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Sample records for junggar xinjiang nw

  1. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  2. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess–paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  3. Tectonic evolution of the West Junggar Region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Coleman, R. G.; Tilton, G.; Xiao, X.

    1989-08-01

    The West Junggar region of northwestern China consists of a Hercynian-age fold belt occupying a late Paleozoic zone of convergence between three major Eurasian plates: Siberian, Tarim, and Kazakhstan. The northern part of the West Junggar area includes part of the Irtysh-Zaysan fold belt that extends to the northwest into the USSR, where it marks a broad boundary between the Siberian and Kazakhstan plates. The central part of the West Junggar area includes the southeastern extension of the Chingiz-Tarbgatay early Paleozoic island arc sequence. The southern part of the West Junggar area is truncated by the deep fundamental Junggar-Alakol fault that has brought the Yili microplate into juxtaposiition with the West Junggar region in the vicinity of Ebin Nur Lake. To the east the Junggar area is covered by sediments of the Junggar Basin. Paleogeographic reconstructions and geologic evidence indicates that these plates began converging in the Middle Carboniferous, and by Late Carboniferous alkali granites began invading the imbricated leading edges of the coalescing plates. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the plates continued to move along strike-slip faults, bringing the Tarim plate and Yili microplate into their present positions sometime in the early Mesozoic. Six separate ophiolite occurrences in the West Junggar region are strongly tectonized and dismembered. The Tangbale ophiolite is considered to be Late Cambrian (508 ± 20 Ma.) and represents the earliest known oceanic crust in Western China. Petrologic and chemical data indicate that the Tangbale ophiolite represents a possible back arc or forearc tectonic setting situated close to a developing island arc. The Darbut ophiolite has been tectonized to a melange and is overlain by Late Devonian flysch. Ages of the radiolaria in the cherts associated with the pillow lavas indicate that it formed in the Middle Devonian. Other occurrences of ophiolite melange in the northern part of the West Junggar region may be as

  4. Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

    2013-04-01

    The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ɛNd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with

  5. Fluvial sedimentology of a Mesozoic petrified forest assemblage, Shishu Formation, Junggar foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.L.; Gan, O.; Carroll, A.R.; Dilcher, D.; Zhao, M.; Liang, Y.H.; Graham, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic(.) Shishu Formation of the eastern Junggar basin, Xinjiang, northwest China, is a fluvial sand unit containing an important assemblage of well-preserved, silicified tree trunks and rooted stumps. Numerous logs, up to 83 ft (25.5 m) long, occur at several levels within a 33.6-ft (10.3 m) stratigraphic section of fluvial sand, gravel, and mud and several paleosol horizons. The uppermost logbearing layer includes a number of rooted tree stumps in growth position, with diameters of up to 8 ft (2.5 m). The maximum root length observed is 40 ft (12.3 m). The trees have been identified by Chinese paleontologists as Cupressinoxylon. The petrified forest assemblage is preserved on the northeast margin of the Mesozoic Junggar foreland basin, a large continental basin subsiding under thrust loading from the south. Logs found within channel gravel units are oriented with their log axes parallel to the channel axis. Sedimentary structures, including epsilon and trough cross-stratification and imbricated channel gravels, indicate paleocurrent flow generally to the south, toward the basin center. The size of the logs suggests the presence of a major fluvial system. The epsilon cross-sets suggest a channel depth of 26 ft (8 m). The oriented silicified logs and their enclosing clastic sediments provide important information on the depositional systems active on the northeastern margin of the Junggar basin in the Late Jurassic(.) time. Hopefully, further detailed study of the fossil trees, including the spacing of the rooted stumps, will provide new information on the paleoecology of Mesozoic forests and the climatic conditions prevailing in the region at the time of deposition.

  6. Tectonic evolution of West Junggar (NW China): implications for accretionary orogens processes in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choulet, Flavien; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Cluzel, Dominique; Wang, Bo; Lin, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the development and evolution of accretionary orogens is crucial for characterizing continental crust growth in time and space. In the Altaids tectonic collage of Central Asia, conflicting geodynamic models have been proposed about the Paleozoic evolution, during which juvenile continental crust has been extensively formed. This study focuses on West Junggar (NW China), a key region that has not been extensively studied yet. A multidisciplinary approach, including detrital zircon provenance study, geochemistry, field structural analysis and paleomagnetism provides new constraints on the Paleozoic evolution of West Junggar. Oceanic subduction predominates in Early Paleozoic time, as indicated by ophiolitic mélanges, fore-arc volcaniclastic turbidites and magmatic arc suites. However, the development of an olistostrome supplied by a sub-contemporaneous carbonate platform, the occurrence of continental molasse, and the chronology and geochemistry of magmatic events reveal interruptions of subduction. Discrete collisions of volcanic arcs and micro-continent are inferred from the tectonic structure of the belt, which displays allochthonous units rooted in the suture zone. Early Paleozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks of West Junggar bear some resemblance to contemporaneous analogues in Eastern Kazakhstan, and suggest a lateral connection. During Late Paleozoic, tectonic features that develop in response to plate convergence are strongly controlled by geometry of two new subduction zones. A Carboniferous accretionary complex composed of fore-arc sedimentary rocks and ophiolitic mélanges has been identified. The occurrence of quasi-synchronous upright folds and folds with vertical axes suggests that transpression plays a significant role in the Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the West Junggar. Latest Carboniferous (ca. 300 Ma) alkaline plutons postdate this early phase of folding, which was synchronous with accretion of the Carboniferous complex. The

  7. Granites in the Sawuer region of the west Junggar, Xinjiang Province, China: Geochronological and geochemical characteristics and their geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Dayu; Cooke, David; Zhao, Guochun

    2008-12-01

    The Sawuer region is located in the west Junggar, Jimunai County of Altay district and Hefeng County of Tacheng district, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, in northwest China. In the study area granitic intrusions are widespread and can be subdivided into I-type granites (Tasite pluton, Sentasi pluton, Wokensala pluton and Kaerjia pluton) and A-type (A 2) granites (Kuoyitasi pluton and Qiaqihai pluton). The I-type granites consist of granite, adamelite, granodiorite, and the A-type granites are mainly represented by alkali granite. SHRIMP U-Pb dating results indicate that the granites in Sawuer region were formed between 337 Ma and 290.7 Ma (late Carboniferous and early Permian), with the I-type granites being formed between 337 Ma and 302.6 Ma, and the A-type between 297.9 and 290.7 Ma. From the older to the youngest granites, their composition changes from calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic, to alkali series, and from I-type to A-type, based on the characteristics of whole rock trace element and rare earth elements geochemistry. This compositional range is the result of a change in the geodynamic regime from compressional to tensional during the late Paleozoic. Strontium, Nd, Pb, O isotope systematics suggest that both the I-type and A-type granites in Sawuer were sourced from the mantle (DM), but with some crustal contamination for the Kuoyitasi pluton. The I-type granites were formed by equilibrium partial melting, while the A-type granites were formed mainly by fractional crystallization. Based on the Rb-Y + Nb and Nb-Y-Ce discrimination criteria by Eby [Eby G.N., 1992. Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20, 641-644] and Pearce [Pearce J.A., 1996. Sources and settings of granitic rocks. Episodes 19, 120-125] and comparisons with granites in other regions of northern Xinjiang, the I-type granites were emplaced during a transition from compressional to extensional settings in a post-collision regime, whereas

  8. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Early Carboniferous to the Late Permian Barleik plutons in the West Junggar (NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Bao-Fu; Ren, Rong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Zheng, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis and continental crustal growth in Central Asia are thought to have close relationship with the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). The well-exposed plutons in the northern Barleik Mountains of the West Junggar region, NW China, may provide essential insights into the evolution of the Junggar Ocean, a branch of the PAO, and mechanism of continental crustal growth. Our work on the Barleik plutons indicates an early suite of 324-320 Ma diorite and a late suite of 314-259 Ma quartz syenite and granitic porphyry. All the plutons are characterized by high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic signatures, varying depletion in Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70241-0.70585), strongly positive εNd(t) values (+ 5.7-+7.7), and young one-stage Nd model ages (390-761 Ma), suggesting that they resulted from different batches of magma that were produced by fractional crystallization of a metasomatized mantle source with minor crustal contamination. The diorite is coeval with the youngest arc magmatic rocks, indicating a subduction-related origin. By contrast, the quartz syenite and granitic porphyry are geochemically similar to A2-type granites, with high Zr, Ga, and FeOT/[FeOT + MgO], and are coeval with the widespread plutons in the West Junggar. This, together with the occurrence of Late Carboniferous fluvial deposits and the lack of < 320 Ma ophiolitic and subduction-related metamorphic lithologies, definitively indicates a post-collisional setting after the closure of the Junggar Ocean. Slab breakoff accompanied by asthenospheric upwelling and basaltic underplating is a possible geodynamic process that is responsible for the post-collisional magmatism and vertical crustal growth in the region. Thus a tectonic switch from subduction to post-collision started at the end of the Early Carboniferous ( 320 Ma), probably as a result of the final closure of the Junggar Ocean.

  9. Tectonic controls on Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales in the Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of Asia during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian resulted in uplift of an ancestral Tian Shan range and geographic isolation of the previously marine Junggar basin. Dramatic shifts from marine to nonmarine sedimentation took place in both the southern Junggar and northern Tarim basins during the Permina. Paleocurrent analysis indicate that by the Late Permian, coarse-grained sediments in both basins were being supplied predominantly from the area of the Tian Shan. During the Late Permian, the southern Junggar received in excess of 5,000 m of nonmarine sediments, including approximately 1,000 m of laminated, highly organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales). These deposits commonly have TOCs of 20-30%, and Rock-Eval pyrolitic yields reaching 2,000 mg/g, ranking them among the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the world. Based on a comparison of the distribution of steranes and extended tricyclic terpanes, these Upper Permian oil shales appear to be the primary source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Ancestral uplift of the Tian Shan thus produced a complex tectono-hydrologic partitioning of the Late Permina Junggar basin, which exerted a strong influence on the character of petroleum source rocks deposited within the basin.

  10. Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rock studies of north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Xiao, Z.; Liang, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, C.

    1989-03-01

    Ongoing outcrop and accompanying pyrolysis studies of Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan retroarc foreland basins, northwestern China, have demonstrated the existence of potential oil-prone and gas-prone petroleum source rocks. Lithologies include Jurassic coals from all three basins and Triassic coals from Tarim. Jurassic coals collected from the Mesozoic depocenters of the Junggar and Tarim basins are oil prone, yielding S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values that range from 0.80 to 0.99 and average 0.96, hydrogen index (HI) values that range from 117.9 to 213.4 and average 150.8, and oxygen index (OI) values that range from 1.1 to 31.6 and average 7.67. In contrast, Triassic coals of Tarim and Jurassic coals of Turpan contain more conventional type III gas-prone kerogens and yield S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values ranging from 0.04 to 0.52 and averaging 0.22, HI values ranging from 3.2 to 130.2 with a mean of 33.6, and OI values ranging from 30.9 to 223.7 and averaging 115.9. Coals of all three basins are slightly immature to mature with respect to oil generation, as indicated by T/sub max/ values ranging from 425/degrees/ to 449/degrees/C (average = 343/degrees/C) and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64 (average = 0.57). Thus, given the widespread abundance and significant thicknesses of Mesozoic and especially Jurassic coals in all three basins, it is very likely that Mesozoic contributions to Xinjiang's oil and gas reserves are significant. This is particularly important in the north Tarim basin, where recent Chinese oil and gas discoveries have been made and the existence of significant pre-Mesozoic source beds remains unproven.

  11. Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

    2014-09-01

    Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The δ2H and δ18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of δ2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of δ18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The δ13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and δ2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured δ13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle

  12. Biomarker analysis of Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales containing up to 34% TOC (total organic carbon) underlie approximately 50,000 km{sup 2} of the Junggar basin in western China, and appear to be the principal source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar and in several recent discoveries in other areas of the basin. The siliceous oil shales were deposited in a sediment-starved foreland basin during a period of predominantly humid climate. Previous biomarker studies of crude oils from Karamay field have documented an abundance of {beta}-carotane (which in some cases dominates the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution) and gammacerane, suggesting a source bed deposited under hypersaline conditions. However, relatively complete outcrop exposures of finely laminated oil shales in the southern Junggar conspicuously lack evaporites, extensive dessication horizons, or other sedimentological evidence of playa lake environments. Indeed, the aliphatic hydrocarbon distribution in bitumen extracts from southern Junggar oil shales appear characteristic of freshwater to brakish water deposition of organic matter in an anoxic lake. Normal alkanes show a slight odd-over-even preference with relatively low levels of the C{sub 22}, n-alkane, pristane/phytane ratios close to unity, low {beta}-carotane and gammacerane levels, and the absence of C{sub 34}-C{sub 35} hopanes. This apparent difference in source bed depositional environments may be due to tectonic partitioning between separate depocenters of the Late Permian Junggar basin. Alternatively, hypersaline oil shale facies may be limited to deeper basinal areas, whereas upslope southern Junggar sediments record highstands in lake level or influx of fresh water from the adjacent drainage areas.

  13. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  14. Magnetotelluric imaging of a fossil paleozoic intraoceanic subduction zone in western Junggar, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yixian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Lupei; Huang, Rong; Chen, Chao; Li, Yongtao; Luo, Yinhe

    2016-06-01

    The fate of subducted oceanic slabs can provide important clues to plate reconstruction through Earth history. Since oceanic slabs in continental collision zones are typically not well preserved, ancient subduction zones have rarely been imaged by geophysical techniques. Here we present an exception from the Darbut belt in the Junggar accretionary collage in the southern Altaids of Asia. We deployed a 182 km long magnetotelluric (MT) profile including 60 broadband sounding sites across the belt. Quality off-diagonal impedances were inverted by a three-dimensional scheme to image resistivities beneath the profile. The resistivity model along with MT impedance phase ellipses and induction vectors were tested and interpreted in detail. Combining geological and geophysical observations, mineral physical experiment, and geodynamic modeling results, the MT transect suggests a fossil intraoceanic subduction zone during the Late Paleozoic in the western Junggar that has been well preserved due to lack of significant subsequent tecto-thermal events.

  15. Late Paleozoic vertical crustal growth of Western Junggar, Xinjiang in China: evidence from petrology and Nd isotope in charnockites and alkaline granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, W. S.; Sun, M.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, G. C.; Malpas, J.

    2003-04-01

    This abstract reports our new petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and Nd isotope studies on the charnockites and alkaline granites in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, China. During the 1997 field excursion, we for the first time discovered charnockites in the Miaergou alkaline granite batholith, one of the six largest intrusive A-type bodies in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, Northwest China. The batholith is located in the southwestern part of the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is characterized by the presence of voluminous Paleozoic to Mesozoic granitoids with positive ɛNd(t) values. In spatial distribution, the batholith occurs as a ring-like igneous complex, which intrudes the early-Carboniferous volcanic sedimentary rocks of low-grade metamorphism. It is mainly composed of charnockite, quartz diorite, alkaline granite, potash feldspar granite, syenite and rare tourmaline-bearing intermediate-mafic dykes. Charnockites occur only within the diorite. A large amount of gabbroic, dioritic and leucogranitic enclaves are found in a zone between the alkaline granite and diorite. Petrographic and mineralogical studies indicate that the charnockites were derived from partial melting of the lower crust and crystallized under P-T conditions of 5.44˜5.63 ± 1.0 kbar and 700˜800^oC. Zircons from a charnockite sample and an alkaline granite sample yielded concordant U-Pb TIMS ages of 305.3 ± 1. 1 Ma and 274.1 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the age of the emplacement of the charnockites and alkaline granites. Two-pyroxene granulites, biotite-spinel-cordierite gneisses and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses occur as enclaves within the charnockites. The two-pyroxene granulite enclaves are considered to be restites of partial melting of the previous lower crust at ˜845^oC, whereas the xenoliths of biotite-spinel-cordierite and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses were metamorphosed at low-pressure amphibolite- to granulite-facies, which were related to the

  16. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from multiple arc-basin systems in Altai-Junggar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to understand the Late Paleozoic continental growth of the Junggar area and its amalgamation history with the Altai terrane, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on seismic and borehole data, the Wulungu Depression can be divided into two NW-trending tectonic units by southward thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag is composed of gray basaltic andesite, andesite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava gushes and marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance, compared to the andesite in the Hongyan High. The SIMS Zircon U-Pb ages for andesites from Late Paleozoic strata indicate that these volcanics in Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3Ma and 313.4Ma, respectively. Most of the intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks exhibit calc-alkaline affinity, low initial 87Sr/86Sr and positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values. Furthermore, these rocks have high Th/Yb and low Ce/Pb and La/Yb ratios as well as variable Ba/Th and Ba/La ratios. These features imply that the rocks were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by subduction-related components in an island arc setting. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of island arc-type volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. The gravity and magnetic anomaly data suggest that Altai-Junggar area incorporates three arc-basin belts from north to south: the Karamaili-Luliang-Darbut, Yemaquan-Wulungu, and Dulate-Fuhai-Saur. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the northern Junggar area is built by amalgamation of multiple Paleozoic linear arcs and accretionary

  17. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  18. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  19. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-25

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny.

  20. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  1. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks from the Laoshankou District, North Xinjiang: Implications for the Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution and Metallogenesis of East Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Bing; Bao, Zhiwei; Xu, Deru

    2016-12-01

    arc. The northern margin of East Junggar was related to the southward subduction of the Kuerti-Erqis Ocean (a branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean) between the Altay and the Dulate arcs in this period, consistent with the presence of Nb-enriched basalts and boninites in the north of the Dulate arc and the island arc rather than back arc setting of the igneous rocks in the Laoshankou district. For metallogenesis in the northern margin of East Junggar, arc-related Fe-Cu-Au and porphyry Cu mineralization was dominated. There is large potential to find several Late Paleozoic arc-related Fe-Cu-Au mineralizations in North Xinjiang.

  2. Three-dimensional audio-frequency magnetotelluric imaging of Akebasitao granitic intrusions in Western Junggar, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Anqi; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shengye; Li, Yongtao; Xu, Yixian; Wang, Qinyan

    2016-12-01

    An audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) array was deployed here to map the resistivity structure of the Akebasitao intrusions and the surrounding area in Western Junggar, China. High quality AMT data were acquired at 463 sites that covered the whole Akebasitao intrusions. The latest 3D electromagnetic inversion system, ModEM, was employed to invert the AMT dataset. A high resolution resistivity model was recovered by using a nonlinear conjugate-gradient scheme. The Akebasitao intrusions, the most pronounced resistive features in the preferred model, are clearly imaged from shallow depths to more than 10 km, with some conductive zones and spots in and surrounding it. The shape of the Akebasitao pluton is asymmetrical mushroom-like, suggesting an extension stress environment at its forming age (the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian) in Western Junggar. Our explanation is consistent with the subducting spreading ridge tectonic model for Western Junggar in the Late Carboniferous, with a paleo-Asia ocean plate subducting northwestward beneath Karamay arc, as former studies proposed. The upwelling channel of the Akebasitao pluton seems to be located at its center. The Darbut Fault has been clearly imaged as a subvertical narrow conductive zone extending from the surface to 3-5 km or deeper. The most prominent conductors are two elongate zones in depths deeper than 500 m. Other conductive zones can also be identified surrounding the boundaries of the Akebasitao pluton, which can be interpreted as pyrometasomatic metamorphism relating to magmatic activities. Because the ophiolitic rocks outcrop as some lens along these two boundaries, and as previous studies showed that the serpentine metamorphosed from peridotite with well-connected magnetite possessing high conductivity, the conductors may therefore also represent their sources in depth.

  3. Petrogenesis of the Yangzhuang Nb- and Ta-rich A-type granite porphyry in West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guo; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Mou; Li, Yanlong; Ren, Manchuan; Bai, Yanping; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-01

    West Junggar is featured with a wide spread of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites. Systematic comparison of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry and the regional coeval A-type granites (RCAG) shows that: (1) all the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites are of the A2 group except the Yangzhuang granite porphyry; (2) the Nb and Ta contents of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry are nearly 10 times that of the RCAG while Ti content is more depleted; (3) εNd (t) of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry is slightly lower and the Sr isotope has a wider range relative to the RCAG. Previous research revealed that highly incompatible elements including Nb and Ta can be transferred into the mantle wedge by precipitation of amphibole from the ascending fluids generated by dehydration of subducted slab. It is inferred that enhanced heat flux brought by the Late Carboniferous ridge subduction decomposed amphibole in the mantle wedge to generate Nb and Ta-rich melt and finally produced the Yangzhuang granite porphyry.

  4. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian slab window in the West Junggar of NW China: Geochronological and geochemical evidence from mafic to intermediate dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Geng, Hongyan

    2013-08-01

    The Late Carboniferous to Early Permian is a critical period for the formation of particular high-temperature magmatic associations in West Junggar, NW China and the geodynamic processes of ridge subduction and related slab windows in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Mafic to intermediate dikes, exposed in the central and southeastern West Junggar extensively, mainly consist of Nb-enriched and magnesian suites. The Nb-enriched dikes (305 Ma) are characterized by high Nb contents (5.63-9.08 ppm) and large variations of major element contents, exhibiting high-K to medium-K calc-alkaline characteristics with high Na2O/K2O (1.33-3.85) and low Sr/Y (9-32) ratios. The dikes have moderate Mg# (44.6-52.9), LREE-rich and sub-horizontal HREE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 3.05-7.18; (Gd/Yb)N = 1.43-1.78) with weak Eu anomalies (Eu*/Eu = 0.81-1.10) and positive εNd (t) values (+ 5.2 to + 8.0), and likely originate from partial melting of mantle peridotite that was metasomatized by subducted sediment-derived melts and slab fluids. The medium-K magnesian dikes (305 Ma) are characterized by high MgO (3.05-7.28 wt.%), Cr (22.3-311 ppm) and Ni (32.6-199 ppm) contents and all plot in the field of high-Mg andesite. Some have very high Mg numbers (Mg# > 60), suggesting a primitive melt composition. These samples display positive Ba, Sr, K and negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies as well as strongly-depleted HREE patterns with weak positive Eu anomalies. They have high Sr/Y (27-126) and relatively high εNd (t) values (+ 6.0 to + 8.3), which suggest a similar petrogenesis as the Nb-enriched dikes, but were metasomatized by adakitic melts. The high-K magnesian dikes (284 Ma) are high-K calc-alkaline and have lower MgO (3.63-5.57 wt.%) compared with the medium-K suite. They have high Sr (422-819 ppm), Sr/Y (26-62) ratios and εNd (t) values (+ 7.0 to + 7.1) with relatively flat REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 2.4-5.5), probably originating from partial melting of K-enriched mantle wedge peridotite metasomatized

  5. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  6. “Medieval Warm Period” on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Kong, Zhao Chen; Yan, Shun; Yang, Zhen Jing; Ni, Jian

    2009-06-01

    “Medieval Warm Period” is used to describe a past climate epochs in Europe and neighboring regions from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries. In order to discuss the palaeoclimate changes during the MWP on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China, three Holocene sediment profiles in Daxigou region, Caotan Lake and Sichang Lake located in different elevations and vegetation zones were chosen for further discussion. A multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in these three profiles using pollen, phytolith records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size, and susceptibility showed that the climate was humid during the period corresponded in time with the MWP (from the middle of the Tang Dynasty to the middle of Yuan Dynasty). Complemented by tree-ring record, other pollen records, data of plant seeds and historical documents; we conclude that during the MWP the climate was humid on the north slopes of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang.

  7. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  8. A Neoproterozoic seamount in the Paleoasian Ocean: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the Mayile ophiolitic mélange in West Junggar, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gaoxue; Li, Yongjun; Santosh, M.; Gu, Pingyang; Yang, Baokai; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haibo; Zhong, Xing; Tong, Lili

    2012-05-01

    The Mayile ophiolitic mélange (MOM) is located in the southwestern part of the West Junggar (NW China) and forms part of the Southern Altaids. The MOM comprises ultramafic rocks, gabbro, pillow and massive lavas, abyssal radiolarian cherts and volcaniclastic rocks. Zircons with magmatic crystallization features including oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values from the isotropic gabbro within the MOM yield LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 572 ± 9 Ma (MSWD = 1.0) marking the timing of crystallization of these rocks as late Neoproterozoic. Geochemically, the basalts of the corresponding gabbros from MOM display OIB-type alkali basalt and E-MORB-type tholeiitic basalt features. Both of these groups are characterized by LILE and LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, very weak or no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.9-1), and no obvious Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies, suggesting a typical OIB affinity. We propose that these volcanic rocks were derived from a mantle plume-related magmatism associated with the evolution of the Paleoasian Oceanic system, with the mantle source containing 2%-5% garnet, ˜ 2% spinel and ˜ 2% amphibole. The basalts show within-plate affinity marked geochemical similarities with those from Hawaii and Xigaze seamount, suggestive of their intra-oceanic setting. Subduction of the oceanic lithosphere commenced during late Cambrian to early Ordovician, with the eventual accretion of the seamounts in the fore-arc together with oceanic fragments forming the Mayile ophiolitic mélange.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of fault core and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin (NW China) with implications for the fault sealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Pei, Yangwen; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun

    2017-08-01

    Faults may have a complex internal structure, including fault core and damage zone, and can act as major conduits for fluid migration. The migration of fluids along faults is generally associated with strong fluid-rock interaction, forming large amounts of cement that fill in the fractures. The cementation of the fault fractures is considered to be one of the important parameters of fault sealing. The different components of faults have diverse geochemical features because of varying physical characteristics. The investigation of the geochemical characteristics of the fault and damage zones could provide important information about the fault sealing process, which is very important in oil and gas exploration. To understand the fault-cemented sealing process, detailed geochemical studies were conducted on the fault and damage zones of the Hong-Che Fault of the northwestern Junggar Basin in China. The major and trace element data of our study suggest that the fault core is characterized by higher loss on ignition (LOI), potassium loss, Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values and lower high field strength element (HFSE), large-ion lithosphile element (LILE), and rare earth element (REE) concentrations compared with the damage zone, implying more serious elemental loss and weathering of the fault core compared with the damage zone during faulting. The carbon and oxygen isotope data reveal that the cement of the Hong-Che Fault Zone formed due to multiple sources of fluids. The fault core was mainly affected by deep sources of hydrothermal fluids. In combination with previous studies, we suggest a potential fault-cemented sealing process during the period of fault movement. The fault core acts as the fluid conduit during faulting. After faulting, the fault core is cemented and the damage zone becomes the major conduit for fluid migration. The cementation firstly occurs on two sides of the damage zone in the upper part of the

  10. Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

  11. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  12. Chemical speciation of redox sensitive elements during hydrocarbon leaching in the Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guodong; Fu, Bihong; Takahashi, Yoshio; Kuno, Akihito; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Zhang, Jindong

    2010-11-01

    Bleaching related to seepage of petroleum fluids and subsurface migration of crude oil and natural gas can alter the chemical and mineralogical properties of rocks, while concurrently depleting hydrocarbon reservoirs. Mud volcanoes constitute one type of petroleum seepage present in several areas on the southern margin of the Junggar Basin in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, NW China. The results of XRD, XRF, XANES, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on rock samples collected from areas affected by these mud volcanoes revealed an enrichment of certain minerals and elements, as well changes in mineralogical, molecular, or ionic carrier ("species"). After bleaching, reddish sedimentary rocks showed depletion in silica and enrichment of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron. Other elements, including aluminum, potassium, sodium, and titanium, were largely unchanged. Reduced iron and sulfur compounds predominated in the bleached rocks, producing changes in color from the original reddish into green, deep gray, and black. Iron and calcium were associated with carbonates, indicating carbonation of these elements during the bleaching processes. Manganese also appeared to be associated with carbonate, though not with sulfate even though sulfate was present in the bleached rocks. Alkaline conditions were apparently the dominant because reduced manganese would have been absent under acidic condition. The alteration of certain minerals, clay minerals in particular, was also observed in bleached rocks, the alteration of smectite-group minerals to chlorite and muscovite, for example. Mineralogical and geochemical changes in rocks bleached by hydrocarbon fluids could provide a better overall understanding of bleaching processes, and may have applications in surface geochemical exploitation and remote imaging.

  13. Petroleum source rocks of the Junggar, Tarim, and Turpan basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Brassell, S.; Carroll, A.R.; McKnight, C.L.; Chu, J.; Hendrix, M.S. ); Xiao, X. ); Demaison, G. ); Liang, Y. )

    1990-05-01

    The sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are poorly explored for petroleum. Volumetric adequacy of petroleum source rocks is a critical exploration risk in these basins, particularly because source rock data are limited. However, recent studies provide new source rock data and permit speculative assessment of source rock potential of Xinjiang basins. The Junggar basin, best explored of Xinjiang basins and containing a giant oil field, is underlain over much of its extent by an Upper Permian lacustrine oil-shale sequence that is known for its organic richness and oil source quality. Depending on position in the basin, the Permian section ranges from immature to overmature and is inferred to be the principal source of oil in the basin. Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic coal measures, including lacustrine rocks, constitute a secondary source rock sequence in the Junggar basin. The smaller intermontane Turpan basin contains a very similar Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic sequence, which, where sufficiently deeply buried, probably comprises the only significant oil source sequence in the basin. The vast Tarim basin offers the greatest potential variety of petroleum source rocks of all Xinjiang basins, but remains the least well documented. From limited, but geologically planned and focused sampling, Cambrian, Carboniferous, and Permian strata are considered unlikely to be major oil source contributors in the dominantly shallow-marine Paleozoic section of the northern Tarim basin. Only Ordovician black shales appear to have significant oil source potential, and a lower Paleozoic source is confirmed for some Tarim oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic sequence of northern Tarim basin, similar to that of the Junggar and Turpan basins in comprising a section rich in coal and lacustrine shale, constitutes another, potentially significant oil source.

  14. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Qi, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  15. Draft genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, an isolate from the great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Yang, Xianwei; Yuan, Yanting; Dai, Xiang; Yan, Yanfeng; Cao, Hanli; Luo, Tao; Guo, Rong; Wang, Xinhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Yujiang; Cui, Yujun

    2012-10-01

    We deciphered the genome of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, isolated from the Junggar Basin, a newly discovered great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China. The total length of assembly was 4,597,322 bp, and 4,265 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. It is the first Y. pestis genome from this plague focus.

  16. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  17. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2017-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  18. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2016-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  19. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  20. Formation mechanism of the lanthanide tetrad effect for a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-zhi; Liu, Si-hai; Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Lei, Ru-xiong

    2011-10-01

    The Baishitouquan (BST) pluton is a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite intrusion located in the Middle Tianshan orogen of Xinjiang, northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five lithological zones gradational from the bottom upwards: leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). Contents of REE and other trace elements were analysed on major and accessory minerals, including quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, white micas, topaz, fluorite, garnet, zircon and monazite, separated from above five zones of the BST pluton. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of minerals from zone-a to zone-e display clear convex tetrad effect, and the TE 1,3 (quantification factor of tetrad effect) values of these minerals increases from zone-a to zone-e, except that a quartz sample from zone-b and zircon from zone-c exhibits W-type tetrad effect. Therefore, we conclude that REE tetrad features of the minerals, such as quartz, plagioclase, zircon, garnet and monazite, are inherited directly from the melt and have not significantly affected by both fractional crystallization and surface weathering. With progressing of magmatic differentiation, total REE contents decrease, Eu anomaly becomes more negative, whereas Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho ratios decrease gradually from zone-a to zone-e with increasing TE 1,3 values. Therefore, we suggest that F-rich magmatic fluid-melt interaction above its solidus may leave the residual silicate melt with the features of very low contents of all REE, subchondritic Y/Ho, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, and with an M-type tetrad pattern, including minerals crystallizing from it. Such a pattern is manifested by both whole-rock and separate minerals. Hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction played only a minor role to the convex tetrad effect of the minerals and their host rocks.

  1. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 ( 3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  2. Changes in groundwater induced by water diversion in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang Uygur, NW China: Evidence from environmental isotopes and water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Lower Tarim River in NW China is under severe ecosystem degradation due to stopped stream flow and diminished groundwater recharge. Since year 2000, eight water diversions from the upper stream and from the neighboring Kaidu-Kongque River have been implemented to alleviate the ecosystem disaster. In order to assess the effectiveness of the water diversion project and to identify proper tracers of groundwater dynamics, we sampled the riparian groundwater system in 2007 and 2008 along the 350 km-long river channel through the 40 monitoring wells situated along nine transects perpendicular to the river and three soil profiles. Measurements on the samples have included environmental isotopes ( 18O, 2H, 3H) and water chemistry. The results show that remarkable changes have been induced by the water diversions. The observed response of riparian groundwater system includes general decrease in total dissolved solid (TDS) and rise of water table. Scope with greater than 1 m rise in water table is within ˜700 m from the riverbank in the upper segments and ˜300 m in the lower ones. Greater rise of water table occurs near the river bank. Tritium data show that the extent of modern recharge (since 1960s), including that from the diverted water, is limited to 600 m from the riverbank at the upper segments and 200 m at the lower ones. Stable isotopes show that groundwaters, regardless of modern or pre-modern, are enriched in heavy isotopes and are plotted in parallel to the meteoric water line in the δ-δ plot, attributed to evaporation during recharge. Groundwater is generally of Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 type and is formed by dissolution of minerals, such as halite, sulfate, and carbonates, based on component correlation matrices analysis. The salinity of groundwater is mainly affected by that of the diverted water and of the local antecedent groundwater, salts in the unsaturated zone, evapotranspiration during recharge. As the zone of smaller groundwater depth (less than 5 m

  3. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  4. Tectonic evolution of the East Junggar terrane, CAOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    The East Junggar terrane is one of the important tectonic units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB; Zonenshain et al., 1990). Debate surrounds the tectonics of the East Junggar area, including tectonic setting, age, basement nature, subduction polarity and collisional time between the East Junggar terrane and Junggar block (e.g., Xiao et al., 2008, 2011; Long et al., 2012; Huang et al., 2012). Among the two popular models, one suggests that the Junggar is a continental block (e.g. Zhang et al., 1984, 1993; Watson et al., 1987; Xiao et al., 1992; He et al., 1994; Li et al., 2000; Charvet et al., 2001, 2007; Xu et al., 2003; Zhao et al., 2003; Buslov et al., 2004; Xu and Ma, 2004; Dong et al., 2009; Bazhenov et al., 2012; Choulet et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). The other model proposes that the Junggar has a basement of Paleozoic oceanic crust (e.g., Carroll et al., 1990; Zheng et al., 2007) or oceanic island arc complexes (e.g., Coleman, 1989; Chen and Jahn, 2004; Windley et al., 2007) of the Altaid Paleozoic rocks (e.g., Sengör et al., 1993; Sengör and Natal'in, 1996; Allen and Vincent, 1997; Filippova et al., 2001; Xiao et al., 2004a, 2004b, 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2010b, 2012). The tectonics in the Eastern Junggar area are interpreted to be related to late Paleozoic intra-oceanic accretion induced by northward subduction of the Junggar oceanic lithosphere (e.g. Xiao et al., 2008, 2009; Biske and Seltmann, 2010; Wan et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011) or by the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere (Zhang et al., 2004; Wong et al., 2010; Su et al., 2012). Recently, we did detailed field survey and petrological, geochemical and chronological analysis of the metamorphosed volcanic rocks and magmatic rocks, and new discovered gneiss and magnetite quartzite enclaves from the Taheir tectonic window in the East Junggar region which is situated between the Zaisan-Erqis-the Main Mongolian Lineament-suture and the Kelameili suture. The new results

  5. Electrical structures in the northwest margin of the Junggar basin: Implications for its late Paleozoic geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Yixian; Jiang, Li; Yang, Bo; Liu, Ying; Griffin, W. L.; Luo, Yong; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Liangliang

    2017-10-01

    Recent geological, geochemical and geophysical data have inclined to support the presence of a remnant Paleozoic oceanic lithosphere beneath the Western Junggar, southwestern Chinese Altaids. However, regional high-resolution geophysical data have been rarely deployed to image its geometry, making it difficult to trace its evolution and final geodynamic setting. Presently, two magnetotelluric (MT) profiles are deployed across the northwest margin of the Junggar basin and the southern Darbut belt to image the electrical structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. High-quality data at 102 sites and the quasi-2D indications of phase tensor skew angles and impedance phase ellipses for relatively short periods (up to 500 s) allow us to invert the two profile data by a 2-D scheme. The resistivity cross-section of a NW-SE striking LINE2 sheds light on a fossil intraoceanic subduction system, and reveals the Miaoergou intrusions as a bowl-like pluton, indicating that the multi-phase intrusions primarily formed in a post-collisional setting. The resistivity cross-section of striking NE-SW LINE1 reveals a possible oceanic slab with relatively lower resistivity underlying the low-resistivity sedimentary strata and high-resistivity mélange. Given that the profile of LINE1 cuts the out-rise zone of a subducted slab developed during the late Paleozoic, the 2-D resistivity model may thus represent the zone that have experienced heterogeneous deformation, reflecting subduction with barrier variation parallel to the ancient trench. Moreover, as shown in previous results, the new MT data also illustrate that the Darbut Fault is a thin-skinned structure, which has been erased at depths during the subsequent magmatism.

  6. Late paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China. Sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Graham, S.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Ying, D.; Zhou, D.

    1995-05-01

    This study focuses on areas adjacent to the Tian Shan (shan is Chinese for mountains) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, and provides new field data on Carboniferous and Permian outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks of the southern Junggar, northwestern Turpan, and northern Tarim basins that bear directly on the history of late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation. We present here a multifaceted sedimentary basin analysis, including sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, and sandstone provenance analyses, and reconstructions of late Paleozoic basin subsidence. These data provide a unique record not only of the basins themselves, but also of the evolution of the adjacent orogenic belts. This study is based on fieldwork during the summers of 1987, 1988, 1991, and 1992 by workers from Stanford University, the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, and the Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Although reconnaissance in nature, the data presented here provide a basis for evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of northwestern China and provide a starting point for more comprehensive future studies. 72 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Evaluation of Junggar Basin in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    Junggar basin lies in the northwestern comer of China and has an area of about 130,000 km{sup 2}, in a compression tectonic regime, with about 14 suites of source-reservoir-seal assemblages developed from Carboniferous to Eogene. It is a prolific basin with a total hydrocarbon generation of 266.9 billion tons, an upside oil potential of 6.937 billion tons and a gas potential of 1,228.9 billion m{sup 3}. Due to its tuff surface conditions and remoteness, the exploration level is still very low: the proven geological reserve was calculated; the cumulative oil production was 0.123599434 billion tons by year-end 1994. There will be about 5.4 billion tons of oil yet to find in the entire basin. Right now, there are four blocks (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4), in the basin, available for bidding. Geologic assessment of the basin indicates these four blocks are located in the favorable potential regions of the basin. Details supporting this evaluation are contained herein. The petroleum potential of each local structure or play depends on its position to certain hydrocarbon sources during geological history and its structural development history as well as fault growth history.

  8. Geochemistry of the Kalatongke Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, NW China: implications for the formation of magmatic sulfide mineralization in a postcollisional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Li, Xiang-Ren

    2009-04-01

    The Kalatongke (also spelt as Karatungk) Ni-Cu-(platinum-group element, PGE) sulfide deposit, containing 33 Mt sulfide ore with a grade of 0.8 wt.% Ni and 1.3 wt.% Cu, is located in the Eastern Junggar terrane, Northern Xinjiang, NW China. The largest sulfide ore body, which occupies more than 50 vol.% of the intrusion Y1, is dominantly comprised of disseminated sulfide with a massive sulfide inner zone. Economic disseminated sulfides also occur at the base of the intrusions Y2 and Y3. The main host rock types are norite in the lower part and diorite in the upper part of each intrusion. Enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements relative to mid-ocean ridge basalt indicate that the mafic intrusions were produced from magmas derived from a metasomatized garnet lherzolite mantle. The average grades of the disseminated ores are 0.6 wt.% Ni and 1.1 wt.% Cu, whereas those of the massive ores are 2 wt.% Ni and 8 wt.% Cu. The PGE contents of the disseminated ores (14-69 ppb Pt and 78-162 ppb Pd) are lower than those of the massive ores (120-505 ppb Pt and 30-827 ppb Pd). However, on the basis of 100% sulfide, PGE contents of the massive sulfides are lower than those of the disseminated sulfides. Very high Cu/Pd ratios (>4.5 × 104) indicate that the Kalatongke sulfides segregated from PGE-depleted magma produced by prior sulfide saturation and separation. A negative correlation between the Cu/Pd ratio and the Pd content in 100% sulfide indicates that the PGE content of the sulfide is controlled by both the PGE concentrations in the parental silicate magma and the ratio of the amount of silicate to sulfide magma. The negative correlations between Ir and Pd indicate that the massive sulfides experienced fractionation.

  9. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D.

    2015-12-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  10. Providing winter bases for transhumant herders in Altai, Xinjiang China: Some consequences and lessons learned

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    This case study from Altai in Xinjiang, N.W. China looks at a traditional transhumant system where for centuries Kazakh herders have moved with their livestock from low desert areas, where they winter, to high pastures for rich summer grazing. A project (from 1988 to 1997) introduced winter bases with permanent housing and irrigated forages and cash crops. A 1999/2000...

  11. Impacts of seasonal climate on net primary productivity (NPP) in Xinjiang, 1981-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Slusser, James; Qi, Jiaguo; Zhan, Xiwu; Ma, Yingjun

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT This study presented the temporal and spatial variation patterns of the seasonal NPP, temperature and precipitation. The NPP simulated by using the GLO-PEM. A semi-mechanistic model of plant photosynthesis and respiration driven entirely by the satellite observations was combined with climate data in Xinjiang of China over the past 20 years to study the impact of seasonal climate changes on the seasonal NPP. The higher correlation coefficients between the seasonal NPP and the corresponding seasonal temperature and precipitation over the past 20 years happened in the areas covered with forest lands, grasslands, oasis and croplands in the northern and southern foothills of Tianshan Mountain, Iili River Valley, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin. In these areas, the vegetation growth was greatly influenced by interannual changes of seasonal temperature and precipitation. The spatial patterns of the correlation coefficients in Xinjiang showed that the higher correlation coefficients between seasonal NPP and seasonal temperature and precipitation in 1990s than in 1980s. With the increased temperature and precipitation, the areas of grasslands and oasis in Xinjiang were expanded over the last 20 years.

  12. Geochemistry of oils from the Junggar basin, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Yang, J.; King, J.D.; Lillis, P.G.; Warden, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Junggar basin of northwestern China is a structural basin containing a thick sequence of Paleozoic-Pleistocene rocks with estimated oil reserves of as much as 5 billion bbl. Analyses of 19 oil samples from nine producing fields and two oil-stained cores in the Junggar basin revealed the presence of at least five genetic oil types. The geochemistry of the oils indicates source organic matter deposited in fresh to brackish lake and marine environments, including coaly organic matter sources. The volumetrically most important oil type discovered to date is produced from Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic reservoirs in the giant Karamay field and nearby fields located along the northwestern margin of the Junggar basin. Oil produced from the Mahu field, located downdip in a depression east of the Karamay field, is from a different source than Karamay oils. Unique oil types are also produced from an upper Permian reservoir at Jimusar field in the southeastern part of the basin, and from Tertiary (Oligocene) rocks at Dushanzi field and Lower Jurassic rocks at Qigu field, both located along the southern margin of the basin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of Upper Permian source rocks, and the possibility of Mesozoic or Tertiary sources has been proposed, but not tested by geochemical analysis, although analyses of some possible Jurassic coal source rocks have been reported. Our findings indicate that several effective source rocks are present in the basin, including local sources of Mesozoic or younger age for oil accumulations along the southern and southeastern margins of the basin. Future exploration or assessment of petroleum potential of the basin can be improved by considering the geological relationships among oil types, possible oil source rocks, and reservoirs.

  13. Geochemistry of oils from the Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Lillis, P.G.

    1997-11-01

    The Junggar basin of northwestern China is a structural basin containing a thick sequence of Paleozoic-Pleistocene rocks with estimated oil reserves of as much as 5 billion bbl. Analyses of 19 oil samples from nine producing fields and two oil-stained cores in the Junggar basin revealed the presence of at least five genetic oil types. The geo-chemistry of the oils indicates source organic matter deposited in fresh to brackish lake and marine environments, including coaly organic matter sources. The volumetrically most important oil type discovered to date is produced from Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic reservoirs in the giant Karamay field and nearby fields located along the northwestern margin of the Junggar basin. Oil produced from the Mahu field, located downdip in a depression east of the Karamay field, is from a different source than Karamay oils. Unique oil types are also produced from an upper Permian reservoir at Jimusar field in the southeastern part of the basin, and from Tertiary (Oligocene) rocks at Dushanzi field and Lower Jurassic rocks at Qigu field, both located along the southern margin of the basin. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of Upper Permian source rocks, and the possibility of Mesozoic or Tertiary sources has been proposed, but not tested by geochemical analysis, although analyses of some possible Jurassic coal source rocks have been reported. Our findings indicate that several effective source rocks are present in the basin, including local sources of Mesozoic or younger age for oil accumulations along the southern and southeastern margins of the basin. Future exploration or assessment of petroleum potential of the basin can be improved by considering the geological relationships among oil types, possible oil source rocks, and reservoirs.

  14. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  15. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  16. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi

    2015-12-01

    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 < FMQ as a consequence of country rocks assimilation-contamination, to log fO2 > FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that

  17. Geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-intermediate intrusions in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for a tectonic transition from subduction to post-collisional extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhao, Guochun; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents new whole-rock geochemical, Sr-Nd and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data for mafic-intermediate rocks from the Eastern Tianshan (NW China) to constrain the final closure of the Junggar Ocean between the Central Tianshan and Junggar terranes, which is essential in understanding the final assembly processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on selected igneous zircons yields well-constrained weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of ca. 310 Ma and ca. 290 Ma, interpreted as the best estimates of the crystallization ages of the intrusions. Petrographic and geochemical analyses reveal that the Late Carboniferous samples are characterized by typical subduction-related signatures, low Sm/Yb (<2.0) but high Lu/Hf (≥0.2) ratios and positive ɛNd(t) (+1.2 to +3.1) and zircon ɛHf(t) (+4.1 to +7.8) values, suggesting that their parental magmas were most likely emplaced in a continental arc setting, genetically related to the partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge in the spinel stability field. This consideration agrees well with the findings of Carboniferous ophiolitic and arc-related granitoids in the region, most probably resulted from the southward subduction of the Junggar oceanic plate. In contrast, the Early Permian samples show high TiO2 (2.7-3.2 wt.%) contents with elevated Ti/V (86.0-115.1) and Zr/Y (4.9-9.3) ratios, OIB-like trace element patterns and high ɛNd(t) (+1.1 to +4.5) and zircon ɛHf(t) (+3.0 to +9.8) values, exhibiting close affinities to typical within-plate basalts. Combined with previous investigations, we suggest that the Early Permian mafic magmatism was most likely generated by the partial melting of an asthenospheric mantle source in the garnet stability field, plausibly triggered by upwelling of asthenosphere during the slab break-off of the Junggar oceanic plate, which is supported by the linear distributions of Permian post-collisional mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Eastern Tianshan. Therefore

  18. [Study on the spatial and temporal distribution of animal plague in Junggar Basin plague focus].

