 and 45, but not Cx32, interacted with ZO-1. To evaluate the functional significance of the Cx43-ZO-1 interaction, Cx43 wild type (Cx43wt) and mutants lacking either the C-terminal hydrophobic isoleucine (Cx43ΔI382) or the last five amino acids (Cx43Δ378–382), required for ZO-1 binding in vitro, were introduced into a Cx43-deficient MDCK cell line. In vitro binding studies and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that these Cx43 mutants failed to interact with ZO-1. Confocal and deconvolution microscopy revealed that a fraction of Cx43wt colocalized with ZO-1 at the plasma membrane. A similar colocalization pattern was observed for the Cx43ΔI382 and Cx43Δ378–382 mutants, which were translocated to the plasma membrane and formed functional gap junction channels. The wt and mutant Cx43 appeared to have similar turnover rates. However, the P2 and P3 phosphoisoforms of the Cx43 mutants were significantly reduced compared to Cx43wt. These studies indicated that the interaction of Cx43 with ZO-1 may contribute to the regulation of Cx43 phosphorylation. PMID:16247852

  19. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing systems integration and testing in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented, followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and the mobile terminal's design and performance.

  20. Channel and terminal description of the ACTS mobile terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbe, B. S.; Agan, M. J.; Girardey, C. C.; Jedrey, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT) is a proof-of-concept K/Ka-band mobile satellite communications terminal under development by NASA at JPL. Currently the AMT is undergoing system integration and test in preparation for a July 1993 ACTS launch and the subsequent commencement of mobile experiments in the fall of 1993. The AMT objectives are presented followed by a discussion of the AMT communications channel and mobile terminal design and performance.

  1. PLEKHA7 modulates epithelial tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Paschoud, Serge; Jond, Lionel; Guerrera, Diego; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently identified protein of the epithelial zonula adhaerens (ZA), and is part of a protein complex that stabilizes the ZA, by linking it to microtubules. Since the ZA is important in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJ), we asked whether PLEKHA7 is involved in modulating epithelial TJ barrier function. We generated clonal MDCK cell lines in which one of four different constructs of PLEKHA7 was inducibly expressed. All constructs were localized at junctions, but constructs lacking the C-terminal region were also distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Inducible expression of PLEKHA7 constructs did not affect the expression and localization of TJ proteins, the steady-state value of transepithelial resistance (TER), the development of TER during the calcium switch, and the flux of large molecules across confluent monolayers. In contrast, expression of three out of four constructs resulted both in enhanced recruitment of E-cadherin and associated proteins at the apical ZA and at lateral puncta adherentia (PA), a decreased TER at 18 h after assembly at normal calcium, and an attenuation in the fall in TER after extracellular calcium removal. This latter effect was inhibited when cells were treated with nocodazole. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLEKHA7 forms a complex with the cytoplasmic TJ proteins ZO-1 and cingulin, and this association does not depend on the integrity of microtubules. These results suggest that PLEKHA7 modulates the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of the TJ barrier, through E-cadherin protein complex- and microtubule-dependent mechanisms. PMID:24843844

  2. Gap junction proteins in the light-damaged albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cindy X.; Tran, Henry; Green, Colin R.; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Changes in connexin expression are associated with many pathological conditions seen in animal models and in humans. We hypothesized that gap junctions are important mediators in tissue dysfunction and injury processes in the retina, and therefore, we investigated the pattern of connexin protein expression in the light-damaged albino rat eye. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense light for 24 h. The animals were euthanized, and ocular tissue was harvested at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days after light damage. The tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blotting to analyze the expression of the gap junction proteins in the light-damaged condition compared to the non-light-damaged condition. Cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Results Intense light exposure caused increased TUNEL labeling of photoreceptor cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that connexin 36 (Cx36) was significantly increased in the inner plexiform layer and Cx45 was significantly decreased in the light-damaged retina. The pattern of Cx36 and Cx45 labeling returned to normal 7 days after light damage. Cx43 significantly increased in the RPE and the choroid in the light-damaged tissue, and decreased but not significantly in the retina. This elevated Cx43 expression in the choroid colocalized with markers of nitration-related oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine) and inflammation (CD45 and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1) in the choroid. Conclusions The results suggest that connexins are regulated differently in the retina than in the choroid in response to photoreceptor damage. Changes in connexins, including Cx36, Cx43, and Cx45, may contribute to the damage process. Specifically, Cx43 was associated with inflammatory damage. Therefore, connexins may be candidate targets for treatment for ameliorating disease progression. PMID:24883012

  3. Methods for the fabrication of thermally stable magnetic tunnel junctions

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua J.; Ladwig, Peter F.

