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Sample records for juniper tar oil

  1. Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application

    PubMed Central

    Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day of hospitalisation in intensive care unit. PMID:22675090

  2. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively tomore » compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.« less

  3. Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

    2008-12-01

    The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of juniper berry essential oil (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kosalec, Ivan; Kalodera, Zdenka; Blazević, Nikola

    2005-12-01

    Juniper essential oil (Juniperi aetheroleum) was obtained from the juniper berry, and the GC/MS analysis showed that the main compounds in the oil were alpha-pinene (29.17%) and beta-pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%), limonene (5.52%), and mircene (0.33%). Juniper essential oil was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against sixteen bacterial species, seven yeast-like fungi, three yeast and four dermatophyte strains. Juniper essential oil showed similar bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, with MIC values between 8 and 70% (V/V), as well as a strong fungicidal activity against yeasts, yeast-like fungi and dermatophytes, with MIC values below 10% (V/V). The strongest fungicidal activity was recorded against Candida spp. (MIC from 0.78 to 2%, V/V) and dermatophytes (from 0.39 to 2%, V/V).

  5. Influence of juniper (Juniperus communis) oil on growth performance and meat quality as a natural antioxidant in quail diets.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Cengiz, S S; Cetin, I; Meral, Y; Biricik, H

    2014-01-01

    1. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper oil on growth performance and meat quality in quails to determine its use as a safe and natural method to reduce overdependence on the use of antibiotic. 2. A total of 1000 1-d-old Pharaoh (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) quails, including both males and females, were divided into 4 groups containing 250 quails and treated as follows: (1) a control group with 0 mg volatile oil/kg diet; (2) 100 mg/kg juniper oil; (3) 150 mg/kg juniper oil and (4) 200 mg/kg juniper oil. The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experiment was carried out for 42 d. 3. The results of the study showed that supplementation with juniper oil (100 and 150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in live weight, live weight gain and carcass yields during the growing and finishing periods. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by treatments. 4. The quails given rations containing juniper oil had reduced thiobarbituric acid levels in raw thigh meat samples at different storage times. Juniper oil was found to have significant antioxidant activity and prevented lipid oxidation in stored meat. 5. In conclusion, natural antioxidants such as a juniper oil can be used instead of synthetic antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in animal diets to improve meat product quality and animal performance.

  6. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  7. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  8. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities of Inhaled Juniper Oil on Amyloid Beta (1-42)-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2015-05-01

    Juniper volatile oil is extracted from Juniperus communis L., of the Cupressaceae family, also known as common juniper. Also, in aromatherapy the juniper volatile oil is used against anxiety, nervous tension and stress-related conditions. In the present study, we identified the effects of the juniper volatile oil on amyloid beta (1-42)-induced oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Rats received a single intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta (1-42) (400 pmol/rat) and then were exposed to juniper volatile oil (200 μl, either 1 or 3 %) for controlled 60 min period, daily, for 21 continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase specific activities, the total content of the reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus was assessed. The amyloid beta (1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: increase of the acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase and catalase specific activities, decrease of glutathione peroxidase specific activity and the total content of the reduced glutathione along with an elevation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels. Inhalation of the juniper volatile oil significantly decreases the acetylcholinesterase activity and exhibited antioxidant potential. These findings suggest that the juniper volatile oil may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic agents to manage oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer's disease through decreasing the activity of acetylcholinesterase and anti-oxidative mechanism.

  9. Antimycobacterial potential of the juniper berry essential oil in tap water.

    PubMed

    Peruč, Dolores; Gobin, Ivana; Abram, Maja; Broznić, Dalibor; Svalina, Tomislav; Štifter, Sanja; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Tićac, Brigita