    PubMed

    Guo, Rong; Dai, Xiang; Cao, Hanli; Xia, Lianxu; Abuli, Miti; Abuli, Kemu; Wang, Xinhui; Aza, Ti; Jiang, Wei; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Gang; Wang, Qiguo; Luo, Tao; Meng, Weiwei; Buren, Mingde; Re, Na; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yujiang

    2014-02-01

    To explore the spatial and temporal distributions of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague focus. Data regarding plague antibody (F1) in serum of Great Gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, R. opimus) which were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Junggar Basin and analyzed. The changing rates on the positivity of F1 that appeared spatially and temporally were also analyzed. A total of 4 825 R. opimus serum samples were collected in 13 administrative regions in Junggar Basin. showed that plague R. opimus existed in two areas-Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center and the clay desert of western Junggar Basin. However, in these two areas, the intensity of animal plague prevalence was different. In the former region where Yesinia pestis positive serum was detected from R. opimus, the detected rate of R. opimus was 8.39%. However, in the latter areas, the average positive rate was 1.56%. The changing trends of R. opimus plague prevalence were also varied annually. In the western Junggar Basin, the trend showed a slowly downward profile. The serum positive rate of R. opimus for Yesinia pestis decreased, from 7.59% in 2005 to 0.61% in 2008, and appeared as a resting state that none of the positive sample could be found since then. However, in the eastern-center Junggar Basin area-also named as Gurbantonggut desert which had been divided into 3 segments(western, central and eastern, according to related geographical characteristics), the changing trends of animal plague seemed quite complex. In the western segment, the animal plague had two epidemic peaks-in 2006 and 2010, with the interval of 4 years, with the higher peak of all the three geographic segments as 45.65% in 2010 and the positive serum of R. opimus for plague could be detected each year from 2006 to 2012. However, there were 3 epidemic peaks in the same period in the central and eastern segments. In the central segment, the peaks appeared in 2006, 2009 and 2011, with the intervals as 2.5 years and the average

  19. Protracted Counterinsurgency Chinese COIN Strategy in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    with the Taliban or the Arabs. We have nothing to do 1Boston Globe Editorial, “Pawns in Guantanamo’s Game ,” The Boston Globe, 11 March 2007, http...Only one pass, The Gansu corridor, leading toward eastern China, represents the only non -man made route between Xinjiang and eastern China. Xinjiang...the vast majority of non -Han nationalities residing in Xinjiang before 1950 were Turkic Muslims and considered themselves to be distinct from the Han

  20. Mantle-derived helium in foreland basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Zheng, Guodong; Zheng, Jianjing; Zhou, Shixin; Shi, Pilong

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-rich natural gases from the Tarim, Junggar, Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China have measured 3He/4He ratios from 0.01 to 0.6 times higher than the atmospheric value, indicating 0-7% helium derived from the mantle. The mantle-derived helium is high in foreland basins associated with the Tianshan, Kunlun and Zhayier-Halalate orogenic mountains, but low towards the center of basins. This spatial distribution suggests that the mantle-derived helium originates either from fluids or small scale melts in the upper asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle which have found pathways into the root zones of the major faults defining these mountains, but do not significantly move into the basins themselves. During upward transport to near the surface, the mantle-derived helium is significantly diluted by radiogenic helium produced in the crust. Despite the lack of recent magmatic activity or extensional tectonics within the basins, this pattern shows strong evidence that the major faults play an important role in mantle-derived components degassing from the mantle to the surface.

  1. Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired May 17, 2011 Located in China’s resource-rich but moisture-poor Xinjiang autonomous region, Lop Nur is an uninviting location for any kind of agriculture. It sits at the eastern end of the Taklimakan Desert, where marching sand dunes can reach heights of 200 meters (650 feet), and dust storms rage across the landscape. Yet for all it lacks in agricultural appeal, Lop Nur offers something valuable to farmers the world over: potash. This potassium salt provides a major nutrient required for plant growth, making it a key ingredient in fertilizer. The discovery of potash at Lop Nur in the mid-1990s turned the area into a large-scale mining operation. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image of Lop Nur on May 17, 2011. The rectangular shapes in this image show the bright colors characteristic of solar evaporation ponds. Around the evaporation ponds are the earth tones typical of sandy desert. During the early and middle Pleistocene epoch, this area held a large brackish lake. Uplift of the northern part of the lake in the late Pleistocene created hollows that became receptacles for potash deposition. The main potash deposits found at Lop Nur today are brine potash, and this site is the second-largest source of potash in China. Lop Nur slowly dried up in the Holocene. The area now receives average annual precipitation of just 31.2 millimeters (1.2 inches), and experiences annual evaporation of 2,901 millimeters (114 inches), according to a study published in 2008. The study found, however, that this area has experienced seven major climate changes since the end of the Pleistocene, including climatic conditions far more favorable to farming and settlement than today. Examination of plant and mollusk remains at the lake, as well as studies of sediments, indicate that the Lop Nur region experienced a severe drought about 3,000 years ago, followed by wetter conditions. Between 1

  2. Underplating generated A- and I-type granitoids of the East Junggar from the lower and the upper oceanic crust with mixing of mafic magma: Insights from integrated zircon U-Pb ages, petrography, geochemistry and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Li-Juan

    2013-10-01

    Whole rock major and trace element, Nd-Sr and zircon Hf isotopic compositions and secondary-ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb ages of eleven granitoid intrusions and dioritic rocks from the East Junggar (NW China) were analyzed in this study. The East Junggar granitoids were emplaced during terminal Early to Late Carboniferous (325-301 Ma) following volcanic eruption of the Batamayi Formation. Zircons from the East Junggar granitoids yielded 210 concordant 206Pb/238U ages which are all younger than 334 Ma and exhibit ɛHf(t) values distinctly higher than Devonian arc volcanic-rocks. Seismic P-wave velocities of deep crust of the East Junggar proper resemble those of oceanic crust (OC). These characteristics suggest absence of volcanic rock and volcano-sedimentary rock of Devonian and Early Carboniferous from the source region. The East Junggar granitoids show ɛNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr values substantially overlapping those of the Armantai ophiolite in the area. The Early Paleozoic OC with seamount-like composition as the Zhaheba-Armantai ophiolites remained in the lower crust and formed main source rock of the East Junggar granitoids. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the East Junggar granitoids are classified into peralkaline A-type in the northern subarea, I-type (I1 and I2 subgroups) mainly in the north and A-type in the south of the southern subarea. The perthitic or argillated core and oligoclasic rim with an argillated boundary of feldspar phenocrysts and inclusion of perthites or its overgrowth by matrix plagioclase, in the monzogranites (northern subarea), suggest mixing of peralkaline granitic magma with mafic magma. In the north of the southern subarea, the presence of magmatic microdioritic enclaves (MMEs) in the I1 subgroup granitoids, transfer of plagioclase phenocrysts and hornblendes between host granodiorite and the MME across the boundary and a prominent resorption surface in the plagioclase phenocrysts indicate mixing of crustal magma (I2

  3. Petrogenesis of Late Paleozoic volcanics from the Zhaheba depression, East Junggar: Insights into collisional event in an accretionary orogen of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Deng-fa; Santosh, M.; Tang, Jie-yun

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous to Permian period marks an important transition from accretion to collision in the East Junggar terrane, NW China. Field and Well Fuqian-1 well core data from the Zhaheba depression provide a better window for understanding the magmatic process during this period and its implications for the continental growth of Central Asia. Field investigations reveal structural features characterized by NE-SW compression, with lithology composed of basic and intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. The core samples from Well Fuqian-1 show dominantly basalt, basaltic andesite, dacite and minor pyroclastic rocks. We report zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 276.0-279.8 Ma from rhyolites and zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 315.4-317.4 Ma from dacite and basaltic andesite. Our data suggest that the volcanic rocks from surface exposures and the well cores of Well Fuqian-1 formed in the Early Permian and the Late Carboniferous, respectively. The Late Carboniferous mafic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to the intercalated Early Permian felsic rocks. The mafic rocks show low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703162-0.703783) and high ɛNd(t) (5.5-7.5), enrichment in LREE and some LILEs (such as Rb and Th) as well as HFSEs (such as Zr, Y), and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti. Furthermore, they also display lower Sm/Th (1.6-8.4) and higher Th/Y (0.03-0.12) ratios than those of MORB, and variable Th/Zr (0.004-0.016), Ba/Th (61-839), Ba/La (6.13-48.77) and Ba/Nb (10-101) ratios. The geochemical data suggest that these rocks were derived dominantly from a 5-10% partial melting of a mainly garnet-rich with minor spinel-bearing Iherzolite mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. The felsic rocks are rich in silica (SiO2 = 57.43-78.07%) and alkalis (K2O + Na2O = 5.33-9.28%) and possess high TFe2O3 (0.70-6.95%) contents and Ga/Al ratios, and low CaO (0.18-5.11%) and MgO (0.13-2.02%) contents. They represent typical high-medium-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite

  4. Nationalism and Islamic Identity in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Chinese. The leadership of the Tang dynasty (618-906) held sway over the region for a short time through alliances with local elites. This pre-modern...their ancestors did with the Manchu Qing dynasty when Xinjiang first became part of “China.” Their dress, customs, language, history, and religion...Qing Dynasty 250 years ago. This chapter explains how the Uyghurs came to Xinjiang and how they became established. It explains who the Uyghurs

  5. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  6. Overpressure and Its Relation to Petroleum Accumulation in Southern Edge of Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Measured formation pressure, well- log and mud weight data show that there are overpressures in the southern edge of Junggar basin. Vertically, overpressure distribution is not direct ly related to the burial depth, it is mainly controlled by stratigraphic horizons, especially the lower Tertiary Anjihaihe Formation has the most evident control over the overpressures. Horizontally, overpressure occur in the 3 structural belts in southern edge of the basin, but there are differences in the east and in the west : in the eastern part overpressures occur in the Anjihaihe Formation only, while in the western part, they occur not only in the Anjihaihe Formation, but also in the Shawan and Ziniguanzi Formation. Analyzing the relationship between the well test data and overpressures in the southern edge of Junggar basin, it can be found that the distribution of oil and gas reservoirs are closely related to the overpressures. Being affected by faulting, and due to the differences in mechanism of relationship between overpressures and preservation of oil and gas reservoirs, the distribution of overpressures and oil and gas reservoirs cannot be corresponding to one another. As a whole, however, oil and gas would be ready to be reservoired in the normally pressured zone below the moderately abnormal pressured or overpressures zone, which would, therefore, be the favorable target of petroleum exploration; while the overpressured zone with relatively high formation pressure coefficient is unfavorable for oil/ gas reservoiring.

  7. The Paleozoic tectonic evolution and metallogenesis of the northern margin of East Junggar, Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical constraints from igneous rocks of the Qiaoxiahala Fe-Cu deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Xiao, Bing; Wu, Chao; Bao, Zhiwei; Cai, Keda

    2016-11-01

    The East Junggar terrane (NW China) is an important constituent of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). From the Devonian to Permian, regional magmatism evolved from mainly calc-alkaline (I-type) to alkaline (A-type). The Qiaoxiahala Fe-Cu deposit, located in the Late Paleozoic Dulate island arc (northern margin of the East Junggar), is hosted in the volcanic rocks of the Middle Devonian Beitashan Formation. Two magmatic stages were identified in the deposit, the Qiaoxiahala diorite porphyry (380 ± 4.0 Ma) and a younger aplite (331 ± 3.1 Ma). The (high-K) calc-alkaline Beitashan Formation basaltic rocks are characterized by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, pointing to a subduction-related affinity. The high Mg# (42-75), elevated Ce/Th and Ba/Th, depleted Nb, positive εNd(t) (6.6), low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037) and MORB-like Pb isotope characters all suggest an origin involving partial melting of a MORB-like depleted mantle wedge (metasomatized by slab-derived fluids) with little evidence of crustal contamination. The calc-alkaline (I-type) diorite porphyry, characterized by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, may have formed from fractional crystallization of the basaltic rocks, with its parental magma derived from the same depleted mantle wedge. The negative εHf(t) (-8.26), Hf model age (TDMC) of 1406 Ma and the presence of inherited zircons (ca. 470 and 506 Ma) indicate that the diorite has assimilated older crustal material. The alkaline, metaluminous (A-type) aplite is characterized by HFSE enrichment and depletions in Sr, P and Ti, distinct from the basaltic rocks and diorite porphyry at Qiaoxiahala. The low Mg# (35-38), positive Zr and Hf, positive εHf(t) (4.77-9.75) and εNd(t) (6.85-6.86) and low T2DM (538-520 Ma) suggest a juvenile lower crustal source due to partial melting of basaltic lower crust as a result of underplating of mantle-derived melts and accompanied by magma mixing. The tectonic evolution of the Paleozoic East

  8. Spatial-temporal framework for the closure of the Junggar Ocean in central Asia: New SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of the ophiolitic mélange and collisional igneous rocks in the Zhifang area, East Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Jiang, Neng; Li, Xian-Hua; Wu, Chu; Qu, Xun; Zhou, Gang; Dong, Lian-Hui

    2015-11-01

    The closure time of the Junggar Ocean is one of the hottest topics surrounding the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of the ophiolitic mélange and collisional igneous rocks in the Zhifang area, East Junggar. Our new results reveal the following evidence: (1) the West Hill ophiolitic mélange in the Zhifang area contains segments of the 371 Ma MORB-type layered rocks and 363 Ma oceanic islands, which were intruded by the 348 Ma syn-collisional quartz diorites; (2) the ophiolitic mélange and 348 Ma syn-collisional quartz diorites are overlain by the 342 Ma andesitic tuffs; and (3) the 342 Ma andesitic tuffs and successive 332 Ma granodiorites-gabbro were formed at late-collisional setting, whereas the 314 Ma granitic porphyry at post-collisional setting. We suggest that the Junggar Ocean in the Zhifang area was opened before 371 Ma and 363 Ma, and possibly closed before 348 Ma. By combining the published U-Pb ages of the Mayile-Tangbale-Darbute-Kalamaili-Zhifang-Daheishan (MTDKZD) ophiolite belt, Early-Carboniferous volcanic rocks unconformably overlying the MTDKZD ophiolite belt, bimodal volcanic rocks and granitoids within and adjacent to the MTDKZD ophiolite belt, it is suggested that the Junggar Ocean was possibly opened scissors-like from the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Mayile-Tangbale ocean eastwards through the Silurian-Devonian Darbute-Karamay ocean finally to the Devonian-Early-Carboniferous Kalamaili-Zhifang ocean, and closed scissors-like from the Zhifang-Kalamaili area in the eastern segment westwards to the Darbute-Karamay area in the western segment. Tectonic collage between the Yemaquan-Xiemisitai arc and Junggar block occurred at approximately 343-348 Ma. The Junggar orogenic belt went through late-collisional stage at 343-330 Ma, post-collisional period after 330 Ma, and post-collisional extensional regime after 320 Ma with an intensive stage at around 303 Ma.

  9. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  10. Provenance of the southern Junggar Basin in the Jurassic: Evidence from detrital zircon geochronology and depositional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yanan; Wu, Chaodong; Guo, Zhaojie; Hou, Kejun; Dong, Lin; Wang, Luxin; Li, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the provenance of the southern Junggar Basin during the late Triassic to early Cretaceous, based on the detrital U-Pb geochronology, petrography and depositional environments. Eight sandstone samples from the Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb dating. A total of 794 effective U-Pb ages was obtained and divided into four groups: 488-2537 Ma (basement zircons), 328-482 Ma (subduction-related magmatic zircons), 254-322 Ma (post-collisional magmatic zircons), and 135-250 Ma (syndepositional magmatic zircons). These ages relate to three stages of basin evolution. (1) From the early to middle Jurassic, Tian Shan experienced continued exhumation, accompanied by progressive southward expansion of the Junggar Basin, and a peneplain was formed by the time Xishanyao Formation was deposited. Organic-rich sediments formed in a delta environment were well-developed in the southern Junggar Basin, with source rocks gradually switching from post-collisional volcanic rocks (295-307 Ma with a peak age of 300 Ma) of the southern North Tian Shan to post-collisional volcanic rocks of the Central Tian Shan (280-320 Ma with a peak age of 316 Ma) and then to subduction-related island arc rocks (402-423 Ma with a peak age of 415 Ma) of the Central Tian Shan. (2) During deposition of the Toutunhe and Qigu Formations, large scale volcanic activities occurred along the North Tian Shan Fault. Source rocks at this time include syndepositional volcanic rocks (151-161 Ma), and post-collisional volcanic rocks (290-320 Ma) of the North Tian Shan. By the time of deposition of the Kalazha Formation, Tian Shan experienced rapid tectonic uplift, leading to rapid lake regression. Alluvial fans were well developed in the southern Junggar Basin with source rocks being the underlying sedimentary strata of the north margin of the North Tian Shan. (3) During the early Cretaceous, exhumation of the Tian Shan and lake transgression in

  11. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  12. Petrogenesis of the Seleteguole granitoids from Jinhe county in Xinjiang (West China): Implications for the tectonic transformation of Northwest Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Su, Wen-Chao; Tang, Hong-Feng; Yan, Jia-Hui; Cao, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The Seleteguole Cu-Mo deposit in Jinghe County, Xinjiang is tectonically located on the northern margin of the Northwestern Tianshan. Three major intrusions including biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have been identified. The biotite granite, with a zircon U-Pb age of 307 ± 3 Ma, intruded carbonates and clastic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous Dongtujin Formation. The younger diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, with an identical zircon U-Pb age of 302 ± 3 Ma, locally intruded the biotite granite; where the granite in contact with the two porphyries were characterized by phyllic alteration. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that all granitoids in Seleteguole belong to calc-alkaline I-type. These granitoids are enriched in LILE relative to HFSE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, typical of arc-related rocks. All three granitoids have positive zircon εHf(t) values, low Mg# ratios (34-39), and low Cr (< 60 ppm) and Ni (< 15 ppm) contents, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from juvenile lower crust that has probably originated from cooling of mantle-derived magmas as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. Subducted sediments were involved in the source of the granitoids in Seleteguole. Compared to biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have higher Th/La ratios but lower zircon εHf(t) values, indicating that more subducted sediments contributed in the latter two. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Late Carboniferous igneous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that Late Carboniferous I-type granitoids, with juvenile Sr-Nd-(Hf) isotopic signatures, formed in a continent-marginal arc setting as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the Early Permian granitoids in the region, we suggest that the tectonic setting of

  13. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (⩽0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, Σ14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and δ 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y decrease, while F, Li, Rb, Hf, Ta, Sn, Sc, Ga and Zn increase. (6) K/Rb, Al/Ga, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho decrease, and K/Cs, Th/U (La/Lu) CN and TE 1,3 (quantification factor of REE tetrad effect) increase. (7) There is a general decrease in whole-rock δ 18O from 9.25‰ to 9.75‰ in zone-a to 7.32‰ in zone-e. (8) Homogenization temperatures of melt inclusions in quartz decrease from about 860 °C for zone-a to about 660 °C for zone-e. It is interpreted that crystallisation of the magma started from zone-a and proceeded upwards to zone-e, and the vertical zoning is produced by fractional crystallisation accompanied by fluid-melt interaction. Some of the distinctive features of zone-e were caused by influx and reaction of meteoric fluid at the post-magmatic stage. Turbulent structures and co-magmatic deformation textures are well recorded in the rocks, and are ascribed to reduced viscosity and enhanced flow rate of the F- and H 2O-rich magma.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal status of spring ephemerals in the desert ecosystem of Junggar Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z Y; Feng, G; Christie, P; Li, X L

    2006-06-01

    A survey was made of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of 73 spring ephemeral plant species that grow in the desert ecosystem of Junggar Basin, northwest China. The proportion of AM colonization ranged from 7 to 73% with a mean value of 30%. A total of 65 plant species studied were AM with coils/arbuscules or vesicles and the remaining eight species were possibly AM with no coils/arbuscules or vesicles but with fungal mycelia in the root cortex. AM fungal spores were isolated from rhizosphere samples of all 73 plant species and identified. The mean spore density was 22 per 20 ml of air-dried soil, ranging from 0 to 120. Colonization and spore density of perennials were slightly higher than of annuals and varied among different plant families. A total of 603 AM fungal spore (or sporocarp) specimens were isolated belonging to six genera, Acaulospora, Archaeopora, Entrophospora, Glomus, Paraglomus, and Scutellospora; Glomus was the dominant genus. We conclude that spring ephemerals may be highly dependent on AM associations for survival in the very infertile and arid soils of this desert ecosystem.

  15. Plant conservation priorities of Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. P.; Cui, W. H.; Wang, T.; Tian, S.; Xing, W. J.; Yin, L. K.; Abdusalih, N.; Jiang, Y. M.

    2017-02-01

    As an important region in the Silk Road, Xinjiang is getting a good chance of developing economy. However at the same time, its natural environment is facing a big challenge. To better protect the plant diversity, it is urgent to make a thorough conservation plan. With a full database of vascular and medicinal plant distributions and nature reserve plant lists and boundaries in Xinjiang of China, we analysed the plant diversity hotspots, protection gaps and proposed the plant conservation priorities of this region. Differed from the widely accepted viewpoints that lots of plants were not included in nature reserves, we found that most of the plants ( > 90%) were actually included in the current nature reserves. We believe that compared with establishing more nature reserves, improving the management of the existing ones is also important. Furthermore, the very few unprotected plants ( < 10%) were distributed mostly in the regions of Aletai, Tacheng, Zhaosu, Manasi, Qitai and Hetian which could be the future conservation priorities.

  16. The Uyghur Insurgency in Xinjiang: The Success Potential

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    and opportunities between various ethnicities. To exacerbate these problems, the extent of development in urban and rural areas of Xinjiang differs...reside in less- developed rural areas. The average income of a Han employee in Xinjiang in different sectors is approximately 68 percent higher than

  17. Earthquake-ponded sediments as a high-resolution archive of Anthropocene climate change on the Fuyun Fault (Xinjiang, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Stephen; Gouramanis, Chris; Etchebes, Marie; Klinger, Yann; Gao, Mingxing; Switzer, Adam; Tapponnier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution, late-Holocene climate patterns in arid central Asia, in particular the behaviour of the Asian Monsoon and occurrences of precipitation events, are not yet fully understood. In particular, few high-resolution palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate studies are available from the Junggar-Altay region in the Xinjiang Province, northwestern China. This area is tectonically active and the last large earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred along the Fuyun strike-slip fault in 1931, resulting in ˜6m of right-lateral movement. South of the epicentre at Karaxingar, this earthquake resulted in the construction of large scarp-bounded ponds (46o43'N, 89o55'E) now filled with sediment. Sediment samples were collected every centimetre at a two-meter deep trench where the main pond was the deepest. The majority of the AMS 14C ages of charcoal and plant fibre samples are modern (56±34 to 171±34 yr BP) with the exception of a few much older carbon (842±26 to 2017±26 yr BP) at the base of the trench. The post-1931 age of the pond is validated by the 137Cs and 210Pb age-depth chronology. Each sediment sample was analysed for organic, carbonate and clastic contents and particle-size. This high-resolution analysis revealed eleven upward-fining sequences, with three prominent grain size peaks at depths of 1.7m, 0.95m and 0.6m below ground surface, suggesting three major modern precipitation events. The 11 grain-size peaks since 1931 in the pond coincide with 11 periods of increased precipitation measured in high-elevation tree-ring records ˜50 km north of the pond. Thus, low-altitude post-seismic sedimentary depocentres provide excellent high-resolution palaeoclimate archives that can fill a significant data gap where other proxy records are not available.

  18. Structural geology and tectonic significance of foreland thrust belts, Tarim and Junggar basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.L.; Chu, J.; Corroll, A.R.; Hendrix, M.S.; Wang, X.; Graham, S.A.; Liang, Y.H.; Wang, Z.X.; Xiao, X.

    1989-03-01

    The Kalpin uplift, located on the northwestern margin of the Tarim basin is characterized by a series of thin, southeast-vergent thrust plates modified by strike-slip faults. Each thrust plate repeats a sedimentary sequence consisting of upper Proterozoic through Permian shallow marine to nonmarine carbonates and clastics. Tertiary rocks as young as Neogene are affected by the deformation. The most basinward thrust sheet abuts the Bachu uplift, an older structural feature trending almost perpendicular to the thrusts. Sedimentary rocks as old as late Proterozoic are exposed in the Bachu uplift, which apparently represents a west-vergent Late Silurian to Early Devonian thrust belt. An unconformable Silurian-Devonian contact, the presence of Devonian red beds, and another unconformable contact separating Devonian from Upper Carboniferous strata support the interpretation of a middle Paleozoic deformational event. Another unconformity, at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, apparently coincides with the time of collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of central Asia. The Shihezi fold trend, located in the southern Junggar basin, consists of three lines of surface anticlines trending parallel to the axis of the Urumqi foredeep. A thick sequence of Mesozoic and Cenozoic nonmarine sedimentary rocks accumulated in the growing foredeep. Mesozoic and Paleogene strata are deformed in the southern foldbelt, with Jurassic rocks forming the cores of these thrusted anticlines. The Qigu oil field is located in this southern belt. Deformed Neogene and Quaternary strata are exposed in the thrusted anticlines of the middle and northern foldbelts. The Dushanzi oil field is located in the northern belt. The episodic development of compressional structures in northwestern China documents the accretion of a number of tectonic units to the growing southern margin of central Asia through time.

  19. Mesozoic tectonically driven climatic partitioning of the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Brassell, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed basin analysis of Mesozoic strata exposed in the south Junggar and north Tarim foreland basin Mesozoic depocenters, northwest China, has documented periodic structural reactivation of the intervening Tian Shan during that era. Coarse alluvial pulses, contained in an otherwise relatively fine-grained section of fluvial lacustrine sediments, were shed off both the north and south flanks of the Tian Shan during the Late Triassic, Latest Jurassic, and late Cretaceous. The lofty modern Tian Shan and associated rain shadow cast over the Tarim basin to the south reflect deformation associated with the early Cenozoic Himalayan collision; so too were the two basins climatically partitioned during the Mesozoic in response to relief produced by orogenesis. During prolonged episodes of relative tectonic quiescence, it appears that Tian Shan relief was too low to confine moisture to the windward side of the range. Most notable is the Middle Jurassic section that is dominated in both basins by a relatively fine-grained series of organic-rich, meandering fluvial, and lacustrine sediments. Pyrolytic analyses of organic-rich mudstones associated with these sediments document high H.I. kerogens, suggesting algal-dominated organic matter typical of anoxic lacustrine settings. However, detailed GC-MS biomarker analysis of the alipaphatic fraction also suggests substantial input from higher land plants in addition to algal sources. Not only are n-alkane distributions typically dominated by high molecular weight compounds with an odd-over-even preference typical of higher land plants, but the abundance of specific diterpenoid biomarker compounds strongly suggests the development of widespread coniferous forests on either side of the range during the Middle Jurassic.

  20. The origin and formation model of Permian dolostones on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinchuan; Shi, Ji'an; Zhang, Shuncun; Zou, Niuniu; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Shengyin

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of dolostone formation and establishes a dolomitization model in the Permian strata on the northwestern margin of Junggar Basin, China. Dolomitic rock samples are collected from the Permian Fengcheng Formation in Urho area and then characterized by petrological, mineralogical, carbon and oxygen isotope, and trace element geochemical analyses. Results show that the major types of dolomitic rocks include dolomitic mudstone, dolomitic siltstone, dolomitized tuffaceous siltstone, and dolomitized tuffaceous mudstone. The dolomitized rocks are dominated by euhedral or subhedral powder- and fine-crystal dolomites formed by replacement lacustrine argilla-calcareous and siliceous (tuffaceous) components and commonly filled with residual and late calcite cements. The parameters of dolomitic rocks show great variations, including the V/Ni ratio (1.02-4.88), Sr content (95.9-783.6 μg/g), Mg/Ca ratio (0.68-5.13), degree of ordering (0.39-1.00), δ18OPDB (-14.8‰ to 3.2‰), and δ13CPDB (-1‰ to 5.2‰). The dolomitic rocks have multi-stage origins and were formed in a semi-closed continental brackish-saltwater bay with weak hydrodynamic processes, deep water bodies, and relatively quiet conditions. In the Permian depositional stage, a combination of complex tectonic activities, fault development, hot subtropical climate, and frequent volcanic activities provided not only Mg2+ source for dolomitization but also channels for rapid flow and seepage of Mg-rich fluids. The origins of dolostones in the study area include penecontemporaneous dolomitization, burial dolomitization, and hydrothermal dolomitization. This study lays a foundation for further studies on dolomite formation and dolomite reservoir, and provides effective methods for researching complex dolostone (tuffaceous, shale and silty dolomite) formation.

  1. Genesis of ilmenite-series I-type granitoids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Hollings, Pete; Jin, LuYing

    2016-03-01

    The Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit is a typical reduced porphyry Cu deposit, likely related to ilmenite-series I-type granitoids. However, the nature of the granitoids (ilmenite-series or magnetite-series) and the genesis of the Baogutu deposit are still under debate. In order to resolve these issues, whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotopic compositions were carried out. Three different intrusive phases are recognized within the deposit, from oldest to youngest, they are diorite with trace gabbro, diorite-granodiorite porphyry, and hornblende diorite porphyry, all of which were emplaced in the Late Carboniferous (320-306 Ma) and show a metaluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granitoid character with typical supra-subduction zone geochemical affinities. The intrusions are characterized by widespread primary pyrrhotite without anhydrite and hematite, dominant ilmenite over magnetite, low whole rock magnetic susceptibility (< 1 × 10- 4 emu g- 1 oe- 1 or < 3 × 10- 3 SI unit) and low whole rock Fe2O3/FeO ratios (< 0.4), indicating that the granitoids are ilmenite- rather than magnetite-series I-type granitoids. Whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show limited variation but slightly enriched characteristics with (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.70357-0.70404, εNd (t) of + 6.3 to + 7.8, 206Pb/204Pb of 18.20-19.54 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.97-39.55. Zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions show εHf (t) values of + 10.7 to + 15.8 and δ18O of 5.3-7.4‰. Zircon and apatite saturation thermometries yield temperatures of 720 to 920 °C with relatively higher temperatures for the porphyries than for the diorite. Limited variations in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopic compositions and extremely young whole rock T2DM (Nd) (430 to 570 Ma) and zircon TDMC (Hf) (310 to 640 Ma) do not indicate significant crustal contamination during magma ascent or emplacement. Rather the Baogutu ilmenite-series I-type granitoids were probably formed by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magma and juvenile lower crust-derived felsic magma. Their relatively enriched characteristics and low oxidation state were probably inherited from magma sources (mantle wedge and juvenile lower crust) that had been previously contaminated with less than 8% of subducted oceanic sediments and reduced by CH4-bearing volatiles released from the asthenospheric mantle through a slab window.

  2. The spatial distribution and movement of the spring soil moisture in the hinter land of Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Congju; Lei, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xueqin; Jiang, Jin

    2003-07-01

    The exploitation of resources and an increase in civil engineering projects in the Junggar Basin has caused major environmental disturbance to the fragile desert eco-system. It is a serious problem that attracts global attention on how to restore and reconstruct the stable natural eco-system. Understanding soil moisture content and lateral water movement in arid areas, at a shallow depth, is of practical importance. On the one hand, lateral flow can be expected to reduce the groundwater recharge rate. On the other hand, it may result in a strong variability of water resources over short distances, thus affecting the distribution and composition of the vegetal cover. The eolian soil moisture condition is the primary factor that affects desert plant-cover in the hinter land of Junggar Basin, especially in spring (from March to May). With neutron probe, through field calibration, the soil moisture changes in different terrain parts, which are the crest, slope, the foot of the natural and disturbed dunes and the interdune land were measured. The data shows that the spatial distribution of the soil moisture in spring is closely related to the sun radiation, the depth of snow in winter, landscape position, the depth of soil, plant cover condition (cover-degree, plant species), and human impact. The data also provides scientific information and instruction for restoring and reconstructing the eco-system that has been damaged by engineering disturbance.

  3. [Community structure of Great Gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) parasitic fleas in Junggar Basin focus and related epizootiological characteristics on plague].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-jiang; A, Zati; Luo, Tao; Abu, Likemu; Wang, Qi-guo; Abu, Limiti; Li, Bing; Meng, Wei-wei; Guo, Rong; Dai, Xiang; Cao, Han-li

    2013-11-01

    To understand the community structure of Rhombomys opimus parasitic fleas in the natural plague focus in Junggar Basin, so as to explain the relationship between the community structure and the prevalence of animal plague in this area. The body fleas of R.opimus which were collected in 2005-2010 from the Junggar Basin was analysed by community ecology method, an each clustered flea community was compared with information of pathogenic and serological indicators of animal plague epidemic by statistic method. The community structure of R. opimus parasitic fleas included 19 species and was very complicated, with only 3 were identified as 'common' species but the others belonged to 'rare' species. Both the average richness and diversity of flea community were higher, as 1.66 and 1.5556, with dominance not obvious (0.332) and the homogeneity as moderate (0.5283). The community structure of R. opimus parasitic fleas could be changed by the following factors as: the rates of flea parasitic/flea index and the proportions of main fleas etc. The flea community could be divided into 5 clusters according to the above said elements. All these data showed that the fleas of R. opimus parasitic fleas possess the nature of multi-parasitism. The community of R. opimus parasitic fleas existed heterogeneous of geographic region, and this phenomenon associated with the animal plague epidemic strength.

  4. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  5. Sedimentary record and climatic implications of recurrent deformation in the Tian Shan: Evidence from Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Sobel, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, paleocurrent, and subsidence analyses were conducted on Mesozoic nonmarine sedimentary sections of the south Junggar, north Tarim, and Turpan basins, Xinjang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest China. These three basins have been foreland basins throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, as demonstrated by asymmetrically distributed basinwide sediment accumulations, foreland-style subsidence profiles, and a variety of outcrop and subsurface facies data. Mesozoic paleocurrent indicators measured in the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, as well as Mesozoic sandstone compositions from both basins, indicate that the intervening Tian Shan has existed as a positive physiographic feature partitioning the two basins throughout Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Paleocurrent, facies, and subsurface isopach data suggest that the Turpan basin was established as a discrete feature by the Early Jurassic period. The timing and style of depositional systems within the north Tarim Mesozoic depocenter, the south Junggar Mesozoic depocenter, and the central Turpan basin are remarkably similar. Upper Triassic strata of each basin consist of alluvial conglomerate and associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone which fine upward into lower through Middle Jurassic, locally organic-rich, meandering-fluvial, and lacustrine strata. Upper Jurassic braided-fluvial red beds in each basin are overlain by a distinct pulse of uppermost Jurassic alluvial conglomerate. Lower Cretaceous exposures consist of fine-grained red beds in north Tarim and Turpan and interbedded red and gray shale with local silty carbonates in south Junggar. Upper Cretaceous strata of the north Tarim and south Junggar basins are composed of alluvial conglomerate with associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone. 94 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  7. Carboniferous Proto-type Basin Evolution of Junggar Basin in Northwest China: Implications for the Growth Models of Central Asia Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Junggar Basin locates in the central part of Paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic domain, and records the dynamic processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt from subduction-accretion-collision to later intracontinental deformations. Carboniferous is the key period from subduction to closure in the tectonic evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean. Based on the borehole, outcrop, seismic and gravity and magnetic anomaly data, the paper made analysis of the Carboniferous basin evolution.Geo-chronological results for the borehole volcanic rocks suggest that the Junggar Basin and adjacent area had five periods of volcanic activities, including two periods in the Early Carboniferous (359-347Ma 347-331Ma and 331-324Ma) and three periods in the Late Carboniferous (323-307Ma and 307-300Ma). Regional unconformities divided the Carboniferous into two tectono-stratigraphic sequences: Lower Carboniferous and Upper Carboniferous. The former is characterized by compressional structures and involves massive calc-alkaline basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites, whereas the later is mainly controlled by extensional faults and dominated by intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks, with bimodal volcanic rocks in parts. The paper determined four Carboniferous arc-basin belts in the Junggar Basin and adjacent area from north to south: the Saur-Fuhai-Dulate, Heshituoluogai-Wulungu-Yemaquan, Darbut-Luliang-Karamaili, and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai, and identified multi-type basins, such as fore-arc basin, retro-arc basin, intra-arc rift basin, foreland basin and passive continental margin basin,etc.. The Carboniferous proto-type basin evolution of the Junggar Basin can be divided into three phases such as, the early to middle Early Carboniferous subduction-related compressional phase, the late Early Carboniferous to middle Late Carboniferous subduction-related extensional phase and the late Late Carboniferous intra-continental fault-sag phase. The study discloses that the Junggar Basin is likely

  8. A new genus of aplodontid rodent (Mammalia, Rodentia) from the late Oligocene of northern Junggar Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shundong; Meng, Jin; McLean, Sarah; Wu, Wenyu; Ni, Xijun; Ye, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of aplodontid rodent, Proansomys dureensis, from the late Oligocene of the northern Junggar Basin of China is described. The new genus is referred to as Ansomyinae because the ectoloph on the upper cheek teeth, although not fully crested, has attained the same characteristic bucket-handle-shaped configuration as other members of the subfamily. It represents the earliest record of the subfamily yet discovered in Asia and is more plesiomorphic than species of the genus Ansomys in having a partly crested ectoloph, a lower degree of lophodonty, and less complex tooth basins (lacking accessory lophules). Proansomys has transitional features between Prosciurus and Ansomys, suggesting that the Ansomyinae derived from a group of aplodontids related to Prosciurus, as did other advanced aplodontid rodents. This provides new light on the paleobiogeography of the Ansomyinae.

  9. Sedimentology, organic geochemistry, and petroleum potential of Jurassic coal measures: Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan Basins, Northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Brassell, S.C.; Carroll, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    Lower and Middle Jurassic coal-bearing strata occur widely throughout central Asia and are well developed in northwestern China, where their thicknesses in the southern Junggar, northern Tarim, and Turpan basins exceed 2500, 2300, and 1500 m, respectively. Examination of these strata along 13 transacts across basin margin outcrop belts indicates that they are entirely nonmarine meandering fluvial deposits with local development of braided fluvial and lacustrine deltaic facies. Chinese subsurface data suggest that regional Jurassic lacustrine facies are present down depositional dip, consistent with predictions from global circulation modeling of Early and Middle Jurassic monsoonal precipitation. Laboratory analyses of coals and organic-rich shales show a dominance of terrestrial, higher plant components. Visual kerogen analysis indicates that vitrinite, inertinite, and exinite are the dominant macerals, and elemental analysis characterizes most kerogens as type III. Rock-Eval analyses yield moderate hydrogen index values (50-300) and very low oxygen index values (<20). Jurassic source rock extracts are characterized by odd-over-even normal alkane distributions, high pristane/phytane and high hopane/sterane ratios, dominance of C{sub 29} sterane homologs, local abundance of diterpenoid compounds, and low abundance of tricyclic terpanes. Geochemical correlation with four petroleums from the Junggar, Tarim, and Turpan basins strongly suggests that the Jurassic coaly deposits and their lacustrine equivalents downdip are petroleum source rocks. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography of selected Jurassic samples suggests that they possess potential for liquid hydrocarbon generation. Expulsion of C{sub 15+}, hydrocarbons from Jurassic source rocks appears likely, despite the traditional view that bituminous coals are incapable of expelling long-chain hydrocarbons.

  10. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  11. Regional distribution of longevity population and chemical characteristics of natural water in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Lin; Luo, Kun-Li; Lin, Xiao-Xu; Gao, Xing; Ni, Run-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Bin; Tian, Xing-Lei

    2014-03-01

    Xinjiang Province, China is recognized for the longevity of its inhabitants. To study the temporal and spatial variation of longevity region and chemical characteristics of natural water of longevity region in Xinjiang, three population censuses on county-level and 51 natural water samples from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang were collected and analyzed. 103 natural water samples were collected from the public papers. Population statistics on county-level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC) in Southern Xinjiang was 7.4(year 1990), 4.9(year 2000) and 2.1 times (year 2010) more than that of Northern Xinjiang, respectively. And distribution of the longevity index (LI%), centenarity index (CI%) and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65 year-old subjects (UC) on county-level decreased from south to north. Natural water in Northern Xinjiang was mainly fresh soft water, and it was mainly fresh hard water and brackish hard water in Southern Xinjiang. Water quality of natural water in Northern Xinjiang was superior compare to that of Southern Xinjiang, while number of centenarians 65 year-old & over per 10,000 subjects in Northern Xinjiang were less than that of Southern Xinjiang before 2010. The research indicates that keeping on drinking water with high total hardness (TH) and Mg/Ca ratio might be good for the health.

  12. Provenance and depositional conditions of fluvial conglomerates and sandstones and their controlling processes in a rift setting, mid-Permian lower and upper Quanzijie low order cycles, Bogda Mountains, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist-Farner, Jonathan; Yang, Wan

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates how provenance lithology, transport distance, and depositional and paleoclimatic conditions had affected the composition and texture of fluvial conglomerates and sandstones in the Middle Permian lower and upper Quanzijie low-order cycles, Bogda Mountains, greater Turpan-Junggar intracontinental rift basin, NW China. Composition and texture of gravels in conglomerates and sandstones define two conglomerate and two sandstone petrofacies, respectively, in Tarlong-Taodonggou area in southern Bogda and Dalongkou area 70 km to the north in northern Bogda. Conglomerate Petrofacies I occurs in Tarlong-Taodonggou and is dominated by basaltic gravels, whereas Conglomerate Petrofacies II occurs mainly in Dalongkou and is dominated by sedimentary gravels. Sandstone Petrofacies I occurs in Tarlong-Taodonggou and contains dominantly basaltic lithics, few sedimentary lithics, and minimal quartz. It is compositionally immature and texturally immature to submature. The compositional maturity increases upsection. Conglomerate Petrofacies I and sandstone Petrofacies I both indicate the young Tian Shan arc to the south as the main sediment source and rift shoulders as a local source. Sandstone Petrofacies II occurs in Dalongkou and contains dominantly sedimentary lithics and abundant and well-developed pedogenic clay coats. The petrofacies in Dalongkou indicate older rift sedimentary rocks exposed at rift shoulders as the main sediment source and distant suture zones as a minor source. In summary, the composition and texture of Quanzijie conglomerates and sandstones are mainly controlled by provenance lithology and, secondarily, depositional and paleoclimatic conditions and transport distance. The results substantiate the rift origin of the Turpan-Junggar basin in Middle Permian, which had many half-grabens and grabens and was bordered by a volcanic arc at the southern basin margin.

  13. Paleomagnetic study on the Neoproterozoic mafic dikes and Early Permian volcanic-sedimentary rocks from NW Yili Block (NW China): Implications for post-orogenic kinematic evolution of the SW CAOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Chen, Yan; Liu, Hongsheng; Shu, Liangshu; Faure, Michel

    2016-04-01

    As one of the largest accretionary orogens of the world, the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has been the focus of geological studies in the last decades. However, several key points are still in hot debate, such as the formation process of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the intracontinental movements among constituent blocks of the CAOB. In order to better understand these questions, we conducted a paleomagnetic study on the Neoproterozoic (ca. 780 Ma) mafic dikes and Early Permian (ca. 268 Ma) volcanic and sedimentary rocks from NW of the Yili Block (NW China). Ten sites have been sampled from three mafic dikes. The thickness of dikes varies from 10 to 40 meters. At about 15 km west of the mafic dikes, 4 sites were drilled in the Lower Permian basalts and limestones that unconformably overlay the Neoproterozoic mafic dikes. Mineralogical investigations show the titanium-poor magnetite as the major magnetic remanence carrier. Stepwise alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetizations reveal two-component magnetizations. The low temperature (coercivity) component shows a viscous and unstable magnetic remanence, whereas the high temperature (coercivity) component stably decays toward to the origin and is considered as the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). All ChRMs isolated from both the mafic dikes and volcanic-sedimentary samples exclusively show a reversed magnetic polarity. Based on the following 3 arguments, we suggest that the Neoprotozoic mafic dikes have been remagnetized in the Early Permian. 1. International reference of magnetostratigraphic polarity shows a dominance of the normal polarity for the Neoproterozoic period and a superchron of the reversed polarity for the late Carboniferous-Permian; 2. Two groups of sampling show coherent paleomagnetic poles with an undistinguishable angular difference; and 3. The widespread Early Permian magmatism in the sampling area could be the cause of the remagnetization. Consequently, an Early Permian

  14. A retreating fan-delta system in the Northwestern Junggar Basin, northwestern China-Characteristics, evolution and controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Haibo; Ji, Hancheng; Li, Xinwei; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Linsheng; Gao, Yan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we use seismic reflection, logging and core data to investigate the depositional systems and their controlling factors in the lower Triassic in the northwestern margin of Junggar basin. The succession shows strong lateral and vertical facies variation. The facies associations indicate the development of conglomeratic fan-delta system, with characteristics of fining-upward and landward migration of facies belts. A critical balance between progradation, aggradation, and retrogradation controlled the evolution of delta successions within an overall transgressive regime. Migration of the locus of active faulting exerted the primary control on fan-delta thickness. Variations on the sandy component and gravel type within the fan-delta system among different units indicate the control of provenance. The climate significantly influenced the mode of sediment transfer from the feeder system to the basin. The significant climate change from arid to humid played a primary role in controlling the fan-delta architecture. Our study suggests that in tectonic-active basin, the controls of tectonics on the sequence stratigraphy are still fundamental. However, during the tectonic quiescence or rift-depression transition stage, significant changes of climate would play a primary role in controlling the sediment dispersal. The current study reveals that the hydrocarbon reservoir shows a landward migration trend within a retreating fan-delta system.

  15. Cation exchange capacity (Qv) estimation in shaly sand reservoirs: case studies in the Junggar Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Chun; Luo, Xing-Ping; Deng, Ren-Shuang; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Ren, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Cation exchange capacity (Qv) is a key parameter in resistivity-based water saturation models of shaly sand reservoirs, and the accuracy of Qv calculation is crucial to the prediction of saturations of oil and gas. In this study, a theoretical expression of Qv in terms of shaly sand permeability (Kshaly-sand), total porosity (ϕt), and salinity of formation water (S) is deduced based on the capillary tube model and the physics volume model. Meanwhile, the classical Schlumberger-Doll research (SDR) model has been introduced to estimate Kshaly-sand. On this basis, a novel technique to estimate Qv from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed, and the corresponding model is also established, whose model parameters are calibrated by laboratory Qv and NMR measurements of 15 core samples from the Toutunhe formation of the Junggar Basin, northwest China. Based on the experimental data sets, this technique can be extended to reservoir conditions to estimate continuous Qv along the intervals. The processing results of field examples illustrate that the Qv calculated from field NMR logs are consistent with the analyzed results, with the absolute errors within the scope of  ±0.1 mmol cm-3 for the majority of core samples.