    2009-08-25

    Magnetic tunnel junctions and method for making the magnetic tunnel junctions are provided. The magnetic tunnel junctions are characterized by a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers. The methods used to fabricate the magnetic tunnel junctions are capable of completely and selectively oxidizing a tunnel junction precursor material using an oxidizing gas containing a mixture of gases to provide a tunnel junction oxide without oxidizing the adjacent ferromagnetic materials. In some embodiments the gas mixture is a mixture of CO and CO.sub.2 or a mixture of H.sub.2 and H.sub.2O.

  4. Molecular organization of tricellular tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mikio; Izumi, Yasushi; Oda, Yukako; Higashi, Tomohito; Iwamoto, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    When the apicolateral border of epithelial cells is compared with a polygon, its sides correspond to the apical junctional complex, where cell adhesion molecules assemble from the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. On the other hand, its vertices correspond to tricellular contacts, where the corners of three cells meet. Vertebrate tricellular contacts have specialized structures of tight junctions, termed tricellular tight junctions (tTJs). tTJs were identified by electron microscopic observations more than 40 years ago, but have been largely forgotten in epithelial cell biology since then. The identification of tricellulin and angulin family proteins as tTJ-associated membrane proteins has enabled us to study tTJs in terms of not only the paracellular barrier function but also unknown characteristics of epithelial cell corners via molecular biological approaches.

  5. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.210604 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two hybrid junctions in series, and show how the cooling is influenced by charging effects. We analyze also the cooling effect from nonequilibrium fluctuations instead of thermal noise, focusing on the shot noise generated in another tunnel junction. We conclude by discussing limitations for an experimental observation of the effect.

  6. Electrostatic Modeling of Vacuum Insulator Triple Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Javedani, J B

    2006-10-25

    Triple junctions are often initiation points for insulator flashover in pulsed power devices. The two-dimensional finite-element TriComp [1] modeling software suite was utilized for its electrostatic field modeling package to investigate electric field behavior in the anode and cathode triple junctions of a high voltage vacuum-insulator interface. TriComp enables simple extraction of values from a macroscopic solution for use as boundary conditions in a subset solution. Electric fields computed with this zoom capability correlate with theoretical analysis of the anode and cathode triple junctions within submicron distances for nominal electrode spacing of 1.0 cm. This paper will discuss the iterative zoom process with TriComp finite-element software and the corresponding theoretical verification of the results.

  7. Photocurrent Measurements of Carbon Nanotube PN Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Nathaniel; Zhong, Zhaohui; Bosnick, Ken; Park, Jiwoong; McEuen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Gated p-n junctions in semiconducting nanotubes have recently drawn much attention for their electronic and optoelectronic characteristics [1,2,3]. We investigate the photocurrent response at a nanotube gated p-n junction using a focused laser illumination source. We find that the photocurrent at zero source-drain bias increases linearly with optical power for the component of light along the length of the nanotube. Scanned photocurrent imaging demonstrates that carrier generation occurs primarily between the p- and n- type segments of the device. Measurements in an optical cryostat down to 4K reveal large photoresponse and step-like structure in the reverse bias photocurrent. These results show that nanotube p-n junctions are highly sensitive, nanoscale photodetectors. [1] J.U. Lee et al, App. Phys. Lett. 85, 145 (2004). [2] J.U. Lee, App. Phys. Lett. 87, 073101 (2005). [3] K. Bosnick et al, App. Phys. Lett. 89, 163121 (2006).

  8. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance with long Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskiy, I. A.; Abramov, N. N.; Stolyarov, V. S.; Emelyanova, O. V.; Golubov, A. A.; Ustinov, A. V.; Ryazanov, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we propose a hybrid device based on a long Josephson junction (JJ) coupled inductively to an external ferromagnetic (FM) layer. The long JJ in a zero-field operation mode induces a localized AC magnetic field in the FM layer and enables a synchronized magnetostatic standing wave. The magnetostatic wave induces additional dissipation for soliton propagation in the junction and also enables a phase locking (resonant soliton synchronization) at a frequency of natural ferromagnetic resonance. The later manifests itself as an additional constant voltage step on the current-voltage characteristics at the corresponding voltage. The proposed device allows to study magnetization dynamics of individual micro-scaled FM samples using just DC technique, and also it provides additional phase locking frequency in the junction, determined exclusively by characteristics of the ferromagnet.