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-related diseases are often associated with poorly maintained hot water systems. This calls for the development of new control strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of essential oils (EOs) from the Mediterranean plants, common juniper, immortelle, sage, lavandin, laurel, and white cedar against Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium gordonae in culturing broth and freshwater as their most common habitat. To do that, we developed a new method of water microdilution to determine their minimal effective concentrations (MEC). The most active EO was the one from the common juniper with the MEC of 1.6 mg mL-1. Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry the juniper EO identified monoterpenes (70.54 %) and sesquiterpenes (25.9 %) as dominant component groups. The main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene, sabinene, and β-pinene. The juniper EO significantly reduced the cell viability of M. intracellulare and M. gordonae at MEC, and of M. avium at 2xMEC. Microscopic analysis confirmed its inhibitory effect by revealing significant morphological changes in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of all three bacteria. The mode of action of the juniper EO on the cell membrane was confirmed by a marked leakage of intracellular material. Juniper EO has a great practical potential as a complementary or alternative water disinfectant in hot water systems such as baths, swimming pools, spa pools, hot tubs, or even foot baths/whirlpools.

  10. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils....

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    PubMed

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  12. Use of mineral oil Fleet enema for the removal of a large tar burn: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carta, Tricia; Gawaziuk, Justin; Liu, Song; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2015-03-01

    Extensive hot tar burns are relatively uncommon. Management of these burns provides a significant clinical challenge especially with respect to tar removal involving a large total body surface area (TBSA), without causing further tissue injury. We report a case of an over 40-year old male construction worker who was removing a malfunctioning cap from broken valve. This resulted in tar spraying over the anterior surface of his body including legs, feet, chest, abdomen, arms, face and oral cavity (80% TBSA covered in tar resulting in a 50% TBSA burn injury). Initially, petrolatum-based, double antibiotic ointment was used to remove the tar, based on our previous experience with small tar burns. However, this was time-consuming and ineffective. The tar was easily removed with mineral oil without irritation. In order to meet the demand for quantity of mineral oil, the pharmacy suggested using mineral oil Fleet enema (C.B. Fleet Company, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia, USA). The squeezable bottle and catheter tip facilitated administration of oil into the patient's construction boots and under clothing that was adhered to the patient's skin. Tar removal requires an effective, non-toxic and non-irritating agent. Mineral oil is such an agent. For patients that may present with a large surface area tar burn, using mineral oil Fleet enema is a viable option that facilitates application into difficult areas. Grant Support: The Firefighters' Burn Fund (Manitoba) supported this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism.

    PubMed

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-02-24

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН(•)) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical ((•)O₂(-)) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx).

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  15. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  16. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    PubMed

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  17. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    PubMed Central

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  18. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  19. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sandsmore » leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale

  20. Characteristics of PAH tar oil contaminated soils-Black particles, resins and implications for treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Trellu, Clément; Miltner, Anja; Gallo, Rosita; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-05

    Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history. These materials contain 2-10 times higher PAH concentrations than the average soil and were dominantly found in the sand fraction containing 42-86% of the total PAH. The PAH contamination in the different granulometric fractions was directly proportional to the respective total organic carbon content, since the PAH were associated to the carbonaceous particulate materials. Significantly lower (bio)availability of PAH associated to these carbonaceous phases is widely recognized, thus limiting the efficiency of remediation techniques. We provide a conceptual model of the limited mass transfer of PAH from resinated tar oil phases to the water phase and emphasize the options to physically separate BP based on their lower bulk density and slower settling velocity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical investigation of the essential oil from berries and needles of common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) growing wild in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Kailas, Tiiu; Muurisepp, Mati

    2010-11-01

    The essential oils obtained by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) from the fresh and dried needles and dried berries of Juniperus communis L. of Estonian origin were subjected to GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The yields of the oils ranged between 0.2% and 0.6% from juniper berries and between 0.5% and 1.0% from needles (dried weight). A total of 87 compounds were identified, representing over 95% of the oil. The major compounds in the needle oil were monoterpenes α-pinene (33.3-45.6%), sabinene (0.2-15.4%), limonene (2.8-4.6%) and sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.8-10.3%), α-humulene (0.8-6.2%) and germacrene D (3.0-7.8%). The juniper berry oil was rich in α-pinene (53.6-62.3%), β-myrcene (6.5-6.9%) and germacrene D (4.5-6.1%). The main oxygenated terpenoids found in the needle oil were germacrene D-4-ol (0.4-4.0%) and α-cadinol (to 2.7%). The oil from fresh needles contained high amounts of (E)-2-hexenal (3.7-11.7%).