  16. Geochemical characterization of Lucaogou Formation and its correlation of tight oil accumulation in Jimsar Sag of Junggar Basin, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jiangxiu; Ding, Xiujian; Zha, Ming; Chen, Hong; Gao, Changhai; Wang, Zimeng

    2017-01-01

    With the constant consumption of conventional oil and gas resources, unconventional oil and gas resources with great resource potential such as tight oil have gradually been valued and become the new exploration area. Jimsar Sag is the key tight oil exploration and development block in Junggar Basin of Northwestern China. Based on the data sets of geology, oil production test, logging, rock thin section, and geochemistry of Permian Lucaogou Formation (LCG), we studied the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and their relation to the tight oil accumulation. Organic matter abundance of source rocks is high, the types of organic matter are mainly type I and type II, and the organic matter maturation is in the low mature stage to mature stage. Results of oil source correlation showed that the crude oil of sweet spots was mainly derived from the source rocks in the interior of the sweet spots. The LCG tight oil is mainly distributed in the plane where the source rocks have great thickness and the TOC is higher than 3.5%. It shows that the source rocks have obvious controlling on the occurrence and accumulation of tight oil.

  17. Origin of dolomitic rocks in the lower Permian Fengcheng formation, Junggar Basin, China: evidence from petrology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shifa; Qin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Wei, Chengjie; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Although dolomitization of calcite minerals and carbonatization of volcanic rocks have been studied widely, the extensive dolomitic rocks that originated from altered volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have not been reported. The dolomitic rocks of the Fengcheng Formation in the Junggar Basin of China appear to be formed under unusual geologic conditions. The petrological and geochemical characteristics indicate that the dolomitizing host rock is devitrified volcanic tuff. After low-temperature alteration and calcitization, these tuffaceous rocks are replaced by Mg-rich brine to form massive dolomitic tuffs. We propose that the briny (with -2 ‰ 6 ‰ of δ13CPDB and -5 ‰ 4 ‰ of δ18OPDB) and Mg-rich marine formation water (with 0.7060 0.7087 of 87Sr/86Sr ratio), the thick and intermediate-mafic volcanic ashes, and the tectonically compressional movement may have favored the formation of the unusual dolomitic rocks. We conclude that the proposed origin of the dolomitic rocks can be extrapolated to other similar terranes with volcaniclastic rocks, seabed tuffaceous sediment, and fracture filling of sill.

  18. Origin of dolomitic rocks in the lower Permian Fengcheng formation, Junggar Basin, China: evidence from petrology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shifa; Qin, Yi; Liu, Xin; Wei, Chengjie; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although dolomitization of calcite minerals and carbonatization of volcanic rocks have been studied widely, the extensive dolomitic rocks that originated from altered volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have not been reported. The dolomitic rocks of the Fengcheng Formation in the Junggar Basin of China appear to be formed under unusual geologic conditions. The petrological and geochemical characteristics indicate that the dolomitizing host rock is devitrified volcanic tuff. After low-temperature alteration and calcitization, these tuffaceous rocks are replaced by Mg-rich brine to form massive dolomitic tuffs. We propose that the briny (with -2 ‰ ~ 6 ‰ of δ13CPDB and -5 ‰ ~ 4 ‰ of δ18OPDB) and Mg-rich marine formation water (with 0.7060 ~ 0.7087 of 87Sr/86Sr ratio), the thick and intermediate-mafic volcanic ashes, and the tectonically compressional movement may have favored the formation of the unusual dolomitic rocks. We conclude that the proposed origin of the dolomitic rocks can be extrapolated to other similar terranes with volcaniclastic rocks, seabed tuffaceous sediment, and fracture filling of sill.

  19. Study on the application of seismic sedimentology in a stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir in central Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yixin; Xia, Zhongmou

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses the research idea of description for stratigraphic-lithologic reservoir based on seismic sedimentology methods. The sandstone reservoir of Jurrassic XiShanyao Formation in Junggar Basin is studied according to the theory and approaches of seismic sedimentology. By making full use of borehole data, the technologies of layer correlation based on the stratigraphic sequence framework, the forward seismic modeling, the stratal slicing and lithologic inversion are applied. It describes the range of denudation line, the distribution characteristics of sedimentary facies of the strata, the vertical and horizontal distribution of sand bodies and the favourable oil-gas bearing prospective area. The results shows that study area are dominated braided delta deposition including underwater distributary channel and distributary bay microfacies, the nip-out lines of the formation are northeast to southwest from north to south, the second Middle Jurassic sand body is the most widely distributed one among three sand bodies, the prospective oil-gas bearing area located in the south part and around the YG2 well area. The study result is effective on the practice of exploration in study area.

  20. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  1. Size-differentiated REE characteristics and environmental significance of aeolian sediments in the Ili Basin of Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuling; Song, Yougui; Li, Jinchan; Fang, Hong; Li, Zhizhong; Liu, Xiuming; Li, Yue; Orozbaev, Rustam

    2017-08-01

    Aeolian loess in the Ili Basin is an important geological archive for studying the changes in paleoclimate and sources of dust particles. Size-differentiated rare earth elements (REE) may help to distinguish potential dust sources. This study investigates the size-differentiated REE characteristics from three sites including the Zhaosu loess and the Kekdala desert sediments from the Ili Basin, and the Chaona loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our results show that the patterns of variation of the REE characteristics in different size fractions can act as improved source tracers for aeolian sediments. Moreover, the REE characteristics of the <2 μm particles are sensitive indicators for distinguishing dust particles transported over long distances in the semi-arid areas with limited pedogenesis such as the Ili Basin. However, it should be interpreted cautiously in the CLP due to the post-depositional chemical weathering. The REE characteristics of coarse fractions are effective tracers for tracking changes in proximal dust sources and regional boundary level circulations. Our study has implications for identifying the exact source(s) of the Ili loess, which is helpful to understand paleoclimate changes and westerly circulation patterns in Central Asia.

  2. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  3. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  4. Stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and C-isotopes of the Permian-Triassic non-marine sequence at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.; Foster, C. B.; Afonin, S. A.; Nicoll, R. S.; Mundil, R.; Xiaofeng, Wang; Lucas, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    Measured lithostratigraphic sections of the classic Permian-Triassic non-marine transitional sequences covering the upper Quanzijie, Wutonggou, Guodikeng and lower Jiucaiyuan Formations at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China are presented. These measured sections form the framework and reference sections for a range of multi-disciplinary studies of the P-T transition in this large ancient lake basin, including palynostratigraphy, vertebrate biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The 121 m thick Wutonggou Formation at Dalongkou includes 12 sandstone units ranging in thickness from 0.5 to 10.5 m that represent cyclical coarse terrigenous input to the lake basin during the Late Permian. The rhythmically-bedded, mudstone-dominated Guodikeng Formation is 197 m and 209 m thick on the north and south limbs of the Dalongkou anticline, respectively, and 129 m thick at Lucaogou. Based on limited palynological data, the Permian-Triassic boundary was previously placed approximately 50 m below the top of this formation at Dalongkou. This boundary does not coincide with any mappable lithologic unit, such as the basal sandstones of the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation, assigned to the Early Triassic. The presence of multiple organic δ13C-isotope excursions, mutant pollen, and multiple algal and conchostracan blooms in this formation, together with Late Permian palynomorphs, suggests that the Guodikeng Formation records multiple climatic perturbation signals representing environmental stress during the late Permian mass extinction interval. The overlap between the vertebrates Dicynodon and Lystrosaurus in the upper part of this formation, and the occurrence of late Permian spores and the latest Permian to earliest Triassic megaspore Otynisporites eotriassicus is consistent with a latest Permian age for at least part of the Guodikeng Formation. Palynostratigrahic placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Junggar Basin remains problematic

  5. "Our Good Han Mothers": Observations from the Xinjiang Class at the Qingshan Superior Secondary School of Wuxi Municipality, Jiangsu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jiaqing; Yang, Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental to the successful running of the Xinjiang Classes are its teachers, many of whom are Han Chinese. This article explores the important roles teachers of the Xinjiang Class play in the lives of Xinjiang Class students inside and outside of the classroom. From homesickness, to hygiene, to scholastic endeavors, Han teacher-mothers…

  6. Primary Carboniferous and Permian paleomagnetic results from the Yili Block (NW China) and their implications on the geodynamic evolution of Chinese Tianshan Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Yan; Zhan, Sheng; Shu, Liangshu; Faure, Michel; Cluzel, Dominique; Charvet, Jacques; Laurent-Charvet, Sébastien

    2007-11-01

    In order to better understand the tectonic role of the Yili Block on the Paleozoic evolution of the Chinese Tianshan Belt, we performed a primary paleomagnetic study on Carboniferous and Permian rocks from different areas in the Yili Block, NW of China. More than 320 sedimentary and volcanic samples were collected from 39 sites. Except for the Ordovician samples showing a weak and unstable magnetic remanence, the majority of this collection presents characteristic remanent magnetization carried by magnetite and hematite. In the study area, though positive fold test has been observed on the Early Carboniferous rocks, a general re-magnetization of these rocks has been identified and attributed to the Late Carboniferous magmatism. Moreover, all Early and Late Carboniferous samples from the interior of the Yili Block yield stable and coherent magnetic directions with exhaustively reverse magnetic polarity. The Late Carboniferous (C 2) is considered as the magnetic remanence age since these rocks are covered or intruded by synchronous magmatic rocks of the Yili arc, which lasted until to ˜ 310 Ma. The C 2 paleomagnetic pole is therefore calculated at 68.6°N, 290.6°E with A 95 = 6.4° and n = 15. The Late Carboniferous rocks located close to a deformation zone present a consistent magnetic inclination but significant different declination with respect to other areas and are suspected to have probably experienced a local rotation. Although no fold test can be performed due to the monoclinal bedding, stable magnetic components are isolated from Late Permian (P 2) red beds in the interior of the Yili Block with also a solo reverse magnetic polarity, the P 2 paleomagnetic pole of the Yili Block has been, therefore, calculated from the characteristic remanent magnetization: 79.7°N, 172.0°E with A 95 = 11.3° and n = 5. Keeping important uncertainties in mind, comparisons of the C 2 and P 2 paleomagnetic poles of the Yili Block with available coeval poles of Junggar

  7. Uyghurs in Xinjiang: United or Divided Against the PRC?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    the Uyghurs has increased. Interest in Uyghurs has expanded primarily for two reasons —reports of alleged human rights abuses against Uyghurs by...Autonomous Region (XUAR) to be of significant importance for economic, political, and security reasons . Xinjiang is China’s largest province, has the...are not a politically consolidated group—they are divided in numerous ways and for various reasons face significant challenges to strengthening

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Distribution in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin

    2017-04-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.

  9. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  10. Cold disasters: the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinjian; He, Qing; Yuan, Yujiang; Tang, Fenglan

    2003-07-01

    After analyzing the heat conditions in the years of serious reduction of cotton yield in the main cotton-growing areas of Xinjiang, it is found that the cold disasters, especially the delaying cold disasters, are the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang.

  11. Present State and Prospects of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang: An Ethnographic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaytulla, Guljennet

    2008-01-01

    This article, based mainly on specific examples from the author's ethnographic fieldwork, outlines the state of bilingual education in Xinjiang and reviews its development. First, a broad outline is presented of the overall circumstances of bilingual education in China and Xinjiang. Next is an introduction to the present state of bilingual…

  12. Fauna of Cladocera and Copepoda from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (China).

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, Elena S; Sinev, Artem Y; Dimante-Deimantovica, Inta

    2017-05-03

    This study evaluates the species composition of Cladocera and Copepoda in the five lakes of the Bogda-Shan Mountain range and in the floodplain of the Tarim and Konchedarya rivers located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang). We collected seven species of Cladocera and six species of Copepoda. Seven species were identified as new for Xinjiang fauna, and two species (Cyclops cf. herberti Einsle, 1996, and Eucyclops roseus Ishida, 1997) were first records for China. Herein, we characterize the distribution ranges for the detected species and provide taxonomic remarks. The total species list for water bodies in Xinjiang compiled from original data and available literature includes 56 species of Cladocera and 33 species of Copepoda. We also discuss the biogeographical structure of Cladocera and Copepoda faunas in Xinjiang.

  13. 9. LOOKING NW FROM EAST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NW FROM EAST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Schuylkill River Viaduct, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%

  15. Origin and accumulation mechanisms of petroleum in the Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Kebai Fault zone, Western Junggar Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhonghong; Zha, Ming; Liu, Keyu; Zhang, Yueqian; Yang, Disheng; Tang, Yong; Wu, Kongyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    The Kebai Fault zone of the West Junggar Basin in northwestern China is a unique region to gain insights on the formation of large-scale petroleum reservoirs in volcanic rocks of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Carboniferous volcanic rocks are widespread in the Kebai Fault zone and consist of basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, tuff, volcanic breccia, sandy conglomerate and metamorphic rocks. The volcanic oil reservoirs are characterized by multiple sources and multi-stage charge and filling history, characteristic of a complex petroleum system. Geochemical analysis of the reservoir oil, hydrocarbon inclusions and source rocks associated with these volcanic rocks was conducted to better constrain the oil source, the petroleum filling history, and the dominant mechanisms controlling the petroleum accumulation. Reservoir oil geochemistry indicates that the oil contained in the Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Kebai Fault zone is a mixture. The oil is primarily derived from the source rock of the Permian Fengcheng Formation (P1f), and secondarily from the Permian Lower Wuerhe Formation (P2w). Compared with the P2w source rock, P1f exhibits lower values of C19 TT/C23 TT, C19+20TT/ΣTT, Ts/(Ts + Tm) and ααα-20R sterane C27/C28 ratios but higher values of TT C23/C21, HHI, gammacerane/αβ C30 hopane, hopane (20S) C34/C33, C29ββ/(ββ + αα), and C29 20S/(20S + 20R) ratios. Three major stages of oil charge occurred in the Carboniferous, in the Middle Triassic, Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, and in the Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic periods, respectively. Most of the oil charged during the first stage was lost, while moderately and highly mature oils were generated and accumulated during the second and third stages. Oil migration and accumulation in the large-scale stratigraphic reservoir was primarily controlled by the top Carboniferous unconformity with better porosity and high oil enrichment developed near the unconformity. Secondary dissolution

  16. [Experimental observation on the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology of Great Gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in the Junggar Basin by subcutaneous injecting of Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Li, B; Azhati, Rehemu; Meng, W W; Luo, T; Li, B; Abulimiti, Maituohuti; Wang, X H; Dai, X; Zhang, Y J

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection. Methods: Forty captured great gerbils from the Junggar Basin that tested negative for anti-F1 antibodies were infected. The Y. pestis strain 2504, isolated from a live great gerbil in the natural plague foci of the Junggar Basin in 2005 with a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of <10 CFU/ml, was used in this study. Forty great gerbils were divided into seven infection groups and were subcutaneously infected with 7.4×10(5), 7.4×10(6), 7.4×10(7), 7.4×10(8), 7.4×10(9), 7.4×10(10), or 3.0×10(11) CFU/ml of 2504. One milliliter of physiological saline was injected in the noninfected group as a control. We collected the liver, spleen, heart, and lung from all animals for histopathologic and ultrastructural pathology examination. Results: Great gerbils in the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups did not survive and exhibited pathological changes and altered ultrastructural pathology. The liver tissue of infected great gerbils showed spotty necrosis and fatty degeneration, intranuclear canaliculi with increased hepatocytes, and uneven distribution of organelles. Additionally, reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, blood sinusoid lacunae with neutrophil infiltration, and phagocytosed bacteria in phagocyte cells were observed. Myocardial fiber hypertrophy and interstitial indistinction, nuclear matrices decreased in cardiac myocytes, and loose arrangement of myogenic fibers in myocardial cells were also observed. Angiectasia, capillary congestion, and tissue necrosis were found in the lung. No significant difference in histopathological and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchymal organ was observed between the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups and the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups, and no specific death caused by Y. pestis infection was apparent in the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups

  17. Genesis analysis of high-gamma ray sandstone reservoir and its log evaluation techniques: a case study from the Junggar basin, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhongchun; Luo, Xingping; Song, Yong; Liu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR) sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs' recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation's high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation.

  18. Genesis Analysis of High-Gamma Ray Sandstone Reservoir and Its Log Evaluation Techniques: A Case Study from the Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Sun, Zhongchun; Luo, Xingping; Song, Yong; Liu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR) sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs' recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation's high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation. PMID:24078797

  19. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Li, De-Xin; Cui, Hui; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Feng, Zi-Jian; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Ning, Jing; Hao, Li-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Ning, Gui-Jun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Jian-Ping; Gou, Ai-li; Zhang, Guo-Min; Huang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Mi, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yan-Min; Yin, Da-Peng; Zhu, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Ji, Yi-Xin; Li, Ke-Li; Tang, Hai-Shu; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-11-21

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was intensified to enhance case ascertainment. Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of 491 healthy persons who were not in contact with affected persons (2.6%). Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. A public health emergency was declared in Xinjiang after the outbreak was confirmed. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was enhanced, with daily reporting from all public and private hospitals. Five rounds of vaccination with live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were administered. Trivalent OPV was used in three rounds, and monovalent OPV type 1 was used in two rounds. The outbreak was stopped 1.5 months after laboratory confirmation of the index case. The 2011 outbreak in China showed that poliomyelitis-free countries remain at risk for outbreaks while the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis.

  20. Comparing interpolation techniques for annual temperature mapping across Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren-ping, Zhang; Jing, Guo; Tian-gang, Liang; Qi-sheng, Feng; Aimaiti, Yusupujiang

    2016-11-01

    Interpolating climatic variables such as temperature is challenging due to the highly variable nature of meteorological processes and the difficulty in establishing a representative network of stations. In this paper, based on the monthly temperature data which obtained from the 154 official meteorological stations in the Xinjiang region and surrounding areas, we compared five spatial interpolation techniques: Inverse distance weighting (IDW), Ordinary kriging, Cokriging, thin-plate smoothing splines (ANUSPLIN) and Empirical Bayesian kriging(EBK). Error metrics were used to validate interpolations against independent data. Results indicated that, the ANUSPLIN performed best than the other four interpolation methods.

  1. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  2. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qinqin, Xu; Jianqing, Ji

    2010-05-01

    As the remnant of ancient oceanic crust, ophiolite is extremely important to reconstruct the framework of ancient ocean and continent. There are several ophiolite belts in Northern Xinjiang, assuming planar distribution, and they are generally related to different faults since Paleozoic in the outcrops. This paper presents a systematic study of geochemistry and geochronology of the gabbro, diabase and basalt of ophiolite collected from different regions in Northern Xinjiang. The intermediate and basic rocks in ophiolite show similar patterns in primitive mantle-normalized REE and trace elements diagrams with MORB and different from IAT, indicating that the ophiolite may be formed in mid-ocean ridge. Their Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions also show that they have mid-ocean ridge environment affinity. Additionally, their Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios are similar respectively, suggesting the same source area, and they also have positive epsilon Nd values(4.40 ~ 8.04), which indicates they likely originate from the depleted mantle. The previous and the author's researches show that the forming time of ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang is early Paleozoic, but 40Ar/39Ar ages of gabbro, diabase and basalt are in the range of 396 ~ 226Ma (mainly from 350 to 250Ma), and no ages of early Paleozoic are gained. Moreover, this time coincides with the timing of late Paleozoic post-collisional plutonism, indicating the ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang was reworked by the late thermal events. The ophiolite widely exposed in Northern Xinjiang have similar characteristics of occurrence, lithologic association and isotopes in spite of diverse special features, which indicates that a relatively uniform and integrated source region has existed in Northern Xinjiang since Paleozoic. It is likely to infer that this source region is related with the long lasting remnant oceanic basin and the related lithosphere since Paleozoic in North Xinjiang. Key Words: Ophiolite, 40Ar/39Ar age

  3. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  4. 4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Water treatment plant, view to NW, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  5. BLDG 240, NW SIDE AND SW END. BLDG 241 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 240, NW SIDE AND SW END. BLDG 241 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, East of A Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  7. 2. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph looking NW at water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph looking NW at water tower with mill pond and pump house in right center foreground; fuel oil storage tank in right background. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  8. 7. NW corner of Blacksmith Shop showing roof truss connection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NW corner of Blacksmith Shop showing roof truss connection at top of brick wall. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Blacksmith Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  10. 6. Spiral staircase and brass firepole; located in NW corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Spiral staircase and brass firepole; located in NW corner of building, looking W. (Ceronie and Harms) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. Threequarter view looking NW at E (front) elevation with Train ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three-quarter view looking NW at E (front) elevation with Train Shed extending behind. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view NW by 310. Note the concrete pier extending from the bridge in the foreground. This way to allow maximum water flow during floods and rainy periods. - Weaverland Bridge, Quarry Road spanning Conestoga Creek, Terre Hill, Lancaster County, PA

  13. 8. August, 1971. SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NW. EVAPORATOR UNITS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1971. SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NW. EVAPORATOR UNITS USED IN SEQUENCE TO REDUCE OR CONCENTRATE BEET JUICE. - Utah Sugar Company, Garland Beet Sugar Refinery, Factory Street, Garland, Box Elder County, UT

  14. 2. Oblique view of north corner shows mostly NW side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of north corner shows mostly NW side and how stack connects to NE side of building. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boiler Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. 18. View looking NW towards Manhattan showing approach road in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View looking NW towards Manhattan showing approach road in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  16. 17. Long distance view looking NW towards Manhattan showing access ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Long distance view looking NW towards Manhattan showing access ramps to bridge. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  17. 46. View looking NW towards lower Manhattan showing suspension system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View looking NW towards lower Manhattan showing suspension system and superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  18. 3. Top surface of dock including railroad tracks; looking NW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Top surface of dock including railroad tracks; looking NW from shore end. Paving block mill location is partially visible on right one half of photo. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 9. View of NW corner showing truss framing at hip ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of NW corner showing truss framing at hip gable. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Carpentry Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  1. Basal topography of Kronebreen, NW Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sadnick, M.; Kohler, J.; Langley, K.; Kehrl, L. M.; Berthier, E.

    2010-12-01

    Kronebreen is a tidewater outlet glacier draining the icefield Holtedahlfonna, in the Kongsfjord area of NW Svalbard. Like most glaciers in Svalbard, Kronebreen has been in retreat since the first front positions were recorded, with the exception of a brief advance during the surge of the neighboring glacier Kongsvegen around 1948. Kronebreen is one of the fastest non-surging glaciers in Svalbard, with average annual velocities near the calving front of around 450 m/yr. It has not been possible until recently to calculate ice fluxes, however, since the bottom topography of Kronebreen has been unknown. In 2009, ice thickness data were obtained using low frequency radar from helicopter over the heavily crevassed Kronebreen. These new thickness data are combined with surface elevation maps, older ice depth data, and fjord bathymetry data to create an expanded bed map of the Kongsfjord area. Velocity data of Kronebreen derived from feature tracking of high-res visible imagery is also combined with thickness data to calculate estimates of flux throughout the glacier. Analysis of this new data will give a better understanding of Kronebreen's retreat history, its mass balance and flux into Kongsfjord, and help in making predictions of when and how quickly further glacier retreat may occur.

  2. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  3. [Species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanming; Cao, Tong; Pan, Borong

    2003-06-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index, the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountain, Xinjiang were studied. The results showed that the bryoflora of Bogda Mountain had the characteristics of richness and complexion. There were 186 floor species (including infraspecies taxa) belonging to 73 genera of 32 families. The species similarity between mountain desert and mountain grassland belt was the highest (0.6809), while that between mountain forest and alpine cushion belt was the lowest (0.1342). The bryophyte community in mountain forest was the ominant one among the floor bryophyte communities. The bryophyte community in mountain forest had the richest species diversity, and the mountain forest was the distribution center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for bryophyte diversity conservation in Bogda Mountain area.

  4. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  5. [Epidemiology and etiology of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, 2004-2014].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Mahemuti, Mahemuti; Xia, Y D; Mutalifu, Mutalifu; Muheyati, Muheyati; Li, F; Gu, B S; Li, X L

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) during 2004-2014, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang during 2004-2014 and the serotyping and the antibiotic susceptibility test of the pathogens isolated were performed. Results: A total of 123 238 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Xinjiang from 2004 to 2014. The average annual incidence of bacillary dysentery ranged from 25.91 per 100 000 to 76.04 per 100 000 and the average annual mortality ranged from 0.00 to 46.90 per 100 000. The incidence of bacillary dysentery was higher in eastern Xinjiang than other areas. The incidence peak was during July-September. The incidence of bacillary dysentery in males was higher than that in females. The incidence was highest in infants and young children under five years old. Most cases were children outside child care settings, farmers and students. Shigella flexneri was the predominant pathogen and F2a was the most frequently detected subtype. The isolated strains were highly resistant to streptomycin, penicillin, doxycycline and tetracycline. The resistant rates to penicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin increased with year. Up to 71.43% of the strains were resistant to more than five antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of bacillary dysentery was in decrease in Xinjiang from 2004 to 2014, but in some area, the incidence of bacterial dysentery was higher than national average level. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and conduct targeted prevention and control in areas and population at high risk and in season with high incidence. The serious drug resistance and multi drug resistance of the pathogens have posed challenge to the prevention and treatment of bacillary dysentery in

  6. Triassic-Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China).

    PubMed

    Sha, Jingeng; Olsen, Paul E; Pan, Yanhong; Xu, Daoyi; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yao, Xiaogang; Vajda, Vivi

    2015-03-24

    Empirical constraints on orbital gravitational solutions for the Solar System can be derived from the Earth's geological record of past climates. Lithologically based paleoclimate data from the thick, coal-bearing, fluvial-lacustrine sequences of the Junggar Basin of Northwestern China (paleolatitude ∼60°) show that climate variability of the warm and glacier-free high latitudes of the latest Triassic-Early Jurassic (∼198-202 Ma) Pangea was strongly paced by obliquity-dominated (∼40 ky) orbital cyclicity, based on an age model using the 405-ky cycle of eccentricity. In contrast, coeval low-latitude continental climate was much more strongly paced by climatic precession, with virtually no hint of obliquity. Although this previously unknown obliquity dominance at high latitude is not necessarily unexpected in a high CO2 world, these data deviate substantially from published orbital solutions in period and amplitude for eccentricity cycles greater than 405 ky, consistent with chaotic diffusion of the Solar System. In contrast, there are indications that the Earth-Mars orbital resonance was in today's 2-to-1 ratio of eccentricity to inclination. These empirical data underscore the need for temporally comprehensive, highly reliable data, as well as new gravitational solutions fitting those data.

  7. Diagenesis and secondary porosity enhancement from dissolution of analcime cement in reservoir sandstones: The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation, Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaohui, T.; Longstaffe, F.J. ); Parnell, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most important oil-producing basins in China, in which Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales are among the thickest and richest petroleum source rocks in the world. The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation was deposited predominantly in fan-delta sequences within a lacustrine setting. The Pingdiquan Formation sandstones constitute the principal oil reservoirs, whereas the interbedded black shales are the predominant oil source rocks. The early diagenetic mineral assemblage in the sandstones comprises siderite, pyrite, analcime, albite, calcite and authigenic quartz as well as trace amount of halite; By contrast, the late diagenetic minerals are characterized by authigenic K-feldspar, ankerite, and minor amounts of mixed-layer clay minerals. Petrographic, mineralogical and available paleoecological data suggest that early authigenic minerals in the sandstones were controlled by alternating periodic fresh water and saline/alkaline water episodes in a lacustrine environment. The cementation of siderite, analcime, calcite and albite occluded the substantial porosity in the sandstones at an early diagenetic stage. However, extensive dissolution of analcime cement and labile detrital feldspars occurred during burial diagenesis, resulting in a significant secondary porosity enhancement in the sandstones and making them very good quality oil reservoirs. The origin of secondary porosity is related to the generation of various organic acids due to organic maturation of the interbedded exceptionally organic-rich oil shales.

  8. Diagenesis and secondary porosity enhancement from dissolution of analcime cement in reservoir sandstones: The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation, Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaohui, T.; Longstaffe, F.J.; Parnell, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most important oil-producing basins in China, in which Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales are among the thickest and richest petroleum source rocks in the world. The Upper Permian Pingdiquan Formation was deposited predominantly in fan-delta sequences within a lacustrine setting. The Pingdiquan Formation sandstones constitute the principal oil reservoirs, whereas the interbedded black shales are the predominant oil source rocks. The early diagenetic mineral assemblage in the sandstones comprises siderite, pyrite, analcime, albite, calcite and authigenic quartz as well as trace amount of halite; By contrast, the late diagenetic minerals are characterized by authigenic K-feldspar, ankerite, and minor amounts of mixed-layer clay minerals. Petrographic, mineralogical and available paleoecological data suggest that early authigenic minerals in the sandstones were controlled by alternating periodic fresh water and saline/alkaline water episodes in a lacustrine environment. The cementation of siderite, analcime, calcite and albite occluded the substantial porosity in the sandstones at an early diagenetic stage. However, extensive dissolution of analcime cement and labile detrital feldspars occurred during burial diagenesis, resulting in a significant secondary porosity enhancement in the sandstones and making them very good quality oil reservoirs. The origin of secondary porosity is related to the generation of various organic acids due to organic maturation of the interbedded exceptionally organic-rich oil shales.

  9. Diamondoid Characterization in Condensate by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: The Junggar Basin of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuifu; Hu, Shouzhi; Cao, Jian; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    Diamondoids in crude oil are useful for assessing the maturity of oil in high maturation. However, they are very difficult to separate and accurately quantify by conventional geochemical methods due to their low abundance in oil. In this paper, we use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) to study the compounds in condensates from the Junggar Basin of northwest China and address their geological and geochemical applications. GC×GC-TOFMS improves the resolution and separation efficiency of the compounds. It not only separates the compounds that coelute in conventional GC-MS (e.g., 4, 8-dimethyl-diamantane and trimethyl-diamantane) but also allows the identification of compounds that were not previously detected (e.g., trimethyl-diamantane (15A)). A reversed-phase column system improves the separation capabilities over the normal phase column system. The diamondoid indexes indicate that a representative condensate from Well DX 10 is highly mature with equivalent Ro being approximately 1.5%. PMID:23109861

  10. Diamondoid characterization in condensate by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry: The Junggar Basin of Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuifu; Hu, Shouzhi; Cao, Jian; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    Diamondoids in crude oil are useful for assessing the maturity of oil in high maturation. However, they are very difficult to separate and accurately quantify by conventional geochemical methods due to their low abundance in oil. In this paper, we use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) to study the compounds in condensates from the Junggar Basin of northwest China and address their geological and geochemical applications. GC×GC-TOFMS improves the resolution and separation efficiency of the compounds. It not only separates the compounds that coelute in conventional GC-MS (e.g., 4, 8-dimethyl-diamantane and trimethyl-diamantane) but also allows the identification of compounds that were not previously detected (e.g., trimethyl-diamantane (15A)). A reversed-phase column system improves the separation capabilities over the normal phase column system. The diamondoid indexes indicate that a representative condensate from Well DX 10 is highly mature with equivalent Ro being approximately 1.5%.

  11. Triassic–Jurassic climate in continental high-latitude Asia was dominated by obliquity-paced variations (Junggar Basin, Ürümqi, China)

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Jingeng; Olsen, Paul E.; Pan, Yanhong; Xu, Daoyi; Wang, Yaqiang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yao, Xiaogang; Vajda, Vivi

    2015-01-01

    Empirical constraints on orbital gravitational solutions for the Solar System can be derived from the Earth’s geological record of past climates. Lithologically based paleoclimate data from the thick, coal-bearing, fluvial-lacustrine sequences of the Junggar Basin of Northwestern China (paleolatitude ∼60°) show that climate variability of the warm and glacier-free high latitudes of the latest Triassic–Early Jurassic (∼198–202 Ma) Pangea was strongly paced by obliquity-dominated (∼40 ky) orbital cyclicity, based on an age model using the 405-ky cycle of eccentricity. In contrast, coeval low-latitude continental climate was much more strongly paced by climatic precession, with virtually no hint of obliquity. Although this previously unknown obliquity dominance at high latitude is not necessarily unexpected in a high CO2 world, these data deviate substantially from published orbital solutions in period and amplitude for eccentricity cycles greater than 405 ky, consistent with chaotic diffusion of the Solar System. In contrast, there are indications that the Earth–Mars orbital resonance was in today’s 2-to-1 ratio of eccentricity to inclination. These empirical data underscore the need for temporally comprehensive, highly reliable data, as well as new gravitational solutions fitting those data. PMID:25759439

  12. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought.

  13. Emplacement of the Solarya Pluton (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Alp; Altunkaynak, Şafak

    2017-04-01

    The Solarya pluton is one of the major plutons located in NW Anatolia. It consists of three plutonic rock groups: K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite (KFMG), microgranite-granodiorite (MGG) and haplogranite (HG). Also mafic dikes and mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) are common within the plutonic body. The northern and southern parts of the pluton present different textural properties. At the northern part of the pluton, K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite with porphyritic texture is dominant while southern part of the pluton is formed from microgranite-granodiorite with microgranular texture. Haplogranite, which is typical with its graphic/granophyric texture, outcrops between KFMG and country rocks as a thin aureole. The emplacement of the Solarya pluton began forcefully at the deeper levels of the epizone and then reached to shallow levels in the crust. The northern and southern part of the pluton displays textural and structural indicators of this different emplacement levels. At the northern part, between KFMG and the country rocks, pluton developed a narrow contact metamorphic zone characterized by the hornblend-hornfels facies. Additively, through the northern and eastern margin, the structural properties of the regional metamorphic rocks have changed depending on the emplacement of pluton indicating a forceful emplacement. The basement rocks at the southern boundary represent a "roof pendant" on the MGG. In some places of southern margin, MGG gradually passes into the subvolcanic rocks (microgranodiorite-quartzdiorite porphyries) which were emplaced into the ring and radial faults connected to pluton emplacement. The amphibole-plagioclase geothermobarometer results of Solarya pluton indicate that, for MGG 0.8-1.0 kb and 626-678 C and for K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite 1.8-2.3 kbar and 737-752 C pressure and temperature emplacement conditions are calculated. This data suggest that while the southern part of the pluton were emplaced into

  14. Application of Holdridge life-zone model based on the terrain factor in Xinjiang Automous Region.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yong-ming; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2005-01-01

    This study improved the application of the Holdridge life-zone model to simulate the distribution of desert vegetation in China which gives statistics to support eco-recovery and ecosystem reconstruction in desert area. This study classified the desert vegetation into four types: (1) LAD: little arbor desert; (2) SD: shrub desert; (3) HLHSD: half-shrub, little half-shrub desert; (4) LHSCD: little half-shrub cushion desert. Based on the classification of Xinjiang desert vegetation, the classical Holdridge life-zone model was used to simulate Xinjiang desert vegetation's distribution and compare the Kappa coefficient result of the model with table of accuracy represented by Kappa values. The Kappa value of the model was only 0.19, it means the simulation result was poor. To improve the life-zone model application to Xinjiang desert vegetation type, a set of plot standards for terrain factors was developed by using the plot standard as the re-classification criterion to climate sub-regime. Then the desert vegetation in Xinjiang was simulated. The average Kappa value of the second simulation to the respective climate regime was 0.45. The Kappa value of final modeling result was 0.64, which is the better value. The modification of the model made it in more application region. In the end, the model's ecological relevance to the Xinjiang desert vegetation types was studied.

  15. Black carbon in seasonal snow across northern Xinjiang in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Zhang, Rudong; Shi, Jinsen; Huang, Jianping; Warren, Stephen G.; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles in snow can significantly reduce the snow albedo and enhance the absorption of solar radiation, with important impacts on climate and the hydrological cycle. A field campaign was carried out to measure the BC content in seasonal snow in Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces of western China, in January and February 2012. 284 snow samples were collected at 38 sites, 6 in Qinghai and 32 in Xinjiang. The observational results at the sites in Xinjiang, where the absorbing impurities in snow are dominated by BC particles, are reported in this work. The BC mass fractions in seasonal snow across northern Xinjiang have a median value of ˜70 ng g-1, much lower than those in northeast China. The estimated concentration of BC at the cleanest site in Xinjiang is 20 ng g-1, which is similar to that found along the coast of the Arctic Ocean. It is found that the BC content of snow decreases with altitude. Taking into account this altitude dependence, our measured BC contents in snow are consistent with a recent measurement of BC in winter snow on Tianshan glacier. The data from this field campaign should be useful for testing transport models and climate models for the simulated BC in snow.

  16. Towards a climate impact assessment of the Tarim River, NW China: integrated hydrological modelling using SWIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortmann, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The Tarim River is the principle water source of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, NW China and the country's largest endorheic river, terminating in the Taklamakan desert. The vast majority of discharge is generated in the glaciated mountain ranges to the north (Tian Shan), south (Kunlun Shan/Tibetan Plateau) and west (Pamir Mountains) of the Taklamakan desert. The main water user is the intensive irrigation agriculture for mostly cotton and fruit production in linear river oases of the middle and lower reaches as well as a population of 10 Mil. people. Over the past 40 years, an increase in river discharge was reported, assumed to be caused by enhanced glacier melt due to a warming climate. Rapid population growth and economic development have led to a significant expansion of area under irrigation, resulting in water shortages for downstream users and the floodplain vegetation. Water resource planning and management of the Tarim require integrated assessment tools to examine changes under future climate change, land use and irrigation scenarios. The development of such tools, however, is challenged by sparse climate and discharge data as well as available data on water abstractions and diversions. The semi-distributed, process-based hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was implemented for the headwater and middle reaches that generate over 90% of discharge, including the Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant rivers. It includes the representation of snow and glacier melt as well as irrigation abstractions. Once calibrated and validated to river discharge, the model is used to analyse future climate scenarios provided by one physically-based and one statistical regional climate model (RCM). Preliminary results of the model calibration and validation indicate that SWIM is able simulate river discharge adequately, despite poor data conditions. Snow and glacier melt account for the largest share in river discharge. The modelling results will devise

  17. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  18. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  19. Human leukocyte antigen-B27 alleles in Xinjiang Uygur patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Wang, Z; He, J; Jiao, M

    2015-05-25

    We investigated the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang. B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis were subtyped by using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The HLA-B27 subtype frequencies of Uygur patients were compared with those in Han patients in Xinjiang and the other areas of China. B*2705 was the predominant subtype in Uygur patients with a frequency of 58.95%, which was much higher than that in Han patients in Xinjiang (31.58%, P < 0.05) and the other areas of China (excluding the Shandong region, which was 63.89%). The frequency of B*2704 (27.37%) in Uygur patients was the lowest and significantly lower than that in Han patients (61.18%, P < 0.05) and in 8 other areas of China. B*2710 has not been previously reported in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients; B*2704 was the main (61.18%) subtype in Han patients in Xinjiang, followed by B*2705 (31.58%) and was similar to the characteristics of Han patients in the other areas of China. B*2724 in Han ankylosing spondylitis patients has not been previously reported. Additionally, the B*2702/B*2705 homozygote was identified in Uygur patients. B*2702/B*2704, B*2704/B*2705, and B*2705/B*2705 homozygotes were identified in 3 Han patients. The distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang significantly differed from that in Han patients. Understanding the distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in ethnic minority populations of Xinjiang is important for anthropological genetic studies and for analyzing the impact of genetic background on ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility.

  20. [The comparison of algorithms on the CT image retrieval of Xinjiang local liver hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuanbo; Hamit, Murat; Li, Li; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Yahting; Kong, Dewei; Zhou, Jingjing

    2013-10-01

    Xinjiang local liver hydatid disease is an infectious parasitic disease in Xinjiang pastoral areas. Based on the image features, selecting the appropriate distance algorithms to retrieve the image quickly and accurately, different distance algorithms have been induced in this area, which can greatly assist the doctors to early detect, diagnose and cure the liver hydatid disease. This paper compared the performance of different distance algorithms to retrieve the image when using the liver hydatid disease medical image texture features. The results showed that: for the liver hydatid disease medical images retrieval based on gray level cocurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features, the Mahalanobis distance algorithm is superior to other distance algorithms.

  1. [Hyperspectral characteristics of Carthamus tinctorius in Xinjiang region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xin; Guo, Zheng; Li, Geng; Yue, Jian-Wei; Lu, Heng; Zhou, Xiao-Teng; Meng, Fan-Yun; Zhang, Yi-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Investigation of traditional Chinese medicine resources is the most important issue of the protection and use of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Real-time monitoring of medicinal plant species and coverage of an area are of great significance to the sustainable development of the medicinal plant species diversity and ecological environment. Flower has unique spectral characteristics. Comparing the vegetative stage through the flowering stage it is easier to identify species. The flowering stage is a critical period for identifying species with remote sensing. Carthamus tinctorius as a traditional Chinese medicine resources in XinJiang region, attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this paper, the hyperspectral data of canopy and other vegetation canopy was measured in 2011. The spectral curve was analyzed, the result indicated that C. tinctorius canopy and the canopy after picking showed absorption peak near 770 nm, the first derivative of red edge spectra and invert-Gaussian model were analyzed, the result indicated that there was significant difference between C. tinctorius canopy and other vegetation canopy. The proposed method is designed to provide initial theoretical foundation for growth condition and physiological parameters of C. tinctorius, and make theoretical groundwork for the distribution and elaborate monitoring of C. tinctorius in future.

  2. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)).

  3. Spatiotemporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Xin; Wang, Jiang-li; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0.

  4. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xin; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0. PMID:25254259

  5. Re-Os pyrite geochronology of Zn-Pb mineralization in the giant Caixiashan deposit, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengfeng; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Zhang, Li; Mi, Mei; Li, Jie; Fang, Jing; Wang, Chengming; Lu, Wanjian

    2016-03-01

    The newly discovered Caixiashan Irish-type Zn-Pb deposit (˜131 Mt at 3.95 % Zn + Pb), located in the Eastern Tianshan of Xinjiang, is one of the largest Zn-Pb deposits in NW China. Massive colloform/framboidal textured syn-sedimentary pyrite yielded a Re-Os isochron age of 1019 ± 70 Ma (MSWD = 3.5), which is interpreted to be the depositional age of the Kawabulake group that hosts the ore. The age of the main mineralization stage is constrained by two types of pyrite: the layered pyrite coexists with recrystallized calcite and dolomite and is locally replaced by sphalerite, whereas the euhedral pyrite occurs with galena that crosscuts the massive sphalerite. The layered pyrite yielded a Re-Os age of 859 ± 79 Ma (MSWD = 6.7; initial 187Os/188Os ratio [IOs] = 0.19 ± 0.25) and the euhedral pyrite 837 ± 39 Ma (MSWD = 6.5; [IOs] = 0.16 ± 0.09), which are interpreted to be the Zn and Pb mineralization ages, respectively. The low radiogenic initial Os values of the Zn-Pb mineralization suggest interaction between a hydrothermal fluid and a mafic or ultramafic source rock with a mantle Os signature with some contamination with Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake group. Based on our new Re-Os ages, we conclude that the giant Caixiashan Zn-Pb deposit formed in the early Neoproterozoic and it represents a newly identified mineralization epoch in the Eastern Tianshan of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt.

  6. View south up 27th Street rightofway NW (formerly Lyons Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south up 27th Street right-of-way NW (formerly Lyons Mill Road) along western edge of Female Union Band Cemetery. Vegetation obscures the cemetery's terraces. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Obliquity-Dominated High-Latitude Continental Triassic-Jurassic Climate, from the Coal-Bearing Junggar Basin, (Ürümqi, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Sha, J.; Pan, Y.; Xu, D.; Yao, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary facies-based climate proxy data from the thick, coal-bearing, fluvial-lacustrine Haojiagou and Badaowan fms. of the high-paleolatitude (55-65° N) Junggar Basin of northwestern China show that Late Triassic and Early Jurassic (~210-190 Ma) high latitude climate variability was strongly paced by obliquity cycle-dominated (~40-50 ky) orbital variations (1), based on an age model using the 405 ky cycle of eccentricity and the end-Triassic extinction tie point (2,3). In contrast, contemporaneous low-latitude continental climate was nearly exclusively paced by climatic precession, with virtually no hint of obliquity (4). While obliquity-dominance at high latitude is not necessarily unexpected, the envelope of variability of eccentricity, as well as its period (for cycles > 405 ky) at both high and low latitudes deviate in major ways from the expectations of current numerical solutions of orbital variations (5), but is consistent with chaotic diffusion of the Solar System (6), while our preliminary data also suggest that the Earth-Mars orbital secular resonance was in today's 2-to-1 ratio of eccentricity to inclination periods (5). Previously unknown, this obliquity-dominated, non-analog climate variation in the apparently warm and glacier-free high-latitudes of Pangea, coupled with documented low-latitude climatic precession-dominated climate variation, provides a glimpse of an empirical basis for mapping the behavior of the Solar System during times when its behavior was significantly different than present day. This is a contribution to IGCP 632 (Continental crises of the Jurassic). 1, Sha+, 2010, Earth Sci. Frontiers 17:22; 2, Sha+, 2011, Acta Geol. Sinica 85:421; 3, Blackburn+, 2013, Science 340:941; 4, Olsen & Kent, 1996, Palaeogeo. Palaeoclim. Palaeoeco. 122:1; 5, Laskar+, 2011, A&A 532:A89 DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201116836; 6, Laskar, 1999, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A 357:1735.

  8. Enhanced surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis following importation of wild poliovirus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak occurred in China in 2011 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) following the importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) originating from neighboring Pakistan. Methods To strengthen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Xinjiang, “zero case daily reporting” and retrospective searching of AFP cases were initiated after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. To pinpoint all the polio cases in time, AFP surveillance system was expanded to include persons of all ages in the entire population in Xinjiang. Results Totally, 578 AFP cases were reported in 2011 in Xinjiang, including 21 WPV cases, 23 clinical compatible polio cases and 534 non-polio AFP cases. Of the 44 polio cases, 27 (61.4%) cases were reported among adults aged 15–53 years. Strengthening AFP surveillance resulted in an increase in the number of non-polio AFP cases in 2011 (148 children < 15 years) compared with 76 cases < 15 years in 2010. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was sensitive enough to detect polio cases, with the AFP incidence of 3.28/100,000 among children < 15 years of age. Conclusions Incorporating adult cases into the AFP surveillance system is of potential value to understand the overall characteristics of the epidemic and to guide emergency responses, especially in countries facing WPV outbreak following long-term polio free status. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was satisfactory despite limitations in biological sample collection. PMID:24576083

  9. 1. Creosote plant site (NW side) as viewed with a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Creosote plant site (NW side) as viewed with a telephoto lens from Winslow ferry terminal. Eagle Harbor is in foreground. Buildings include Machine Shop on left, Boiler Building with stack, and Engine Room Building at center. Office is at far right next to tree. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 3. View of partially excavated mill ruins looking NW showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of partially excavated mill ruins looking NW showing unidentified pit in right foreground, masonry base for steam engine and cane mill in left center, purging house and chimney in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Mill (Ruins), 2.65 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  11. 46. View of end bay of NW corner of mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View of end bay of NW corner of mill ruins showing where flue emerged from area of Jamaican Train. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  12. 5. View looking NW showing all major buildings on grandstand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking NW showing all major buildings on grandstand side of track, beginning on left with Jockey Building, followed by the Paddock Club, Clubhouse, Original Grandstand, Second Grandstand and North Grandstand. (August 1993) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  13. 25. Stereo view version of Southeast Light looking NW with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Stereo view version of Southeast Light looking NW with picket fence ca. 1890. From a contact print of a glass negative from the Mansfield Collection. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  14. 17. Detail of base of 'Flying Ram' in NW corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of base of 'Flying Ram' in NW corner of foyer. Camera is looking SW. First doorway beyond fountain leads to basement and men's lounge seen in WA-197-44. Second doorway leads to storefront corner at Seventh Ave. and Olive Way. (Aug. 1991) - Fox Theater, Seventh Avenue & Olive Way, Seattle, King County, WA

  15. 21. View of N room of mill looking NW through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of N room of mill looking NW through arched passageway in wall separating N and S rooms. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  16. 30. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, showing cast-iron columns and arches. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  17. 33. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Interior view of N room of mill, looking NW, showing interior of W wall and cast-iron columns and arches. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  18. 70. View from Promenade looking NW towards Manhattan up one ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. View from Promenade looking NW towards Manhattan up one of the center main cables with Brooklyn Tower in background. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  19. 42. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking NW showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking NW showing main cables and suspendors with lower Manhattan in the background. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  20. MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MARINA & MAINE STREETS FACING NW. DARKER COLORED HOME ON SE CORNER. NYSTROM VILLAGE, LIKE ATCHISON VILLAGE (HAER CA-326-N), HOUSED WORKERS DURING WORLD WAR II - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Nystrom Village, Marina & Maine Streets, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 21. (Credit JTL) View looking NW at south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. (Credit JTL) View looking NW at south elevations of boiler room, old high service pumping room (1887) and beginning of 1900 filter room addition; wash water tank (1926) in background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  2. 34. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT), WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NW SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT), WIRE MILL NO. 1, WIRE MILL NO. 2, SCALE HOUSE, BUILDING NO. 69B. (ABUTS NJ-122E-33). - John A. Roebling's Sons Company, Kinkora Works, Support Systems, Roebling, Burlington County, NJ

  3. Perspective view of NW corner south feed pens and portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of NW corner south feed pens and portion of middle feed pen on left. Main barn is in distance. Camera is pointed SE. - Kosai Farm, Feed Pens, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  4. 2. Oblique view of west corner shows mainly NW side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of west corner shows mainly NW side of partially dismantled building. In 1994 circular braces still supported retorts in which wood was processed with creosote. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchusaffinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchusatomarius L., 1761, Bruchusloti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinuskergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.