  10. Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).

  11. Numerical Investigation of Josephson Junction Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, I.; Dimova, S.; Boyadjiev, T.

    2009-10-29

    Multilayered long Josephson Junction Structures form an interesting physical system where both nonlinearity and interaction between subsystems play an important role. Such systems allow to study physical effects that do not occur in single Josephson junction.The Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model--a system of perturbed sine-Gordon equations--is used to study the dynamic states of stacks of inductively coupled long Josephson Junctions (LJJs). The corresponding static problem is numerically investigated as well. In order to study the stability of possible static solutions a Sturm-Liouville problem is generated and solved.The transitions from static to dynamic state and the scenario of these transitions are analyzed depending on the model parameters. Different physical characteristics--current-voltage characteristics, individual instant voltages and internal magnetic fields, are calculated and interpreted.

  12. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  13. Holographic Josephson junction from massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Li, Huai-Fan; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2016-05-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity. If the boundary theory is independent of spatial directions, i.e., if the chemical potential is homogeneous in spatial directions, we find that the graviton mass parameter will make it more difficult for the normal metal-superconductor phase transition to take place. In the holographic model of the Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass parameter. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass parameter. If one interprets the graviton mass parameter as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, this indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  14. Studies of silicon PN junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon pn junction solar cells made with low-resistivity substrates show poorer performance than traditional theory predicts. The purpose of this research was to identify and characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the discrepancy. Attention was concentrated on the open circuit voltage in shallow junction cells of 0.1 ohm-cm substrate resistivity. A number of possible mechanisms that can occur in silicon devices were considered. Two mechanisms which are likely to be of main importance in explaining the observed low values of open-circuit voltage were found: (1) recombination losses associated with defects introduced during junction formation, and (2) inhomogeneity of defects and impurities across the area of the cell. To explore these theoretical anticipations, various diode test structures were designed and fabricated and measurement configurations for characterizing the defect properties and the areal inhomogeneity were constructed.

  15. The Effects of Termination on the Menominee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Ada E.

    1973-01-01

    Topics discussed in this article are: (1) a brief pre-termination history of the Menominee Indians; (2) the enactment of termination; (3) the effects of termination on the Menominee; and (4) the need to repudiate termination. (NQ)

  16. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity.

  17. Non-invasive microfluidic gap junction assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sisi; Lee, Luke P

    2010-03-01

    Gap junctions are protein channels between cells that allow direct electrical and metabolic coupling via the exchange of biomolecules and ions. Their expression, though ubiquitous in most mammalian cell types, is especially important for the proper functioning of cardiac and neuronal systems. Many existing methods for studying gap junction communication suffer from either unquantifiable data or difficulty of use. Here, we measure the extent of dye spread and effective diffusivities through gap junction connected cells using a quantitative microfluidic cell biology platform. After loading dye by hydrodynamic focusing of calcein/AM, dye transfer dynamics into neighboring, unexposed cells can be monitored via timelapse fluorescent microscopy. By using a selective microfluidic dye loading over a confluent layer of cells, we found that high expression of gap junctions in C6 cells transmits calcein across the monolayer with an effective diffusivity of 3.4 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, which are highly coupled by Cx43. We also found that the gap junction blocker 18alpha-GA works poorly in the presence of serum even at high concentrations (50 microM); however, it is highly effective down to 2.5 microM in the absence of serum. Furthermore, when the drug is washed out, dye spread resumes rapidly within 1 min for all doses, indicating the drug does not affect transcriptional regulation of connexins in these Cx43+ cells, in contrast to previous studies. This integrated microfluidic platform enables the in situ monitoring of gap junction communication, yielding dynamic information about intercellular molecular transfer and pharmacological inhibition and recovery.

  18. Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Han, Jie; Yang, Liu; Govindan, T. R.; Jaffe, R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Metallic and semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) have recently been characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the manipulation of individual CNT has been demonstrated. These developments make the prospect of using CNT as molecular wires and possibly as electronic devices an even more interesting one. We have been modeling various electronic properties such as the density of states and the transmission coefficient of CNT wires and junctions. These studies involve first calculating the stability of junctions using molecular dynamics simulations and then calculating the electronic properties using a pi-electron tight binding Hamiltonian. We have developed the expertise to calculate the electronic properties of both finite-sized CNT and CNT systems with semi-infinite boundary conditions. In this poster, we will present an overview of some of our results. The electronic application of CNT that is most promising at this time is their use as molecular wires. The conductance can however be greatly reduced because of reflection due to defects and contacts. We have modeled the transmission through CNT in the presence of two types of defects: weak uniform disorder and strong isolated scatterers. We find that the conductance is affected in significantly different manners due to these defects Junctions of CNT have also been imaged using STM. This makes it essential to derive rules for the formation of junctions between tubes of different chirality, study their relative energies and electronic properties. We have generalized the rules for connecting two different CNT and have calculated the transmission and density of states through CNT junctions. Metallic and semiconducting CNT can be joined to form a stable junction and their current versus voltage characteristics are asymmetric. CNT are deformed by the application of external forces including interactions with a substrate or other CNT. In many experiments, these deformation are expected to

  19. Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Han, Jie; Yang, Liu; Govindan, T. R.; Jaffe, R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Metallic and semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) have recently been characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the manipulation of individual CNT has been demonstrated. These developments make the prospect of using CNT as molecular wires and possibly as electronic devices an even more interesting one. We have been modeling various electronic properties such as the density of states and the transmission coefficient of CNT wires and junctions. These studies involve first calculating the stability of junctions using molecular dynamics simulations and then calculating the electronic properties using a pi-electron tight binding Hamiltonian. We have developed the expertise to calculate the electronic properties of both finite-sized CNT and CNT systems with semi-infinite boundary conditions. In this poster, we will present an overview of some of our results. The electronic application of CNT that is most promising at this time is their use as molecular wires. The conductance can however be greatly reduced because of reflection due to defects and contacts. We have modeled the transmission through CNT in the presence of two types of defects: weak uniform disorder and strong isolated scatterers. We find that the conductance is affected in significantly different manners due to these defects Junctions of CNT have also been imaged using STM. This makes it essential to derive rules for the formation of junctions between tubes of different chirality, study their relative energies and electronic properties. We have generalized the rules for connecting two different CNT and have calculated the transmission and density of states through CNT junctions. Metallic and semiconducting CNT can be joined to form a stable junction and their current versus voltage characteristics are asymmetric. CNT are deformed by the application of external forces including interactions with a substrate or other CNT. In many experiments, these deformation are expected to

  20. Probing the nature and resistance of the molecule-electrode contact in SAM-based junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wan, Albert; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-07-01

    It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible.It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, Nyquist

  1. Structure and function of gap junction proteins: role of gap junction proteins in embryonic heart development.

    PubMed

    Ahir, Bhavesh K; Pratten, Margaret K

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular (cell-to-cell) communication is a crucial and complex mechanism during embryonic heart development. In the cardiovascular system, the beating of the heart is a dynamic and key regulatory process, which is functionally regulated by the coordinated spread of electrical activity through heart muscle cells. Heart tissues are composed of individual cells, each bearing specialized cell surface membrane structures called gap junctions that permit the intercellular exchange of ions and low molecular weight molecules. Gap junction channels are essential in normal heart function and they assist in the mediated spread of electrical impulses that stimulate synchronized contraction (via an electrical syncytium) of cardiac tissues. This present review describes the current knowledge of gap junction biology. In the first part, we summarise some relevant biochemical and physiological properties of gap junction proteins, including their structure and function. In the second part, we review the current evidence demonstrating the role of gap junction proteins in embryonic development with particular reference to those involved in embryonic heart development. Genetics and transgenic animal studies of gap junction protein function in embryonic heart development are considered and the alteration/disruption of gap junction intercellular communication which may lead to abnormal heart development is also discussed.