  7. Characteristics of meteorological drought pattern and risk analysis for maize production in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Ranghui; Ning, Husen; Luo, Qinghong

    2017-08-01

    Xinjiang is an important maize cultivation area in Northwest China. Investigating the relationship between meteorological drought and climate-driven maize yield can help to mitigate the negative impacts of drought on agricultural production in Xinjiang. In this study, multi-source data, including meteorological, agricultural, and socio-economic data, are collected to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of drought and assess drought disaster risk. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index is calculated to classify different drought grades in the study area. The main results are as follows: (1) the relationship between drought and climate-driven maize yield is determined using a stepwise regression analysis, which indicates that drought conditions occurring from May to July are crucial for the yield in Xinjiang; (2) the modified Mann-Kendall test detects that the frequency-intensity-coverage of drought from May to July shows a decreasing tendency as a whole in the study area; (3) the correlation analysis shows that the multivariate ENSO index may be the dominant force in regional drought evolution; and (4) a drought disaster risk assessment system is constructed based on principles of natural disaster management. The drought disaster risk is higher in southwestern and northwestern Xinjiang, areas that should deserve more attention.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  10. Independent evaluation of a canine Echinococcosis Control Programme in Hobukesar County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Freya; Qi, Xinwei; Tao, Jiang; Feng, Xiaohui; Mastin, Alexander; Craig, Philip S.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Duan, Xinyu; Chu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Jinlong; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. PMID:25661801

  11. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  12. Elevated homocysteine and hypertension in Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; Lu, Zhen Hong; Li, Peng Gang; Wang, Ying Ying; Yan, Zhao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available comparing homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hypertension in different ethnic groups. This study sought to determine whether there are associations of blood pressure and Hcy levels in patients with hypertension from Xinjiang Province, China. We examined the serum total Hcy levels in a total of 451 Chinese of various ethnic groups (Han n=234 [51.9%], Uygur n=102 [22.6%], Kazak n=61 [13.5%], Hui n=54 [12.0%]) aged 18-78 years. Two groups of subjects were studied: 1) non-hypertensive, n=101; (2) hypertensive, n=350. We investigated the serum Hcy levels relationship with hypertension. Hcy levels of Kazak in no hypertension and hypertension patients were highest (11.9 +/- 9.8 vs 19.0 +/- 11.8 umol/L, respectively, unadjusted P=.004, adjusted P=.016). This pattern of higher Hcy values in hypertension patients was consistent across all ethnic groups even after adjustment (all P<0.05). The hypertension risks in the elevated Hcy (>13.9 umol/L) was 3.5 (95% CI, 2.2-5.4) times the normal Hcy (< or = 13.9 umol/L) (P<0.001). Even after adjustment for potential confounders, this difference remained 3.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.9-4.8) (P<.001). Bivariate correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship of Hcy with systolic or diastolic blood pressure across all ethnic groups. This study confirms the existence of a significant association between hypertension and Hcy in Chinese population groups.

  13. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years.

  14. [Investigation of the characteristics of Rh blood group of Uygur nationality in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiong-Cai; Zhou, Hua-You; Bai, Xu-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Xing, Yan-Zhao

    2007-08-01

    The study was to investigate the characteristics of Rh blood group of Uygur nationality in Xinjiang. 1 230 blood samples of Uygur nationality were studied by Rh serological typing, modified antiglobulin test, chloroform/trichloroethylene absorption elution test, upstream, downstream and hybrid Rhesus boxes, 10 exons of D gene, RHD(psi) pseudogene. The results showed that the frequency of RHD negative was 5.8%, and no Del type was found. The further investigation of 72 samples of RhD (-) found that ccee (57.02%) and Ccee (29.08%) phenotype as well as RHD(-)/RHD(-) genotype (94.44%) and complete deletion type of D gene exon (91.12%) were all in high frequency, no RHD(psi) pseudugene was detected. In conclusion, the Rh blood group of Uygurs nationality in Xinjiang possesses both oriental and caucasian Rh characteristics, which enriches the diversity of blood types in chinesenation.

  15. [Investigation research of occupational stress and job burnout for oil field workers in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Ning, Li; Li, Fuye; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2014-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for further intervention, the association between occupational stress and job burnout among oil field workers of Xinjiang was discussed. A random sample and research on Xinjiang oil-field outdoor workers who will finish occupation Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire and Maslash Burnout Survey. The scoring of each OSI-R dimension and each MBI dimension varied significantly between different individual characterizations (age, gender and education). Multiple linear regression analysis showed: occupation task, physical strain, work environment, subjective support, self health care are the main factors influencing occupation burnout. Different individual characteristics effect the occurrence of occupation stresses and job burnout, reduce the occupation task, strengthen social support and self health care consciousness, strive to build and improve the enterprise culture atmosphere can prevent occupation burnout.

  16. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of climate and agricultural landscape patterns in Xinjiang, China (2000-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Du, Q. Y.; Zou, J. Q.

    2017-07-01

    This study integrated remote sensing, geographic information system, landscape ecology, and spatial analysis, and is based on meteorological data and four remote sensing images (2000-2015). The aim of this study was to analyse climate trends and spatiotemporal changes in agricultural landscape patterns, and calculate agricultural ecosystem service value (AESV) in Xinjiang, China. In addition, correlation analysis further enabled the quantification of agricultural landscape pattern changes in response to climate change. Results showed that temperature and precipitation registered a fluctuating ascending trend in most areas of Xinjiang. Landscape diversity and fragmentation increased during the same period. AESV showed a trend of gradual increase, the waste disposal and the water retention are the most important ecological functions. Besides, agricultural landscape pattern significantly correlated to climate and the effect of precipitation on agricultural landscape patterns has been greater than the effect of temperature during 2000-2015.

  18. A Dynamic Model of Human and Livestock Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Li, Aiqiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    We establish a dynamical model for tuberculosis of humans and cows. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number R0. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamical behaviors of the model. By epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis among humans and livestock from 2007 to 2014 in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, we estimate the parameters of the model and study the transmission trend of the disease in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The reproduction number in Urumqi for the model is estimated to be 0.1811 (95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.281). Finally, we perform some sensitivity analysis of several model parameters and give some useful comments on controlling the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:27525034

  19. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  20. Chinese students' science-related experiences: Comparison of the ROSE study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-05-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite many recent studies done in various Western countries. Purpose: This paper aims to report and compare the science-related experiences of ninth-graders from two places (in Urumqi City of Xinjiang province and Shanghai) in China through a large-scale survey of their junior secondary three students. Sample: The sample consists of 4115 students in Urumqi City (from 28 schools) and Shanghai (from 25 schools). Design and methods: This study adopted a Likert scale questionnaire instrument, as translated from the international Relevance Of Science Education (ROSE) Project. From a confirmatory factor analysis of the data, we identify and focus on six factors which are directly correlated with students' science-related experiences outside school environment in Xinjiang and Shanghai and employ relevant factor scores to compare the gender, regional, and socioeconomic effects. Results: As revealed by the t-test, gender and regional differences were statistically significant in affecting (1) students' outdoor living experience, (2) hands-on experience of transportation, and (3) their daily-life experience with do-it-yourself tools and models. In all three aspects, boys and Xinjiang students possessed richer experiences than girls and Shanghai students, respectively. Conclusions: Based on ANOVA tests, Shanghai students' out-of-school science-related experiences were more often significantly affected by various socioeconomic variables (including their parents' education and occupation and their family income) than Xinjiang students. From cross-regional comparison, Chinese students had much fewer science-related experiences than those of

  1. [Investigation of ophthalmic resources in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China].

    PubMed

    Maierdang, Ailimu; Maimaiti, Yasen; Liu, Li-ming; Fulati, Abudureyimu; Sha, Ying; Sun, Yong; Ding, Lin; Gulibahaer, Kadeer; Yang, Bo; Cao, Ming-qin

    2012-09-01

    To explore ophthalmic resources and existing problems in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and to provide reasonable developing configuration for the future. It was a population-based cross-section study. By using questionnaire to collect data from all eye units (national and private) which were registered in Xinjiang area. Investigation included: (1) ophthalmic medical unit of name, structure type, departments constitute; (2) the ophthalmic medical work; (3) the number of ophthalmology health technicians and distribution; (4) ophthalmic devices usage; (5) carry out the problems and difficulties encountered in ophthalmic work. Descriptive statistic method was used to analyze the structure of ophthalmic material, the availability of resource, the medical institution of different regions and types. One hundred and thirty questionnaire were filled out and 110 questionnaire were recovery. There were 107 eye units, 1709 beds for ophthalmic, 1672 employees, including 525 doctors, the ratio of doctors and nurses was 1.0:1.3. And the ophthalmic resources mainly distributed in northern Tianshan, very few in the eastern area in Xinjiang; ophthalmic units were denser in general hospitals which were above the county level. There were 43 580 ophthalmic surgeries in all, the main eye operation carried out was cataract surgery, including 20 303 (counted 46.59%) cataract operation. The ophthalmic units distribution is unbalanced, which is short of ophthalmologists. It provides base for government to arrange ophthalmic resources reasonably, to enhance the research motivation and to cultivate more professors, and to increase the number of ophthalmic specialists in the general hospitals, and eventually to maximize the benefit of ophthalmic service in Xinjiang.

  2. Infant feeding practices in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenglian; Binns, Colin; Wu, Jing; Yihan, Re; Zhao, Yun; Lee, Andy

    2007-02-01

    To document infant feeding methods in the first six months of life in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, 2003-2004. Some problems with breast-feeding in the area are explained. A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices was undertaken. A total of 1219 mothers who delivered babies during 2003 and 2004 were interviewed in five hospitals or institutes, and after discharge were contacted in person or by telephone at approximately monthly intervals to obtain details of infant feeding practices. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with breast-feeding initiation. 'Any breast-feeding' rates at discharge and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 6 months were 92.2, 91.3, 89.9, 88.8, 87.7, 86.0 and 73.0%, respectively. 'Exclusive breast-feeding' rates at discharge and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 6 months were 66.2, 47.6, 30.1, 25.8, 22.1, 13.0 and 6.2%, respectively. The main problem of breast-feeding in Xinjiang was the early introduction of formula or water. The average duration of 'exclusive breast-feeding' was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.0), of 'full breast-feeding' 2.8 months (95% CI 2.7-2.9) and of 'any breast-feeding' 5.3 months (95% CI 5.2-5.4). Infant feeding methods in Xinjiang were documented in this study and the main problems with infant feeding in Xinjiang are discussed. Further studies are needed to identify factors associated with 'exclusive breast-feeding' and duration.

  3. The Fracturing of China? Ethnic Separatism and Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    During the repressive years of the 1990s, this civil society went underground but leaders still influenced the minority population. As the...states to exert influence in the Central Asian region through unilateral means or international organizations will be negated by the SCO. China’s...Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradley D. Hitchcock 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  4. High prevalence and low cure rate of tuberculosis among patients with HIV in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Rena; Zhang, Yuexin; Pan, Kejun; Mijiti, Peierdun; Wubili, Maimaitiali; Musa, Maimaitijiang; Andersson, Rune

    2017-01-05

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis. The prevalence of tuberculosis co-infection among the HIV positive patients was 11% (95% CI 10-12%), significantly higher than the national figure in China of 2%. In most cases HIV was diagnosed late, with advanced immunodeficiency. The use of isoniazid preventive therapy was only 57.9% in patients without tuberculosis who fulfilled the criteria for receiving this prevention. The cure rate one year after diagnosis was 69.2%, which was lower than the officially reported 91.4% in all tuberculosis cases in Xinjiang in 2011. The hazard of not surviving over the five years was significantly higher in patients with HIV + tuberculosis compared to HIV only after adjusting for sex and Intravenous drug use with HR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.43-2.35; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang was higher than in China taken as a whole, and HIV was diagnosed late, with underuse of isoniazid preventive therapy. The low cure rate and reduced survival can be due to late diagnosis of HIV and no testing for antibiotic resistance, together with insufficient control of adherence to the treatment regimens for tuberculosis and HIV.

  5. Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. Results In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. PMID:25625218

  6. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index (I m), Sahin's index (I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature (T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation (P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height (U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  7. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2017-08-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index ( I m), Sahin's index ( I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature ( T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation ( P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height ( U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  8. Sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Zheng, X G; Adili, G Z; Wei, Y R; Ma, W G; Xue, X M; Mi, X Y; Yi, Z; Chen, S J; Du, W; Muhan, M; Duhaxi, C; Han, T; Gudai, B; Huang, J

    2016-06-03

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). While PPR mainly affects domestic goats and sheep, it also affects wild ungulates such as ibex, blue sheep, and gazelle, although there are few reports regarding PPRV infection in wild animals. Between January 2015 and February 2015, it was found for the first time that wild ibexes died from PPRV infection in Bazhou, Xinjiang, China, where a total of 38 ibexes (including young and adult ibexes) were found to have died abnormally from PPR-related issues. First, we tested for the presence of the F gene of PPRV by RT-PCR. Then, we compared the sequence of the isolated F gene from the ibex strain, termed PPRV Xinjiang/Ibex/2015, with those previously identified from small domestic ruminants from local areas near where the reported isolate was collected as well as those from other regions. The current sequence was phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus, and shared a high level of sequence identity (99.7%) with a previously described Xinjiang PPRV isolate.

  9. The characteristics of phosphorus adsorption and desorption in gray desert soil of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Sun, J. S.; Liu, H.; Ma, Y. B.

    2017-07-01

    The characteristics of phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption in Xinjiang gray desert soil (0 - 200 mm) of China in the long-term fertilization condition is affected by the level of soil P content which studied through an isothermal adsorption and desorption experiments of P. The results stated that within the experimental concentration range, with the increase of the amount of outer-source phosphorus, P adsorption, desorption and desorption rate increased and adsorption rate decreased gradually in different Olsen-P levels of gray desert soil in Xinjiang, China. Olsen-P content is significantly correlated with the P adsorption saturation (DPS) of gray desert soil. The maximum adsorption capacity (Xm ) of the treatments followed an extremely significant decreasing order of CK>NPK≈NPKM>PK≈NPKS. The maximum buffer capacity (MBC) and adsorption constant (K) of the NPK treatment was much higher than NPKM, NPKS, PK and CK treatments. And, MBC value of CK treatment was extremely higher than NPKS and PK, however, the differences between NPKM and CK, NPKS and PK were not significant. The comparison between NPKM, NPKS, PK and CK treatments showed no significant difference in K value, but these four showed significantly lower than NPK treatments. The value of soil easy desorption P (RDP) of NPKS and NPKM was significantly higher than NPK and PK, and the chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer was a best way to release the phosphorus for Xinjiang agricultural production, China.

  10. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2016-05-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index (I A), Erinç's aridity index (I m), and Sahin's aridity index (I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  11. [Analysis of 2161 cases of neoplasm in oral maxillofacial region in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Li, Jiang; Lu, Na

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the incidence and constituent characteristic of neoplasm in oromaxillo-facial region in Xinjiang. A total of 2161 patients with benign or malignant oral-maxillofacial tumors diagnosed in Department of Dentofacial Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical College from 1995 to 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 2161 cases, 58.49% (1264/2161) was benign tumors, 33.13% (716/2161) malignant tumors, and 8.38% (181/2161) tumor-like lesions. The most common benign tumors were pleomorphic adenoma, hemangioma, papilloma, adenolymphoma and ameloblastoma. Squamous cell carcinoma constituted the majority of the malignant tumors. The most common malignant tumors of salivary gland were adenoid cystic carcinoma. The most common odontogenic tumors was ameloblastoma. The most common sites of malignant tumors were tongue, lip, parotiod gland and buccal mucosa. The common pathological type of oral and maxillofacial benign neoplasm and the most common sites of malignancy in Xinjiang region were similar to those of other places inside and outside the country. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was more common than other salivary originated tumors. There was more malignant tumors in Uygur nationality than in Han living in the same region.

  12. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China.

  13. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2017-08-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index ( I A), Erinç's aridity index ( I m), and Sahin's aridity index ( I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  14. Metaheuristic Technique for Finding Earthquake Locations in NW Himalayan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupam; Deep, Kusum; Kumar, Sushil; Sushil, Rama

    In this article, we have used a new metaheuristic technique particle swarm optimization (PSO) for development of the earthquake location models. Two models of different crustal structures has been taken based on the arbitrary tardiness structure that defines the heterogeneity of the earth’s crust. The problem of earthquake location is modeled as a least square function of travel times and solved by using the randomized search algorithm PSO. We have solved the problem by using an advanced version of PSOs. A real life data of earthquake in the NW Himalayan region has been taken for testing these developed models. The new locations are better than the existing results.

  15. 14. Stairs in far NW corner of the North Section, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Stairs in far NW corner of the North Section, as viewed from atop pier. This photo, along with phot WA-116-E-1, are the only photographs of the North Section of Drydock 3 that were approved by the U.S. Navy for inclusion in this HAER report. The brick building in center distance is the Building 59, the Pattern Shop, which has been documented in the HAER report No. WA-116-A. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. A Study of the Transformation of Xinjiang Higher Education Institutions from the Minority-Han Dual-Track System to the Minority-Han Unification Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simayi, Zuliyati

    2015-01-01

    "Minority-Han unified education" has already made some progress in the reform and practice of higher education in Xinjiang and accumulated precious experience. But presently minority-Han unified education in Xinjiang higher education institutions is still stuck in the trial stage in which there are many Han students and few minority…

  17. A Study of the Transformation of Xinjiang Higher Education Institutions from the Minority-Han Dual-Track System to the Minority-Han Unification Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simayi, Zuliyati

    2015-01-01

    "Minority-Han unified education" has already made some progress in the reform and practice of higher education in Xinjiang and accumulated precious experience. But presently minority-Han unified education in Xinjiang higher education institutions is still stuck in the trial stage in which there are many Han students and few minority…

  18. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun

    2017-08-01

    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  19. Local spatial variations analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in Xinjiang using Geographically Weighted Regression model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wang; Yuan-Yuan, Jin; Ci, Yan; Ahan, Alayi; Ming-Qin, Cao

    2016-10-06

    The spatial interplay between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis (TB) cases contributes to the understanding of regional tuberculosis burdens. Historically, local Poisson Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) has allowed for the identification of the geographic disparities of TB cases and their relevant socioeconomic determinants, thereby forecasting local regression coefficients for the relations between the incidence of TB and its socioeconomic determinants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (1) identify the socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of smear positive TB in Xinjiang, China (2) confirm if the incidence of smear positive TB and its associated socioeconomic determinants demonstrate spatial variability (3) compare the performance of two main models: one is Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS), and the other local GWR model. Reported smear-positive TB cases in Xinjiang were extracted from the TB surveillance system database during 2004-2010. The average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang was collected from 98 districts/counties. The population density (POPden), proportion of minorities (PROmin), number of infectious disease network reporting agencies (NUMagen), proportion of agricultural population (PROagr), and per capita annual gross domestic product (per capita GDP) were gathered from the Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook covering a period from 2004 to 2010. The OLS model and GWR model were then utilized to investigate socioeconomic determinants of smear-positive TB cases. Geoda 1.6.7, and GWR 4.0 software were used for data analysis. Our findings indicate that the relations between the average number of smear-positive TB cases notified in Xinjiang and their socioeconomic determinants (POPden, PROmin, NUMagen, PROagr, and per capita GDP) were significantly spatially non-stationary. This means that in some areas more smear-positive TB cases could be related to higher socioeconomic determinant regression

  20. Calcitonin receptor gene polymorphism in cCinese Xinjiang Han and Uygur women with primary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Gao, Y; Yin, J; Zhao, X; Wang, H; Yuan, H; Wang, F

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with a strong genetic component. Calcitonin receptors (CTR) are involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis. There is no consensus whether CTR gene polymorphism plays a role in affecting pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic susceptibility of calcitonin receptor gene polymorphism (genotypes and allele frequencies) to primary osteoporosis between Han and Uygur patients and healthy controls in the Chinese Xinjiang region. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in an academic hospital. Between 2010 and 2012 a total of 404 female patients with primary osteoporosis (200 Han and 204 Uygur) and 316 healthy control subjects (160 Han and 156 Uygur) were recruited to determine the distribution of C/T single nucleotide polymorphism of the CTR gene. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used at the 1377-bp site. The frequency of polymorphic C/T alleles of the calcitonin receptor gene in each group fit the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model. There was no statistically significant difference in genotypes (P = 0.922) or allele frequency (P = 0.654) between the Xinjiang Han postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and the controls. Similarly, there was no difference in genotypes (P = 0.897) or allele frequency (P = 0.825) between Xinjiang Uygur postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and the controls. Moreover, there was no significant difference (P = 0.86) between the combination of both ethnic groups and controls. In contrast, compared to these two ethnic groups, Han CC type accounted for 67.8%, CT 30.0%, and TT 2.2%, whereas Uighur CC type accounted for 55.6%, CT 33.3%, and TT 11.2%, which is statistically significant between Han and Uygur CTR genotypes (P = 0.006). Allele frequency of C accounted for 82.8% and T for 17.2% in Han, whereas C accounted for 72.2% and T for 27.8% in Uygur (P = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in CTR gene nucleotide sequence polymorphisms

  1. [Genetic relationships between Tuva population and the neighboring populations in the Altai Region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Ke; Chen, Zheng; Fan, An; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Zhao, Qian-Jun; Zhou, Can-Lin; Mao, Xin-Min; Zang, Yu-Liang; Zarhumar, Yerhaz; Malik, Hasenbek; Dalabay, Habudely; Tuotahaz, Kamaliya; Liang, Ling; Yerken, Gulinur; Ma, Yue-Hui; Rao, Shao-Qi

    2009-08-01

    In the Hanasi scenic spot of the Altai Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, there is a special population known as Xinjiang Tuvinians for short. These Tuvinians were classified as Mongolians in the early 1950s by the National Ethnic Affairs Commission of China, but they claimed that they have an independent origin. To resolve this dispute and their genetic relationships with the people in the neighboring regions, we randomly selected 150 male Tuvinians in the Altai Region. Fourteen Y chromosomal markers were genotyped and eleven haplogroups were constructed. The frequencies of the haplogroups K-M9 and Q-M242 were higher in Xinjiang Tuvinians or Tuvinians in the Tuva Republic than those in the other populations (e.g., Mongolians and Kazakh). Principal component analysis , multi-dimensional scaling analysis and further phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Xinjiang Tuvinians were far separated from Mongolians and Kazakh. Based on these results, we proposed that Xinjiang Tuvinians are genetically distinct from Mongolians and Kazakh.

  2. Circulation of multiple serotypes of highly divergent enterovirus C in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Fan, Qin; Song, Yang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiaolei; Huang, Guohong; Ji, Tianjiao; Hu, Lan; Wang, Dongyan; Yang, Qian; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Xinjiang EV-C strains had larger variation compared to the prototype and other modern strains. Additionally, the results showed unique characteristics of Xinjiang EV-Cs, such as the cytopathicity of CV-A1 strains to RD cells; the high divergence in CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, and CV-A20 strains; the divergence of Xinjiang CV-A24 from AHC-related CV-A24 variant stains distributed worldwide; and the circulation of two novel EV-C serotypes (EV-C96 and EV-C99). Evaluations of this dense and diverse EV-C ecosystem will help elucidate the processes shaping enteroviral biodiversity. This study will improve our understanding of the evolution of enteroviruses and the recombination potential between polioviruses and other EV-Cs. PMID:27642136

  3. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  4. Radon as an earthquake precursor in NW Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit; Mahajan, Sandeep; Dhar, Sunil; Walia, Vivek

    2010-05-01

    The continuous soil gas radon and daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Amritsar (Punjab), Kangra and Chamba Valleys of NW Himalayas India to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities in the region. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M ≥ 2 recorded in NW Himalayas by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity and rainfall on radon emission has been studied. The correlation coefficient between radon and meteorological parameters has been evaluated. The equation for the correction of these correlations to obtain a corrected radon concentration that shows less variability is derived. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time have been examined and respective constants were determined

  5. Petrogenesis of nephelinites from the Tarim Large Igneous Province, NW China: Implications for mantle source characteristics and plume-lithosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Hou, Tong; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Dongyang; Ke, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The nephelinite exposed in the Wajilitage area in the northwestern margin of the Tarim large igneous province (TLIP), Xinjiang, NW China display porphyritic textures with clinopyroxene, nepheline and olivine as the major phenocryst phases, together with minor apatite, sodalite and alkali feldspar. The groundmass typically has cryptocrystalline texture and is composed of crystallites of clinopyroxene, nepheline, Fe-Ti oxides, sodalite, apatite, rutile, biotite, amphibole and alkali feldspar. We report rutile SIMS U-Pb age of 268 ± 30 Ma suggesting that the nephelinite may represent the last phase of the TLIP magmatism, which is also confirmed by the field relation. The nephelinite shows depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions with age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) values of 0.70348-0.70371 and + 3.28 to + 3.88 respectively indicating asthenospheric mantle source. Based on the reconstructed primary melt composition, the depth of magma generation is estimated as 115-140 km and the temperatures of mantle melting as 1540-1575 °C. The hotter than normal asthenospheric mantle temperature suggests the involvement of mantle thermal plume. The Mg isotope values display a limited range of δ26Mg from - 0.35 to - 0.55‰, which are lower than the mantle values (- 0.25‰). The Mg isotopic compositions, combined with the Sr-Nd isotopes and major and trace element data suggest that the Wajilitage nephelinite was most likely generated by low-degree partial melting of the hybridized carbonated peridotite/eclogite source, which we correlate with metasomatism by subducted carbonates within the early-middle Paleozoic convergent regime. A plume-lithosphere model is proposed with slight thinning of the lithosphere and variable depth and degree of melting of the carbonated mantle during the plume-lithosphere interaction. This model also accounts for the variation in lithology of the TLIP.

  6. Holocene moisture variations over the arid central Asia revealed by a comprehensive sand-dune record from the central Tian Shan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Chen, Jianhui; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi; Frechen, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the largest arid (desert) areas in the world, and its climate is dominated by the westerlies. In this study, we examined sand dune evolution from the Bayanbulak Basin in the Tian Shan (Xinjiang, NW China), aiming to infer the Holocene moisture history of the ACA. Combined with stratigraphic observation and environmental proxies analysis (grain size, magnetic susceptibility and total organic content), large numbers of luminescence ages from multiple sites (eight sections, 79 samples) were applied to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dune accumulation in the study basin. The overall results imply very dry conditions characterized by sand dune accumulation at ∼12-6.5 ka, a wet interval between ∼6.5 and 0.8 ka when soil formation occurred, and decreased moisture during the last 0.8 ka. This moisture variation pattern is generally consistent with that inferred from many lacustrine records in the core zone of ACA, suggesting a widespread dry period in the early-to-middle Holocene and relatively wet middle-to-late Holocene. Thus, the moisture history derived from the current sand dune system contrasts with that in Asian monsoon areas, which are characterized by a strong monsoon (high precipitation) in the early and mid-Holocene and a weak monsoon (low precipitation and dry climate) during the late Holocene. Our results strongly suggest that the winter solar insolation and the external boundary conditions such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ice sheets, and meltwater fluxes, have been major influential factors triggering the Holocene moisture evolution in the core zone of ACA.

  7. Structural Evolution of the Incipient Okavango Rift Zone, NW Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.; Kinabo, B. D.; Modisi, M. P.; Hogan, J. P.; Wheaton, D. D.

    2005-05-01

    Studies of the East African Rift System (EARS) and other continental rifts have significantly improved our understanding of rifting processes; however, we particularly lack studies of the embryonic stages of rift creation. The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), NW Botswana is one of few places worldwide where one can study the early stages of continental extension prior to the accumulation of significant amounts of sediments, volcanism, and multiphase deformation that obscure the investigation of these early time processes in more evolved continental rift zones. In this study, gravity and aeromagnetic data have been used to examine the initiation and development of the nascent ORZ. The Okavango basin in NW Botswana is located at the southern tip of the southwestern branch of the EARS. The rift is hosted within the Proterozoic fold and thrust belt of the Ghanzi-Chobe formation. Our objectives include (1) assessing the role of pre-existing structures on the development of rift faults and basin architecture, (2) Examining fault linkage patterns and boarder fault development, and (3) determining the shallow subsurface basin geometry. Aeromagnetic data from the ORZ suggest two main structural trends: 1) northeast-southwest (030- 070o) and 2) northwest - southeast (290 - 320o). The 030- 070o structures occur within the rift zone and throughout the surrounding basement. They form the main bounding fault system of this incipient rift. The NE - SW orientations of rift faults mirror the fold axes and foliation of the basement rocks, suggesting that the basement fabric played an important role in localizing the development of faults within the stress regime present during the initiation of this rift. Additionally, the greatest throw (~400- ~700 m) occurs along the Kunyere (NW dipping) and Tsau faults (SE dipping), defining a full graben as observed on gravity models. This differs from the half-graben model typical of most continental rift zones. Thus, it appears the basin geometry was

  8. Glacial legacy control on landslide mobility in NW Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, J. P.; Schmidt, K. M.; Reid, M. E.; Slaughter, S.

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of the deadly SR 530 landslide along the North Fork Stillaguamish river valley in 2014 spurred a heightened interest in understanding landslide hazards in NW Washington, and recent work (e.g., Haugerud et al. 2014; LaHusen et al., 2016) shows that high-volume, long-runout landslides such as the SR 530 slide are a common feature in this valley's geologic past. Adjacent valleys do not show this same pattern, however, and it is presently unclear what governs the mobility and spatial distribution of the longest runout slides in the region. Given that landslide runout length may depend strongly upon both lithology and material properties of the hillslope before failure (e.g., Iverson et al., 2000; 2015), we use LiDAR data for NW Washington to characterize the mobility of 150 landslides across a range of lithologic and geomorphic settings. The highest mobility landslides, as characterized by the ratio of runout length, L, to fall height, H, uniformly occur in terraces of Pleistocene glacial outwash and ice-marginal (e.g., lacustrine) deposits that spatially cluster with the maximum extent of the Cordilleran ice sheet (median L/H of 6, maximum L/H of 12). Knickpoints along longitudinal profiles of major drainages project from bedrock-dominated uplands to downstream glacial drift terrace surfaces and suggest rivers along the Western Cascades are still slowly responding to the retreat of the Cordilleran ice sheet. Downstream of knickpoints, landslides appear to cluster along terraced valley walls that exceed a threshold relief. However, a large range in runout length exists for high H values within drift terraces, indicating that additional processes are likely influencing runout distances. We hypothesize that material heterogeneity between deposits (e.g., the relative abundance and stratigraphic sequencing of lacustrine sediments and high porosity glacial outwash deposits) may exert a fundamental control on potential mobility. Together these findings suggest

  9. Holocene monsoon variability inferred from palaeolake sediments in NW India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Y.; Hodell, D. A.; Petrie, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The plains of NW India encompasses arid, semi-arid to sub-humid zones and are characterized by numerous palaeolakes and playas. The sedimentary records from these water bodies provide a rich source of paleoclimatic information. We present a high-resolution, Holocene monsoon-variation record inferred from three palaeolakes lying across the precipitation gradient in NW India; palaeolake Karsandi in arid Rajasthan and palaeolake Riwasa, palaeolake Kotla Dahar in semi-arid and sub-humid regions, respectively, in Haryana plains. Laminated and massive gypsum deposits characterize Palaeolake Karsandi in the arid region. Oxygen isotopes are being measured on the gastropod shells and gypsum hydration of water (Hodell et al 2011) for a continuous isotopic record from Rajasthan. The oxygen isotope record from palaeolake Riwasa in the semi-arid region indicates the inception of a wet period at 9700-9500 cal yr (BP) with the establishment of a deep, permanent lake coinciding with the early Holocene maximum in the Indian monsoon. The deep, permanent-lake phase ended with a desiccation event at approximately 8200 BP coinciding with the '8.2kyr' weakening of the monsoon. In contrast, palaeolake Kotla Dahar, lying further east of Riwasa in the sub-humid region, receives 500-700mm annual rainfall. At Kotla Dahar, bulk CaCO3 (%), gastropod abundance and isotope data indicate that the deep lacustrine sequence ends at c.185 cm. Extrapolating from the AMS radio-carbon dated sediments at 135cm (4870-4650 BP) and 230cm (2000-1870 BP), places the 185 cm horizon at c.3970-3720 BP. Our results so far indicate that the Riwasa paleolake lying west of Kotla Dahar dries earlier than Kotla Dahar during the mid-Holocene. The precise date of the transition from a deep-lake water phase to an ephemeral lake in Kotla Dahar is pending, but the projected date suggests that the event coincides with the decline of the urban phase of the Indus Civilization at c. 3900 BP. These three lakes lying across

  10. HBV/D1: a major HBV subgenotype circulating in Uyghur patients with chronic HBV infection in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingjing; Li, Jie; Sun, Kuixia; Sun, Mishu; Chen, Jie; Ma, Junfeng; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Each hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and subgenotype is associated with a particular geographic distribution, ethnicity, and anthropological history. The present study investigated the genomic characteristics of HBV from Uyghur patients with chronic HBV infection in Xinjiang, China. Among the 53 Uyghur patients enrolled, HBV/D was found to be the dominant strain, with 64.2 % (34/53), 60.4 % (32/53) with HBV/D1 and 3.8 % (2/53) with HBV/D3. In addition to these findings, 3.8 % HBV/B (2/53), 5.7 % HBV/C (3/53), 11.3 % C+D (6/53), 7.5 % B+D (4/53), 3.8 % B+C (2/53) and 3.8 % B+C+D (2/53) were also detected. The full-length genome of seven HBV/D1 isolates and 144 reference sequences retrieved from GenBank were compared and analyzed by biological information methods. These results demonstrate that the D1 isolates from Xinjiang and Central Asia show a close genetic proximity (0.013±0.0007). Furthermore, four unique amino acid substitutions (sp82(Asn), sp89(His), rt129(Leu), rt151(Leu)) representing background polymorphisms rather than drug resistance mutations or immune escape variants were found in the Uyghur patients of Xinjiang, but these were seldom found in HBV/D1 strains from other regions (0 %-14.3 %). This study indicates that in Xinjiang, unlike HBV-infected Han patients, HBV/D1 is the predominant strain among HBV-infected Uyghur people. Although genetic distance analysis suggests that the HBV/D1 isolates from Xinjiang are closely related to those from Central Asia, unique amino acid substitutions suggest independent evolution of HBV in the Uyghur patients of Xinjiang.

  11. Area integrated emission of biogenic nitric oxide by Lagrangian dispersion modeling (LASAT): Milan oasis, Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, M.; Wu, Z.; Behrendt, T.; Fechner, A. D.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mamtimin, B.

    2012-04-01

    Today's knowledge of soil biogenic NO emission rates from arid and hyper-arid land is based on a total of about 20 experimental studies. Nevertheless, biogenic NO emissions even from non-managed arid and hyper-arid soils are significant and may range between 1-10 ng m-2 s-1 (in terms of nitrogen, if conditions for soil NO production are favourable (optimum soil moisture, high soil temperatures). Irrigated and fertilized oases, ranging about 3000 km long around the great Central Asian Taklimakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). Recent and future development of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. Up to today, only a few studies have preliminarily addressed soil biogenic NO emissions from the Taklimakan desert. In our contribution, we will focus on the quantification of the area integrated NO emission from the Milan oasis located on the most southern fringe of the Takalimkan desert (39.26° N, 88.91° E). At a first step, the 3D distribution of ambient NO concentration is calculated using a state-of-the-art commercially available dispersion model (LASAT 3.2, Lagrange Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). Performing the dispersion simulation, transport and turbulent diffusion are simulated for a group of representative "simulation particles" by means of a stochastic process (Lagrange simulation). Surface sources (individual cotton fields, Jujube orchards) are known: their geographical location as well as their areal extent, their stage of vegetation growth as well as irrigation and fertilization events and amounts, soil temperatures and soil water contents. This information is used to up-scale our results of field specific potential net NO emission, which has been parameterized in terms of soil temperature, soil water content, and soil nutrient

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes and chemical characteristics around Sahand Mountain, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazand, Kaveh; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-06-01

    The chemical analysis of 21 water wells in Sahand area, NW of Iran has been evaluated to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and ion, heavy and trace metal concentration background in the region. The dominated hydrochemical types are Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl that vary in different group sample. The pH and Eh of the groundwater in the study area indicating an acidic to alkaline nature of the samples in group II, acidic nature in group I and neutral in group III. Also in Group III than Group I and II, the oxidizing condition is dominant, while in the other groups relative reducing conditions prevail. Due to Cu and other metal mineralization in I and II site, Cu, As, Au and other metal concentration in this water groups is higher than group III.

  13. 51. (Credit JTL) Interior view (looking NW) of new pumping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. (Credit JTL) Interior view (looking NW) of new pumping room built in 1921. In the right foreground is #1 low service pump built in 1897. Installed at McNeil in 1898, it was not moved during the building of this room in 1921. Beyond is a 5 mgd capacity Worthington-Snow cross-compound, duplex crank-and-fly-wheel engine built in 1920. Behind the worthington is an 8 mgd Allis-Chalmers engine of the same configuration. it was built in 1911, but not installed at McNeil until 1927. Both engines have condensers. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  14. Resolution experiments for NW Pacific subduction zone tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spakman, Wim; Van Der Hilst, Rob; Wortel, Rinus; Stein, Seth

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from an investigation of the resolving power of ISC/NEIC P travel-time data in tomographic inversions for the geometry of the subduction zones in the NW Pacific. From thermal models for the Kurile, Janan, Izu-Bonin, Mariana, and Ryukyu slabs, three-dimensional synthetic velocity anomalies for subducting slabs are generated and projected onto a cell model for the uppermost 1400 km of the mantle. These synthetic models are used to compute synthetic delay times for ray paths corresponding to the source and receiver locations used for the actual data, add Gaussian noise, invert the synthetic data, and compare the resulting velocity structure to the initial synthetic models. This comparison is illustrated for sections through the Kuriles and the Mariana arcs. A variety of resolution artifacts are observed, which in many cases resemble features visible in the tomographic results obtained from inverting the actual ISC/NEIC data.

  15. Structural Analysis of Active North Bozgush Fault Zone (NW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, R.; Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.

    2013-12-01

    NW Iran is one of the seismically active regions between Zagros Thrust Belt at the south and Caucasus at the north. Not only large magnitude historical earthquakes (Ms>7), but also 1987 Bozgush, 1997 Ardebil (Mw 6.1) and 2012 Ahar-Varzagan (Mw 6.4) earthquakes reveal that the region is seismically active. The North Bozgush Fault Zone (NBFZ) in this region has tens of kilometers in length and hundreds of meters in width. The zone has produced some large and destructive earthquakes (1593 M:6.1 and 1883 M:6.2). The NBFZ affects the Cenozoic units and along this zone Eocene units thrusted over Miocene and/or Plio-Quaternary sedimentary units. Together with morphologic features (stream offsets and alluvial fan movements) affecting the young unites reveal that the zone is active. The zone is mainly characterized by strike-slip faults with reverse component and reverse faults. Reverse faults striking N55°-85°E and dip of 40°-50° to the SW while strike-slip faults show right lateral slip with N60°-85°W and N60°-80°E directions. Our structural data analysis in NBFZ indicates that the axis direction of σ2 principal stress is vertical and the stress ratio (R) is 0.12. These results suggest that the tectonic regime along the North Bozgush Fault Zone is transpressive. Obtained other principal stresses (σ1, σ3) results are compatible with stress directions and GPS velocity suggested for NW Iran.

  16. Buried Quaternary Valleys In NW Europe - Aquifers and Drilling Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Piotrowski, J.

    Buried Quaternary valleys are extremely widespread in the formerly glaciated, low- land areas of NW Europe (Huuse &Lykke-Andersen 2000, Fig. 4). The valleys may be several hundred metres deep, some kilometres across and few to several tens of kilometres long. Most of the deep valleys have irregular length profiles with sills and basins, unlike standard subaerial river systems. We interpret these as overdeepened valleys, formed mainly by subglacial meltwater erosion. Buried valleys located on- shore often provide sheltered reservoirs of clean groundwater, and much attention is presently focused on locating onshore valleys and quantifying their potential as groundwater aquifers. In nearshore areas, buried valleys may be a risk factor by pro- viding pathways of salt-water intrusion of onshore groundwater aquifers. Far offshore, buried valleys are located in the shallow subsurface above the prolific oil and gas fields of the central North Sea. Here, the valleys pose a risk for drilling operations by hosting shallow gas and potentially unstable sediments. The central North Sea is now largely covered by 3D seismic data, which often image the buried valleys in a level of de- tail much greater than that available onshore. Hence offshore valleys imaged by 3D seismic data may be used as analogues for groundwater reservoirs onshore NW Eu- rope. Here, we present examples of buried valleys from onshore, nearshore and far offshore locations, to illustrate how genetically and morphologically identical valleys may benefit or hamper the exploitation of subsurface accummulations of groundwater and hydrocarbons. Huuse, M. &Lykke-Andersen, H. 2000. Buried Quaternary valleys in the eastern Dan- ish North Sea: morphology and origin. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 1233-1253.

  17. Solar Radiation at Surface for Typical Cities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Area in Xinjiang, China Based on Satellite Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihua, Fang; Haichen, Liu; Jiamin, Huang; Yunqi, Zhang; Jun, Hu; Yonghang, Chen; Yanming, Kang; Xue, Wang; Chengjie, Huang

    2017-05-01

    Xinjiang, a region of China with arid and semi-arid areas, has abundant solar incidence with 166.5×104 km2 and diverse underlying surface. The meager number of surface radiation observatories cannot meet the need for efficient exploration of solar energy. In this study we classified Xinjiang into three regions: southern Xinjiang, northern Xinjiang and Tu-Ha region and applied satellite data to provide the surface solar radiation’s temporal distribution for 10 typical cities. The study is focused on seasonal, annual and variations of all sky downward shortwave radiation flux at surface based on 24-year satellite dataset GEWEX-SRB from the WCRP/GEWEX (World Climate Research Program/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) from 1984 to 2007. The results are as follows. In general, the monthly average solar radiation flux for the cities in the Tu-Ha region was the largest followed by the south Xinjiang and northern Xinjiang. The solar radiation in the most northern cities were less than 150.0 W/m2 in winter, the minimum is 138.7 W/m2, while the other cities were greater than 150.0 W/m2. The maximum of monthly solar flux for the Tu-Ha region, southern and northern Xinjiang was 400.0 W/m2.

  18. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  19. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  20. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Association between prothrombin gene polymorphisms and hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakhs population.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Bing-Lin; Wang, Chang-Min; Zhu, Bing; Guan, Sheng; Ci, Hong-Bo; Sai, Li-Mu; Jiang, Xiao-Kui; Ren, Hao; Fang, Qing-Bo; Tian, Guang-Lei

    2014-03-01

    To assess the association between polymorphisms of prothrombin gene and hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakhs population. Through cross-sectional investigation, permanent Kazakh population of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture was selected as the study object to measure their antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C, protein S activity and activated C protein resistance value, thus defining the situation of the crowd's hereditary thrombophilia. Sequenom Massarray detection technology was used to conduct a genotype test of the six sites selected by the case and control groups. Haploview software was used to perform linkage disequilibrium analysis of the six sites, and the impact of the interaction between genetic variations and environment on hereditary thrombophilia was researched by the use of sum model. A total of 1005 Kazakh volunteers participated in the test (332 men and 673 women), average age (41.13 ± 11.50) years; the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakh population was 31.0%, and the prevalence of AT-III deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency and activated protein C resistance was 16.4, 14.9, 20.6 and 7.8%, respectively. The difference in allele frequency of the hereditary thrombophilia patient group at rs3136447 and rs5896 sites was statistically significant (P = 0.0483 and P = 0.0302, respectively). rs5896 and rs2070852 had high linkage disequilibrium (r = 0.99), and constituted a single-domain block 1. The rs3136447 and the rs5896 polymorphisms located in the region of the prothrombin gene may be associated with hereditary thrombophilia in the Xinjiang Kazakhs population. There is additive interactive effect of rs5896 polymorphism (CT + TT) and smoke on hereditary thrombophilia.

  3. Effects of changing climate on reference crop evapotranspiration over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ning; Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-10-01

    To know the importance of different climate variables on reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o), a step-by-step sensitivity analysis of ET o to single, two, and multi-climate variables (C) was conducted. ET o in north, south, and entire Xinjiang Province, China, over 1961-2013 was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Trends in the involved six Cs (i.e., minimum temperature—T min, average temperature—T ave, maximum temperature—T max, wind speed at 2 m—U 2, sunshine hour—n, and relative humidity—RH) were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Nineteen scenarios of changed Cs were preset to obtain recalculated ET o values considering the actual trend in each C and the Pearson's correlation relationship between ET o and Cs. The results showed that ET o was mostly sensitive to T max, U 2, and n. Sensitivity of ET o to the two overlapped changes of T min and T max caused larger increases in ET o than T max and T ave, T ave and T max, T max and (-n), T max and RH, T max and (-U 2), and T min and T ave, but the overlapped changes (-U 2) and (-n) caused larger decreases in ET o than the other two C scenarios. The simultaneously increased T max, T min, T ave, and RH plus decreased U 2 and n had caused the actual decreases in ET o in Xinjiang. In general, the effects of decreased U 2 and n on decreasing ET o compensated the effects of increased T max on decreasing ET o in Xinjiang.