  2. Adenosine and dopamine receptors co-regulate photoreceptor coupling via gap junction phosphorylation in mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhijing; Blackburn, Michael R.; Wang, Steven W.; Ribelayga, Christophe P.; O’Brien, John

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions in retinal photoreceptors suppress voltage noise and facilitate input of rod signals into the cone pathway during mesopic vision. These synapses are highly plastic and regulated by light and circadian clocks. Recent studies have revealed an important role for connexin36 (Cx36) phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) in regulating cell-cell coupling. Dopamine is a light-adaptive signal in the retina, causing uncoupling of photoreceptors via D4 receptors (D4R), which inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) and reduces PKA activity. We hypothesized that adenosine, with its extracellular levels increasing in darkness, may serve as a dark signal to co-regulate photoreceptor coupling through modulation of gap junction phosphorylation. Both D4R and A2a receptor (A2aR) mRNAs were present in photoreceptors, inner nuclear layer neurons, and ganglion cells in C57BL/6 mouse retina, and showed cyclic expression with partially overlapping rhythms. Pharmacologically activating A2aR or inhibiting D4R in light-adapted daytime retina increased photoreceptor coupling. Cx36 among photoreceptor terminals, representing predominantly rod-cone gap junctions but possibly including some rod-rod and cone-cone gap junctions, was phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner by the same treatments. Conversely, inhibiting A2aR or activating D4R in daytime dark-adapted retina decreased Cx36 phosphorylation with similar PKA dependence. A2a-deficient mouse retina showed defective regulation of photoreceptor gap junction phosphorylation, fairly regular dopamine release, and moderately down-regulated expression of D4R and AC type I mRNA. We conclude that adenosine and dopamine co-regulate photoreceptor coupling through opposite action on the PKA pathway and Cx36 phosphorylation. In addition, loss of the A2aR hampered D4R gene expression and function. PMID:23407968

  3. A synaptic nidogen: Developmental regulation and role of nidogen-2 at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael A; Ho, Matthew SP; Smyth, Neil; Sanes, Joshua R

    2008-01-01

    Background The skeletal neuromuscular junction is a useful model for elucidating mechanisms that regulate synaptogenesis. Developmentally important intercellular interactions at the neuromuscular junction are mediated by the synaptic portion of a basal lamina that completely ensheaths each muscle fiber. Basal laminas in general are composed of four main types of glycosylated proteins: laminins, collagens IV, heparan sulfate proteoglycans and nidogens (entactins). The portion of the muscle fiber basal lamina that passes between the motor nerve terminal and postsynaptic membrane has been shown to bear distinct isoforms of the first three of these. For laminins and collagens IV, the proteins are deposited by the muscle; a synaptic proteoglycan, z-agrin, is deposited by the nerve. In each case, the synaptic isoform plays key roles in organizing the neuromuscular junction. Here, we analyze the fourth family, composed of nidogen-1 and -2. Results In adult muscle, nidogen-1 is present throughout muscle fiber basal lamina, while nidogen-2 is concentrated at synapses. Nidogen-2 is initially present throughout muscle basal lamina, but is lost from extrasynaptic regions during the first three postnatal weeks. Neuromuscular junctions in mutant mice lacking nidogen-2 appear normal at birth, but become topologically abnormal as they mature. Synaptic laminins, collagens IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycans persist in the absence of nidogen-2, suggesting the phenotype is not secondary to a general defect in the integrity of synaptic basal lamina. Further genetic studies suggest that synaptic localization of each of the four families of synaptic basal lamina components is independent of the other three. Conclusion All four core components of the basal lamina have synaptically enriched isoforms. Together, they form a highly specialized synaptic cleft material. Individually, they play distinct roles in the formation, maturation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. PMID

  4. Targeting Holliday junctions by origin DNA-binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Moiseeva, E D; Bazhulina, N P; Gursky, Y G; Grokhovsky, S L; Surovaya, A N; Gursky, G V

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, the interactions of the origin binding protein (OBP) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) with synthetic four-way Holliday junctions (HJs) were studied using electrophoresis mobility shift assay and the FRET method and compared with the interactions of the protein with duplex and single-stranded DNAs. It has been found that OBP exhibits a strong preference for binding to four-way and three-way DNA junctions and possesses much lower affinities to duplex and single-stranded DNAs. The protein forms three types of complexes with HJs. It forms complexes I and II which are reminiscent of the tetramer and octamer complexes with four-way junction of HJ-specific protein RuvA of Escherichia coli. The binding approaches saturation level when two OBP dimers are bound per junction. In the presence of Mg(2+) ions (≥2 mM) OBP also interacts with HJ in the stacked arm form (complex III). In the presence of 5 mM ATP and 10 mM Mg(2+) ions OBP catalyzes processing of the HJ in which one of the annealed oligonucleotides has a 3'-terminal tail containing 20 unpaired thymine residues. The observed preference of OBP for binding to the four-way DNA junctions provides a basis for suggestion that OBP induces large DNA structural changes upon binding to Box I and Box II sites in OriS. These changes involve the bending and partial melting of the DNA at A+T-rich spacer and also include the formation of HJ containing Box I and Box II inverted repeats and flanking DNA sequences.

  5. Conductance Spectra in Graphene-Superconductor Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The conductance spectra of a graphene ribbon and graphene-superconductor (G-S) junctions are investigated, using the tight-binding model and non-equilibrium Green' function formalism. It is found that the quantized conductance related to graphene' edge-states is robust against perturbations in the model parameters for a graphene monolayer ribbon with the zigzag boundary. With appropriate model parameter of the spin-orbit interaction strength, a new bound state with odd-frequency symmetry is found in the G-S junction. An enhancement in the zero-energy conductance amplitude is followed.

  6. Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, P.; Giazotto, F.

    2015-02-15

    We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.

  7. Resolving Atomic Connectivity in Graphene Nanostructure Junctions.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Thomas; Kawai, Shigeki; Söde, Hajo; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Ruffieux, Pascal; Fasel, Roman; Gröning, Oliver

    2015-08-12

    We report on the structural characterization of junctions between atomically well-defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by means of low-temperature, noncontact scanning probe microscopy. We show that the combination of simultaneously acquired frequency shift and tunneling current maps with tight binding (TB) simulations allows a comprehensive characterization of the atomic connectivity in the GNR junctions. The proposed approach can be generally applied to the investigation of graphene nanomaterials and their interconnections and is thus expected to become an important tool in the development of graphene-based circuitry.

  8. Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.; Kogan, V.G.

    1997-04-01

    The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I{sub c}(H) is considered for a short Josephson junction with the critical current density j{sub c} alternating along the tunnel contact. Two model cases, periodic and randomly alternating j{sub c}, are treated in detail. Recent experimental data on I{sub c}(H) for grain-boundary Josephson junctions in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Robertson, Perry J.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  10. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  11. Four Terminal Gallium Nitride MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veety, Matthew Thomas

    All reported gallium nitride (GaN) transistors to date have been three-terminal devices with source, drain, and gate electrodes. In the case of GaN MOSFETs, this leaves the bulk of the device at a floating potential which can impact device threshold voltage. In more traditional silicon-based MOSFET fabrication a bulk contact can be made on the back side of the silicon wafer. For GaN grown on sapphire substrates, however, this is not possible and an alternate, front-side bulk contact must be investigated. GaN is a III-V, wide band gap semiconductor that as promising material parameters for use in high frequency and high power applications. Possible applications are in the 1 to 10 GHz frequency band and power inverters for next generation grid solid state transformers and inverters. GaN has seen significant academic and commercial research for use in Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (HFETs). These devices however are depletion-mode, meaning the device is considered "on" at zero gate bias. A MOSFET structure allows for enhancement mode operation, which is normally off. This mode is preferrable in high power applications as the device has lower off-state power consumption and is easier to implement in circuits. Proper surface passivation of seminconductor surface interface states is an important processing step for any device. Preliminary research on surface treatments using GaN wet etches and depletion-mode GaN devices utilizing this process are discussed. Devices pretreated with potassium pursulfate prior to gate dielectric deposition show significant device improvements. This process can be applied to any current GaN FET. Enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs were fabricated on magnesium doped p-type Wurtzite gallium nitride grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. Devices utilized ion implant source and drain which was activated under NH3 overpressure in MOCVD. Also, devices were fabricated with a SiO2 gate dielectric

  12. First-principles study of MnAl for its application in MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Tao, L. L.; Zhang, Jia; Liang, S. H.; Jiang, Leina; Han, X. F.