  4. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur.

  5. Characterization of Carbon Deposits Formed During Plasma Pyrolysis of Xinjiang Candle Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guilin; Meng, Yuedong; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong

    2009-08-01

    Carbon deposits were formed on the reactor wall during plasma pyrolysis of the Xinjiang candle coal in our V-style plasma pyrolysis pilot-plant. The carbon deposits were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. It was found that carbon deposits located at different parts in the reactor exhibited different microscopic patterns. The formation mechanism of the carbon deposits was deduced. The downward increase in the graphitization degree of the carbon deposits was found and interpreted.

  6. China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Cornucopia or Achilles Heel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Alataw and Tarbagatay ranges to the west, and the Altay mountains to the north. As with the Tarim, these rugged mountain ranges provide natural...which are each enclosed by imposing mountain ranges (see Figure 2. 1). Elevations run from over 25,000 feet in the Kunlun Range to 23 A N-k~’ 505 feet...Xinjiang is composed of two large basin areas. The southern or Tarim Basin is bound by the Kunlun mountains to the south, the Karakorums and Pamirs to

  7. [Analysis of trace elements contents in dry-fruit of xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Wang, W; Ruan, X

    2000-08-01

    Ten kinds of trace element's contents in nine kinds of specialities of Xinjiang were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and flame atomic emission spectrometry. The trace element's contents in these different specialities were compared with each other. The relationships between the over-accumulation of trace element in body and some illness of people were also studied. Statistics suggest that there are different contents of the ten kinds of trace elements in every kinds of dry-fruit. The statistics are valuable references.

  8. Agronomic threshold of soil available phosphorus in grey desert soils in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, H.; Hao, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, J. S.; Li, J. M.; Ma, Y. B.

    2016-08-01

    Based on 23 years of data, yields of maize, wheat and cotton were modelled under different fertilizer management practices and at different levels of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) in soil. Three types of threshold models were used, namely linear-linear (LL), linear- plateau (LP), and Mitscherlich type exponential (Exp). The agronomic thresholds of available phosphorus were 25.4 mgkg-1 for cotton, 14.8 mgkg-1 for wheat, 13.1 mgkg-1 for maize and 25.4 mgkg-1 for the grey desert soil regions of Xinjiang in China as a whole.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Myxobacteria from Saline-Alkaline Soils in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianjiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zhuoping; Xie, Xiaolin; Zhu, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-eight terrestrial and salt-tolerant myxobacteria were isolated from the saline-alkaline soils collected from Xinjiang, China. Based on the morphologies and the 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates were assigned into 6 genera, Myxococcus, Cystobacter, Corallococcus, Sorangium, Nannocystis and Polyangium. All the strains grew better with 1% NaCl than without NaCl. Some Myxococcus strains were able to grow at 2% NaCl concentration, suggesting that these strains may be particular type of terrestrial myxobacteria. PMID:23936436

  10. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  11. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  12. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  13. Arsenic (As) contamination: A major risk factor in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Xinjiang province is one of the unhealthiest region in China due to natural as well as man-made activities. Here soil and water having high concentration of multi-metals especially arsenic content in the soil and water is a major threat to the peoples which suffers regularly from arsenic contamination therefore multiple diseases and illness is the common phenomenon. Therefore this area urgently needed a comprehensive assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organization to cope up with this problem and find a miracle solution which can remediate soil and water quality. There peoples suffers much for the above mentioned reason. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tectonic evolution of the Irtysh collision belt: New zircon U-Pb ages of deformed and collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar area, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hong; Jun, Gao; Xingwang, Xu; Klemd, Reiner

    2016-04-01

    The CAOB is thought to have formed by multiple accretion and collision of various microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaus and accretionary wedges due to the closure of the Paleo-Asia Ocean [1, 2, 3]. The Irtysh collision belt is located at the middle-western part of the CAOB and generally thought to be the result of the collision of the Sawuer Island arc and the Altay Terrane, subsequent to the consumption of the Early Paleozoic Junggar Ocean, a branch of Paleo-Asia Ocean. Therefore, the exact timing of the Irtysh collision belt is crucial for a better understanding of the tectonic evolution of this collision belt and will provide constraints on the evolution of the CAOB. Recently, we discovered various collisional granitoids in the Kalaxiangar tectonic belt (KTB), which is located in the eastern part of the Irtysh collision belt. In this contribution, we report new geochemical whole-rock, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of the arc-related and collisional granitoids. Our new results reveal that 1) the arc-related granodioritic porphyries formed at ca. 374 Ma. Furthermore, recrystallized zircons from the granodioritic mylonite and ultramylonite of the Laoshankou ductile deformation zone have a similar U-Pb age of ca. 360 Ma; 2) the syn-collisional granodioritic porphyries, which distribute along cleavege, were emplaced at ca. 355 Ma; 3) the post-collisional A-type granodioritic porphyry, which cuts the NW-NNW trending schistosity at a low angle, has an age of ca. 323 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 7.5 to + 14.4, and young Hf model ages between 387 and 658 Ma; 4) the post-collisional A-type granite dykes, which are exposed along strike-slip faults, have ages between 282.5 and 279.2Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 4.8 to + 12.6, and Hf model ages between 436 and 729 Ma; 5) the A-type biotite granite dykes that intruded along conjugate tension joints have ages between 273.9 and 271.4 Ma, ɛHf(t) values from + 1.1 to + 12.8, and Hf model ages between 393 and 979 Ma. In

  15. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  16. Immunological subtypes analysis of Uygur diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Xinjiang and their prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cun-Dong; Liang, Li-Ping; Yang, Li-Li; Yue, Na; Zhao, Feng; Bai, Jing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of Choi's typing method in the immunological typing of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and its prognostic significance. Seventy-eight cases of DLBCL tumor tissues from Xinjiang were collected to detect the expression of germinal center B (GCB) cell-expressed transcript-1, FOXP1, CD10, bcl-6, and MUM1 using an immunohistochemical method. Then, immunological typing was carried out using Choi's typing method, and the survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the prognostic factors. GCB-cell-like-DLBCL and non-GCB-DLBCL accounting for 29.5% (23/78) and 70.5% (55/78), respectively. The 3-year overall survival of GCB-DLBCL was 58%, significantly higher than that of non-GCB-DLBCL (39%, P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that International Prognostic Index and immunological typing were two independent prognostic factors for Uygur patients with DLBCL. Non-GCB-DLBCL is the main type of DLBCL in Xinjiang and Choi's typing method can be a helpful indicator to determine the prognosis of the Uygur DLBCL in Xinjiang.

  17. Genetic structure and differention of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xumai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Linjing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guifang; Gu, Fengxue; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    RAPD technique was applied to study intraspecific genetic polymorphism and differentiation of Suaeda acuminata populations in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. By analysis of RAPD data, higher genetic variability was found in the populations of S. acuminata, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 98.9%. Both estimations by Shannon diversity index and by Nei's gene diversity index from RAPD data, it was found identically that about 72% of molecular variation existed within the subpopulations, while about 28% of which existed among subpopulations. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the populations of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analytical result between the soil factures and the genetic diversity indicted that there was a significant positive relation between genetic diversity and concentrations of Mg++, conductivity (CO) and absorbed water(W) in soil, while there was no significant relation between genetic distance among subpopulations and geographical distance. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis between the five subpopulations showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the population of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. No correlation existed between genetic distance among subpopulations and their locations in oasis-desert transitional zone. Adaptation to its habitats and restricted gene flow among subpopulations may be a cause of genetic differentiation of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang.

  18. Clinical Epidemiology of Mineral Bone Disorder Markers in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Ping; Yang, Wen-Jun; Li, Su-Hua; Han, Yuan-yuan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the clinical epidemiology of mineral bone disorder markers in prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients in Xinjiang, the largest province in China. Data were obtained from 59 hospitals. A total of 3725 patients tracked from January 1 to December 31, 2014, were enrolled. Serum calcium (Ca) levels, phosphorus (P) levels, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were analyzed. Serum Ca levels were lower compared to the International Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS4) and the Chinese DOPPS. The hypercalcemia rate was similar to DOPPS4 and lower than in the Chinese DOPPS. Serum P levels were higher than in DOPPS4 and lower than those in the Chinese DOPPS. Hyperphosphatemia rates were higher than DOPPS4 and lower than Chinese DOPPS. Serum iPTH levels were higher than in DOPPS4 and the Chinese DOPPS. We demonstrated higher serum P and iPTH levels in Xinjiang HD patients than in the DOPPS4 and Chinese DOPPS. In contrast, serum Ca levels were lower than the other two studies. High hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia rates may suggest that HD services in Xinjiang are inadequate. A multidiscipline chronic kidney disease (CKD) care program needs to be established to improve chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) target achievement in Xinjiang. PMID:28299319

  19. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehui; Lu, Jianjiang; Xing, Zhenni; Li, Shanman; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin

    2017-08-28

    Despite risks associated with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in many regions, little is known about their prevalence in Xinjiang. We determined the presence of 13 PFAAs in 293 beef muscle and liver samples collected in 22 cities covering northern, southern, and eastern Xinjiang using liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, the average values for PFAAs were relatively low compared with previous studies. Liver presented higher mean levels of total PFAAs at 1.632 ng/g, which was over 60-fold higher than in muscle (0.026 ng/g). Among the PFAAs analyzed, medium-chain compounds were dominant, accounting for more than 70% of the total. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was highly prevalent in the liver with the highest mean concentration (0.617 ng/g) and detection frequency (80%). When comparing the three regions of Xinjiang, we found differences in PFAA profiles, with the northern region showing the highest levels. Furthermore, the average daily intake and hazard ratios of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid varied by region, urban/rural environment, gender, ethnicity, and age. The highest risk value of 13 PFAAs was estimated to be 0.837 × 10(-3), which is far below 1, indicating that there is no health risk posed by eating beef muscle and liver in Xinjiang.

  20. [Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus in children of Han, Uigurs and Kazaks ethnicities in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Yi-tong; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Yi-ning; Li, Xiao-mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-yan; Liu, Fen; Xiang, Yang; Chen, You; Yu, Zi-xiang; Chen, Bang-dang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus and its associated risk factors in children with Han, Uygur and Kazak ethnicities in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional random samples involving aged 0 - 17 years were carried out to analyze the prevalence rates and associated risk factors of diabetes mellitus in children of Han, Uigur and Kazak ethnicities from 3 prefectures (Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai) in Xinjiang Autonomous Regions. Diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were defined by the China Diabetes Prevention and Control Standard set in 2007. Data was collected through filling in the questionnaires and results from physical examination and laboratory tests. The total prevalence rates of IFG and diabetes mellitus were 0.68% and 0.09%, respectively. Data from logistic regression analysis suggested that overweight and obesity were risk factors for diabetes mellitus in children from Xinjiang, with odds ratio values as 2.844 and 3.963, respectively. Children with Han, Uygur and Kazak ethnicities in Xinjiang had an overall standardized prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus. IFG were 0.57% and 1.35% lower than the 2004 data from children at same age groups in Beijing and the whole nation, also 0.19% lower then the national rate of 5 - 17 years-old children juvenile diabetes.

  1. A Holocene speleothem record from Morocco, NW Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassenburg, Jasper; Fietzke, Jan; Richter, Detlev; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    A well dated Holocene speleothem (stalagmite) from the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco has been investigated for its continental climate record. The aim is to compile an improved understanding of the climatically complex triple point of the North Atlantic, Mediterranean and Saharan / Monsoonal climate realms in NW Africa. At present, only few studies concerning continental climate reconstructions from NW Africa have been published (Lamb et al. 1995, Cheddadi et al. 1998, Genty et al. 2006). Given the significance of this region, this lack of data forms a strong motivation for additional, well dated climate records. The speleothem (GP2) was sampled in the 'Grotte de Piste' (ca 800 m above sea level), mean annual precipitation is about 930 mm (mainly falling in the winter season) and the mean annual temperature is about 13° C. GP2 is 60 cm tall and grew - based on U/Th MC-ICP-MS data - continuously between 11.5 kyr BP (early Holocene) and 2.9 kyr BP (late Holocene). X-Ray Diffraction data indicate a mainly aragonitic mineralogy. 'Hendy tests' suggest that CaCO3 precipitation was close to isotopic equilibrium with respect to oxygen isotopes, however kinetic effects might have influenced carbon isotopes. Carbon and oxygen isotope data have been measured along a transect with increments of approximately 1 mm representing a resolution of about 15 yrs. Highly covariant oscillations in δ13C and δ18O with an average cyclicity of about 410 yrs. are observed. These oscillations coincide with macroscopically visible high density and low density layers, possibly reflecting a higher or lower amount of inclusions and perhaps higher and lower growth rates. Geochemical analysis of speloan aragonite is accompanied by cave monitoring that has started in November 2009. Parameters quantified include: drip water parameters, cave air humidity, pCO2 and cave air temperature. Precipitation experiments using watch glasses will also be performed. References Cheddadi, R., Lamb, H. F

  2. [Analysis of master degree thesis of otolaryngology head and neck surgery in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Ayiheng, Qukuerhan; Niliapaer, Alimu; Yalikun, Yasheng

    2010-12-01

    To understand the basic situation and development of knowledge structure and ability of master degree of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery in Xinjiang region in order to provide reference to further improve the quality of postgraduate students. Fourty-six papers of Otolaryngology master degree thesis were reviewed at randomly in terms of types, subject selection ranges as well as statistical methods during 1998-2009 in Xinjiang region in order to analyze and explore its advantages and characteristics and suggest a solution for its disadvantages. In 46 degree thesis, nine of them are scientific dissertations accounting for 19.57%, 37 are clinical professional degree thesis, accounting for 80.43%. Five are Experimental research papers, 30 are clinical research papers, 10 are clinical and experimental research papers, 1 of them is experimental epidemiology research paper; in this study, the kinds of diseases including every subject of ENT, various statistical methods are involved; references are 37.46 in average, 19.55 of them are foreign literatures references in nearly 5 years are 13.57; four ethnic groups are exist in postgraduate students with high teaching professional level of tutors. The clinical research should be focused in order to further research on ENT common diseases, the application of advanced research methods, the full application of the latest literature, tutors with high-level, training of students of various nationalities, basic research needs to be innovative and should be focus the subject characteristics, to avoid excessive duplication of research.

  3. Design and implementation of the monitoring system for underground coal fires in Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-bo, Dang; Jia-chun, Wu; Yue-xing, Liu; Yuan, Chang; Bin, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal fire (UCF) is serious in Xinjiang region of China. In order to deal with this problem efficiently, a UCF monitoring System, which is based on the use of wireless communication technology and remote sensing images, was designed and implemented by Xinjiang Coal Fire Fighting Bureau. This system consists of three parts, i.e., the data collecting unit, the data processing unit and the data output unit. For the data collecting unit, temperature sensors and gas sensors were put together on the sites with depth of 1.5 meter from the surface of coal fire zone. Information on these sites' temperature and gas was transferred immediately to the data processing unit. The processing unit was developed by coding based on GIS software. Generally, the processed datum were saved in the computer by table format, which can be displayed on the screen as the curve. Remote sensing image for each coal fire was saved in this system as the background for each monitoring site. From the monitoring data, the changes of the coal fires were displayed directly. And it provides a solid basis for analyzing the status of coal combustion of coal fire, the gas emission and possible dominant direction of coal fire propagation, which is helpful for making-decision of coal fire extinction.

  4. [Early warning and risk assessment of snow disaster in pastoral area of northern Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-yuan; Liang, Tian-gang; Guo, Zheng-gang; Zhang, Xue-tong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of animal husbandry production and of distribution characteristics of snow disaster in northern Xinjiang, and by using RS and GIS techniques and field survey data, 9 early warning factors were selected from the three subsystems of grassland' s disaster-resistant capability, livestock's disaster-bearing capacity, and disaster-causing potential, and the death rate of livestock caused by snow disaster was used as a factor of risk assessment. An index system of snow disaster' s early warning and risk assessment for completely grazing grassland was established, and the early warning model of snow disaster, its distinguishing model, and risk assessment model were built by using multi-hierarchical synthetic and multi-objective linear weight function methods to predict the resistant capability of grassland and livestock against snow disaster, and to assess the potential risk loss from snow disaster in northern Xinjiang. The accuracy of the early warning model and risk assessment model was 85% and 72% , respectively.

  5. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  6. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

  7. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditionally fermented Xinjiang cheese.

    PubMed

    Azat, Ramila; Liu, Yan; Li, Wei; Kayir, Abdurihim; Lin, Ding-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Wen; Zheng, Xiao-Dong

    2016-08-01

    Six lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains were isolated from traditionally fermented Xinjiang cheese and evaluated for functional and probiotic properties and potentials as starter cultures. The isolated six LAB strains comprised Lactobacillus rhamnosus (one strain), Lactobacillus helveticus (one strain), and Enterococcus hirae (four strains). All of the six strains were tolerant to acidic and bile salt conditions. Among which, the L. rhamnosus R4 strain showed more desirable antimicrobial, auto-aggregation, and hydrophobic activity. In addition, the strain L. rhamnosus R4 exhibited the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (53.78% of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and 45.79% of hydroxyl radicals). L. rhamnosus R4 also demonstrated cholesterol and triglyceride degradation by 50.97% and 28.92%, respectively. To further examine the health-promoting effects of these LAB strains on host lifespan, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model. Worms fed LAB as a food source had significant differences in lifespan compared to those fed Escherichia coli OP50 (as a negative control). Feeding of L. rhamnosus R4 extended the mean lifespan of C. elegans by up to 36.1% compared to that of the control. The results suggest that the strains isolated from Xinjiang fermented dairy products have high potential as starter cultures in the cheese industry.

  8. [Analysis of the microelements contents in melons and fruits of Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chun-xia; Luo, Yan-li; Sheng, Jian-dong; Wang, Ling; Zheng, Chang-chun

    2008-06-01

    Through the atom absorption and emission spectrum analysis, it is detected 8 trace elements contents in eleven species of melons and fruits in Xinjiang. On comparative analysis with biological standard of China, it is found that the zinc quantity in apples is 66.75 mg x kg(-1), the strontium quantity in jujubes is 8.62 mg x kg(-1) and Chinese-date contains strontium 8.62 mg x kg(-1) in Hetian area; and that in the Kuerle area the pomegranate is potassium 687 mg x kg, in Hami Territory Chinese-date contains manganese, zinc, strontium, calcium, iron, potassium and nickel, all of them are more over the national biological standard. The contents of copper in eleven species of melons and fruits are lower than the biological standard of China The average contents of 8 kind microelement in the pomegranate of Kuerle, in the apples of Hetian, the Chinese-date of Hami are very high (respectively to be 91.82, 121.5 and 275.3 mg x kg(-1)), and in the watermelon of Wujiaqu, the pericarp (54.19 mg x kg(-1)) take place higher than in the pulp (48.69 mg x kg(-1)) by 1.11 times. The result can provides the conference for studies of melons and fruits foodstuff studies in Xinjiang.

  9. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditionally fermented Xinjiang cheese* #

    PubMed Central

    Azat, Ramila; Liu, Yan; Li, Wei; Kayir, Abdurihim; Lin, Ding-bo; Zhou, Wen-wen; Zheng, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Six lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains were isolated from traditionally fermented Xinjiang cheese and evaluated for functional and probiotic properties and potentials as starter cultures. The isolated six LAB strains comprised Lactobacillus rhamnosus (one strain), Lactobacillus helveticus (one strain), and Enterococcus hirae (four strains). All of the six strains were tolerant to acidic and bile salt conditions. Among which, the L. rhamnosus R4 strain showed more desirable antimicrobial, auto-aggregation, and hydrophobic activity. In addition, the strain L. rhamnosus R4 exhibited the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (53.78% of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and 45.79% of hydroxyl radicals). L. rhamnosus R4 also demonstrated cholesterol and triglyceride degradation by 50.97% and 28.92%, respectively. To further examine the health-promoting effects of these LAB strains on host lifespan, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model. Worms fed LAB as a food source had significant differences in lifespan compared to those fed Escherichia coli OP50 (as a negative control). Feeding of L. rhamnosus R4 extended the mean lifespan of C. elegans by up to 36.1% compared to that of the control. The results suggest that the strains isolated from Xinjiang fermented dairy products have high potential as starter cultures in the cheese industry. PMID:27487805

  10. Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Hai-Yan, Gong; Tun-Hai, Xu; Tian, Shuge

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. PMID:21120028

  11. Responses of net primary productivity (NPP) in Xinjiang to climate changes from 1981-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Slusser, James R.; Cao, Mingkui; Qi, Jiaguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhan, Xiwu; Ma, Yingjun

    2004-01-01

    In the last several decades, the responses of vegetation to global changes at regional and global scales have been studied with many mathematical models primarily driven by point meteorological observations. In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) of Xinjiang, China is simulated using the GLObal Production Efficiency Model (GLO-PEM) which is a semi-mechanistic model of plant photosynthesis and respiration and driven entirely by satellite observations. With the available satellite observation data acquired from NOAA"s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the seasonal and inter-annual changes of NPP in the Xinjiang area are analyzed for the time period of 20 years from 1981 to 2000. Large spatial variability of NPP is found in this area. The temporal trends of NPP in different regions of the area differed significantly. However, for the whole area the mean annual NPP decreased in the 1980s and increased in the 1990s. Seasonal variations of NPP are large and inter-annual changes are moderate. The correlations between the simulated NPP and the precipitation and temperature suggested that precipitation and temperature played major roles in the variations of NPP.

  12. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P < 0.05). The average positive rates of nasal swabs and lungs were 10.18 and 28.89 %, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic trees of 16S RNA gene, the isolates were closest to those strains isolated from inland areas of China, indicating that these epidemic isolates came from the trans-province introductions. Our survey suggests that quarantine is necessary for sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  13. Signal of Acceleration and Physical Mechanism of Water Cycle in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Global warming accelerates water cycle with features of regional difference. However, little is known about the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon. To reveal the links between water cycle and climatic environment, we analyzed the changes of water cycle elements and their relationships with climatic and environmental factors. We found that when global warming was significant during the period of 1986-2003, the precipitation in Tarim mountains as well as Xinjiang increased rapidly except for Tarim plains, which indicated that there existed a signal of acceleration for water cycle in Xinjiang. The speed of water cycle is mainly affected by altitude, latitude, longitude, slope direction, and the most fundamental element is temperature. Moreover, according to Clausius-Kela Bai Lung relation, we found that the climate change induced the increase of temperature and accelerated the local water cycle only for the wet places. Our results provide a possible physical mechanisms of water cycle and thus well link the climate change to water circulation. PMID:27907078

  14. 14. ENTRANCE AT FIFTEENTH AND W STREETS, N.W., NOTE MOLDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ENTRANCE AT FIFTEENTH AND W STREETS, N.W., NOTE MOLDED CONCRETE FORMS, August 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 52. VIEW LOOKING N.W. AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING, PIPING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW LOOKING N.W. AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING, PIPING FOR THE AMMONIA DISTILLATE IN FOREGROUND. MAY 21, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. The primary research of climate change features and their causes for the recent 40 years in Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yujiang; He, Qing; Zhang, Jiabao; Mu, Guijin

    2003-07-01

    In the paper, the three outstanding features of climate change in Xinjiang for the recent 40 years are identified. Their causes are discussed primarily from two aspects of natural change and factitious influence. Results are as follows: (1)The warming trend of winter mean temperature in northern and southern Xinjiang are resulted from the controlling of macroclimate regularities of winter warming in The Northern Hemisphere and the local influence of factitious factors, the former is more important than the latter. (2)The increasing trend of summer precipitation in southern Xinjiang may have little to do with the change of macroclimate background, but mainly have to do with human activities, especially with increasing of real evaporation in oasis area, which are result from both the area under cultivation (or oasis) enlarging continually in southern Xinjiang between the south foot of Tianshan Mountains and the north foot of Kunlun Mountains and the amount of drawing water from Tarim River increasing continually. Furthermore, the warming trend of summer in southern Xinjiang for the recent 40 years coinciding with The Northern Hemisphere also helps to increase evaporation intensity, to form the increasing trend of real evaporation amount, and results in the increase of summer precipitation. But this is less important than the increase of available evaporation water amount and evaporation area that result from the acreage under cultivation (or oasis) enlarging. (3)The variability of annual mean temperature in Tianshan Mountainous area is the greatest, which maybe have to do with that the annul difference of early or later of forming or smelting, thick or thin and cover extent of seasonal stable snow is largely in the area.

  17. Soil organic matter contribution to the NW Mediterranean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Buscail, R.; Blokker, J.; Kerhervé, P.; Schouten, S.; Ludwig, W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The BIT (Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether) index has recently been introduced as a proxy for soil organic matter input and is based on the relative abundance of non-isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) derived from organisms living in terrestrial environments versus a structurally related isoprenoid GDGT “crenarchaeol” produced by marine Crenarchaeota (Hopmans et al., 2004). In this study, detailed spatial distribution patterns of BIT index were investigated in combination with other organic parameters in the continental margin of the north western Mediterranean. Based on a transect sampling strategy from source (land) to sink (sea) via river, we analysed a variety of soils from the Têt and Rhône basins, suspended particulate matter in waters of the Têt and Rhône rivers flowing into the Gulf of Lions, and marine surface sediments from the Gulf of Lions collected before and after a flood occurred in June 2008. Our study allows us to track BIT values along the transport pathway of soil organic matter and thus to estimate soil organic matter contribution in marine sediments in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean), a river-dominated continental margin. Hopmans, E.C., Weijers, J.W.H., Schefuss, E., Herfort, L., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., 2004. A novel proxy for terrestrial organic matter in sediments based on branched and isoprenoidtetraether lipids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 107-116.

  18. Past Glaciation in the Sierra Aconquija, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, M. K.; Mey, J.; Schildgen, T. F.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple Pleistocene glaciations have occurred in the subtropical Andes, leaving behind extensive moraines in areas that are now arid and completely unglaciated. These are important terrestrial palaeoclimate records, yet we have a poor understanding of their timings and the regional changes in temperature and moisture transport that caused them. Here, we present an analysis of past glaciation in the Sierra Aconquija ( 27° S), NW Argentina. This mountain range has peak elevations above 5000 m and lies in a climatically sensitive location, receiving heavy precipitation on its eastern side from the South American Monsoon (>1500 mm/yr), while also creating a powerful rain shadow on its western side ( 250 mm/yr). The range has no glaciers today, but exhibits clear evidence for past glacial activity. We develop a new method for discriminating between different generations of moraines at a high spatial resolution, using new Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite imagery. We characterise three distinct glacial advances in the Sierra Aconquija, which each terminate at significantly different elevations between 3500 and 4400 m. We map their spatial extents in detail in order to explore the sensitivity of past glaciation to the strong orographic gradient in climate at this location. Finally, we model the deviations in temperature and precipitation that are needed to explain these past glacial episodes in this part of the Andes, and explore the implications for climatic reorganisation in the region.

  19. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Fernandez-González, M; Aira, M J

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  20. Neoproterozoic Geography of Baltica: Palaeomagnetic Results From NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.; Iosifidi, A.; Tait, J.; Bachtadse, V.; Khramov, A.

    Classical exposures of Upper Vendian sediments exposed to the north of Achangelsk, NW Russia have been the subjected to a detailed palaeomagnetic study. Samples were collected from two localities, at Zimnie Gory along the White Sea Coast, and along the shores of the Zolotica River. More than 600 samples have been subjected to detailed thermal demagnetisation experiments, and up to 3 palaeomagnetic directions can be identified. Two intermediate temperature single-polarity components, labelled compo- nents B and C are isolated. Both magnetisations are synfolding in character yielding maximum k values at 55 and 40 per cent unfolding respectively. Folding occurred in Cretaceous times, and comparison of the resulting palaeopoles with the APWP for Baltica indicates that these directions correspond to remagnetisation events of Or- dovician and Late Permian age. Reasons for the remagnetisation, however, remain elusive. The third and high temperature palaeomagnetic component is identified with dual polarity, passes both the reversal (classification B) and the fold test (99 per cent confidence) and is considered to be primary and Late Vendian in age. The resulting palaeopole for this high temperature component places Baltica in low northern lati- tudes and requires modification of the most recent Apparent Polar Wander Paths for Baltica.

  1. Geochemistry and origin of granitic rocks, Scourian Complex, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Muecke, G. K.

    1982-11-01

    Concordant granite sheets from the granulite facies Scourian Complex, N.W. Scotland exhibit the following features: 1) a common planar fabric with their host pyroxene granulites; 2) the presence of an exsolved ternary feldspar phase; 3) a low-pressure, water-saturated minimum composition; 4) K/Rb ratios (450 1,350) distinctly higher than most upper crustal granites but similar to the surrounding granulites; 5) low absolute concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs), light REE enrichment, and large positive Eu anomalies. It is proposed that the granite sheets have originated by anatexis of gneisses undergoing granulite facies metamorphism — gneisses that were already essentially dry and depleted in incompatible elements. Their unusual trace element chemistry may be explained by either disequilibrium melting and/or sub-solidus reequilibration of the granite sheets with the surrounding gneisses. Isotopic and trace element data suggest that cross-cutting, potash-rich pegmatites represent reworking of the granite sheets during a later amphibolitization.

  2. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  3. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-02-23

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5-80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4-97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China.

  4. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.

  5. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5–80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4–97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China. PMID:28230168

  6. Mapping Water Use Efficiency for the Xinjiang Province in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W.; Li, Q.; Dong, Q.; van Roey, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Tarim river basin, one of the basins integrated in the UNESCO - HELP Programme, is located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwestern China. It is one of the world's largest closed hydrological drainage systems, and has ideal soils for agriculture, if enough water is available. Farmers in the province produce one- sixth of China's total cotton production. Since the 1950's however, excessive land reclamation, over-grazing and increased utilization of water resources in the upper reaches of the basin intensified environmental degradation. This impacted on cattle stock reduction (by water shortage), withered poplars and vegetation, along the lower reaches of the basin. Riparian forest degraded with a reduction in its area of 200 000 ha in total. Higher water use combined with a gradual mean yearly temperature increase due to climate change caused serious hydrological problems in the basin. Since the 1970's a strong drying out of the lower region is elicited. This phenomenon degraded the basin's downstream ecosystems, with an expansion of desertification as a consequence. Quite conspicuously, the Tarim river has shortened by 320 km, onward the period mentioned above. In the lower region of the basin, the situation is very serious. It can in fact be described as an ecological disaster, with dying trees and vegetation, the drying out of rivers and as consequence a regression of the river fish population as well as increased salt deposits. In the ARCHIMOD bilateral project between Belgium and China, important objectives are the description of the phenomena cited above using hydraulic modelling for some sub-basins of the Tarim as well as the application of remote sensing to estimate evapotranspiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC) and water use efficiency (WUE) at the scale of the Xinjiang province. Te estimate WUE at this scale the carbon exchange model C-Fix was applied. Our paper focusses on the application of remote sensing to map WUE for the Xinjiang

  7. Burden and Correlates of Geriatric Depression in the Uyghur Elderly Population, Observation from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Results Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18–13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35–1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42–2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92–3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09–4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. Conclusion High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang

  8. [Main Components of Xinjiang Lavender Essential Oil Determined by Partial Least Squares and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Fu, Ji-hong; Tang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work was undertaken to establish a quantitative analysis model which can rapid determinate the content of linalool, linalyl acetate of Xinjiang lavender essential oil. Totally 165 lavender essential oil samples were measured by using near infrared absorption spectrum (NIR), after analyzing the near infrared spectral absorption peaks of all samples, lavender essential oil have abundant chemical information and the interference of random noise may be relatively low on the spectral intervals of 7100~4500 cm(-1). Thus, the PLS models was constructed by using this interval for further analysis. 8 abnormal samples were eliminated. Through the clustering method, 157 lavender essential oil samples were divided into 105 calibration set samples and 52 validation set samples. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a tool to determine the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender essential oil. Then the matrix was established with the GC-MS raw data of two compounds in combination with the original NIR data. In order to optimize the model, different pretreatment methods were used to preprocess the raw NIR spectral to contrast the spectral filtering effect, after analysizing the quantitative model results of linalool and linalyl acetate, the root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of orthogonal signal transformation (OSC) was 0.226, 0.558, spectrally, it was the optimum pretreatment method. In addition, forward interval partial least squares (FiPLS) method was used to exclude the wavelength points which has nothing to do with determination composition or present nonlinear correlation, finally 8 spectral intervals totally 160 wavelength points were obtained as the dataset. Combining the data sets which have optimized by OSC-FiPLS with partial least squares (PLS) to establish a rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in Xinjiang lavender essential oil, numbers of hidden variables of two

  9. Burden and correlates of geriatric depression in the Uyghur elderly population, observation from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Li, Ping; Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18-13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35-1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42-2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92-3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09-4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang seemed to call for urgent interventions, specifically

  10. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S(-)s(-) of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk(a-b-) (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  11. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  12. A study of petroleum system in Chuhuangkeng anticline, NW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiang, S.; Tsai, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since energy demand is still increasing in the world, the exploration of unconventional fossil fuel becomes more and more important today. Miaoli area of the NW Western Foothill Belt, Taiwan, had been a major oil and gas producing field in the past, important oil/gas producing structures include Tiechenshen, Chinshui and Chuhuangkeng anticline. The reservoir rocks of unconventional resources need to be examined to illustrate the remaining hydrocarbon potential of Chuhuangkeng anticline. A standard evaluation procedure for assessing integrated geochemical parameters can thus be established. In this study, we combine various geochemical parameters including TOC, porosity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance measurement to assess the HC potential of shale gas reservoirs. The results show that Wuchishan and Mushan Formations possess the best hydrocarbon potential in Chuhuangkeng anticline. The maturation of Wuchishan and Mushan Formations are both in oil window (Ro of Wuchishan formation =1.7% , Ro of Mushan =1.01~1.53% ). The maturation of Shitih Formation barely reached oil window, however the shallower depth and less exploration cost are the advantages of Shitih Formation. Moreover, Wuchishan Formation is a dry gas field and Mushan Formation is a condensate gas field. The results of porosity show that there are secondary porosity existed in Mushan Formation which provides the extra storage space for hydrocarbon. Additionally, Piling Shale is a good cap rock on top of Mushan formation, it further benefits the conservation of oil and gas in Mushan Formation. In conclude, Mushan Formation is the most potential HC target in future shale gas exploration.

  13. The Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary tectonic history of NW California

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.; Moley, K.; Aalto, K.R. . Dept. of Geology); Renne, P.R. . Berkeley Geochronology Center)

    1993-04-01

    A thick sequence of Late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments thought to represent deposition in a Neogene forearc basin are preserved in the structural basin referred to as the Eel River basin' located offshore of NW California and SE Oregon. The southern portion of this structural basin comes on land in the vicinity of Eureka where the marine and fluvial Wildcat Group is exposed. Basal Wildcat Group sediments are fluvial and littorial. Marine sandstones of the Wildcat Group contain K-spar concentrations of 5.5% and are believed to represent a fresh source. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar laser probe analyses of Wildcat Group micas yield dates of 52--57, 66--75, 128.5 and 299--303 Ma. The presence of Idaho detritus throughout the Neogene Wildcat Group indicates that the Klamath Mountains remained low during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Younger fluvial sediments in this region contain primarily locally derived detritus indicating local uplift of the Klamath Mountains. To the north, at Crescent City, thin remnants of the near-shore Saint George Formation and the eastern estuarine and fluvial Wimer Formation are lowermost Pliocene in age (5 ma). The presence of the highly erodible Wilmer Formation on uplifted plateaus in an area of extreme rainfall suggest that these sediments represent only the lowermost portion of an originally much thicker sequence. Consequently, the sediments confined to the present day Eel River basin do not represent the lateral extent of the original forearc basin. Sandstones and conglomerates of the Saint George and Wimer Formation indicate a local Klamath provenance derivation.

  14. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    SciTech Connect

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  15. Mesozooplankton metabolism and feeding in the NW Iberian upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, José Alejandro; Ceballos, Sara; Anadón, Ricardo

    2004-09-01

    Mesozooplankton size-fractionated biomass, feeding, and metabolic rates were investigated during a cruise conducted off NW Spain in August 1998. Based on different hydrographic conditions observed throughout the study area (upwelling events nearshore and stratified waters offshore), the sampling area was divided into coastal and oceanic zones. Both phytoplankton and mesozooplankton biomass were higher in the coastal upwelling than in the offshore zone. Size structure analysis shows that the small fraction (200-500 μm) of mesozooplankton was more important than the larger fractions (500-1000 μm and >1000 μm) in the open ocean in terms of both biomass and grazing activity. The relationship between copepod ingestion rate and the concentration of chlorophyll a >5 μm resembled a type II functional response. Saturation occurred at the coastal stations, where copepod gut contents were highest. The grazing impact on both phytoplankton biomass and primary production seemed to be higher offshore (5.7 and 12.9%, respectively) than in upwelled waters (5.2 and 5.2%), although the differences were not statistically significant. Phytoplankton ingestion was enough to fulfil the basal metabolism of mesozooplankton in the upwelling area (102.1% of the minimum carbon requirements met) but not in the offshore (45.9%). Feeding activity and metabolic measurements on mesozooplankton point to a herbivorous food web in the coastal upwelling zone and a multivorous food web in the stratified open oceanic waters. The amount of metabolic end products released by mesozooplankton was higher in the coastal zone, but mesozooplankton played a more important role as nutrient regenerators in the multivorous food web (30.3 and 21.7% of the nitrogen and phosphorus phytoplankton demand accounted for ammonium and phosphate excretion, respectively) than in the herbivorous one (3.8% for ammonium and 2.6% for phosphate).

  16. Deformation and Fluid Flow in the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees; Davis, Jennifer; Salvona, Aron; Chung, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We studied deformation bands in sandstone and breccia veins in overlying basalts of the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia, regarding their development and history of fluid flow within. The studied deformation bands can be divided into disaggregation bands and cataclastic bands. The former appear to develop in unsorted sandstone, whereas the latter form in well sorted sandstone. We estimated the porosity of the bands and host rock in thin sections using a simple image analysis software (ImageJ). Results show, that no or only a minor decrease in porosity occur in disaggregation bands, while the porosity in cataclastic bands is decreased by up to 82 % with respect to the host rock. These observations are in agreement with results of existing studies (e.g. Fossen et al., 2007). Hence the cataclastic bands form a seal to fluid flow in the host rock, yet it is observed in outcrops that deformation bands can develop into open fractures which in turn increase the permeability of the rock. Breccia veins in the overlying basalts show intense fracturing where the basalt is locally fractured into elongated chips. Mineral precipitation in these breccia veins indicates a hydrothermal origin of the fluids since the precipitates consist of extremely fine-grained quartz aggregates. Secondary mineralization with large crystals indicates that a long-lived fluid circulation through tubular networks was active at a later stage, which eventually sealed the veins completely. We propose that the Etendeka basalts on top of the sandstone formation produced a localized deformation along deformation bands and heated up fluid below the lavas. At a later stage fluid pressures were either high enough to break through the basalt or fracturing due to ongoing extension produced fluid pathways. References Fossen, H., Schultz, R., Shipton, Z. and Mair, K. (2007). Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755-769.

  17. Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape Evolution in the NW Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S.; Gloaguen, R.

    2009-05-01

    The terrain between Main Mantle Thrust to Salt Range Thrust in the NW Himalayas has been characterized by surface and subsurface features with variable tectonic activity. These features show relatively variable tectonic activity, existence of blind faults and basement faulting. In the present study, we use seismological and remote sensing analysis backed by field observations to investigate the relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and landscape evolution. We use nonlinear analysis to understand the earthquake dynamics in relation to surface faults and blind faults. The fractal analysis of the seismicity in three subsurface features of the area is used to characterize the roughness of the faults' surface. We find a high fault surface roughness in the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). It is concluded that the area is in the process of being uplifted and landscape is evolving. This evolution is further investigated using a set of geomorphological analyses consisting of extracting a drainage network from digital elevation models (DEM). The extracted streams are analysed using to calculate geomorphic indices and relative uplift rates. These analyses were applied on Indus, Swat, Kabul, Kunhar, Kishanganga, Poonch, Jehlum, Swan and Kurram, Kabul Rivers and their associate tributaries. The analyses provide us with the spatial variation of relative uplift based upon specific streams. We found that the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif are subject to a relatively high uplift. It is observed that the neotectonic activities are linearizing the drainage network from meandering pattern. We analyse the complete drainage texture using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. The analysis of the fractal dimension (D) employing box counting methods is calculated with a moving window approach and the lower values of D demonstrate the effect of neotectonic activity. The locations with lower but similar D values are further differentiated using

  18. Miocene to recent extension in NW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert L.; Hall, Robert; White, Lloyd T.; Watkinson, Ian M.; Rudyawan, Alfend; BouDagher-Fadel, Marcelle K.

    2017-10-01

    The Malino Metamorphic Complex (MMC) in the western part of the North Arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia) has previously been suggested to be a metamorphic complex exhumed in the Early - Middle Miocene. This idea was based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data, but no structural data were presented to provide evidence for the mechanism of exhumation. Here we present new field observations, micro-structural analyses and a revised stratigraphy of NW Sulawesi based on new age data, to provide better constraints on the timing and mechanism of exhumation. The data presented here suggest that the MMC is a metamorphic core complex which underwent lithospheric extension during the Early - Middle Miocene. Although the MMC experienced significant extension, there is no evidence that it was exhumed during this time. There is no contact between the MMC and the Pliocene Ongka Volcanics, contradicting a previously inferred unconformable contact. Pliocene undeformed granitoids intruding the MMC indicate the complex was still at depth during their emplacement. Furthermore, Pliocene and Pleistocene cover sequences do not contain metamorphic detritus. A second phase of extensional uplift was accommodated by brittle faulting from the Late Miocene-Pliocene onwards, during which the MMC was exhumed. This extension is widespread, as indicated by synchronous exhumation of the adjacent Palu Metamorphic Complex in West Sulawesi, and rapid subsidence offshore in Gorontalo Bay. It is linked to northward slab rollback of the southward-subducting Celebes Sea since the Pliocene. GPS data show rapid northward motion of the North Arm of Sulawesi with respect to the Celebes Sea, indicating that this process is ongoing at present day.

  19. Petrography, palynology and depositional environment of Gelibolu coals, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koşun, Erdal

    2014-05-01

    Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal samples collected from two outcrops in the Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey were analyzed petrographically and palynologically to determine the depositional environment of the coals. Microscopic studies reveal that the studied coal samples from both locations are characterized by high amount of huminite group macerals, ranging from 46 to 78% (mineral-included basis). The prevailing maceral from this group is gelinite (31-65%), it can be easily seen on all studied samples, indicative of high gelification degree of organic matter. Relatively low amount of liptinite (does not exceed 9%) and inertinite (does not exceed 8%) are also observed in the coals. The mineral matter content is variable but generally high, varying from 5 to 37%, as in other Turkish coals and consists mostly of clay minerals, quartz, calcite and pyrite. The mean reflectance values range from 0.502 to 0.564% suggesting that rank of coal is subbituminous (ASTM). The chemical properties of coal including calorific value, volatile matter and fixed carbon content are also in accordance with rank of coal. Facies indices based on maceral ratios (Tissue Preservation Index vs. Gelification Index and ABC ternary diagrams) were used to interpret to depositional environment of coals. Low tissue preservation index (TPI) and high gelification index (GI) values are observed. These indices indicate that the coals deposited in limnic environment. High pH and strongly reducing conditions inferred from the presence of framboidal pyrite and also evidenced by low TPI values. The palynological assembly of the coals dominated by angiosperm pollen and spore, however, gymnosperms were rarely seen. Herbaceous/sedge plants are common in Miocene coal samples.

  20. Density Variations in the NW Star Stream of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Richer, Harvey B.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Chapman, Scott; Fardal, Mark; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Lewis, G. F.; Navarro, Julio F.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2011-04-01

    The Pan Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS) CFHT Megaprime survey of the M31-M33 system has found a star stream which extends about 120 kpc NW from the center of M31. The great length of the stream, and the likelihood that it does not significantly intersect the disk of M31, means that it is unusually well suited for a measurement of stream gaps and clumps along its length as a test for the predicted thousands of dark matter sub-halos. The main result of this paper is that the density of the stream varies between zero and about three times the mean along its length on scales of 2-20 kpc. The probability that the variations are random fluctuations in the star density is less than 10-5. As a control sample, we search for density variations at precisely the same location in stars with metallicity higher than the stream [Fe/H] = [0, -0.5] and find no variations above the expected shot noise. The lumpiness of the stream is not compatible with a low mass star stream in a smooth galactic potential, nor is it readily compatible with the disturbance caused by the visible M31 satellite galaxies. The stream's density variations appear to be consistent with the effects of a large population of steep mass function dark matter sub-halos, such as found in LCDM simulations, acting on an approximately 10 Gyr old star stream. The effects of a single set of halo substructure realizations are shown for illustration, reserving a statistical comparison for another study. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime / MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. DENSITY VARIATIONS IN THE NW STAR STREAM OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Richer, Harvey B.; McConnachie, Alan W. E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca

    2011-04-20

    The Pan Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS) CFHT Megaprime survey of the M31-M33 system has found a star stream which extends about 120 kpc NW from the center of M31. The great length of the stream, and the likelihood that it does not significantly intersect the disk of M31, means that it is unusually well suited for a measurement of stream gaps and clumps along its length as a test for the predicted thousands of dark matter sub-halos. The main result of this paper is that the density of the stream varies between zero and about three times the mean along its length on scales of 2-20 kpc. The probability that the variations are random fluctuations in the star density is less than 10{sup -5}. As a control sample, we search for density variations at precisely the same location in stars with metallicity higher than the stream [Fe/H] = [0, -0.5] and find no variations above the expected shot noise. The lumpiness of the stream is not compatible with a low mass star stream in a smooth galactic potential, nor is it readily compatible with the disturbance caused by the visible M31 satellite galaxies. The stream's density variations appear to be consistent with the effects of a large population of steep mass function dark matter sub-halos, such as found in LCDM simulations, acting on an approximately 10 Gyr old star stream. The effects of a single set of halo substructure realizations are shown for illustration, reserving a statistical comparison for another study.

  2. On plant bugs of conifers in Xinjiang (Western China)  (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Nikolai N; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-03-06

    In the northern and central part of Xinjiang (Western China) are distributed 14 species of coniferous plant bugs of these, 10 species are recorded for the first time for China. In the Mongolian Altai are 9 species: 6 widely distributed in the Palearctic, Deraeocoris annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1842), Dichrooscytus intermedius Reuter, 1885, Pinalitus rubricatus (Fallén, 1807), Atractotomus morio J. Sahlberg, 1883, Plagiognathus vitellinus (Scholtz, 1847), Phoenicocoris obscurellus (Fallén, 1829), and 3 Siberian Psallus (Pityopsallus) laricinus Vinokurov, 1998, P. (P.) laticeps Reuter, 1878, P. (P.) sachaensis Vinokurov, 1998. In Chinese Tian Shan and Jungar Alatau occur 5 mountain-Central Asian species: Dichrooscytus consorbinus Horváth, 1904, D. josifovi Kerzhner, 1997, D. kerzhneri Josifov, 1974 and D. pseudosabinae Reuter, 1896, and Compsidolon schrenkianum Konstantinov, Vinokurov, 2011. A key for 5 species of the subgenus Pithyopsallus Wagn. is given.

  3. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  4. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  5. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  6. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Liu, Zuhan; Wei, Chunmeng; Tang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD), classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1) The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2) The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3) The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform. PMID:23843732

  7. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  8. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature (T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  9. The Prime Focus Receiver Positioner Design of the Xinjiang QiTai 110m Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhao; Qian, Xu; Na, Wang; Binbin, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of radio astronomy research, the requirements to the sensitivity and resolution of telescopes, as well as wider observing band, constantly grow. The low frequency receivers are usually installed at the primary focus of the telescope so that the feed horns are smaller and lighter. The switching system of prime focus receivers must be effective and compact to avoid affecting normal use of the receivers on the secondary focus. A steerable 100m aperture radio telescope is supposed to be built in Qitai, Xinjiang (QiTai radio Telescope, QTT). This paper introduces a new solution of the switching system for the QTT primary focus receivers by using a linear module. Through the modeling and simulation of this scheme and analyzing of the aperture interception to the observing signals, it is shown that our design well satisfies the efficiency requirement of QTT.

  10. Socio-Demographic Predictors and Distribution of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang, China: A Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wubuli, Atikaimu; Xue, Feng; Jiang, Daobin; Yao, Xuemei; Upur, Halmurat; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2015-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of the high TB burden provinces of China. A spatial analysis was conducted using geographical information system (GIS) technology to improve the understanding of geographic variation of the pulmonary TB occurrence in Xinjiang, its predictors, and to search for targeted interventions. Numbers of reported pulmonary TB cases were collected at county/district level from TB surveillance system database. Population data were extracted from Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook (2006~2014). Spatial autocorrelation (or dependency) was assessed using global Moran's I statistic. Anselin's local Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics were used to detect local spatial clusters. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, spatial lag model (SLM) and geographically-weighted regression (GWR) models were used to explore the socio-demographic predictors of pulmonary TB incidence from global and local perspectives. SPSS17.0, ArcGIS10.2.2, and GeoDA software were used for data analysis. Incidence of sputum smear positive (SS+) TB and new SS+TB showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2013. Pulmonary TB incidence showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2010 and a rising trend since 2011 mainly caused by the rising trend of sputum smear negative (SS-) TB incidence (p<0.0001). Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the presence of positive spatial autocorrelation for pulmonary TB incidence, SS+TB incidence and SS-TB incidence from 2005 to 2013 (P <0.0001). The Anselin's Local Moran's I identified the "hotspots" which were consistently located in the southwest regions composed of 20 to 28 districts, and the "coldspots" which were consistently located in the north central regions consisting of 21 to 27 districts. Analysis with the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic expanded the scope of "hotspots" and "coldspots" with different intensity; 30 county/districts clustered as "hotspots", while 47 county/districts clustered as "coldspots". OLS regression model included the "proportion of minorities

  11. Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Yue'e; Zhu, Jun; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-04-01

    Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang.

  12. Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Yue’e; Zhu, Jun; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Results: Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Conclusion: Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang. PMID:21716620

  13. Buried in Sands: Environmental Analysis at the Archaeological Site of Xiaohe Cemetery, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Feng; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Hueber, Francis M.; Li, Wen-Ying; Hu, Xin-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhuo; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP) in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation. PMID:23894382

  14. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  15. Relationship of Productivity to Species Richness in the Xinjiang Temperate Grassland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Cheng, Junhui; Liu, Yunhua; Sheng, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness (SR) and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) is still a central and debated issue in community ecology. Previous studies have often emphasized the relationship of alpha diversity (number of species identity) to the mean ANPP with respect to the SR-ANPP relationship while neglecting the contribution of beta diversity (dissimilarity in species composition) to the mean ANPP and to the stability of ANPP (coefficient of ANPP: CV of ANPP). In this study, we used alpha and beta diversity, mean ANPP and the CV of ANPP collected from 159 sites and belonging to three vegetation types in the Xinjiang temperate grassland to first examine their trends along climatic factors and among different vegetation types and then test the relationship among alpha (beta) diversity and mean ANPP and the CV of ANPP. Our results showed that in the Xinjiang temperate grasslands, alpha diversity was positively and linearly correlated with MAP but unimodally correlated with MAT. Meanwhile, beta diversity was unimodally correlated with MAP but linearly correlated with MAT. Relative to desert steppe, meadow steppe and typical steppe had the highest alpha and beta diversity, respectively. Except for ANPP exhibiting a quadratic relationship with MAP, no significant relationship was found among ANPP, the CV of ANPP and climatic factors. ANPP and the CV of ANPP also exhibited no apparent patterns in variation among different vegetation types. Our results further showed that mean ANPP was closely associated with alpha diversity. Both linear and unimodal relationships were detected between alpha diversity and mean ANPP, but their particular form was texture-dependent. Meanwhile, the CV of ANPP was positively correlated with beta diversity. Our results indicated that in addition to incorporating alpha diversity and mean ANPP, incorporating beta diversity and the CV of ANPP could expand our understanding of the SR-ANPP relationship.

  16. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting. PMID:26473908

  17. Relationship of Productivity to Species Richness in the Xinjiang Temperate Grassland

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness (SR) and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) is still a central and debated issue in community ecology. Previous studies have often emphasized the relationship of alpha diversity (number of species identity) to the mean ANPP with respect to the SR-ANPP relationship while neglecting the contribution of beta diversity (dissimilarity in species composition) to the mean ANPP and to the stability of ANPP (coefficient of ANPP: CV of ANPP). In this study, we used alpha and beta diversity, mean ANPP and the CV of ANPP collected from 159 sites and belonging to three vegetation types in the Xinjiang temperate grassland to first examine their trends along climatic factors and among different vegetation types and then test the relationship among alpha (beta) diversity and mean ANPP and the CV of ANPP. Our results showed that in the Xinjiang temperate grasslands, alpha diversity was positively and linearly correlated with MAP but unimodally correlated with MAT. Meanwhile, beta diversity was unimodally correlated with MAP but linearly correlated with MAT. Relative to desert steppe, meadow steppe and typical steppe had the highest alpha and beta diversity, respectively. Except for ANPP exhibiting a quadratic relationship with MAP, no significant relationship was found among ANPP, the CV of ANPP and climatic factors. ANPP and the CV of ANPP also exhibited no apparent patterns in variation among different vegetation types. Our results further showed that mean ANPP was closely associated with alpha diversity. Both linear and unimodal relationships were detected between alpha diversity and mean ANPP, but their particular form was texture-dependent. Meanwhile, the CV of ANPP was positively correlated with beta diversity. Our results indicated that in addition to incorporating alpha diversity and mean ANPP, incorporating beta diversity and the CV of ANPP could expand our understanding of the SR-ANPP relationship. PMID:27100676

  18. Microscopic identification and in vitro activity of Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haiyan; Li, Shaoyu; He, Lijuan; Kasimu, Rena

    2017-02-07

    Agastache rugosa is well-known as a common traditional Chinese medicine, which have relieving summer-heat, analgesic and antipyretic effects, have long been used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several infectious diseases, anti-inflammatory, and for its antibacterial properties. Considering the lack of available data on the morphology, anatomy and in vitro activity of A. rugosa, the goal of the present study was to carry out the microscopic identification of its aerial parts and in vitro activity research as a contribution to the quality control and reasonable utilization involving A. rugosa. The present study was (a) to describe the microscopic identification with usual light and scanning electron microtechniques of A. rugosa, collected from Xinjiang Region; (b) based on previous research on the essential oil constituents among different parts of A. rugosa from Xinjiang by GC-MS method, to evaluate its antibacterial effect and cell viabilitity assay. The microscopic identification of botanical material showed some typical structure. The essential oils from the dried flower (EOF) and leaves (EOL) of A. rugosa were 0.29% and 0.57% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro antibacterial activities showed strong inhibition against S.aureus, E. coli of EOF; strong inhibition against E. coli of EOL. Based GC-MS analysis, the MTT assay showed a dose and time-dependent increase in damage for gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. The results of this work, based on an extensive analytical characterization of the EOF and EOL chemical composition, compared with other origins, showed A. rugosa possessed antibacterial and cytotoxicity properties activities, which need much additional work to open up new biomedical application of these components.

  19. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  20. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  1. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  2. [Pathological Diagnoses and Whole-genome Sequence Analyses of the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sufang; Liang, Tian; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Dianqing; Si Junqiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Sheng, Jinliang

    2015-05-01

    To carry out pathologic diagnoses and whole-genome sequence analyses of the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Xinjiang, China, we first observed sheep suspected to have the JSRV. Then, the extracted virus suspension was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total RNAs from lungs of JSRV-infected sheep were extracted and reverse-transcribed using a cDNA synthesis kit. Six pairs of primers were designed according to the exogenous reference virus strain (AF105220). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out from JSRV-infected tissue, and the whole genome of the JSRV sequenced. Our results showed: flow of nasal fluid ("wheelbarrow test"); different sizes of adenoma lesions in the lungs; papillary hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells; alveolar cavity filled with macrophages; dissolute nuclei in central lesions. TEM revealed JSRV particles with a diameter of 88 nm to 125. 4 nm. The full-length of the viral genome sequence was 7456 bp. BLAST analyses showed nucleotide homology of 96% and 95% compared with that of the representative strain from the USA (AF105220) and UK (AF357971). Nucleotide homology was 89.8% and 89.9% compared with the endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, Inner Mongolia strain (DQ838493) and USA strain (EF680300). The specific pathogenic amino-acid sequence "YXXM" was found in the TM district, similar to the exogenous JSRV: this gene has been reported to be oncogenic. This is the first report of the complete genomic sequence of the exogenous JSRV from Xinjiang, and could lay the foundation for study of the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of the pulmonary adenomatosis virus in sheep.

  3. Synchronous glacier surge events observed in the West Kunlun Shan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudley, Tom; Willis, Ian

    2017-04-01

    High Mountain Asia is a major centre of glacier surge activity, but the precise surge mechanisms in the region are poorly understood. Satellite-based studies in the region describe unusual surge characteristics that appear to be explained poorly by either of the two classic surge mechanisms (hydrological and thermal surging) firmly established in the literature. Here, we present a record of surging in a ˜40 x 60 km zone of the West Kunlun Shan (WKS), Xinjiang, a poorly researched range ˜250 km northeast of the Karakoram. We use a combination of historic satellite imagery and cross-correlation feature tracking to expand the record of surging in the region and assess surge dynamics. We use the 1972—2016 Landsat satellite record to observe a total of 9 surge active phases in the past four decades. Of these, 2 occur prior to 2000, but the remaining 7 display a highly unusual near-synchronous surge onset in the 2006—2008 period. This synchronous surge behaviour has not previously been reported for discrete unconnected glaciers. Additionally, the surge characteristics showed similar surge characteristics to those observed in the Karakoram, notably low peak velocities (2—3 m day-1) reminiscent of thermal surges and short active phase periods (˜2-5 years) reminiscent of hydrological surges. We suggest that such observations are indicative of surging via a 'hydro-thermodynamic' mechanism, recently proposed for the Basin-C outlet of Austfonna, Svalbard. In this mechanism, high surface melt rates can raise the temperature of cold-based ice over relatively short timescales compared to thermal surges by rapidly transmitting energy to the base, facilitating enhanced flow by ice deformation. This hypothesis is supported by meteorological data, which show that the 2006-2008 period was marked by a series of all-time highs in seasonal temperatures in southern Xinjiang, suggesting that high surface melt is a valid mechanism by which these surges could have initiated.

  4. Variants of human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) in Uigur women in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    He, Hongchang; Li, Hongtao; Fan, Peiwen; Zhu, Junling; Pan, Zhenzhen; Pan, Huan; Wu, Dan; Ren, Xianxian; Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Dongmei; Pan, Zemin; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) has been considered as the leading cause of cervical cancer. In this study we assessed HPV16 sequence variation and genetic diversity of HPV16 variants in cervical cancer in Uigur women in Xinjiang, China. We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames of E6 and E7, and part of the open reading frames of L1 of HPV16 in Uigur women. Biopsies of histologically confirmed HPV16 infections with cervical cancer were obtained from 43 Uigur women in Xinjiang, China. E6, E7 and L1 genes of HPV16 of all samples were amplified and sequenced; the sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 variants. Our analysis revealed nine nucleotide changes in E6 (five changes), E7 (one change) and L1 (three changes) gene. The most frequently observed variations were T350G (79.1 %). One variation T295G (D64E) at E6 were detected in 6 cases (KT959536, KT959542, KT959546, KT959550, KT959553, KT959558). Deletion (464Asp) along with insertion (448Ser) were observed in L1 (100 %). Most variants were European lineage (97.7 %); only one belongs to Asia variants with common T178G (D25E) in E6 and A647G (N29S) in E7. The most prevalent HPV16 variants in the Uigur women we studied were of the European lineage. Our results indicate that HPV16 European lineage may serve as a harmful factor associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer.

  5. Glacimarine sedimentation in Petermann Fjord and Nares Strait, NW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Kelly; Jakobsson, Martin; Mayer, Larry; Mix, Alan; Nielsen, Tove; Kamla, Elina; Reilly, Brendan; Heirman, Katrina An; Stranne, Christian; Mohammed, Rezwan; Eriksson, Bjorn; Jerram, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    thinning and acceleration of NW Greenland's marine-terminating outlet glaciers.

  6. Distribution Strategies for Solar and Wind Renewables in NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Andrew; Webb, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Whilst the UNFCCC Paris Agreement Climate change was ratified in November, 2016 saw the highest global temperature anomaly on record at 1.2°C above pre-industrial levels. As such there is urgent need to reduce CO2 emissions by a move away from fossil fuels and towards renewable electricity energy technologies. As the principal renewable technologies of solar PV and wind turbines contribute an increasing fraction to the electricity grid, questions of cumulative intermittency and the large-scale geographic distribution of each technology need to be addressed. In this study our initial emphasis is on a calculation of a relatively high spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) daily gridded dataset of solar irradiance data, over a 10 year period (2006-2015). This is achieved by coupling established sources of satellite data (MODIS SSF level2 instantaneous footprint data) to a well-validated radiative transfer model, here LibRadTran. We utilise both a morning and afternoon field for two cloud layers (optical depth and cloud fraction) interpolated to hourly grids, together with aerosol optical depth, topographic height and solar zenith angle. These input parameters are passed to a 5-D LUT of LibRadTran results to construct hourly estimates of the solar irradiance field, which is then integrated to a daily total. For the daily wind resource we rely on the 6 hourly height-adjusted ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis wind fields, but separated into onshore, offshore and deep water components. From these datasets of the solar and wind resources we construct 22 different distribution strategies for solar PV and wind turbines based on the long-term availability of each resource. Combining these distributions with the original daily gridded datasets enables each distribution strategy to be then assessed in terms of the day-to-day variability, the installed capacity required to maintain a baseline supply, and the relative proportions of each technology. Notably for the NW European area

  7. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results

  8. Structure of the Rangel alkaline complex (Salta, NW Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegas, Nestor; Hongn, Fernando; María Tubía, José; Menegatti, Nilda; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodriguez-Méndez, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    The alcaline complex of the Sierra de Rangel is a Cretaceous granitoid emplaced in the Puna Region, at the province of Salta (NW Argentina). This granitoid spreads over 9 km2 and is elongated following a NE-SW trend. The Rangel complex intrudes Quaternary sediments of the Salinas Grandes salt flat towards the east and Ordovician quartzites and metapelites to the west. There are three main facies in the Rangel granitoid: the easternmost part of the intrusion is composed by sienites that crop out in three hills isolated into the salt flat; the central part of the stock made of alkaline granites and quartz-sienites; and the westernmost side composed by alkaline granites. The available rubidium-strontium ages point out two magmatic pulses: 134±1,6Ma for the granites and quartz-sienites and the sienites of the central and eastern part and 122±1,5 Ma for the alkaline granites of the western border. The most common structure in the host quartzites and metapelites is N55oE-trending schistosity that dips around 60o to the SE. This schistosity is parallel to the axial surface of asymmetric folds with axes plunging to the east. The sharp western contact of the Rangel complex with the host rocks display a N30oE strike and dips around 40o to the SE. This contact is parallel to the intra-magmatic contact between the western and central facies and to the NE-SW elongation of the granitoid. The study of the magnetic fabrics carried on 52 sites of the Rangel complex outline the presence of two sets of tabular intrusions: a main group of overlapping NE-trending sheets that dip to the SE; and a minor group roughly perpendicular to the previous one. The integration of the magnetic fabrics results and the structural data suggest that the former set of intrusions are feeder dykes of the NE-trending sheeted intrusions. Moreover, the radiometric data suggest that the oldest pulse corresponds to the upper part of the granitoid. This fact would imply that the emplacement was controlled by

  9. SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M

  10. Environmental Magnetic Record of the Harletz (NW Bulgaria) Loess Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Rousseau, D. D.; Antoine, P.; Lomax, J.; Fuchs, M.; Melot, L.; Habel, T.; Petrov, P.; Taylor, S. N.; Moine, O.; Debret, M.; Hatte, C.; Till, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Harletz loess sequence is located in NW Bulgaria on the western bank of the Ogosta River, a tributary of the Danube. The sequence is exposed on a cliff face carved by the meandering paleo-Ogosta River. A 20 m section, sitting on top of the river's alluvial plain was cleaned and sampled for a multi-disciplinary study. OSL age determinations and field observations suggest that the section spans the last two glacial-interglacial cycles equivalent to marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 7 to the present. High-resolution continuous bulk sampling was carried out to characterise the composition, grain-size and concentration of the magnetic mineral assemblage. In addition to features observed in the field, environmental magnetism data reveal unobserved pedogenic alteration likely related to MOIS 3. Oscillations in, for example, coercivity of remanence, are also detected through MOIS 6 unaltered loess, which may be indicative of two different sources. Both low and high coercivity minerals are by-products of pedogenesis in all paleosols of the Harletz sequence supported by peaks in their respective concentration parameters and superparamagnetic behaviour is detected in most paleosols and the topsoil. Finally, evidence for tephra material is unambiguous at about 12 m depth and likely at about 1.5 m depth. Given the OSL age model for the Harletz sequence (Lomax et al., in preparation), the stratigraphic position of the lower tephra is similar to occurrences in other loess sequences of the region (ex. Mostistea in Romania) and the upper tephra, if confirmed, would correlate temporally with the Campanian tephra. Oriented samples were collected for anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses. Triaxial oblate AMS fabrics with horizontal foliation planes are obtained from 15 m depth through the top of MOIS 6 loess. A biaxial oblate AMS fabric with a horizontal foliation plane characterizes the soil complex of the last interglacial. Last glacial loess displays an

  11. Active tectonics coupled to fluvial erosion in the NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannay, J.-C.; Grasemann, B.; Rahn, M.; Frank, W.; Carter, A.

    2003-04-01

    Both syntaxial extremities of the Himalaya show a spatial correlation between active exhumation of deep crustal rocks and the presence of powerful rivers, the Indus and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, cutting across the range two of the deepest gorges on Earth. These features strongly suggests that vigorous fluvial erosion can locally enhance isostatic and tectonic uplift, which in turn contributes to heat advection and weakening of the crust, as well as to maintain steep topographic gradients [Zeitler et al., 2001]. In order to test this positive feedback model, we combined structural and geochronological data to constrain the tectono-thermal evolution along the Sutlej (NW India), the third largest river cross-cutting entirely the Himalaya. The Himalayan crystalline core zone exposed along the Sutlej Valley is composed of two gneiss sheets, that were successively underthrusted and tectonically extruded as a consequence of the foreland-directed propagation of deformation in the Indian plate margin. During Early to Middle Miocene, combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the Sangla Detachment induced the rapid exhumation and cooling of the amphibolite facies to migmatitic High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence [Vannay &Grasemann, 2001]. Underthrusting beneath the MCT led to the creation of the amphibolite facies Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The LHCS cooled rapidly from Late Miocene to Pleistocene, as a consequence of tectonic extrusion controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust, and extension in the MCT hanging wall. This phase is still active, as indicated by: (1) cooling rates in excess of 100^oC/Myr during the past ˜3 Myr in the LHCS; (2) Holocene neo-tectonic activity; (3) present-day hydrothermal activity testifying to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients; and (4) seismic activity along the Munsiari Thrust. Modelling of fluvial erosion in the Himalaya indicate that the Sutlej Valley corresponds to the main

  12. Analysis on spatio-temporal trends and drivers in vegetation growth during recent decades in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaqiang; Shu, Jianmin; Yin, Junqi; Yuan, Xinjie; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Xiong, Shanshan; He, Ping; Liu, Weiling

    2015-06-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. In this study, a non-stationary 1982-2012 AVHRR NDVI3g time series, the newest dataset, were used to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation changes in Xinjiang province of China at regional, biome and pixel scales over progressively longer periods from 18 to 31 years, starting in 1982, and their linkages to climatic factors and human activities were analyzed. At regional scale, the increases were statistically significant for autumn NDVI during fourteen periods, for growing season and summer NDVI during the most periods, and for spring only during the first four periods. The rates of NDVI increase in growing season and all seasons significantly decreased over fourteen periods. At pixel scale, areas with significant browning rapidly increased over fourteen periods for growing season and all seasons, and these areas were mainly concentrated in northern desert of Xinjiang. Vegetation growth in Xinjiang was regulated by both moisture and thermal conditions: the response of NDVI in spring and autumn was more sensitive to thermal factors, such as temperature and potential evapotranspiration, and correlations between NDVI and precipitation and between NDVI and humidity index were stronger in summer and growing season. Extensive use of fertilizers and expanded farmland irrigated area increased vegetation growth for cropland. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation may reduce spring NDVI in the part of farmlands. Trend analysis during the multiple nested time series may contribute to a better and deep understanding of NDVI dynamic and foreseeing changes in the future. Accordingly, NDVI in Xinjiang will continuously increase at regional scale and the areas showing significant browning will also furthermore grow.

  13. Gene chip technology used in the detection of HPV infection in esophageal cancer of Kazakh Chinese in Xinjiang Province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-gang; Yang, Chun-mei; Xu, Li-hong; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiao-yan; Ma, Yun-gui; Huo, Xiao-ling; Han, Yu-sheng; Tian, De-an; Zheng, Yong

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to screen human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh in Xinjiang using the gene chip technique and study the clinical significance of this application. The DNAs were collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and healthy esophageal mucosa of Kazakh adults in Xinjiang, and amplified firstly using HPV MY09/11 and then using HPV G5+/6+ to screen positive HPV specimens. These positive specimens were further detected by the gene chip technique to screen highly pathogenic HPV types. After determination with nested PCR amplification with HPV MY09/11 and G5+/6+, the infection rate of HPV was 66.67% in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group and 12.12% in the healthy control group. By testing the positive HPV specimens from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group, the infection rate of HPV16 was 97.72% and the co-infection rate of HPV16 and HPV18 was 2.27%. HPV16 infection may be involved in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang Hazakh adults.

  14. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiuliang; Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui; Kurban, Alishir; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  15. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang. PMID:28841645

  16. [Comparative analysis of the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang region of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Fang, Ruping; Huang, Deliang; Wang, Guojian; Liu, Xin; Dai, Pu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang region and determine the relationship between ethnicity and mutations. DNA were extracted from peripheral blood of 125 deaf patients from Urumqi and Korla special educational schools in Xinjiang. Audiologic examinations showed that all patients had severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing hoss. The coding region of GJB2 gene, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial DNA target fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mutations in GJB2 gene, SLC26A4IVS7-2 A>G, mtDNA 1494C>T and mtDNA1555 A>G were identified by sequencing analysis. Allelic Frequency of the GJB2 35delG and SLC26A4IVS7-2 A>G mutations in Han deaf students were 7.4% and 10.1%, respectively, whereas not found in Uigur deaf groups. The difference was statistically significant. We did not find significant differences in GJB2 235 delC, 299-300delAT, mtDNA A1555G and C1494T allelic frequency between Uigur and Han students. Prevalence of the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang has a great diversity.

  17. Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates in the Multiethnic Area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Li, Junlian; Liu, Jiao; Lian, Lulu; Lu, Bing; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Jingrui; Qi, Yingcheng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the genetic diversity of clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis in the multiethnic area of Xinjiang autonomous region in China. A total of 311 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates were collected in 2006 and 2011 and genotyped by two genotyping methods. All isolates were grouped into 68 distinct spoligotypes using the spoligotyping method. The Beijing family was dominant, followed by T1 and CAS. MIRU-VNTR results showed that a total of 195 different VNTR types were identified. Ten of the 15 loci were highly or moderately discriminant according to their HGDI scores, and 13 loci had good discriminatory power in non-Beijing family strains, whereas only two loci had good discriminatory power in Beijing family strains. Chi-square tests demonstrated that there were no correlations between four characteristics (sex, age, type of case, and treatment history) and the Beijing family. In summary, Beijing family strains were predominant in Xinjiang, and the VNTR-15China locus-set was suitable for genotyping all Xinjiang strains, but not for the Beijing family strains. Thus, these data suggested that different genotype distributions may exist in different regions; MLVA locus-sets should be adjusted accordingly, with newly added loci to increase resolution if necessary. PMID:28337447

  18. The moisture sources and transport for the northern Xinjiang of China during 1979 to 2013 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    From the perspective of the recycling precipitation, this work examines the moisture sources of the northern Xinjiang during the summer season through the regionally unbounded dynamic recycling model (DRM) with Lagrangian back-trajectory track method by using the ERA-interim reanalysis during 1979~2013. The 10-day moisture trajectories identify the majority humidity contributions to the precipitation of northern Xinjiang are from the upwind westerly water transport and the sources can be traced to the North Atlantic and Arctic region. Furthermore, the moist air evaporated from Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea provides a large of amount moisture through west to east moist transport belt to the northern Xinjiang. Although the westerly moisture transport is the main source for the precipitation of the study region, the strongest moisture transport belt starting from eastern margin of Tibet plateau and then swinging northward and along the southern Tianshan Moutian arriving the domain. Moreover, the moisture contribution from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and more easterly water streams cannot be ignored during the heavy rainfall events in the study region.

  19. [Three-dimensional reconstruction and digitized visualization of the sacrum of women of Uygur and Han nationalities in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Ke, Yan; Chen, Chunlin; Yu, Yanhong; Liu, Ping; Song, Xiaolei; Huang, Lei; Duan, Hui; Wang, Li; Bian, Xuefeng; Fan, Xia; Xia, Yinghong

    2013-04-01

    To construct digitized three-dimensional models of the sacrum of women of Uygur and Han nationalities in Xinjiang and assess their value in anatomical studies. Ninety Uygur women and 90 Han women of child-bearing age in Xinjiang were recruited. Digitized three-dimensional reconstruction was used to construct the sacrum models for morphological study and measurement of the physiological indices. The sacral forms of Han women were consistent with the standard anatomical descriptions. Of the Uygur women, 57 (63.3%) showed a standard type of the sacrum, 6 (6.7%) had 4 pairs of sacral foramens, 9 (10%) had 5 pairs of sacral foramens, and 18 (20%) had sacrococcygeal joint abnormalities. There were significant differences in sacral morphologies between the two nationalities (P<0.05). The depths of the sacrum foramen and sacral hiatus were significantly greater in Uyghur women than in Han women (P<0.05). Only a minor proportion of the cases had nonstandard sacral types, found only in Uygur women. Uygur and Han women of child-bearing age in Xinjiang have morphological and anatomical differences of the sacrum, which should be considered in clinical practice.

  20. Short episodes of crust generation during protracted accretionary processes: Evidence from Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, P. A.; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of generation of continental crust but the spatial and temporal distribution of crust generation within individual orogens remains poorly constrained. Paleozoic (∼540-270 Ma) granitic rocks from the Alati, Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have markedly bimodal age frequency distributions with peaks of ages at ∼400 Ma and 280 Ma for the Altai segment, and ∼430 Ma and 300 Ma for the Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments. Most of the magma was generated in short time intervals (∼20-40 Ma), and variations in magma volumes and in Nd-Hf isotope ratios are taken to reflect variable rates of new crust generation within a long-lived convergent plate setting. The Junggar segment is characterized by high and uniform Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = + 5 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = + 10 to + 16) and it appears to have formed in an intra-oceanic arc system. In the Altai and Chinese Tianshan segments, the Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = - 7 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = - 16 to + 16) are lower, although they increase with decreasing age of the rock units. The introduction of a juvenile component into the Chinese Tianshan and Altai granitic rocks appears to have occurred in continental arc settings and it reflects a progressive reduction in the contributions from old continental lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Within the long-lived convergent margin setting (over ∼200 Ma), higher volumes of magma, and greater contributions of juvenile material, were typically emplaced over short time intervals of ∼20-40 Ma. These intervals were associated with higher Nb/La ratios, coupled with lower La/Yb ratios, in both the mafic and granitic rocks, and these episodes of increased magmatism from intraplate-like sources are therefore thought to have been in response to lithospheric extension. The trace element and Nd-Hf isotope data, in combination with estimates of granitic magma volumes, highlight

  1. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-10-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd( t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  2. Late Miocene Rise of C4 Vegetation in NW Africa from Leaf Wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, C. A.; deMenocal, P. B.; Polissar, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    When and why did NW Africa become dry? The answers to these important questions have proven elusive. Strong climate controls on African vegetation today make knowledge of past changes a valuable proxy for understanding NW Africa's climate evolution. Various lines of geologic and paleobotanical evidence indicate that NW African landscapes changed from more humid conditions in the late Oligocene/early Miocene to arid/hyper-arid environments by the late Pliocene. As proxies for the paleohydrological and paleovegetation signatures of this event, we analyzed leaf wax n-alkane stable isotopes (δDwax and δ13Cwax) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 659 (20°N), offshore West Africa, from 0 - 25 Ma. Between 25 to 10 Ma, n-alkane δ13Cwax values were persistently very low (-31‰) suggesting that C3 vegetation dominated NW African landscapes over this interval. Between 10-7 Ma there is a marked, positive secular δ13Cwax shift (in excess of 4‰) suggesting the initial growth and establishment of C4 Sahel grasslands. δ13Cwax shows a sustained positive trend (>7‰ total) until 1 Ma. The 10-7 Ma date for the establishment of NW African C4 grasslands is earlier than comparable records from South Africa and South Asia. We will also present low-resolution isotope data from equatorial ODP Site 959 (3°N) and compare these data with Site 659 (20°N) to reconstruct the development of the modern vegetation and hydrological gradients in NW Africa over this time span.

  3. Phylogeographic Analyses Reveal a Crucial Role of Xinjiang in HIV-1 CRF07_BC and HCV 3a Transmissions in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Chiyu

    2011-01-01

    Background China faces an increasing prevalence of two HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) 07_BC and 08_BC. Both CRFs_BC were previously demonstrated to originate in Yunnan and spread to Liaoning from Yunnan via injection drug use (IDU) in China. Supposing it is true, we are unable to answer why only CRF07_BC, rather than both CRFs_BC together, was transmitted to Xinjiang. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the phylogeography of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC using multiple HIV-1 genomic regions with Bayesian phylogeography method. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed that all CRF07_BC sequences were divided into two clades, Yunnan and Xinjiang, and all strains from other regions of mainland China clustered within the Xinjiang clade. Significant geographic diffusion links of Xinjiang with other regions (including Liaoning, Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong) were supported by Bayes factor tests. The temporal dynamics analyses showed that CRF07_BC spread from Xinjiang to Liaoning in 1996.10, and to Jiangsu in 2000.9. The analyses of CRF08_BC not only confirmed the previous conclusion on temporal and spatial dynamics of CRF08_BC, but also indicated that the CRF08_BC strains from Guangdong and Shanghai originated from Yunnan. The analyses of HCV 3a showed that it was introduced into Xinjiang in the early 1980s, and spread from Xinjiang to Yunnan in 1990.10 and to Jiangsu in 1999.2, and further from Yunnan to Guangxi in 1995.3. The temporal and spatial dynamics of HCV 3a were similar to some extent to that of HIV-1 CRF07_BC and/or CRF08_BC, suggesting a possible association in migration patterns between HCV and HIV-1 through IDU. In addition, HCV 3a spread from Xinjiang to Pakistan, implying a drug trafficking route linking them. Conclusions/Significance Xinjiang, as the most important transfer station for drug trafficking from Golden Crescent to other regions of China, plays a very crucial role in the transmission of viruses (e.g., HIV-1 and HCV) through IDU in

  4. Documenting deformation patterns and exhumation across Gianbul Dome, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman-Kamaha'o, M.; Lee, J.; Cosca, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The channel flow model explains the development of the parallel and coeval opposing slip sense structures in the Himalayan orogeny, the southern Tibetan detachment system (STDS) and Main central thrust (MCT). In addition to predicting these two key structures, the channel flow model predicts the development of gneiss domes by several mechanisms. We tested the gneiss dome formation mechanisms by completing detailed deformation, kinematic shear sense, quartz lattice, and deformation temperature analyses, and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology on middle crustal rocks exposed in Gianbul Dome (GD), NW India. GD comprises high Himalayan crystalline rocks with a sillimanite-grade migmatite core mantled semi-concentrically by lower metamorphic grade kyanite, staurolite, and garnet-bearing units and intruded by prominent mid-Miocene leucogranites. The northeast flank of the dome is buttressed by the Zanskar shear zone, a NE-dipping, down to the northeast normal sense shear zone and the westward continuation of the STDS. The southwest flank of the dome is delineated by the Khanjar shear zone, a SW-dipping down to the southwest normal sense shear zone. A pervasive foliation (S2) exposed across the dome dips ~20-25° NE on the northeast flank of the dome and ~25-30° SW on the southwest flank and includes a down dip stretching lineation (Ls2). Sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, and garnet grew within the S2 foliation and in places defined the Ls2 lineation indicating that these structures formed at peak-metamorphic conditions (<8 kbar and <800°T, Robyr et al 2006). Quartz and feldspar deformation temperatures across the dome preserve higher temperature textures, 500-700°C, in the core and progressively lower temperature textures, 400-500°C toward the flanks. Contours of deformation temperatures yield a domal geometry, similar to the domed S2 foliation and the temperature conditions provide additional support for the S2 foliation forming at peak metamorphic conditions. Quartz

  5. Groundwater hydrochemistry evolution in cyclone driven hydrological regimes, NW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, G.; Dogramaci, S.; Grierson, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater reserves supply the water needs of many arid regions around the world. Aquifer recharge in these regions is primarily depended on the amount and distribution of rainfall, coupled with exceedingly high rates of evaporation and interactions with both local and regional geomorphology and geology. In semi-arid northwest Australia, the majority of rainfall is delivered by large but infrequent cyclonic events and relatively more frequent but low intensity frontal systems. Changes to rainfall patterns due to global climate change may impact hydrological regimes, recharge rates and groundwater hydrochemistry. These changes may significantly restrict freshwater resources in the future. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed >400 groundwater, surface and rainwater samples for stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) and major ion chemistry. We then developed conceptual geochemical models of groundwater evolution for the Hamersley Basin (>100,000 km2) and a salt inventory for the Fortescue Marsh (the largest wetland in NW Australia) [1,2]. Fresh groundwater from the alluvium (-8.02 × 0.83‰) and fractured aquifers (-8.22 × 0.70‰) were hydrochemically similar and characterised by a very narrow range of δ18O [1]. In contrast, δ18O of saline and brine groundwater (TDS >10 g L-1) varies in wide range from +2.5 to -7.2‰ [2]. Most of the fresh and brackish groundwater reflects modern recharge and is evaporated by <20% prior to recharge. In contrast, highly saline and brine groundwater reflects mixing between modern rainfall, brackish water and older deep groundwater. The Fortescue Marsh primarily acts as a terminal basin for surface water from the upper Fortescue River catchment [2]. The stable isotope composition of the deep brine groundwater under the Marsh suggests a complex evolution, which cannot be explained by evaporation under current climatic conditions. The observed salinity and δ18O values may result from progressive evaporation from highly saline

  6. [Investigation on the approach of delivery after previous cesarean section of Xinjiang Uyghur women].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin; Aimainilezi, Adalaiti; Jin, Yan; Abudula, Wuriguli; Yin, Chenghong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the appropriate approach of delivery after cesarean section of Uyghur women in primary hospitals in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. A total of 5 154 women delivered in Luopu County People Hospital, Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region from January 2011 to December 2012. Among them, 178 Uyghur women had cesarean section history. The interval between the previous cesarean section and this delivery varied from 1 year to 17 years. The number of cases attempting vaginal labor and the indications of the previous cesarean section were recorded. The indications for the second cesarean section were analyzed. The gestational weeks at delivery, blood loss in 2 hours after delivery, neonatal birth weight, newborn asphyxia, the rate of postpartum fever (≥ 38 °C) and hospitalization days were compared between the two approaches of delivery. (1) Among the 178 cases, 119 cases attempted vaginal labor, the rate of attempting vaginal labor was 66.9% (119/178). A total of 113 cases succeeded in vaginal delivery (the vaginal delivery group), with the successful rate of attempting vaginal delivery of 95.0% (113/119), and the successful rate of vaginal delivery was 63.5% (113/178). For those 119 women succeeded in vaginal delivery, the indications of the previous cesarean sections were as following: pregnancy complications (68.1%, 81/119), macrosomia(5.0%, 6/119), dystocia (14.3%, 17/119), pregnancies complicated with other diseases (5.0%, 6/119) and cesarean section on maternal request (7.6%, 9/119). (2) 15 cases in the cesarean section group had postpartum hemorrhage, with the incidence of 13.3% (15/113). The mean total labor time was (507 ± 182) minutes. 6 cases attempting vaginal delivery failed and turned to cesarean section. (3) 59 cases received the second cesarean section (the cesarean section group). The rate of second cesarean section was 33.1% (59/178). The indications of the second cesarean section were as following: contracted pelvis (5%, 3

  7. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-05-24

    The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009-2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Prevalence of hypertension among adults in remote

  8. Late Paleozoic metallogenesis and evolution of the East Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China, Central Asia Orogenic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Su, Benxun; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ao, Songjian; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Jien; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-11-01

    One of the most largest known and important metallogenic provinces in China is East Tianshan, where seven major types of Late Paleozoic metal deposits have been recognized: (1) porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) ore deposits, (2) volcanic Fe-Cu deposits, (3) orogenic lode gold deposits, (4) magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits, (5) epithermal gold deposits, (6) volcanic hydrothermal Cu deposits, and (7) skarn Cu-Ag deposits. Tectonically, the development of these Late Paleozoic metal mineral deposits was closely associated with the subduction and closure of the ancient Tianshan ocean intervening between the Tarim craton and the Junggar-Kazakhstan block. In the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the northern margin of the Tarim craton existed as a passive-type continental margin, whereas the ancient Tianshan ocean was subducted beneath the southern margin of the Junggar-Kazakhstan block, resulting in the formation of the Dananhu-Tousuquan magmatic arc and associated porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) deposits. In the Middle Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean began to subduct beneath the northern margin of the Tarim craton, leading to the formation of the Aqishan-Yamansu magmatic arc and associated volcanic Fe-Cu deposits. In the Late Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean was closed, and a continent-arc collision occurred, leading to the formation of the Tianshan orogen. Following the collision was an extensional event, which was associated with the emplacement of large amounts of ultramafic-mafic complexes and the formation of a number of large- to medium-scale magmatic copper-nickel ore deposits along the Kangger suture zone. In the Early Permian, East Tianshan entered into a post-collision stage, associated with the widespread emplacement of granitoid bodies and eruption of within-plate volcanism, which led to the formation of volcanic hydrothermal copper deposits, skarn-type Cu-Ag deposits, post-orogenic gold deposits, and epithermal gold deposits in East Tianshan.

  9. Mild cognitive impairment risk factor survey of the Xinjiang Uyghur and Han elderly

    PubMed Central

    Keyimu, Kabinuer; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Miao, Hai-Jun; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    To understand risk factors of the Xinjiang Uyghur, Han two ethnic elderly with mild cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment, MCI), and provide evidence for in-depth study of the causes and prevention of MCI. The MCI epidemiological survey was based on Xinjiang Uyghur and Han residents with 60 years of age or older. The total number of participants is 5398, including 3931 Uyghur residents, and 1467 Han residents. There are 456 participants with MMSE score 2 points above the demarcation points, excluded from the survey for dementia, cerebrovascular disease and other central nervous system disorders, according to case-control study method of random selection in epidemiological survey. In accordance with the clinical diagnostic criteria of MCI, which is from Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (the revised version of the fourth edition (DSM-IV) from of the American Psychiatric Association, there are 305 cases of MCI, including 159 cases of Han, 146 cases of Uyghur. In the Han groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between sex, age, blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-ch) and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, TG, LDL-ch (increased) may increase the risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.115, 1.981, 1.315, 1.495, with P < 0.05). In the Uyghur groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between age, gender, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch (increased), women have a higher risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.063, 2.145, 2.879, 2.078, 1.429, 1.485, 0.462, P < 0.05). Age, hypertension, TG and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Han population, while age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Uyghur population. PMID:26550345

  10. 10 years of protein crystallography at AR-NW12A beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavas, L. M. G.; Yamada, Y.; Hiraki, M.; Igarashi, N.; Matsugaki, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    The exponential growth of protein crystallography can be observed in the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. Nowadays, the screening of a profusion of sample crystals for more and more projects is being implemented by taking advantage of fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments. The insertion device AR-NW12A beamline is one of the five macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF). Currently the oldest MX beamline operational at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the end-station was launched in 2001 as part of an upgrade of the PF Advanced Ring. Since its commissioning, AR-NW12A has been operating as a high-throughput beamline, slowly evolving to a multipurpose end-station for MX experiments. The development of the beamline took place about a decade ago, in parallel with a drastic development of protein crystallography and more general synchrotron technology. To keep the beamline up-to-date and competitive with other MX stations in Japan and worldwide, new features have been constantly added, with the goal of user friendliness of the various beamline optics and other instruments. Here we describe the evolution of AR-NW12A for its tenth anniversary. We also discuss the plans for upgrades for AR-NW12A, the future objectives in terms of the beamline developments, and especially the strong desire to open the beamline to a larger user community.

  11. Geomorphological Map of the Lower NW Flank of Hecates Tholus Volcano, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Centeno, J. D.

    2012-03-01

    We present our 1:100,000-scale geomorphological map of the NW flank of Hecates Tholus volcano, Mars, by the use of CTX images and HRSC-derived DTM. This map will allow us to study in detail the geology and glacial history of this volcano.

  12. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF NW CORNER OF BUILDING 1'S W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF NW CORNER OF BUILDING 1'S W WING, SHOWING THE PILASTERS, TERRA COTTA PANELS, AND THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE CORNICE ELEMENTS; LOOKING ENE. (Harms) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  13. 7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ramp, S and E elevations. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  14. 13. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN 1.5 mi. NW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN 1.5 mi. NW of Amory. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Steam locomotive and coal train cross bridge on 10 August 1921. Credit: Owned by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms., photographer. Copied by Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  15. Mineralogical Characteristics of Specimens of a Pseudometeorite ``Fall'' from NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorsandi, H.; Mirnejad, H.

    2014-09-01

    In the early hours of October 22, 2011, people of Khameneh town in NW of Iran, noticed sounds of some colliding objects to home roofs and yard floors. Mineralogical investigations revealed the terrestrial and man-made origin of these stony objects.

  16. Chitin nanowhisker (ChNW)-functionalized electrospun PVDF membrane for enhanced removal of Indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Sreerag; Balakrishnan, Preetha; Pius, Anitha; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, an active functional adsorbent membrane developed by combining both hydrophilic bio polymer filler such as chitin nanowhiskers (ChNW) which contains two functional groups and a hydrophobic polymer matrix such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) using electrospinning technique. Here ChNW were successfully extracted by excluding proteins and mineral and well characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. The optimized combination of PVDF/ChNW (15%:1%) membrane was fabricated and well characterized using SEM, water contact angle and FTIR spectroscopy. There was a remarkable difference in contact angle observed for PVDF/ChNW (22.72°) compared to neat PVDF (93.1°) membrane. Ultimately the membrane used for indigo carmine (IC) adsorption and an enhanced removal efficiency (88.9%) and adsorption capacity (72.6mgg(-1)) were observed compared to neat PVDF. In the future, the overall idea can make leads to various applications such as proteins, virus and hormones adsorption from the contaminated sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ancient DNA reveals a migration of the ancient Di-qiang populations into Xinjiang as early as the early Bronze Age.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi-Zhu; Zhang, Ye; Wei, Dong; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Bin; Cui, Yin-Qiu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Xinjiang is at the crossroads between East and West Eurasia, and it harbors a relatively complex genetic history. In order to better understand the population movements and interactions in this region, mitochondrial and Y chromosome analyses on 40 ancient human remains from the Tianshanbeilu site in eastern Xinjiang were performed. Twenty-nine samples were successfully assigned to specific mtDNA haplogroups, including the west Eurasian maternal lineages of U and W and the east Eurasian maternal lineages of A, C, D, F, G, Z, M7, and M10. In the male samples, two Y chromosome haplogroups, C* and N1 (xN1a, N1c), were successfully assigned. Our mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA analyses combined with the archaeological studies revealed that the Di-qiang populations from the Hexi Corridor had migrated to eastern Xinjiang and admixed with the Eurasian steppe populations in the early Bronze Age. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mohammat, Aziz; Yili, Abulimiti; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-05-01

    The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China). There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  19. Concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in pine needles of typical regions in Northern Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Ran, Dan; Lu, Jianjiang; Du, Zhijian; Liu, Zilong

    2015-02-01

    The residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 29 pine needle samples of typical regions (including Shihezi, Beitun, and Kanas) in Northern Xinjiang was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total OCPs concentrations in pine needles ranged from 2.94 to 186 ng/g dry weight, with a mean concentration of 39.63 ng/g. The results indicated that Beitun was the most polluted region while Kanas was the least polluted one. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the predominant species in samples. Analysis of the sources of contamination showed that HCHs in the needles were derived from an old mixed source of technical HCHs or lindane. For DDTs, it was suspected to have recent application at some sites, which were derived mainly from a mixture of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. Categorical principal component analysis was performed in finding out more about the degradation behavior of DDTs and HCHs, which was identical with the results of source analysis.

  20. Mineral magnetic record of environment in Late Pleistocene and Halocene sediments, Lake Manas, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinowska, A.; Tucholka, P.; Gasse, F.; Fontes, J. C.

    1995-04-01

    A study of magnetic parameters was carried out on a Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary sequence (5 m) from Lake Manas (northern Xinjiang, China), that has already been analyzed for bulk sediment mineralogy, stables isotopes from carbonates and biogenic material. Magnetic minerals confirm major changes in paleoenvironmental and paleohydrological conditions that were deduced from other methods. They also provide complementary information on changes in the lake system during the early and middle Holocene. The most important mineral magnetic change results from the authigenic formation of ferrimagnetic greigite, Fe3S4 during the lacustrine episodes dated from approximately 8.7 kyr B.P. to approximately 5.5 kyr B.P. (380-335 cm) and from approximately 4.5 kyr B.P. to approximately 3.5 kyr B.P. (320-285 cm) respectively. Our data also indicate an abrupt break in sedimentary conditions which coincides with a short-term return towards dry climatic conditions around 3.5 kyr B.P., which was only suggested from other proxy data.