    2017-06-01

    MnAl, as a prospective candidate of magnetic electrode materials for MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions, possesses several advantages including the spin polarized Δ 1 band, relatively low Gilbert damping factor, and large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Here, we report a thorough first-principles investigation on MnAl/MgO/MnAl-magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). It is found that the bulk anisotropy density is 17.39 Merg/cm3, while the interfacial anisotropy contribution is evaluated to be 0.12 erg/cm2 and 0.44 erg/cm2 for Mn- and Al-terminated structures, respectively. The large anisotropy can be attributed to dyz and d z 2 orbits. Furthermore, the formation of a Mn-O bond on the interface of MnAl/MgO is shown to be detrimental for the improvement of perpendicular anisotropy. On the other hand, a giant zero-bias tunneling magnetoresistance ratio is predicted and can be maintained over 2000% even for a bias up to 0.6 V for Mn-terminated MTJs. The in-plane spin transfer torque for Mn-terminated MTJs increases linearly with a bias up to 0.6 V due to the large net spin-polarized current. This work paves the way for the further application of MnAl-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions.

  13. Chronic proximal axonopathy in rats is associated with long-standing neurofilament depletion in neuromuscular junctions and behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Soler-Martín, Carla; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Verdú, Enrique; Garcia, Neus; Llorens, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    In rodents exposed to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), neurofilaments (NFs) accumulate in swollen proximal axon segments; this also occurs in motor neurons of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We hypothesized that early loss of NFs in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in IDPN proximal neuropathy would result in neuromuscular dysfunction and lead to neuromuscular detachment. Adult male rats were given 0 or 15 mmol/L IDPN in drinking water for up to 1 year. The IDPN-exposed rats dragged their tails and had impaired endurance in a grip test. Neuromuscular junctions and distal axons were examined in the levator auris longus muscle after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Neuromuscular junctions showed a progressive reduction in NF immunolabeling, which became undetectable in up to 70% of the NMJs after 12 months. Neurofilament labeling was also reduced in preterminal axons and in a more proximal axon level within the muscle. Triple-label analysis with antisyntaxin demonstrated that the terminals remained in place and usually contained a few minute NF bundles. Electron microscopy revealed the disappearance of terminal NFs, reduced content in synaptic vesicles, and accumulation of multilamellar bodies, but scant degeneration. Thus, IDPN proximal neurofilamentous axonopathy is associated with NF depletion in motor terminals; motor weakness and structural changes in the NMJs suggest impaired synaptic function despite long-term preservation of the NMJs.

  14. Tyrosine-phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated isoforms of alpha-dystrobrevin: roles in skeletal muscle and its neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions.

    PubMed

    Grady, R Mark; Akaaboune, Mohammed; Cohen, Alexander L; Maimone, Margaret M; Lichtman, Jeff W; Sanes, Joshua R

    2003-03-03

    alpha-Dystrobrevin (DB), a cytoplasmic component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, is found throughout the sarcolemma of muscle cells. Mice lacking alphaDB exhibit muscular dystrophy, defects in maturation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and, as shown here, abnormal myotendinous junctions (MTJs). In normal muscle, alternative splicing produces two main alphaDB isoforms, alphaDB1 and alphaDB2, with common NH2-terminal but distinct COOH-terminal domains. alphaDB1, whose COOH-terminal extension can be tyrosine phosphorylated, is concentrated at the NMJs and MTJs. alphaDB2, which is not tyrosine phosphorylated, is the predominant isoform in extrajunctional regions, and is also present at NMJs and MTJs. Transgenic expression of either isoform in alphaDB-/- mice prevented muscle fiber degeneration; however, only alphaDB1 completely corrected defects at the NMJs (abnormal acetylcholine receptor patterning, rapid turnover, and low density) and MTJs (shortened junctional folds). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the effectiveness of alphaDB1 in stabilizing the NMJ depends in part on its ability to serve as a tyrosine kinase substrate. Thus, alphaDB1 phosphorylation may be a key regulatory point for synaptic remodeling. More generally, alphaDB may play multiple roles in muscle by means of differential distribution of isoforms with distinct signaling or structural properties.

  15. Terminal group effect of electrode-molecule interface on electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, C. Peferencial; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Priya, P. Aruna

    2012-06-01

    The effect of terminal groups on the electron transport through metal-molecule-metal system has been investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism combined with extended Huckel theory (EHT). Au-molecule-Au junctions are constructed with borazine(BN-ring) and BCN ring as core molecule and sulphur (S), Oxygen(O), and cyano-group (CN) as terminal group. The results demonstrate that the terminal groups modifying the transport behaviors of these systems in a controlled way. Our result shows that cyano-group is the best terminal group to couple borazine to Au electrode and oxygen is the best one to couple BCN to Au electrode. Furthermore, the results of borazine systems are compared with that of BCN systems and are discussed.