  1. [Landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Based on the 1976, 1989, 2000 and 2005 remote sensing images and related meteorological data, the landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang in 1976-2005 were analyzed with GIS and FRAGSTATES. In the study period, the landscape pattern change in the Basin mainly manifested in the increase of farmland, grassland, and residential area while the decrease of forestland, wetland, desert, and snow and ice coverage. At landscape level, the patch number, landscape shape index, and contagion index increased, while Shannon's diversity index decreased; at class level, there was a greater difference in the heterogeneity index among different kinds of landscape, indicating a complexity of the landscape ecosystem. The landscape pattern change caused the negative ecological effect of wetland area shrinking, but some positive effects such as the decrease of evaporation and the increase of relative humidity. From 1976 to 2005, the wetland area decreased from 415.7 km2 to 297.4 km2, with a decrement of 28%, evaporation decreased by 0.91 mm x a(-1), and relative humidity increased by 0.037% x a(-1).

  2. [Study on RHCE genotyping of Rh blood group in Uygur nationality of Xinjiang in China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Hua; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Li; Zhou, Hua-You

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of RHCE genotyping of Xinjiang Uygur nationality population in China. Primers for detecting RHCE genes were designed according to the references, 89 Uygur nationality RhD-negative samples, 233 Han nationality RhD-negative samples and 109 Han nationality RhD-positive samples were detected by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) for RHCE genotyping. All above-mentioned samples were unrelated. The results indicated that RHE/e genotyping results were consistent with the serological test results in the samples of Uygur and Han nationality, regardless of the RhD-negative samples or the RhD-positive samples. The RHC/c genotyping results from 89 RhD-negative samples of Uygur nationality were consistent with serological test results. However, total error of RHC/c genotyping from 233 RhD-negative and 109 RhD-positive samples of Han nationality was 5.05%. In conclusion, this method of RHCE genotyping is suitable for the analysis of the RHE/e genotyping of Uygur nationality, no erroneous RHC/c genotyping of Uygur nationality was found in this study, but this method needs to be further studied.

  3. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  5. [Spatial and temporal variation of soil temperature extremum under plastic mulch in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2004-11-01

    The upper and lower limit values of soil temperature affect crop growth and development greatly. Observations on the soil maximal and minimal temperatures under different mulching and cropping conditions in Xinjiang showed that during crop growth period in 1998 and 1999, soil temperature extremums were both at 0 cm, and varied with different observation time. The soil minimal temperature under plastic mulch was higher than that without mulch, indicating that plastic mulch could remarkably increase soil temperature. The diurnal variation of soil minimal temperature could be expressed by quadratic function, while the maximal temperature at 14:00 and 20:00 could be expressed by ellipse function and linear function of soil depth, respectively. Soil temperature extremums correlated linearly with air temperature under different conditions. The correlation between soil minimal temperature and air temperature was higher for bare soil than for mulched soil, and higher for maize field than for cotton field, while the correlation between soil maximal temperature and air temperature was lower than that between soil minimal temperature and air temperature.

  6. Socioenvironmental threats to pastoral livelihoods: risk perceptions in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chuan; Sullivan, Patrick J; Barrett, Christopher B; Kassam, Karim-Aly S

    2014-04-01

    Subjective risk perceptions give rise to unique policy implications as they reflect both the expectation of risk exposure and the ability to mitigate or cope with the adverse impacts. Based on data collected from semistructured interviews and iterative ranking exercises with 159 households in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China, this study investigates and explains the risks with respect to a seriously understudied population and location. Using both geostatistical and econometric methods, we show that although fear of environmental crisis is prevalent among our respondents, recently implemented pastoral conservation, sedentarization, and development projects are more likely to be ranked as the top concerns among affected households. In order to reduce these concerns, future pastoral policy must be built on the livestock economy, and intervention priority should be given to the geographic areas identified as risk hot spots. In cases where pastoralists have to give up their pastures, the transition to other comparable livelihood strategies must be enabled by creating new opportunities and training pastoralists to acquire the needed skills. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Two types of the dust storms caused by cold air crossing the mountains in Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonghang; Zhang, Wenyu; Chen, Chenghe; Du, Ping; Wang, Xu

    2003-07-01

    Real-time observational data including 500hpa charts and surface charts from 1995 to 2000 after being analyzed indicate the dust storms caused by cold air crossing the mountains in Xinjiang were classified into two types according to the paths which they had taken: the westerly path type and the northerly path type. The synoptic causes and forecasting indexes of these two different types were pointed out combing research results and forecasting practical experiences. And a typical case of the westerly path type occurred during May 4-6 in 2000 was given to show the weather process, synoptic causes and forecasting indexes. Also the analysis of three typical dust storms of the northerly path type occurred during July of 1996 reveals how cold air crossed the mountains down to the Taklimkan Desert and caused dust storms in summer. The common opinion is refuted that in summer cold air is weak and severe dust storms caused by cold air crossing the mountains cannot occur.

  8. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  9. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  10. [Responses of ecosystem services value to land use change in national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Ji-Xi; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Leng, Ling; Qiu, Jie; Yang, Shan-Shan

    2014-05-01

    With GIS and RS technology, characteristics of land use change and ecosystem services value of different years in six national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China were analyzed with remote sensing image of the year 2000-2010. Results showed that the area of water body and grassland decreased while the area of forest, farmland, wetland, unused land and construction land increased in 2000-2010. Variation rate of land use change in 2000-2005 was faster, as 2.4-6.3 times as that in 2005-2010. The total ecosystem services value mostly consisted of that of water body, grassland and forest, accounting for 93% approximately. During the study, the values of all kinds of the ecosystem services increased except for grassland and water body, the total ecosystem services value increased firstly and then decreased, and overall emerged as a reducing trend with the rate of 1.2%. In the process of the development of the west regions, it is necessary to pay more attention to the protection of natural resources and ecosystem restoration, so as to achieve sustainable development of resources, environment and social economy in the western regions.

  11. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji’erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment. PMID:26308646

  12. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  13. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-05

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18-60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012-3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097-2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466-0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205-0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532-0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  14. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  15. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  16. [Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of endolithic bacteria community at special habitats in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Mu, Wenting; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Jian; Zeng, Jun; Xu, YingHua; Wu, Zunfeng; Hu, Wen; Lou, Kai

    2012-03-04

    In order to investigate the composition and diversity of endolithic bacteria at special habitats in Xinjiang. Five rock samples were collected, including Wusu's granite (sample 1), Glacier No. 1, and Mulei's metamorphic rock (sample 2, sample 3), Yumin and Tokesun's Rock varnish (sample 4, sample 5). Endolithic bacterial community composition and diversity were analyzed by the method of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Differences in diversity indexes among samples were not apparent. Clustering analysis suggested that similarity coefficient was higher in same rock type, sample 2 and sample 3 were grouped together, then sample 1 clustered with them, and sample 4 and sample 5 were classified together. All samples harbored these phyla such as Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes existed in sample 1 and sample 2, respectively; Sample 5 was dominated by Actinobacteria, while other samples were dominated by Proteobacteria. The endolithic bacterial composition of same rock type collected at various habitats was different. Meanwhile, a diversity of novel species and lineages maybe existed in rocks.

  17. Effect of Xinjiang Uyghur Vernonia anthelmintica Willd Injection Treatment with Silicosis Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guitao; Liu, Yingjia; Jin, Lu; Li, Cuidong; Nie, Liping; Wei, Yanhua; Wang, Wenyu; Xu, Yuhong; Nusilaiti, Nuziguli; Hua, Ping; Li, Xiujuan; Wang, Xiaohua; Wei, Wenlong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the curative effect of VAWI on Xinjiang Uygur patients with silicosis fibrosis. Methods. After we diagnosed the 40 patients with the first phase of silicosis, we randomly divided them into two groups: the basic treatment group (group A, n = 20) and the VAWI group (group B, n = 20). At the same time, we selected the age-matched healthy patients (n = 20). We applied the combined protein chip with SELDI-TOF-MS to carry out the serum analysis. The data were analyzed throughout data preprocessing, difference in PEAK screening, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We built decision tree model and predict the difference between the PEAK corresponding proteins. Results. The proteins peaks corresponding to name, predicted protein, and gene name were as follows: M2001_69, amyloid beta a4 protein, APP, and M2017_02, amyloid beta a4 protein, APP. The different expression of proteins in patients with silicosis was found before and after with VAWI treatment. The predicted proteins were as follows: M1982_50, amyloid beta a4 protein, APP; M3164_50, fibrinogen alpha chain frag, FGA; M3379_28, fibrinogen alpha chain frag, FGA; and so on. Conclusion. VAWI presented curative effect on patients with silicosis fibrosis via the alternation of proteins expression in serum. PMID:27803925

  18. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  19. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  20. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  1. Estimation of carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Ili River Valley, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jing, Guo; renping, Zhang; ranghui, Wang; aimaiti, Yusupujiang; tuerdi, Asiyemu; dongya, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Study on the forest carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution characteristic are helpful for improving the accuracy of carbon estimation and providing the practical basis for better policy making. In this research, the compiled data of 'Xinjiang Forest Resources Survey Results' in 2011 was used as a source data, by using the biomass-volume regression model and average biomass method, the carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution of forest resources in Ili River Valley region were analyzed. Results show that, the total biomass, carbon storage and average carbon density in Ili River valley were 69.647Tg, 34.823Tg and 41.45Mg/hm2 C respectively. From the aspect of spatial distribution, the northwest region of Ili River Valley has high carbon storage and the southeast region has low carbon storage. The southwest region has low carbon density and the northeast region has high carbon density. The value of forest Carbon storage from high to low was: Arbor > Shrub > Sparse forest > Odd tree > Economic forest > Scattered trees. Mature arbor forest plays an important role in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in Ili River Valley region.

  2. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 ~ 12 a, 41 ~ 43 a, 18 ~ 19 a, and 5 ~ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  3. [Water physiological characteristics of four perennial plant species around Cele Oasis in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Jiang; Li, Xiang-Yi; Zhaneg, Xi-Ming; Foetzki, A; Arndt, S K

    2009-11-01

    The water physiological characteristics of four perennial plant species (Populus euphratica, Tamarix ramosissima, Calligonum caput-medusae, and Alhagi sparsifolia) around Cele Oasis in Xinjiang were studied through their vegetation growth period. No signs of serious drought stress were observed in any of the test perennial species during their vegetation growth, and irrigation had little effects on the water status of the plants (P > 0.05). The seasonal variation characteristics of water physiological parameters differed with the plants. A. sparsifolia had the highest predawn water potential (PWP) and daily mean sap flow, but the lowest mean water use efficiency (WUE); C. caput-medusae had the highest mean WUE, and its PWP and sap flow were stable and had less seasonal change; T. ramosissima had the lowest PWP during its growth, and had better adaptation ability to the environment; and P. euphratica had relatively stable water physiological characteristics during its growth. The four perennial plant species had deep root systems to access underground water to satisfy their large demands for water, and thus, well adapted to the harsh environmental conditions around Cele Oasis.

  4. A Serological Epidemiological Survey of Antibodies against 4 HPV Subtypes in Uygur Women in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Husaiyin, Sulaiya; Han, Lili; Mamat, Huduyum; Husaiyin, Kundus; Wang, Lin; Niyazi, Mayinuer

    2016-07-22

    This study evaluated the distribution of antibodies against 4 human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes and their related factors among Uygur women in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2006 to May 2007 involving 883 Uygur women aged 17-54 years living in Yutian County. Demographic indicators, disease history, sexual behavior history, and other parameters were recorded at the interview using a questionnaire. A fluorescence detection method was used to quantify anti-HPV6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies in venous blood serum. The rate of positive detection of any anti-HPV antibody (anti-HPV6, -11, -16, and -18) in the study population was 13.4%, and the individual positivity rates were 9.5%, 2.6%, 4.3%, and 0.7%, respectively. Peak rates of positivity for the anti-HPV16 antibody were found in women who were 36-40 and 46-50 years old. Seroprevalence of HPV16, which is high-risk for cervical cancer, was associated with the numbers of sexual partners. The rate of infection with high-risk HPV was low among Uygur women from rural areas, although there is a high incidence of cervical cancer in this group. Loyalty to one sexual partner decreased the risk of high-risk HPV infection. This study may provide useful reference data for the prevention and treatment of HPV and cervical cancer and for the application of HPV vaccines.

  5. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  6. Microbial diversity and abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang long-term water-flooding petroleum reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Microbial populations associated with microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and their abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang water-flooding petroleum reservoir were investigated using 16S rRNA, nitrate reductases, dissimilatory sulfate reductase, and methyl coenzyme-M reductase-encoded genes to provide ecological information for the potential application of MEOR. 16S rRNA gene miseq sequencing revealed that this reservoir harbored large amounts of taxa, including 155 bacterial and 7 archeal genera. Among them, Arcobacter, Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Ochrobactrum, Hyphomonas, Acinetobacter, and Shewanella were dominant, and have the potential to grow using hydrocarbons as carbon sources. Metabolic gene clone libraries indicated that the nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) mainly belonged to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, Thauera, Magnetospirillum, Sinorhizobium, Azoarcus, and Rhodobacter; the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were Desulfarculus, Desulfomonile, Desulfosarcina, Desulfotignum, Desulfacinum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfovibrio; while the methanogens were archaea and belonged to Methanomethylovorans, Methanosaeta, Methanococcus, Methanolobus, and Methanobacterium. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the number of bacterial 16S rRNA reached 106 copies/mL, while the metabolic genes of NRB, SRB, and methanogens reached 104 copies/mL. These results show that the Luliang reservoir has abundant microbial populations associated with oil recovery, suggesting that the reservoir has potential for MEOR. PMID:25641701

  7. Geological Features of Iron Formations and Associate Rock in Bulunkuole Group, West Kunlun, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chaoyang; Wang, He; Ren, Guangli; Wu, Wenying

    2017-05-01

    West Kunlun is located at northwest part of the Tibetan plateau, and it’s divided into North Kunlun terrane, South Kunlun terrane and Tianshuihai terrane. Bulunkuole Group is located in Tianshuihai terrane, and Taaxi, Yelike, Laobing, Zankan, Mokaer and Jiertiekegou iron deposit was found in this terrane. Those iron deposits are set to the important iron ore mineralization belt of Xinjiang and even China. By investigation the geological features, ore distributions, and mineralization characters; and analyze the electron microprobe of magnetite and pyrite, stable isotope of pyrite, magnetite and anhydrite to discussion the tectonic setting and its genesis analysis iron ore deposit in Blunkuole Group, and establish the metallogenic model in this area. By contrastive analyzing of Taaxi, Yelike Zankan-Mokar iron ore deposits in Bulunkuole Group, it was found that all the iron ore deposit share the similar sedimentary environment. Those deposits have 3 ∼ 4 ore bodies, each get a meter to dozens of meters in width, extend to thousands of meters. The wall rocks are biotite quartz schist and plagioclase amphibole schist, and the two rocks interbed usually. It should be distinguish in the stratigraphic correlation of Bulunkuole Group for the influenced by the magma intrusion, such as granite and felsite porphyry.

  8. [Over One Hundred Year Sediment Record of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Shen, Bei-bei; Wu, Jing-lu; Zhao, Zhong-hua; Zeng, Hai-ao; Jin, Miao

    2016-02-15

    The vertical distributions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated from a sediment core in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang. Meanwhile, the possible source and risk assessment of PAHs in Lake Bosten were also discussed. The total PAHs concentration in the sediment core ranged from 37.5 ng x g(-1) to 184.5 ng x g(-1), and Naphthalene and Phenanthrene were the dominant compounds throughout the core. Over the one hundred year, the vertical profile of PAHs underwent significant changes around 1950s. The vertical distributions of PAHs had little change and low molecular weight PAHs were dominant PAHs before 1950s. Since then, the high molecular weight PAHs appeared and increased with fluctuations. A sharp increase in PAHs level and individuals was observed especially after 1990s and a maximum was found in the surface sediment. The results suggested PAHs in Lake Bosten were from the local sources, which were dominated by the low temperature combustion. Besides, the abundance of PAHs from high temperature combustion processes, such as combustion of industrial coal and vehicle emission, increased significantly in recent years. However, based on the results of risk assessment, the PAHs may not induce adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem in Lake Bosten.

  9. Feature Extraction and Classification on Esophageal X-Ray Images of Xinjiang Kazak Nationality

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chuan B.; Yao, Juan; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Kong, Xi M.; Zhang, Sui X.

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising types of cancers in China. The Kazak nationality is the highest-risk group in Xinjiang. In this work, an effective computer-aided diagnostic system is developed to assist physicians in interpreting digital X-ray image features and improving the quality of diagnosis. The modules of the proposed system include image preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, image classification, and performance evaluation. 300 original esophageal X-ray images were resized to a region of interest and then enhanced by the median filter and histogram equalization method. 37 features from textural, frequency, and complexity domains were extracted. Both sequential forward selection and principal component analysis methods were employed to select the discriminative features for classification. Then, support vector machine and K-nearest neighbors were applied to classify the esophageal cancer images with respect to their specific types. The classification performance was evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, accuracy, precision, and recall, respectively. Experimental results show that the classification performance of the proposed system outperforms the conventional visual inspection approaches in terms of diagnostic quality and processing time. Therefore, the proposed computer-aided diagnostic system is promising for the diagnostics of esophageal cancer.

  10. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  11. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  12. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  13. Tectonic transition from Late Carboniferous subduction to Early Permian post-collisional extension in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Insights from geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-intermediate intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhao, Guochun; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Hou, Wenzhu; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Xu, Bing; Zhu, Chloe Yanlin

    2016-07-01

    The closure of the Junggar Ocean between the Central Tianshan and Junggar terranes is essential in understanding the final assembly of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This study presents new whole-rock geochemical, Sr-Nd and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data for mafic-intermediate intrusions from the Central Tianshan block to provide robust constraints on the final closure of the ocean. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic-type zircons yields weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of ca. 310 Ma and ca. 290 Ma, which are interpreted as the crystallization ages of the intrusions. Petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Carboniferous mafic-intermediate rocks, characterized by typical subduction-related signatures, low Sm/Yb (< 2.0) but high Lu/Hf (≥ 0.2) ratios and positive εNd(t) (+ 1.2 to + 3.1) and zircon εHf(t) (+ 4.1 to + 7.8) values, suggest that their parental magmas were most likely generated by the partial melting of a metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge in the spinel stability field and emplaced in a continental arc setting. This consideration is consistent with the occurrence of Carboniferous ophiolitic and arc-related granitoids in the region, probably as a result of the southward subduction of the Junggar oceanic plate. In contrast, the Early Permian mafic magmatism exhibits typical within-plate basalt affinities, such as high TiO2 (2.7-3.2 wt.%) contents, elevated Ti/V (86.0-115.1) and Zr/Y (4.9-9.3) ratios, OIB-like trace element patterns and high εNd(t) (+ 1.1 to + 4.5) and zircon εHf(t) (+ 3.0 to + 9.8) values. In association with previous investigations, we suggest that their protoliths were most probably derived from the partial melting of an asthenospheric mantle source in the garnet stability field, plausibly induced by asthenosphere upwelling during the slab break-off of the Junggar oceanic plate, which agrees well with the linear distributions of Permian mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Eastern Tianshan. Collectively, our data pinpoint

  14. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Brucella isolates from patients in Xinjiang China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Li, Zhiwei; La, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiumin; Zhang, Yaoxin; Ji, Ping; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Jianbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to characterize and identify the human Brucella strains in Xinjiang, China with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme. Methods: Brucella strains were isolated and cultured from 62 brucellosis patients. The bacteria strains were subjected to the oxidase, catalase, rapid urease, and nitrate reduction tests, and the species identification was performed using the VITEK-2 Compact system. These Brucella strains were further identified and characterized using the 16 VNTR loci in a MLVA-16 methodology. Results: Twelve Brucella strains had been identified out of 62 patients, which were all recognized as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) according to the results from the VITEK-2 Compact system. Based on panel 1 (MLVA-8), these 12 Brucella isolates were clustered into three known genotypes and two new genotypes, in which 7 strains were clustered into genotype 45 (1-5-3-12-2-2-3-2), 1 strain was classified as genotype 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2), 1 stain was with genotype 62 (1-3-3-13-2-2-3-2), and the other 3 trains revealed two new genotypes, i.e., (1-5-3-12-2-3-3-2) and (1-5-3-11-2-3-3-2). Using panel 2A+2B (MLVA-16), we found that no genotypes of these strains were identical to the known genotypes, generally with differences in 2-4 loci. However, three strains shared the same genotype. Conclusion: Brucella strains in 62 brucellosis patients from Xinjiang are all identified as B. melitensis. Based on MLVA-8, two new genotypes have been discovered. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26629067

  15. Magnetic properties derived from a loess section at the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China, and their paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanhua; Xia, Dunsheng; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Shuang; Gao, Fuyuan; Wang, Youjun; Lu, Hao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-11-01

    Loess deposits in the arid Central Asia contain valuable information on the evolution of local aridification and dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere. Xinjiang is located in the eastern part of Central Asia and previous researches have revealed the complex enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in loess-paleosol sequences. However, systematic magnetic archives of loess deposit in this arid Asian interior are still far from adequate. In this study, magnetic parameters combined with nonmagnetic properties (granulometry and chromaticity) were analysed on a loess section in Shawan (SW), northwestern China. The section shares a similar magnetic composition with those in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) as well as other sites in Xinjiang. Ferrimagnetic components (magnetite and maghemite) dominate the magnetic signal while the contribution of antiferromagnetic phases (like hematite and goethite) and paramagnetic portions are relatively low. There is no specific correlation between magnetic concentration and pedogenic intensity in the SW section. In general, magnetic enhancement was largely influenced by the paleowind intensity. However, a positive correlation between magnetic susceptibility and pedogenesis is observed in the upper part (0-3.5 m depths), which is characterized by a moderate wind intensity. Moreover, pedogenesis might be responsible for the enhancement of fine magnetic particles in paleosols. Magnetic properties are controlled by coarse magnetic particles in the pseudo-single domain state, but a coarse stable single domain phase was found in certain paleosol samples. The input of detrital fractions from a nearby dust source probably controlled the magnetic properties while a superparamagnetic fraction, which has been deemed as a product of pedogenesis in the CLP, is limited in the SW section. Caution is needed to employ magnetic susceptibility directly for paleoclimatic assessment because of its uncertainty in the Xinjiang loess. However, the

  16. Molecular evidence of tick-borne pathogens in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infesting cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peifa; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Abdallah, Mirza Omar; Chen, Ze; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-09-05

    Although tick-borne pathogens have been widely reported in ticks in China, there is little information available on the prevalence of information in Hyalomma ticks from cattle. This study aims to determine the occurrence of pathogens in Hyalomma anatolicum collected from cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma bovis were identified, whereas DNA of Ehrlichia species and an Anaplasma platys-like pathogen were also detected. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these pathogens in north-western China.

  17. Conservation of cultural heritage in minority ethnic regions in northwestern china—an exploration at Kuqa, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Kuqa, Xinjiang, is located at northwestern inland china. Traditionally a bridge between eastern and western civilizations, Kuqa had a history of cultural fusion and was left with abundant cultural heritage. As population increase, economic growth and social changes occurred, spontaneous renovation of the old city was affected, in which street fabric and scenes underwent damages. The paper demonstrates attempts made in various projects to achieve conservation of cultural heritage in agreement with economic development and improvement of living condition. The lessons learnt in these projects will be of value to development of other historic cities, especially in minority ethnic regions in China.

  18. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Marine sedimentary record of Meltwater Pulse 1a along the NW Barents Sea continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulia Lucchi, Renata; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Macrì, Patrizia; Rebesco, Michele; Pedrosa, Maria Teresa; Giorgetti, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    The upper continental slope of the Storfjorden-Kveithola Trough Mouth Fans (NW Barents Sea) contains a several m-thick late Pleistocene sequence of plumites composed of laminated mud interbedded with sand/silt layers. Radiocarbon ages revealed that deposition occurred during about 130 years at a very high sedimentation rate of 3.4 cm a-1, at about 7 km from the present shelf break. Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses confirm the existence of a prominent, short-living sedimentary event. The plumites appear laterally continuous and were correlated with the sedimentary sequences described west of Svalbard and neighbouring glacial depositional systems representing a major event at regional scale appointed to correspond to the deep-sea sedimentary record of Meltwater Pulse-1a. We also present new sedimentological and geochemical insights, and multi-beam data adding information on the palaeoenvironmental characteristics during MWP-1a and ice sheet decay in the NW Barents Sea.

  20. Morphological and optical data of AgNW embedded transparent conductive layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Sik; Patel, Dipal B; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, morphological and optical data of AgNW encapsulated between ITO layers are presented to get insights into our article (DOI:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.038; Hong-Sik Kim, Pankaj Yadav, Malkeshkumar Patel, Hyunki Kim, Kavita Pandey, Joondong Kim, 2016) [1]. SEM images for the formation of AgNWs networks by number of spin coating are also presented. SEM photographs showing the surface morphologies before and after rapid thermal treatment of prepared samples have been presented. Apart from morphological data set, optical characteristics of this type of samples are given. The comparison plots of optical reflectance from AgNW encapsulated between ITO layers and bare ITO are given between the wavelength ranges from 300 to 1100 nm. At the end, transmittance and reflectance curves of native glass substrates used in this study are presented.

  1. Active faults pattern and interplay in the Azerbaijan region (NW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridi, M.; Burg, J.-P.; Nazari, H.; Talebian, M.; Ghorashi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Northwest Iran is dominated by two main sets of active strike slip faults that accommodate oblique convergence between the Arabian and Iranian Plates. The best known are the right-lateral North-Tabriz, Qoshadagh, Maragheh and Zagros (Main Recent) strike slip Faults. This work reports that these dominant NW-SE to E-W striking faults are conjugate to smaller, NNE-SSW striking, left-lateral faults with minor dip slip component. All of these active faults displace Precambrian rock units, which suggests that they root in the crystalline basement of the NW Iranian microcontinent. Coulomb stress variance during co-seismic rupture along one of these faults may cause reactivation of the other faults. The minor set of left-lateral fault is therefore important to introduce in seismic risk assessment.

  2. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  3. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers. PMID:28067780

  4. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G.

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  5. Association of connexin gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jie; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Wen-Yan; Wang, Ying-Zi; Ma, Ke-Tao; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes is found associated with the development of hypertension. However, the association of the polymorphism of Cxs with EH has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association of the polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 with EH in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were used to analyze the polymorphism of Cx genes in Kazak and Han EH patients as well as their normotensive controls. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the frequencies of different three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) and A and G alleles of Cx40 rs35594137 and rs11552588 between EH patients and normotensive controls. However, in Kazak EH patients, the frequencies of three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) of Cx37 rs1630310 were 24.8%, 47.2% and 28.0%, respectively, which were significantly different from those in Han EH patients. In Han EH patients, the frequencies of the three genotypes (C/C, C/G and G/G) of Cx43 rs1925223 were 6.4%, 35.6% and 58.0%, respectively. Frequencies of the other four genotypes had no statistical differences among Kazak and Han EH patients and their normotensive controls. These results suggest polymorphisms of Cx37 rs1630310 and Cx43 rs1925223 genes may be associated with the pathogenesis of EH. Carrying Cx37 rs1630310-A or Cx43 rs1925223-G genotypes may protect against the development of EH.

  6. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  7. Genetic variations in the KCNJ5 gene in primary aldosteronism patients from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan-Fang; Li, Hong-Jian; Zhang, De-Lian; Zhang, Ju-Hong; Yao, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhou, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common endocrine form of secondary hypertension, and one of the most common subtypes of sporadic PA is aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Recently, two somatic mutations of the KCNJ5 gene were implicated in APA, and two germline mutations were associated with familial hyperaldosteronism III. This case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the KCNJ5 gene and sporadic PA patients in Xinjiang, China. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KCNJ5 gene (rs6590357, rs4937391, rs3740835, rs2604204, and rs11221497) were detected in patients with sporadic PA (n = 235) and essential hypertension (EH; n=913) by the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method. The EH group and the PA group showed significant differences in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of rs4937391 and rs2604204 in total and male subjects (P<0.05), as well as rs3740835 in male subjects (P<0.05). However, only the association between the rs2604204 genotype and male sporadic PA remained significant after Bonferroni's correction (P<0.01). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the CC genotype of rs2604204 was a risk factor for male patients with sporadic PA, after adjusting for age and body mass index (odds ratio=2.228, 95% CI: 1.300-3.819, P=0.004). The genetic variant rs2604204 of KCNJ5 is associated with sporadic PA in Chinese males, suggesting that KCNJ5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic PA in these particular patients.

  8. Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang, northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Li, Li; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664, were isolated from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang Province, northwest of China. The cells of the two strains were observed to be cocci, non-motile and Gram-negative. The organisms were determined to be aerobic and required at least 6 % NaCl for growth (optimum 20-25 % and maximum 35 %). Growth was found to occur in the ranges of 16-50 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum 6.5-7.5). Cells did not lyse in distilled water. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains belongs to the genus Halalkalicoccus and possessed 99.3 and 99.5 % similarities with their closest phylogenetic relative Halalkalicoccus tibetensis JCM 11890(T). Major polar lipids of the two strains were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol(PG),phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 60.0-60.4 mol%. The DNA hybridization between the two strains was 92.0 %. In addition, the hybridizations of both strains to H. tibetensis were 49 and 52 %, respectively, and to Halalkalicoccus jeotali were 38 and 33 %, respectively. On the basis of physiological, biochemical tests and phylogenetic differentiations, strains YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664 were classified as the same species which represent a novel species in the genus Halalkalicoccus, for which the name Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93701(T) (=JCM 17505(T) = CCTCC 2012803(T)).

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  10. The oasis evolution under human activities of arid Xinjiang in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunxian

    2009-06-01

    The water resources utilization in the arid area of northeastern Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang attracts a lot of attention from research community and government. Although some problems such as the change of the water resource and suitable utility of water have been addressed before, however, less concern has been on the long-time human activity effects, so the ecological and environment processes of the Oasis areas need to be paid more attention. This research took Qitai oasis as the study area, located in northeastern Tianshan Mountain, to analyze the development and spatial evolution of the artificial oasis since 18th century using historical literature, remote sensing technology and field-surveyed data. Then the changes of natural oasis grass land and the artificial oasis were identified for studying the environmental evolution. The results show that the artificial oasis increased due to the improvement of irrigating technology. Qitai oasis has improved towards optimized pattern from the 18th century to 2006. Cultivated land increased slowly from 18 century to 1970s because irrigation technology had not enough change to provide more irrigation. As a result, when cultivated land enlarged fast influenced by policy from the end of 1950s to 1970s, environmental burden increased due to the lack of sufficient water. After 1970s, cultivated land increased heavily with an increasing productivity due to the introduction of new irrigating trenches and the use of groundwater pumping facilities. In the meanwhile, the eco-environment of Bahudi grass land which is typical natural oasis seemed much improved with an increase from 1997 to 2006. Salinized land turned heavily into grassland from 1973-2006 and thus the low grassland changed towards middle and high covered grassland gradually.

  11. Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, KC1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Kuche county, Xinjiang province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile with flagella. Strain KC1(T) was found to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 8.0) and NaCl 0-10 % (v/v) (optimum 4 %). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was found to be the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KC1(T) showed low similarity (<96 %) to other validly named species. The phylogenetic trees showed that strain KC1(T) is closely related to Bacillus azotoformans DSM 1046(T) and Bacillus methanolicus DSM 16454(T). Both these type strains showed 95.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain KC1(T). The DNA G+C content of strain KC1(T) was determined to be 39.0 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain KC1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC1(T) (=JCM 19760(T) = CGMCC 1.12810(T)).

  12. Variation characteristics of regional synchronous wind in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Linhong; Song, Lili; Li, Gang; Xin, Yu

    2015-04-01

    From several towers in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China, built by the national wind power resources professional observation network, we selected three towers with synchronous 10-min average wind speed data for one year (May 2011-April 2012) under strict quality control. The towers are located where large-scale wind power development is projected. We analyzed the frequency and variation of extreme wind speed at low wind condition (LWC), rated wind condition (RWC), and cut-out wind condition (CWC), which may significantly impact the electric power grid configuration in large-scale wind power development. The correlation between duration and frequency of LWC/RWC/CWC is obtained. Major findings are: 1) The frequency of CWC is the lowest among all conditions, its synchronous rate at all three towers tends to be zero, and the frequency of LWC is always greater than that of RWC. 2) Among the three towers, the synchronous rate of RWC steadily increases with height, and LWC differs little between different levels. The synchronous rate of LWC concentrates in winter, while that of RWC mainly occurs in spring and summer. Diurnal variation of LWC/RWC during the entire year is significantly different. 3) During the study year, the longest durations of synchronous LWC and RWC among the three towers are up to 640 and 700 min, respectively. The duration and frequency of LWC/RWC can be quantitatively well described by a logarithmic function. Consequently, the synchronous rates of LWC and RWC over any duration in the region can be easily calculated by using the fitting function equation from observed data. These results are of value to the planning of large-scale wind power transmission and grid dispatching in this area.

  13. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-08-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p+-p-p+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2-4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 105. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  15. Geologic lithologic mapping in NW Ontario - Remote sensing approaches and caveats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Singhroy, V. H.; Evans, C. S.; Harrington, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    A previously noted higher proportion of coniferous vegetation over metavolcanic formations than over metasedimentary ones, in which deciduous vegetation predominates, has been quantified and extended to encompass granites, migmatites, and ultramafic bodies typical of the NW Ontario shield area. Preliminary analyses of TM data suggests that there are spectral differences associated with these vegetation parameters; more importantly, a species assemblage pattern associated with ultramafic units was found at five different locations.

  16. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-08-14

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10{sup 5}. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  17. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W.; Breuer, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 through 2010 and ceased as of 2014. In late 2009, NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This presented an enormous natural disturbance to the community. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching specifically for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. We focused on samples for which profiles with a MAPR sensor indicated hydrothermal plumes in the water column. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument also can act as sources for these planktonic, recolonizing larvae. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both

  18. A study of the electrical properties of complex resistor network based on NW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yunfeng; Li, Yunting; Yang, Liu; Guo, Lu; Liu, Gaochao

    2015-04-01

    The power and resistance of two-port complex resistor network based on NW small world network model are studied in this paper. Mainly, we study the dependence of the network power and resistance on the degree of port vertices, the connection probability and the shortest distance. Qualitative analysis and a simplified formula for network resistance are given out. Finally, we define a branching parameter and give out its physical meaning in the analysis of complex resistor network.

  19. Evidence for an Ancient Buried Landscape on the NW Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, David A.; Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Mest, Scott C.; Mustard, John F.; Vincendon, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Hellas basin is the largest (2000+ km across) well-preserved impact structure on Mars and its deepest depositional sink [e.g., 1]. The Hellas rim and adjacent highlands are of special interest given the possibility of paleolakes on the basin floor [2-4], recent studies of potential localized fluvial/lacustrine systems [2, 5-17], and evidence for phyllosilicates around and within impact craters north of the basin [18-26]. We are producing a 1:1.5M-scale geologic map of eight MTM quadrangles (-25312, -25307, -25302, -25297, -30312, -30307, -30302, -30297) along Hellas NW rim. The map region (22.5-32.5degS, 45- 65degE) includes a transect across the cratered highlands of Terra Sabaea, the degraded NW rim of Hellas, and basin interior deposits of NW Hellas Planitia. No previous mapping studies have focused on this region, although it has been included in earlier global and regional maps [27-29].

  20. Microseismicity, Tectonics and Seismic Potential in the Western Himalayan Segment, NW Himalaya (india) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Parija, M. P.; Biswal, S.

    2016-12-01

    The NW Himalaya (India) region covering Garhwal and Himachal province of India is characterised by sustained seismicity during the past decades. We have relocated 423 earthquakes in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S accurate P and S differential travel-times. We also have determined moment tensors for 8 (Mw >= 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the MHT plane has also been deduced in this study which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip range from 4° to 19° below the HFT in south to STD in the north. There are also two crustal ramps reported from this study having a depth variance below the MCT and STD between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalaya seismic gap that lies between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake has also been estimated and it is inferred that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy (95-98%) i.e. if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in future it's magnitude can be equivalent to a Mw³ 8.0. So the energy dissipated through previous earthquakes is not sufficient to prevent an upcoming giant event.

  1. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1).

  2. Lithospheric structure beneath NW Iran using regional and teleseismic travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavali, K.; Motaghi, K.; Sobouti, F.; Ghods, A.; Abbasi, M.; Priestley, K.; Mortezanejad, G.; Rezaeian, M.

    2016-04-01

    We compute a 2-D tomogram using the P wave arrival time readings from a temporary seismic experiment to study the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in NW Iran. The study area includes the western margins of the South Caspian Basin (SCB), and the Sahand and Sabalan post-collisional volcanoes in NW Iran. We invert 2780 regional and teleseismic relative P wave arrival times recorded by 23 stations along the seismic profile extending from the western shoreline of the Caspian Sea to Lake Urumieh. Our tomographic results show a higher-velocity region beneath the SCB. The observed higher velocities strongly correlate with the observed positive gravity anomalies over the southwestern margins of the Caspian Sea, suggesting an oceanic like nature for the SCB lithosphere. The tomographic results also show several lower-velocity anomalies in the crust. The Sabalan volcano is underlain by a low-velocity zone in the lower crust, which is most likely thermal in nature. In the Sahand region, the lower velocities are considerably shallower in depth and might be controlled by shallow sedimentary structures, as well as an anomalously warm upper crust. The shallow low-velocity regions are connected with deeper low-velocity zones 60-100 km deep in the upper mantle. This pattern points to a possible mantle source of post-collisional volcanism in NW Iran, i.e. the melting of a subducted slab.

  3. Highly transparent AgNW/PDMS stretchable electrodes for elastomeric electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan-Shen; Pan, Bo-Cheng; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2017-02-16

    Stretchable conductors based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been studied extensively for many years. However, it is still difficult to achieve high transparency with low resistance due to the low attractive force between AgNWs and PDMS. In this paper, we report an effective method to transfer AgNWs into PDMS by using substrates which have a hydrophobic surface, and successfully prepared stretchable AgNW/PDMS electrodes having high transparency and low sheet resistance at the same time. The obtained electrodes can be stretched, twisted, and folded without significant loss of conductivity. Furthermore, a novel elastomeric HV electrochromic device (ECD) fabricated based on these stretchable AgNW/PDMS hybrid electrodes exhibited excellent electrochromic behavior in the full AgNW electrode system and could change color between colorless and blue even after 100 switching cycles. As most existing electrochromic devices are based on ITO and other rigid conductors, elastomeric conductors demonstrate advantages for next-generation electronics such as stretchable, wearable, and flexible optoelectronic applications.

  4. Analysis of water level variation of lakes and reservoirs in Xinjiang, China using ICESat laser altimetry data (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhaoxia; Liu, Hongxing; Chen, Yaning; Shu, Song; Wu, Qiusheng; Wang, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes ICESat Release 33 GLA14 data to analyse water level variation of Xinjiang's lakes and reservoirs from 2003 to 2009. By using Landsat images, lakes and reservoirs with area larger than 1 km2 are numerically delineated with a software tool. Based on ICESat observations, we analyse the characteristics of water level variation in different geographic environments, as well as investigate the reasons for the variation. Results indicate that climatic warming contributes to rising water levels in lakes in mountainous areas, especially for lakes that are recharged by snow and glacial melting. For lakes in oases, the water levels are affected jointly by human activity and climate change, while the water levels of reservoirs are mainly affected by human activity. Comparing the annual average rates of water levels, those of lakes are higher than those of reservoirs in oasis areas. The main reasons for the decreasing water levels in desert regions are the reduction of recharged runoff and high evaporation. By analysing the variation of water levels and water volume in different geologic environments, it is found that water level and volume increased in mountainous regions, and decreased in oasis regions and desert regions. Finding also demonstrate that decreasing volume is greater than increasing volume, which results in decreasing total volume of Xinjiang lakes and reservoirs.

  5. Population genetic structure of Gasterophilus pecorum in the Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhang, D; Hu, D; Chu, H; Cao, J; Ente, M; Jiang, G; Li, K

    2014-08-01

    Gasterophilosis is a significant threat to equids in the desert steppe of Xinjiang, China, where Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) is the dominant botfly species. A population analysis was conducted on 195 individual G. pecorum larvae from three host species, Przewalski's horse, the domestic horse and the Asiatic wild ass. The distribution of haplotypes of the maternally inherited mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analysed to assess the population differentiation of G. pecorum. High haplotype diversity was observed among G. pecorum populations from all host species, indicating that the G. pecorum infecting one host had multiple maternal ancestors. A phylogenetic tree showed six clades, suggesting a high degree of genetic differentiation. A constructed haplotype network described both the origin of the haplotypes and the population structure. The findings indicated that G. pecorum infections within Przewalski's horses were mainly transmitted from Asiatic wild asses. Clade 1 was found to be the most primitive group and to have evolved to be highly adaptable to the desert steppe. Clade 2 originated from Clade 1, potentially as a result of the annual migration of domestic horses. Revealing the differentiation of the G. pecorum population is important for elucidating the aetiology of Gasterophilus infection in Xinjiang and for planning appropriate control measures. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Prevalence of valvular heart diseases and associated risk factors in Han, Uygur and Kazak population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang

    2017-01-01

    Background Valvular heart diseases (VHD) is very common in clinical practice and has became the subject of growing attention in the field of cardiovascular medicine. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and correlates of VHD in the general population in Xinjiang, China. Methods Using a 4-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, a total of 14618 participants were recruited in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The participants’ personal information, medical history were assessed by questionnaire. VHD was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 19.0. Results In the total study group, VHD was observed in 1397 (9.65%) individuals. The prevalence rates of VHD in Han, Uygur and Kazak group are 13.51%, 2.71% and 12.29% respectively. The prevalence rates of VHD increased strikingly with age (all P < 0.001). The results of multinomial regression analysis indicated that VHD were related to age in Han group, to age smoking and hypertension in Uygur group, to age and hypertension in Kazak group. Conclusion Our research provides a unique prevalence rate of VHD in Xinjiang natural population. The result suggests that VHD are notably common in this population (9.65%) and increase with age. There exists significant difference of prevalence rate between ethnics. The main risk factors of VHD are age, hypertension and smoking. Valvular heart diseases should be regarded as a serious and growing public-health problem. PMID:28355290

  7. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature (Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days (Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes are associated with cervical cancer susceptibility in a population from Xinjiang Uygur.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zegao; Guo, Wen; Ma, Yuhua; Emin, Raila Muhammed; Abudubari, Karima; Hayrat, Glmira; Wali, Hasiyet; Qi, Xiaoli; Liu, Chunhua; Ma, Miaomiao; Nurbek, Pulat

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to cervical cancer (CC) in a population from Xinjiang Uygur. Participating were 247 patients with CC and 285 healthy women. Fourteen SNPs in nine miRNA genes were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of SNPs with CC. The minor allele "C" of rs300574 in SPRY1 was associated with an increased risk of CC based on analysis of the allele, codominant, recessive and log-additive models, but an opposite result was found with the over-dominant model. The minor allele "C" of rs1042725 in HMGA2 was associated with an increased risk of CC in the allele, dominant and log-additive models. In clinical stage III/IVCC patients, rs4728 in SPRY2 was associated with decreased risk. Finally, rs3744935 in BCL2 was associated with CC in the allele and codominant models. In sum, we have detected associations between four SNPs, rs300574 (SPRY1), rs3744935 (BCL2), rs1042725 (HMGA2), and rs4728 (SPRY2), and CC risk in women from Xinjiang Uygur.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA genes are associated with cervical cancer susceptibility in a population from Xinjiang Uygur

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zegao; Guo, Wen; Ma, Yuhua; Emin, Raila Muhammed; Abudubari, Karima; Hayrat, Glmira; Wali, Hasiyet; Qi, Xiaoli; Liu, Chunhua; Ma, Miaomiao; Nurbek, Pulat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to cervical cancer (CC) in a population from Xinjiang Uygur. Participating were 247 patients with CC and 285 healthy women. Fourteen SNPs in nine miRNA genes were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation of SNPs with CC. The minor allele “C” of rs300574 in SPRY1 was associated with an increased risk of CC based on analysis of the allele, codominant, recessive and log-additive models, but an opposite result was found with the over-dominant model. The minor allele “C” of rs1042725 in HMGA2 was associated with an increased risk of CC in the allele, dominant and log-additive models. In clinical stage III/IVCC patients, rs4728 in SPRY2 was associated with decreased risk. Finally, rs3744935 in BCL2 was associated with CC in the allele and codominant models. In sum, we have detected associations between four SNPs, rs300574 (SPRY1), rs3744935 (BCL2), rs1042725 (HMGA2), and rs4728 (SPRY2), and CC risk in women from Xinjiang Uygur. PMID:27677077

  10. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Vegetation Cover in Xinjiang from 2002 to 2015 and Their Response to Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. S.; Zhang, Q.; Li, X. C.; Song, W. J.; Yang, J. N.; Liu, X. J.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the dataset of normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVIs) in the arid region in Xinjiang from 2002 to 2015 as well as the climate data from 52 meteorological stations are utilized and the temporal and spatial variations of NDVI in recent years and their response to temperature and precipitation are analyzed in combination with various methods such as the maximum value analysis, correlation analysis and spatial analysis. It is concluded that in the past 14 years, the annual maximum NDVIs of Xinjiang presented a moderate rising tendency; Under the influence of the global background, the temperature and precipitation also showed different degrees of increase, which showed a significant increase in temperature. The annual maximum NDVI had a significant correlation with the annual precipitation (correlation coefficient: 0.634), but no obvious correlation was identified between the annual maximum NDVI and the annual average temperature (correlation coefficient: 0.279). To this end, regarding to the climatic factors, the influence of precipitation on the vegetation cover is higher than that of temperature.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mijiti, Peierdun; Yuexin, Zhang; Min, Liu; Wubuli, Maimaitili; Kejun, Pan; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-03-01

    We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that Uyghur ethnicity, female gender, lower CD4 count, lower body mass index value, self-reported tuberculosis infection, and oral candidiasis were associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia, whereas higher serum alanine aminotransferase level was associated with a lower prevalence of anaemia. The results suggest that the overall prevalence of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection is high in Xinjiang, China, but severe anaemia is uncommon. Patients in China should be routinely checked for anaemia prior to combined antiretroviral therapy initiation, and healthcare providers should carefully select the appropriate first-line combined antiretroviral therapy regimens for anaemic patients.

  12. Climatic change of inland river basin in an arid area: a case study in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Yu, Shulong; Wang, Minzhong

    2012-01-01

    We examined climate variability at two timescales for northern Xinjiang, China: one is of the past 500 years using dendrochronology data and the other is of the past 50 years using meteorological station data. The regression models built from the 50-year period were used to reconstruct the climate of the 500-year period. The results indicate that climate underwent many alternating warm-cold and wet-dry periods in the past 500 years. For the 50-year period, we applied the Mann-Kendall jump test to data from 48 meteorological stations to identify possible transition points of temperature and precipitation. For this period, we also analyzed the impacts of latitude, altitude, slope aspect, and human activities on climate variability, aiming to recognize major factors that influence regional climate variability. The results show a warming and wetting trend in the recent 50 years in northern Xinjiang. We determined that natural pattern variability is dominant in the long-term climate variability in the region, but human impacts are non-negligible in the past 50 years. Regional climate variability may be associated with or driven by latitude, altitude, ecosystems, topography, and human activities. The study provides an empirical evidence of the unique regional characteristics of inland river basin in an arid area over the global climate change background.

  13. The clinical features of 590 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang, China with the emphasis on the treatment of complications

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Fengbo; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Wenbao; Li, Jun; Ding, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 590 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. Methodology and principal findings The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, complications and prognosis of 590 patients infected with brucellosis were retrospectively analyzed. These patients had a mean age of 44.24 ± 15.83 years with 60.5% having a history of close contacting with cattle and sheep. Of them, 53.6% (316 /590) were in acute phase and 21.5% were in chronic phase. Agglutination test showed 98.5% positive with 34% blood culture positive of Brucella. The major symptoms were fatigue (91%), hyperhidrosis(88.1%), fever(86.9%), and joint pain(81%) with 29.8% having enlarged liver, 26.1% having enlarged spleen and 23.2% having osteoarticular complications. Combination of doxycycline plus rifampicin for 12 weeks was an effective regimen for patients without complications. The 3-drug regimen (doxycycline+rifampicin+levofloxacin) for 12 weeks was recommended for these with complications. There were 6 patients died (1.02%) with overall relapse rate of 5.98%. Conclusions Brucellosis is mostly associated with contacting with domestic animal production in Xinjiang, China. Clinical symptoms include fever, fatigue, hyperhidrosis, and joint pain with common complication of osteoarticular involvement. Three-drug-regimen of doxycycline+rifampicin+levofloxacin for 12 weeks was effective for these patients with complications. PMID:28459811

  14. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  15. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes in Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) sheep by genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shudong; He, Sangang; Chen, Lei; Li, Wenrong; Di, Jiang; Liu, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is important for effective genome-wide association studies and accurate genomic prediction. Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) is well-known fine wool sheep breed. However, the extent of LD across the genome remains unexplored. In this study, we calculated autosomal LD based on genome-wide SNPs of 635 Chinese Merino (Xinjiang type) sheep by Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChip. A moderate level of LD (r(2) ≥ 0.25) across the whole genome was observed at short distances of 0-10 kb. Further, the ancestral effective population size (Ne ) was analyzed by extent of LD and found that Ne increased with the increase of generations and declined rapidly within the most recent 50 generations, which is consistent with the history of Chinese Merino sheep breeding, initiated in 1971. We also noted that even when the effective population size was estimated across different single chromosomes, Ne only ranged from 140.36 to 183.33 at five generations in the past, exhibiting a rapid decrease compared with that at ten generations in the past. These results indicated that the genetic diversity in Chinese Merino sheep recently decreased and proper protective measures should be taken to maintain the diversity. Our datasets provided essential genetic information to track molecular variations which potentially contribute to phenotypic variation in Chinese Merino sheep.

  16. Visceral Adiposity and Anthropometric Indicators as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome among Low Income Rural Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jing-yu; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-zhong; Ma, Jiao-long; Ma, Ru-lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-ti; Li, Shu-gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jia-ming; Wang, Kui; Xu, Shang-zhi; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Yu-song

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) examined urban and high income settings. We thus investigated the prevalence of MetS among a multi-ethnic population living in a low income rural area and explored the use of visceral adiposity and anthropometric indicators to identify men and women with MetS. We recruited 10,029 individuals of nomadic Kazakhs, rural Uyghur and Han residents in Xinjiang, China. MetS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 21.8%. The visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body adiposity index (BAI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with MetS, independent of ethnic, age, and other covariates. The AUC of VAI, LAP and WHtR were all greater than 0.7, and the LAP was the index that most accurately identified MetS status in men (AUC = 0.853) and women (AUC = 0.817), with the optimal cut-offs of 34.7 and 27.3, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of MetS in low income rural adults of Xinjiang was high and the LAP was an effective indicator for the screening of MetS. PMID:27782221

  17. The significance of mid-latitude rivers for weathering rates and chemical fluxes: Evidence from northern Xinjiang rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Qin, Xiaoguang; Rioual, Patrick; Liu, Ziting; Zhang, YiChi; Jiang, Fengqing; Mu, Yan; Li, Hongwei; Ren, Xiaozong; Xiong, Heigang

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRivers draining the sedimentary platform of northern Xinjiang (the center of Asian continent) are characterized by low discharge under a temperate and arid climate. The influence of rock mineralogy, climate, relief and human activity on natural water composition and export as a result of weathering is a major scientific concern both at the local and the global scale. While comprehensive work on the controlling mechanism of chemical weathering has been less carried out in the sedimentary platform of northern Xinjiang. Thus, the effects of climate and rock weathering on the inorganic hydrogeochemical processes are not well quantified at this climatic extreme. To remedy this lack a comprehensive survey has been carried out of the geochemistry of the large, pristine rivers in northern Xinjiang, the Erlqis, Yili, Wulungu, Jingou and numerous lesser streams which has not experienced the pervasive effects of glaciation and subsequent anthropogenic impacts. The scale of the terrain sampled, in terms of area, is comparable to that of the Huanghe and includes a diverse range of geologic and climatic environments. In this paper the chemical fluxes from the stable sedimentary basin of the northern Xinjiang platform will be presented and compared to published results from analogous terrains in the monsoon basins of China and world. Overall, the fluvial geochemistry of northern Xinjiang in westerly climate is similar to that of the Chinese rivers (Huanghe and Yangtze) in the East-Asian monsoon Climate, both in property-property relationships and concentration magnitudes. The range in the chemical signatures of the various tributaries is large; this reflects that lithology exerts the dominant influence in determining the weathering yield from the sedimentary terrains rather than the weathering environment. The effect of different rock weathering ranges from rivers dominated by aluminosilicate weathering, mainly of granites, sandstones and shales, to those bearing the

  18. Correlation analysis between the delayed rectifier potassium channel KCNE1 (G38S) polymorphism and atrial fibrillation among the senior Uygur population in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Wugeti, N; Yu-Jun, G; Juan, S; Mahemuti, A

    2015-12-07

    Current resources to support genetic screening among the Uygur population in Xinjiang territory for atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well established and large-scale epidemiological analyses are needed. Using patients from the Xinjiang Uygur population as subjects, and the delayed rectifier potassium channel KCNE1 and its associated polymorphism G38S (rs1805127) as the candidate gene, we analyzed the correlation between the G38S polymorphism and AF among the senior Uygur population in Xinjiang Province. Peripheral blood from AF Uygur patients (patient group) or non-AF Uygur patients (control group) from Xinjiang territory was collected (70 patients each). DNA was purified and tested by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the genotype and allelic distribution of KCNE1 (G38S). Correlation analysis between AF and multiple health-related factors was performed by logistic regression. Among patients with the KCNE1 G38S polymorphism, the genotypes AA, AG, and GG were present at frequencies of 17.14, 27.14, and 55.71%, respectively, in the patient group, compared with 24.29, 50, and 25.71%, respectively, in the control group. The difference between these two groups was shown to be statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the frequency of the G allele was significantly higher in the patient group (P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that the GG genotype is correlated with the incidence of AF in Uygur seniors (P < 0.05). The incidence of AF among the senior Uygur population in Xinjiang territory was correlated with the KCNE1 (G38S) polymorphism, which may be an independent risk factor for Uygur AF patients.

  19. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang.

  20. Structural analysis of Nalagarh lobe, NW Himalaya: implication of thrusting across tectonic edge of NW limb of Nahan salient, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Philip, G.; Suresh, N.

    2016-08-01

    The Main Boundary Fault (MBF), convex towards southwest, forms the leading edge of the Nahan salient. Near the southern end of an oblique ramp, a lobe-shaped physiographic front, named in this work as Nalagarh lobe, has developed across NW limb of salient. The lobe has formed across the MBF that separates the hanging wall Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks from the foot wall Upper Tertiary Siwalik rocks and overlying Quaternaries. In front of lobe Dharmsala, thrust fault splays (Splay-1 and Splay-2) and associated tectonic fabrics have developed within the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. Structural elements developed across the front of Nalagarh lobe are analysed with reference to evolution of lobe. With reference to the evolution of lobe, an unweathered ~15-m-high hanging wall or wedge top forms the uplifted and rejuvenated bedrock fault scarp of the MBF. Below the MBF, the fan deposit has underthrust along Splay-1. Later the Splay-2 formed within fan deposit near south of Splay-1. Geometry of the overturned limb of tight to isoclinal fault propagation fold, formed on Splay-2 plane, suggests that the fold formed by normal drag, produced by intermittent fault-slips along Splay-2. The displacement along Splay-2 offset the marker bed to ~1 m by which some clasts rotated parallel to the traces of brittle axial planes of fold. The variable fold geometry and style of deformation are analysed along length of thrust splays for 5 km. It is revealed that the lobe is bounded by transverse thrust faults along its NW and SE margins. The geometry of salient and oblique ramp suggests that the transverse thrust faults and associated transverse folds formed by right-lateral displacement along the NW limb of the salient. Marking the northern margin of the intermontane piggyback basin of Pinjaur dun, the MBF is interpreted to be an out-of-sequence thrust that has brought up the Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks over the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. The geometry of lobe and its bounding

  1. Structural analysis of Nalagarh lobe, NW Himalaya: implication of thrusting across tectonic edge of NW limb of Nahan salient, Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Philip, G.; Suresh, N.

    2017-07-01

    The Main Boundary Fault (MBF), convex towards southwest, forms the leading edge of the Nahan salient. Near the southern end of an oblique ramp, a lobe-shaped physiographic front, named in this work as Nalagarh lobe, has developed across NW limb of salient. The lobe has formed across the MBF that separates the hanging wall Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks from the footwall Upper Tertiary Siwalik rocks and overlying Quaternaries. In front of lobe, thrust fault splays (Splay-1 and Splay-2) and associated tectonic fabrics have developed within the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. Structural elements developed across the front of Nalagarh lobe are analysed with reference to evolution of lobe. An unweathered 15-m-high hanging wall or wedge top forms the uplifted and rejuvenated bedrock fault scarp of the MBF. Below the MBF, the fan deposit has underthrust along Splay-1. Later the Splay-2 formed within fan deposit near south of Splay-1. Geometry of the overturned limb of tight to isoclinal fault propagation fold, formed on Splay-2 plane, suggests that the fold formed by normal drag, produced by intermittent fault-slips along Splay-2. The displacement along Splay-2 offset the marker bed to 1 m by which some clasts rotated parallel to the traces of brittle axial planes of fold. The variable fold geometry and style of deformation are analysed along length of thrust splays for 5 km. It is revealed that the lobe is bounded by transverse thrust faults along its NW and SE margins. The geometry of salient and oblique ramp suggests that the transverse thrust faults and associated transverse folds formed by right-lateral displacement along the NW limb of the salient. Marking the northern margin of the intermontane piggyback basin of Pinjaur dun, the MBF is interpreted to be an out-of-sequence thrust that has brought up the Lower Tertiary Dharmsala rocks over the Late Pleistocene fan deposit. The geometry of lobe and its bounding transverse faults suggest that faults are intimately

  2. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  3. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations: A multiethnic study in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. Methods A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. A standard questionnaire, a physical examination and biochemical tests were employed. Results The mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for the 14,618 participants was 0.86±0.003 mm. The CIMT gradually increased with age. Men (0.92±0.005 mm) had a higher CIMT than women (0.81±0.004 mm). The Uygur participants (0.82±0.006 mm) had a lower CIMT than the Han (0.88±0.005 mm) and Kazakh participants (0.88±0.005 mm). The overall prevalences of carotid intimal thickening and carotid plaques were 12.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of CIMT varied for the different subtypes of hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed different risk factors for abnormal CIMT in different ethnicities. The associations between abnormal CIMT and the different subtypes of hypertension within different ethnic backgrounds were also different. The risk factors for abnormal CIMT included systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) in Han participants (OR: 1.323, 95% CI: 1.100–1.590), SDH (OR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.160–1.753) and isolated-systolic hypertension (ISH) (OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.470–2.313) in Uygur participants, and isolated-diastolic hypertension (IDH) (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.170–2.016) in Kazakh participants. Conclusion There was an ethnic difference in the prevalence of abnormal

  4. Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, S.A.; Orkild, P.P.; Sargent, K.A.; Warren, R.G.; Sawyer, D.A.; Workman, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, dike, and caldera wall), and point (i.e., structural attitude) vector data for the Thirsty Canyon NW 7 1/2' quadrangle in southern Nevada. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic and tectonic interest. The Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle is located in southern Nye County about 20 km west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and 30 km north of the town of Beatty. The map area is underlain by extensive layers of Neogene (about 14 to 4.5 million years old [Ma]) mafic and silicic volcanic rocks that are temporally and spatially associated with transtensional tectonic deformation. Mapped volcanic features include part of a late Miocene (about 9.2 Ma) collapse caldera, a Pliocene (about 4.5 Ma) shield volcano, and two Pleistocene (about 0.3 Ma) cinder cones. Also documented are numerous normal, oblique-slip, and strike-slip faults that reflect regional transtensional deformation along the southern part of the Walker Lane belt. The Thirsty Canyon NW map provides new geologic information for modeling groundwater flow paths that may enter the map area from underground nuclear testing areas located in the NTS about 25 km to the east. The geologic map database comprises six component ArcINFO map coverages that can be accessed after decompressing and unbundling the data archive file (tcnw.tar.gz). These six coverages (tcnwpoly, tcnwflt, tcnwfold, tcnwdike, tcnwcald, and tcnwatt) are formatted here in ArcINFO EXPORT format. Bundled with this database are two PDF files for readily viewing and printing the map, accessory graphics, and a description of map units and compilation methods.

  5. Crust-mantle accommodation of Africa-Eurasia convergence in the NW-Moroccan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, S.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies carried out in NW-Africa indicate prominent variations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. The studies combine gravity, geoid, surface heat flow, elevation and seismic data along a profile running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain to the Sahara Platform and crossing the Gorringe Bank, the NW Moroccan Margin and the Atlas Mountains. The resulting mantle density anomalies show a prominent lithospheric mantle thickening beneath the margin (LAB >200 km-depth) followed by thinning beneath the Atlas Mountains (LAB ~90 km-depth). A combination of mantle underthrusting due to oblique convergence together with a viscous dripping fed by lateral mantle dragging can explain the imaged lithospheric structure. The model is consistent with a strong decoupled crustal-mantle mechanical response to the Africa-Eurasia convergence and results in positive/negative dynamic topography in regions with thickened/thinned crust. In this work we go a step further analysing, by means of dynamic numerical simulations, the viscous dragging and the Rayleigh-Taylor-like process. Our goal is to understand the initial lithospheric mantle structure suitable to produce the inferred dynamic process. In addition, we study the key factors controlling the deformation of the lithospheric mantle when submitted to convergence. Using the numerical framework Underworld to carry out the simulations we found the key factors controlling the process. Chief among these factors are lithospheric/mantle viscosity ratio and initial mantle and crustal structure. Nevertheless, the process is not very sensitive to the usual power law parameters for mantle rocks (activation energy and volume, power law exponent, etc.), indicating the importance of the rheology of the upper half of the lithosphere, where the power law is not active. These results allow us to speculate on the past and future evolution of the NW-Moroccan margin which could show the appropriated conditions for subduction initiation.

  6. Decoupled crust-mantle accommodation of Africa-Eurasia convergence in the NW Moroccan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JiméNez-Munt, I.; Fernã Ndez, M.; VergéS, J.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Fullea, J.; PéRez-Gussinyé, M.; Afonso, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    The extent of the area accommodating convergence between the African and Iberian plates, how this convergence is partitioned between crust and mantle, and the role of the plate boundary in accommodating deformation are not well-understood subjects. We calculate the structure of the lithosphere derived from its density distribution along a profile running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain to the Sahara Platform and crossing the Gorringe Bank, the NW Moroccan margin, and the Atlas Mountains. The model is based on the integration of gravity, geoid, elevation, and heat flow data and on the crustal structure across the NW Moroccan margin derived from reflection and wide-angle seismic data. The resulting mantle density anomalies suggest important variations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) topography, indicating prominent lithospheric mantle thickening beneath the margin (LAB > 200 km depth) followed by thinning beneath the Atlas Mountains (LAB ˜90 km depth). At crustal levels the Iberia-Africa convergence is sparsely accommodated in a ˜950 km wide area and localized in the Atlas and Gorringe regions, with an inferred shortening of ˜50 km. In contrast, mantle thickening accommodates a 400 km wide region, thus advocating for a decoupled crustal-mantle mechanical response. A combination of mantle underthrusting due to oblique convergence, together with a viscous dripping fed by lateral mantle dragging, can explain the imaged lithospheric structure. The model is consistent with crustal shortening estimates and with the accommodation of part of the Iberia-Africa convergence farther NW of the Gorringe Bank and/or off the strike of the profile.

  7. Identifying palaeo-ice streams on hard beds: mapping erosional glacial bedforms in NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradwell, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Most ice sheet flow occurs on hard beds, yet few studies have used erosional glacial bedforms to reconstruct spatial variability in flow and glaciodynamic processes on bedrock-dominated palaeo-ice sheet beds. Owing to a lack of digital terrain models at sufficiently high resolution (<1 m), we use field survey techniques to map subglacial bedforms within a ~250 km2 area of hard crystalline bedrock in a landscape of "areal scour" around Loch Laxford in NW Scotland. The bedrock bedforms range from plastically moulded (p-forms) and wholly abraded forms, to stoss-lee forms and plucked surfaces all on an outcrop scale (1-100 m). We devise a 5-zone classification system to map, in a GIS, the presence, absence and abundance of glacial erosional forms within 624 (500-m square) grid cells. We then use these erosional bedform zones, along with known glaciological relationships to interpret the spatial and altitudinal pattern of palaeo-ice sheet processes and glacier dynamics in this part of NW Scotland. Our interpretation highlights the strong vertical thermal zonation on mountains and the spatial variation in ice-deformation rate and velocity transition associated with the onset of ice streaming. Consequently, we define the Laxfjord ice stream tributary - a feeder to the Minch palaeo-ice stream in NW Scotland. Finally, we suggest that this new mapping approach could be performed in other deglaciated shield-rock provinces to examine, more widely, the subtle erosional signatures preserved within areas traditionally thought to represent ice sheet "areal scour".

  8. Last extensive episode of the peri-South China Sea basins: The NW Borneo Wedge orogenic collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapin, F.; Pubellier, M.; Ringenbach, J.

    2012-12-01

    The history of extension in the South-China Sea and Peri-south China Sea area is long-live. The earliest recorded basins are Permo-Triassic (western Borneo) and the very last are active nowadays (Borneo/Palawan). The existence of an active compression on the frontal fold-and-thrust belt of the NW Borneo wedge is a long debate. Because of the absence of seismicity, the frontal fold-and-thrust belt is traditionally considered as inactive and generally attributed to the thin-skin gravity-driven Champion-Baram Basin. However there are some signs of convergence and compression (GPS velocities and horizontal stress field measured from borehole analysis) do exist between the NW Borneo area and Sunda Plate (Dangerous-Grounds). Revisited GPS data, combined with a rigorous structural study of the NW Borneo wedge suggest that the recent compression recorded on the frontal fold-and-thrust belt is the result of a crustal scale gravity-driven mechanism, the orogenic collapse of the NW Borneo in the Sabah-northern Sarawak area since 1.9Myr. These results provide a new understanding of the recent behaviour of the NW Borneo Wedge which can be included in a continuum of the wedge history.

  9. The recent convergence on the NW Borneo Wedge—a crustal-scale gravity gliding evidenced from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapin, Francois; Hermawan, Iwan; Pubellier, Manuel; Vigny, Christophe; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    The existence of an active compression on the frontal fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) of the NW Borneo Wedge is a long debate. Because of the absence of seismicity, the frontal FTB is traditionally considered as inactive and generally attributed to the thin-skin gravity-driven Baram Basin. However, there are some signs of convergence and compression (GPS velocities and horizontal stress field measured from borehole analysis) do exist between the NW Borneo area and Sunda Plate (Dangerous-Grounds). Revisited GPS data, combined with a rigorous structural study of the NW Borneo Wedge suggest that the recent compression recorded on the frontal FTB is the result of a crustal-scale gravity-driven mechanism, the orogenic collapse of the NW Borneo in the Sabah-northern Sarawak area since 1.9 Myr. These results provide a new understanding of the recent behaviour of the NW Borneo Wedge which can be included in a continuum of the wedge history.

  10. On the characteristics of atmospheric circulation associated with snowfall in NW Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssos, E. E.; Lolis, C. J.; Bartzokas, A.

    2009-09-01

    In this work the main atmospheric circulation types, associated with snowfall events in NW Greece, are examined. Also, a validation procedure is followed in order to investigate to what extent the circulation types revealed are related with snowfall in NW Greece. For this purpose, two datasets are used. The first one consists of 6-hourly values of mean sea level pressure, temperature at 850hPa level and 500hPa height in 273 grid-points covering Europe and the Mediterranean, for the 45-year period 1/9/1957 to 31/8/2002. The second one comprises all the 6-hourly observations at the meteorological station of Ioannina (NW Greece). From the first dataset and for each meteorological parameter a data matrix is constructed consisting of 65,744 rows and 273 columns. Each column represents the time series of the parameter at each grid point and each row represents the space series (map) of the parameter at the time of each observation (4 observations per day for the 45-year period). Then, a new matrix is created by merging the matrices of MSL pressure, T-850hPa and Z-500hPa in a united matrix of 65,744 rows x 819 columns. In this way, each row represents the 3-dimensional structure of the atmosphere (based on the 3 parameters used) at the time of each observation. Next, Factor Analysis is applied on this united matrix in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data set. The 819 columns are reduced to 8 (uncorrelated Factors), describing satisfactorily the 3-dimensional structure of the atmosphere, as they explain approximately 86% of the total variance. From the second data set the observations reporting snowfall in Ioannina are found out and then a new data matrix is constructed consisting of the Factor scores rows corresponding to these observations only. In the new matrix (235 rows x 8 columns) each row describes the structure of the atmosphere over Europe and the Mediterranean in the cases of snowfall in Ioannina. Cluster Analysis (K-Means) is applied in this final

  11. Germinoma in razor clam Ensis arcuatus (Jeffreys, 1865) in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Darriba, Susana; Iglesias, David; Harshbarger, John C; López, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Germinoma is a gonadal neoplasm originating from progenitor cells in germinal epithelium. Over the last four decades it has been diagnosed in several species of marine bivalve molluscs but most consistently in some populations of Mercenaria mercenaria and Mya arenaria in North America. Tissue sections of gonads from Ensis arcuatus (family Pharidae--superfamily Solenacea), collected in Ría de Vigo (Galicia-NW Spain), revealed germinoma in both males and females. Proliferating, undifferentiated, germ cells, with no evidence of maturation, had formed discrete masses in the walls and lumens of gonadal follicles. This is the first report of germinoma in superfamily Solenacea.

  12. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano

    2013-09-01

    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Processed Silver Nanowire (Ag-NW)/ZnO Composite Transparent Conducting Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, John D.; Aggarwal, Shruti; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-06-14

    Composite transparent contacts (TCs) based on metal nanowires and metal oxide matrix materials hold great promise for high performance transparent contacts for photovoltaics and opto-electronic technologies with the potential of all-atmospheric pressure processing. The metal nanowire mesh can provide both electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness against bending while the matrix material can both control the electrical interface and protect the metal nanowires. Here, we demonstrate all atmospheric pressure processed Ag-NW/ZnO composite TCs that are 90% transparent in the visible with sheet resistance Rs ~= 10 Ohms/sq. In addition, the composite TCs have higher infrared transmission than conventional TCO films with the same sheet resistance.

  14. The Neo-Tethyan subduction zone(s,?) in Azerbaijan, NW Iran: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechmann, Anna; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Faridi, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Azerbaijan in NW Iran, and in particular the Khoy ophiolitic complex, require more detailed documentation to integrate them as elements of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. They are attributed to multiple accretion and collision after subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean and related seaways. We are interested in the pre- to syn-collisional relationships between the ophiolitic, arc and other magmatic units. This work investigates to what extent single or multiple collisions and orogeny have shaped the NW Iranian Plateau. In particular, we want to understand the changes in deformation style within the collision zone and the effects of several possibly coeval events such as closure of two suture zones separated by an arc and possibly followed by slab break-off(s). Fieldwork focused on sampling the different magmatic rock units to specify the structural record and the structural relationships between the various lithological units. Cretaceous to Quaternary, regionally distributed magmatic rocks were collected to have good resolution of their changes in space and time. Petrological, geochemical and isotope studies will characterize magmatic rocks and their sources. Major and trace element geochemistry of mantle and crustal suites of the Khoy ophiolitic complex help to constrain the tectonic setting. Two complexes were defined on the basis of K-Ar dating (Khalatbari-Jafari et al., 2004). An older, probably subducted ophiolite of Triassic-Jurassic age and a younger non-metamorphic ophiolite of Late Cretaceous age. Fossil-bearing sediments provide stratigraphic ages of important contacts. Preliminary results are present in form of bulk rock and trace element chemistry of ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Khoy ophiolite(s, ?) and offer a first possibility to compare the data with already existing publications. Additionally, petrological studies of various magmatic rocks present first products for a starting discussion on the geodynamic evolution of the NW part of

  15. Direct Observations of Explosive Eruptive Activity at a Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; de Ronde, C. E.; Deardorff, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Cashman, K. V.; Dziak, R. P.; Merle, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    In April 2006, a series of extraordinary observations of a deep-sea volcanic eruption were made at NW Rota-1, located at 14^{circ}36'N in the Mariana arc, western Pacific. This is a conical, basaltic-andesite submarine volcano with a summit depth of 517 m. Explosive eruptive activity at NW Rota-1 was discovered in 2004 and was witnessed again in 2005, but the activity in 2006 was especially vigorous and well documented. During six dives with the remotely operated vehicle Jason II over a period of 7 days, video observations made at close range documented a diverse and increasingly energetic range of volcanic activity that culminated in explosive bursts with flashes of glowing red lava propelled by violently expanding gases. Other notable activity included discreet degassing events, extrusion of sluggish lava flows, explosions that formed dilute density currents and/or expelled rocks and ash tens of meters from the vent, and rapid pressure oscillations apparently caused by the repeated formation and condensation of steam. During the last dive when the highest extrusion rates were observed, quasi-periodic bursts from the vent, each lasting 1-10 minutes, were separated by pauses lasting 10 seconds to a few minutes. Each burst started as a plug of crusted-over lava rose in the vent and was blown apart by expanding gases, producing large lava bombs with distinctly flat, disc-like shapes. A remarkable aspect of these observations was how close Jason II could be to the vent during the eruptions. This was because the pressure of the overlying seawater dampened the energy of the explosions and slowed the velocity of volcanic ejecta. Also, lava degassing could be visualized with great clarity underwater as either clear bubbles (CO2) or opaque yellow clouds (dominated by SO2 and H2S). A portable hydrophone with a 30-hour recording capacity was deployed twice by Jason II at the summit of NW Rota-1 during the 2006 dive series. The hydrophone data extends the visual observations

  16. Antibacterial activity composition of the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Wei, Shaopeng; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Wenjun

    2013-03-01

    The new compound Z-4-2 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35, together with the known compound N-acetyltryptamine (Z-9-2) by bioassay-guided fractionation. Its chemical structure was elucidated as (E)-2-methoxy-1,4 naphthoquinone-1-oxime (Z-4-2) mainly by NMR analyses and MS spectral data. Their antibacterial activities against bacteria were evaluated by the filter paper method. The results of indicated that these compounds possess significant antibacterial activities.

  17. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) for winemaking and their aroma-producing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Qin, Yi; Song, Yuyang; Ye, Dongqin; Yuan, Wei; Pei, Yingfang; Xue, Bo; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-11-01

    In order to select potential indigenous Saccharomyces strains, diversity of indigenous Saccharomyces strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) was preliminarily analyzed. Twenty-one genotypes were found through interdelta fingerprinting analysis. According to this result, representatives of each genotype were chosen to test the enological criteria. After tests of fermentation characteristics and growth ability, eight strains were finally selected as starters to further fermentation of Merlot must for aroma analysis and sensory evaluation at the same testing conditions, with one commercial strain F15 as control. Each strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced individual volatiles in different concentrations and combinations which significantly influenced resulting wine flavour. Except of LFP522, all indigenous isolates produced more concentration of esters than F15. Higher concentrations of linalool, β-damascenone and citral, associated with S. cerevisiae LFE1809, considerably distinguished this strain from the others. Sensory evaluation present the Merlot wine fermented by LFE1225 isolated from Merlot, had the highest sensory score.

  18. Snow Water Equivalent estimation from AMSR-E data based on priori snow properties in Xinjiang province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Che, T.

    2011-12-01

    A novel snow water equivalent (SWE) retrieval algorithm from AMSR-E data is established based on priori snow conditions (such as snow grain size and density, as well as the stratigraphy of snow) in Xinjiang Province of China. Within the retrieval algorithm, a microwave radiative transfer model (i.e. MEMLS) is used to simulate the brightness temperature (TB) datasets at 18 and 36 GHz under all kinds of snow conditions including snow grain size, density, depth, and stratigraphy (namely, the snow layering). Therefore, a series of relationships between snow depth and the difference of TB at these two frequencies can be obtained based on different snow grain size, density and stratigraphic conditions. These snow conditions were measured along a fixed route of this study area for a complete snow season. Furthermore, a layering scheme was established based on the snow depth (estimated by existing SD algorithm in priori), while the depth of each layer and its grain size and density were parameterized according to the age of snow cover. Finally, the SWE can be calculated by snow depth and its density. SWE retrieved by this new algorithm at seven meteorological stations in Xinjiang Province from 2003 to 2008 are compared to two existing SWE products from NSIDC (National snow and ice data center) and WESTDC (Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China). Three groups of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) are calculated between observed SWE and the three estimated SWE(s), respectively (Table 1). The three groups of RMSE have the same tendency of increasing with the increase of mean SWE, while the RMSE(s) from the new algorithm and from the WESTDC are much less and ME(s) are much closer to zero than from the NSIDC at all seven stations (see Table 1). The RMSE(s) from the new algorithm are less than from the WESTDC at seven stations, and ME(s) are closer to zero at five stations. At the other two stations, the ME(s) are -2.02mm and -3.05mm

  19. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Xinjiang, West China.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Rena; Yuexin, Zhang; Kejun, Pan; Wubili, Maimaitaili; Lalanne, Christophe; Duracinsky, Martin; Andersson, Rune

    2017-01-01

    In total, 679 HIV-positive patients from 4 clinics in Urumqi city were given structured questionnaires by the doctors or nurses treating them. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using the Chinese Patient-Reported Outcome Quality of Life-HIV questionnaire versions in Mandarin and Uyghur. This tool has been used in other parts of China and several countries. Compared to France, Australia, United States, Brazil, Thailand, Cambodia, Senegal, and Central-Southern China (CS China), the HRQL was significantly lower among HIV-positive patients in Xinjiang, with regard to the dimension of treatment impact and general health score. The health concern was similar to Brazil and Cambodia but lower than other countries and CS China. Our findings showed high stigmatization: 86% of the patients were afraid to tell others they were HIV positive and 69% often felt or always felt depressed. Only 1% of the patients were on antidepressant treatment.

  20. Climatic and Hydrological Variations during the Past 8000 Years in Northern Xinjiang of China and the Associated Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the published literature regarding the climatic and hydrological variations of the past 8000 years in northern Xinjiang of China in hope that some of the controversies surrounding the Holocene climate history can be reconciled. Based on the well-tested premise that the overall relationship between the A/C ratios and the bioclimates in arid and semi-arid areas of China still holds, we compared the A/C ratio-based SMI (Standardized Moisture Index) of five selected lacustrine sequences. Our comparison shows that the regional average SMI had a general rising trend, and the rising trend was reasonably corroborated by other pollen proxies. The rising trend can be explained by invoking its climatic linkage with the North Atlantic Ocean, and a possible linkage with ENSO is an additional or an alternative mechanism for explaining the rising trend. The nearly parallel rising trends of seven δ18O-indicated SSI curves (Standardized Salinity index) mean that the lake-water salinity has been rising since ~8.0 cal. ka BP. The rising trend can be explained by invoking the Holocene variations in the areal extent of ice covers in the Tianshan Mountains and the Altay Mountains. That is, the persistent shrinking of the ice extent in the mountains generated less and less melting water supplies to the lakes and thus resulted in saltier and saltier waters in the lakes. The contradiction between the increasing trend of the basin-wide moisture and the increasing trend of the lake-water salinity can be reconciled as follows: the increasing trend of the precipitation accompanied by the lowering tend of the temperature might have increasingly enhanced the effective soil moisture in northern Xinjiang, but the increase in the basin-wide moisture was not enough to compensate for the decrease in the lake inflowing water resulted from the shrinkage of ice-covered areas in the mountains.

  1. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Uighur Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. Methods 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. Results The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥ 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24244645

  2. [The measurement and retrieval of the spectral reflectance of different snow grain size on Northern Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Pu; Huang, Chun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The retrieval of snow grain size is one of the important research directions for cryosphere snow remote sensing. In the present study, we designed the measurement plan of different snow grain size by different snow layer. A SVC HR-1024 ground-based spectral radiometer was used for measuring the spectral property of different snow grain size in northern Xinjiang, China. At the same time, the snow grain size and shape were measured by a hand-loupe with scale. Then the DSPP method was used to calculate the equivalent snow grain size. Finally, the asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) theory was applied to retrieve the snow grain size from measured snow spectral reflectance of different snow layer by optimizing the inversion band and the snow grain size factor "b". The retrieved snow grain size was validated by the measured snow grain size from DSPP method. The results showed that the DSPP method is an effective means of measuring the equivalent snow grain size. However, there is a large deviation of the snow grain size sample in the same snow layer. It is necessary to improve the measurement method of the single snow grain size sample; The study showed that the near-infrared bands are the most effective selection for retrieval of snow grain size. The retrieval algorithm from ART is feasible. When the snow is dry, the authors optimize the inversion band and the snow grain size factor b in the Northern Xinjiang, China. The optimal band wavelength is 1.20 microm and b is 3.62.

  3. Long-term rocky coast erosion: the influence of structural pattern and lithological context, as evidenced in the chalk (NW Normandy) and granitic (SW Brittany) rocks, NW France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duperret, Anne; Raimbault, Céline; Duguet, Timothée; Le Gall, Bernard; Costa, Stéphane; Vandycke, Sara

    2017-04-01

    During the EC2CO/DRIL/CROCODYL project, high-resolution land-sea DEM have been produced in NW Normandy and SW Brittany rocky coastal zone, using high-resolution bathymetry from shallow-water cruises CROCOLIT-1,-2,-3 (Duperret, 2013), SPLASHALIOT-3 (Maillet, 2014), THAPENFROM-1 (Duperret, 2015) and aerial topographic LiDAR data from the Litto3D project. Two study sites were selected to map detailed geomorphology of shore platforms in order to better understand rock coast evolution processes through time and long-term rates of rocky coastal erosion versus geological context. The eastern English Channel is made of coastal chalk cliffs that currently eroding with fast mean rates of the order of a few dm/year. In Normandy coast (NW France), this results to the generation of roughly linear coastal segments of about 20-30km long each. On coastal segments only made of Upper Cretaceous Chalk, erosion occurs by present-day sudden and repeated vertical failures and cliff collapses. Cliff collapse process is shaping vertical chalk cliffs in association with resulting roughly flat shore platforms. Even if shore platforms width are short and homogeneous (a few hundred meters in width), the detailed morphology observed on high-resolution bathymetry evidenced two main submarine geomorphological types. One is linear and regular and associated with linear coastal sections. This corresponds to homogeneous Chalk Formation and the lack of large-scale tectonic features. Coastal sections with chalk lithology variations, local folding, large-scale fractures transverse-oriented to the coastline and onshore valleys incision evidence chaotic shore platforms morphologies. They conduct to variations in coastline orientation and to meter-scale shoreline indentations The southwestern part of Brittany is made of low-lying granitic headland and indented bay cut into meta/granitic rocks. Erosion rates are poorly known, due to slow coastal evolutions through contemporary times. Land-Sea DEM evidence

  4. A mid-Holocene candidate tsunami deposit from the NW Cape (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Simon Matthias; Falvard, Simon; Norpoth, Maike; Pint, Anna; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Dierick, Manuel; Paris, Raphaël; Squire, Peter; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Although extreme-wave events are frequent along the northwestern coast of Western Australia and tsunamis in 1994 and 2006 induced considerable coastal flooding locally, robust stratigraphical evidence of prehistoric tropical cyclones and tsunamis from this area is lacking. Based on the analyses of X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) of oriented sediment cores, multi-proxy sediment and microfaunal analyses, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C-AMS dating, this study presents detailed investigations on an allochthonous sand layer of marine origin found in a back-barrier depression on the NW Cape Range peninsula. The event layer consists of material from the adjacent beach and dune, fines and thins inland, and was traced up to ~ 400 m onshore. Although a cyclone-induced origin cannot entirely be ruled out, the particular architecture and fabric of the sediment, rip-up clasts and three subunits point to deposition by a tsunami. As such, it represents the first stratigraphical evidence of a prehistoric, mid-Holocene tsunami in NW Western Australia. It was OSL-dated to 5400-4300 years ago, thus postdating the regional mid-Holocene sea-level highstand.

  5. Formation and distribution of coal measure-derived hydrocarbon accumulation in NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxhi Zhao; Yan Zhang; Dafeng Xu; Changyi Zhao )

    1996-01-01

    This study recognizes that the following conditions are necessary for the Jurassic coal measure-derived oil and gas fields in NW China: (1) The Jurassic original basins, which were dominated by lacustrine to low-positional swamp environments, should exist to accept coal-measure related sediments, (2) the original depositional settings were characterized by low and gentle depressions and humid climate where oil-prone organic materials accumulated, (3) the development of the subsequent basins and successive sedimentation should occur on the Jurassic original basins, which are necessary to keep the coal measure source rocks progressively maturing, and, (4) a certain degree of tectonic compression took place soon after the maturation of source rocks, which provided the driving force for the effective expulsion of oil and gas from coal measures. Most of the coal measure-derived oil gas fields in NW China are horizontally distributed along the inner side of lake strandlines. They occur vertically above or below the threshold of maturation. Owing to the sharp variations of lithology and facies in coal measures, the lithologies and hydrocarbon compositions of oil and gas reservoirs play a significant role in the oil and gas accumulations of the coal measures sequences.

  6. Formation and distribution of coal measure-derived hydrocarbon accumulation in NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Wenxhi Zhao; Yan Zhang; Dafeng Xu; Changyi Zhao

    1996-12-31

    This study recognizes that the following conditions are necessary for the Jurassic coal measure-derived oil and gas fields in NW China: (1) The Jurassic original basins, which were dominated by lacustrine to low-positional swamp environments, should exist to accept coal-measure related sediments, (2) the original depositional settings were characterized by low and gentle depressions and humid climate where oil-prone organic materials accumulated, (3) the development of the subsequent basins and successive sedimentation should occur on the Jurassic original basins, which are necessary to keep the coal measure source rocks progressively maturing, and, (4) a certain degree of tectonic compression took place soon after the maturation of source rocks, which provided the driving force for the effective expulsion of oil and gas from coal measures. Most of the coal measure-derived oil & gas fields in NW China are horizontally distributed along the inner side of lake strandlines. They occur vertically above or below the threshold of maturation. Owing to the sharp variations of lithology and facies in coal measures, the lithologies and hydrocarbon compositions of oil and gas reservoirs play a significant role in the oil and gas accumulations of the coal measures sequences.

  7. Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Cao, Yunqing; Wu, Tao; Song, Hucheng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2015-08-01

    We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and the hybrid solar cell with the optimal length has the V oc of 569 mV, J sc of 30.1 mA/cm2, and PCE of 9.3 %. We fabricated more isolated silicon nanowires with the diluted etching solution. And the J sc of the hybrid solar cell with more isolated nanowires has a significant enhancement, from 30.1 to 33.2 mA/cm2. The remarkable EQE in the wavelength region of 300 and 600 nm was also obtained, which are in excess of 80 %. Our work provides a simple method to substantially improve the EQE of hybrid solar cell in the short wavelength region.

  8. Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Cao, Yunqing; Wu, Tao; Song, Hucheng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2015-12-01

    We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and the hybrid solar cell with the optimal length has the V oc of 569 mV, J sc of 30.1 mA/cm(2), and PCE of 9.3 %. We fabricated more isolated silicon nanowires with the diluted etching solution. And the J sc of the hybrid solar cell with more isolated nanowires has a significant enhancement, from 30.1 to 33.2 mA/cm(2). The remarkable EQE in the wavelength region of 300 and 600 nm was also obtained, which are in excess of 80 %. Our work provides a simple method to substantially improve the EQE of hybrid solar cell in the short wavelength region.

  9. Continental rift-setting and evolution of Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin in NW-India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöbel, Stefan; Sharma, Kamal K.; Hörbrand, Thorsten; Böhm, Theresa; Donhauser, Ines; de Wall, Helga

    2017-08-01

    The Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin, NW India, and its surrounding area represent a half graben structure situated between the undeformed Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) in the west and a corridor of coeval Cryogenian ductile deformation, anatexis and granite intrusion in the east. The main lithologies observed in the basin are conglomerate, fanglomerate, debris flow and lake deposits derived from a nearby continental provenance, intercalated with concurrent mafic and felsic lava flows. Based on geological traverses across the strike of the basin, we propose a three-fold classification comprising Lower Clastic Unit and an Upper Clastic Unit and a Bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) Volcanic Unit separating the two. Tilting due to basin inversion and faulting has been observed; however, the rocks are unmetamorphosed and show undisturbed primary sedimentary features. The stratigraphic record of the basin is characteristic for deposition and magmatism in a fault-related continental setting. Implications of the findings have been discussed in the context of Neoproterozoic crustal dynamics in NW India. This study provides conclusive evidence for a continental setting for Sindreth Basin evolution and contests the recent models of active subduction setting (either back-arc basin or accretionary sediments over a subduction zone).

  10. Organic micropollutants in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea: sources distribution and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    This study provides a first estimation on the sources, distribution and risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-EI-MS/MS). River waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents discharging to the sea were identified as the main sources of OMPs to coastal waters, with an estimated input amount of around of 25,800 g d(-1). The concentration of ΣOMPs in coastal areas ranged from 17.4 to 8442 ng L(-1), and was the highest in port waters, followed by coastal and river mouth seawaters. A summarized overview of the patterns and sources of OMP contamination on the investigated coastal sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea, as well as of their geographical distribution was obtained by Principal Component Analysis of the complete data set after its adequate pretreatment. Alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates were the main contributors to ΣOMPs and produced an estimated significant pollution risk for fish, algae and the sensitive mysid shrimp organisms in seawater samples. The combination of GC-MS/MS, chemometrics and risk analysis is proven to be useful for a better control and management of OMP discharges.

  11. Probabilistic model predicts dynamics of vegetation biomass in a desert ecosystem in NW China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-ping; Schaffer, Benjamin Eli; Yang, Zhenlei; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of vegetation biomass are of key importance for evaluating the sustainability of arid and semiarid ecosystems. In these ecosystems, biomass and soil moisture are coupled stochastic variables externally driven, mainly, by the rainfall dynamics. Based on long-term field observations in northwestern (NW) China, we test a recently developed analytical scheme for the description of the leaf biomass dynamics undergoing seasonal cycles with different rainfall characteristics. The probabilistic characterization of such dynamics agrees remarkably well with the field measurements, providing a tool to forecast the changes to be expected in biomass for arid and semiarid ecosystems under climate change conditions. These changes will depend—for each season—on the forecasted rate of rainy days, mean depth of rain in a rainy day, and duration of the season. For the site in NW China, the current scenario of an increase of 10% in rate of rainy days, 10% in mean rain depth in a rainy day, and no change in the season duration leads to forecasted increases in mean leaf biomass near 25% in both seasons. PMID:28584097

  12. The influence of atmospheric circulation types on regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltacı, H.; Kındap, T.; Ünal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara are described for the first time by means of Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis. Daily values of winter precipitation data based on 19 meteorological stations were used for the period from 1960 to 2012. Five clusters of coherent zones were determined, namely Black Sea-Marmara, Black Sea, Marmara, Thrace, and Aegean sub-regions. To investigate the prevailing atmospheric circulation types (CTs) that cause precipitation occurrence and intensity in these five different rainfall sub-basins, objective Lamb weather type (LWT) methodology was applied to National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis of daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data. Precipitation occurrence suggested that wet CTs (i.e. N, NE, NW, and C) offer a high chance of precipitation in all sub-regions. For the eastern (western) part of the region, the high probability of rainfall occurrence is shown under the influence of E (SE, S, SW) atmospheric CTs. In terms of precipitation intensity, N and C CTs had the highest positive gradients in all the sub-basins of the Marmara. In addition, although Marmara and Black Sea sub-regions have the highest daily rainfall potential during NE types, high daily rainfall totals are recorded in all sub-regions except the Black Sea during NW types.

  13. Decadal changes in the distribution of common intertidal seaweeds in Galicia (NW Iberia).

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Corbeira, Cristina; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Cremades, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Seaweed assemblages in Atlantic Europe are been distorted by global change, but the intricate coastal profile of the area suggests that susceptibility may differ between regions. In particular, NW Iberia is an important omission because no study has systematically assessed long-term changes in a large number of species. Using intertidal surveys for 33 common perennial seaweeds, we show that the average number of species per site declined significantly from 1998-99 to 2014 in NW Iberia. The largest drops in site occupancy were detected in kelps, fucoids, and carrageenan-producing Rhodophyta. Parallel analyses revealed significant upward trends in SST, air temperature, and strong waves; meanwhile, nutrients decreased slightly except in areas affected by local inputs. Similar changes reported for subtidal assemblages in other parts of Atlantic Europe suggest that the drivers may be ubiquitous. Nonetheless, a more proper assessment of both global and local impacts, will require further surveys, and the regular monitoring of intertidal perennial seaweeds appears as a cost-effective alternative to discriminate genuine long-term trends from transitory fluctuations.

  14. Comparison of clay mineral stratigraphy to other proxy palaeoclimate indicators in the Mesozoic of NW Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer M; Worden, Richard H

    2002-04-15

    This paper reviews the opportunities and pitfalls associated with using clay mineralogical analysis in palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Following this, conjunctive methods of improving the reliability of clay mineralogical analysis are reviewed. The Mesozoic succession of NW Europe is employed as a case study. This demonstrates the relationship between clay mineralogy and palaeoclimate. Proxy analyses may be integrated with clay mineralogical analysis to provide an assessment of aridity-humidity contrasts in the hinterland climate. As an example, the abundance of kaolinite through the Mesozoic shows that, while interpretations may be difficult, the Mesozoic climate of NW Europe was subject to great changes in rates of continental precipitation. We may compare sedimentological (facies, mineralogy, geochemistry) indicators of palaeoprecipitation with palaeotemperature estimates. The integration of clay mineralogical analyses with other sedimentological pr