  16. Mitochondrial alarmins released by degenerating motor axon terminals activate perisynaptic Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Negro, Samuele; Scorzeto, Michele; Zornetta, Irene; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Montecucco, Cesare; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c. These molecules activate isolated primary Schwann cells, Schwann cells cocultured with neurons and at neuromuscular junction in vivo through the MAPK pathway. We propose that this inter- and intracellular signaling is involved in triggering the regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals affected by other forms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25605902

  17. Epoxy-Resin Cable Terminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-03

    of epoxy- resin terminations , or end -fittings, to small diameter cables. Test samples were made using steel, titanium, and amorphous metal cable...15 vi NSWC TR 88-400 CHAITER 1 INTROIDUCTION The general function of end fittings, also referred to as terminations , is to allow the attachment of...instructions require that the termination body (henceforth referred to as’body’) be slipped over the end of the cable which is then unlaid and cleaned

  18. A proposed route to independent measurements of tight junction conductance at discrete cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lushan; Zeng, Yuhan; Baker, Lane A; Hou, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    Direct recording of tight junction permeability is of pivotal importance to many biologic fields. Previous approaches bear an intrinsic disadvantage due to the difficulty of separating tight junction conductance from nearby membrane conductance. Here, we propose the design of Double whole-cell Voltage Clamp - Ion Conductance Microscopy (DVC-ICM) based on previously demonstrated potentiometric scanning of local conductive pathways. As proposed, DVC-ICM utilizes two coordinated whole-cell patch-clamps to neutralize the apical membrane current during potentiometric scanning, which in models described here will profoundly enhance the specificity of tight junction recording. Several potential pitfalls are considered, evaluated and addressed with alternative countermeasures. PMID:26716077

  19. The effects of nerve stimulation and hemicholinium on synaptic vesicles at the mammalian neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S. F.; Kwanbunbumpen, Suthiwan

    1970-01-01

    1. Electron micrographs of nerve terminals in rat phrenic nerve—diaphragm preparations have been studied. This has been done before and after prolonged nerve stimulation. The effectiveness of nerve stimulation has been monitored by intracellular micro-electrode recordings from the muscle cells. 2. Characteristic changes in the form and distribution of the nerve terminal mitochondria were noted after nerve stimulation. 3. Synaptic vesicle numbers in the region of nerve terminal less than 1800 Å from the synaptic cleft were significantly greater in tissue taken 2 and 3 min after nerve stimulation, than in unstimulated preparations. 4. The long and short diameters of the synaptic vesicle profiles less than 1800 Å from the synaptic cleft were measured. Analysis of the distribution of the diameters indicated synaptic vesicles to be basically spherical structures. Estimates of synaptic vesicle volume were made from the measurements. Synaptic vesicle volume was significantly reduced in tissue taken 2 and 4 min following nerve stimulation. 5. If hemicholinium, a compound which inhibits acetylcholine synthesis, was present during the period of nerve stimulation, much greater reductions in synaptic vesicle volume occurred. Synaptic vesicle numbers in the region of nerve terminal less than 1800 Å from the synaptic cleft were also reduced, compared with unstimulated control preparations. 6. These results are regarded as support for the hypothesis that the synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals at the mammalian neuromuscular junction represent stores of the transmitter substance, acetylcholine. ImagesABABPlate 2AB PMID:5503879

  20. Precessional switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magneto-tunneling junction without a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobitch, Justine L.; Ahsanul Abeed, Md; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2017-10-01

    We describe an approach to implement precessional switching of a perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy magneto-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) without using any magnetic field. The switching is accomplished with voltage-controlled-magnetic-anisotropy (VCMA), spin transfer torque (STT) and mechanical strain. The soft layer of the p-MTJ is magnetostrictive and the strain acts as an effective in-plane magnetic field around which the magnetization of the soft layer precesses to complete a flip. A two-terminal energy-efficient p-MTJ based memory cell, that is compatible with crossbar architecture and high cell density, is designed.