  2. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 2. Laboratory Sample Production.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    tar sand bitumen from West Central Kentucky; and Sunnyside tar sand bitumen from the Uinta Basin , Utah. Each of the feedstocks had unique...fuel and about 50 volume percent heavy gas oil (600-1000°F). The Westken bitumen was overall the heaviest of the four feedstocks evaluated. K factors...was 40 weight percent and about 20 weight percent in the total crude. 3. San Ardo Heavy oil The San Ardo field is located in the Coastal basin of the

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  4. Comprehensive GC²/MS for the monitoring of aromatic tar oil constituents during biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Viktoriya; Scherr, Kerstin E; Edelmann, Eva; Hasinger, Marion; Loibner, Andreas P

    2012-02-20

    The constituents of tar oil comprise a wide range of physico-chemically heterogeneous pollutants of environmental concern. Besides the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons defined as priority pollutants by the US-EPA (EPA-PAHs), a wide range of substituted (NSO-PAC) and alkylated (alkyl-PAC) aromatic tar oil compounds are gaining increased attention for their toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic properties. Investigations on tar oil biodegradation in soil are in part hampered by the absence of an efficient analytical tool for the simultaneous analysis of this wide range of compounds with dissimilar analytical properties. Therefore, the present study sets out to explore the applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC²/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of compounds with differing polarity or that are co-eluting in one-dimensional systems. Aerobic tar oil biodegradation in a historically contaminated soil was analyzed over 56 days in lab-scale bioslurry tests. Forty-three aromatic compounds were identified with GC²/MS in one single analysis. The number of alkyl chains on a molecule was found to prime over alkyl chain length in hampering compound biodegradation. In most cases, substitution of carbon with nitrogen and oxygen was related to increased compound degradation in comparison to unalkylated and sulphur- or unsubstituted PAH with a similar ring number.The obtained results indicate that GC²/MS can be employed for the rapid assessment of a large variety of structurally heterogeneous environmental contaminants. Its application can contribute to facilitate site assessment, development and control of microbial cleanup technologies for tar oil contaminated sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Commerical harvest of western juniper and habitat improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Nader, G.; Young, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Western juniper makes excellent stove wood, but the woodlands are located to far from population centers to make shipment of the relatively low density wood economically feasible. The fibers of juniper wood have been shown in laboratory tests to possess excellent characteristics for the manufacture of molded wood fiber products. The size and growth form of the trees precludes the large scale production of dimensional lumber. The abundant essential oils in the foliage may have commercial value. Certainly the waste from any harvesting and manufacturing process with western juniper would be rich in potential energy. What is proposed is themore » development of a manufacturing process from western juniper biomass, and using the monetary value of this material to pay for the cost of range improvement on the harvested woodlands. The development of such a commercial operation is venture capitalism at its highest level. The potential rewards are the solving of a major environmental problem while providing jobs in rural areas.« less

  6. Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Biricik, H; Cetin, I; Kara, C; Meral, Y; Cengiz, S S; Orman, A; Udum, D

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0.4 ml/kg (G2), 0.8 ml/kg (G3) or 2 ml/kg (G4). There were no differences (p > 0.05) in live weight, live weight gain or feed consumption between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in feed efficiency in the G3 group. There were no differences in the rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile or faecal pH of the control and experimental groups. The rumen NH 3 N values were similar at the middle and end of the experiment, but at the start of the experiment, the rumen NH 3 N values differed between the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The faecal score value was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the experimental groups. The addition of juniper essential oil supplementation to the rations caused significant effects on the kids' antioxidant blood parameters. Although the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the experimental groups (G2, G3 and G4), especially group G4, the blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) value significantly decreased in the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that supplementation of juniper oil is more effective on antioxidant parameters than on performance parameters and may be used as a natural antioxidant product. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Antiadhesion activity of juniper (Juniperus communis L.) preparations against Campylobacter jejuni evaluated with PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Klančnik, Anja; Zorko, Špela; Toplak, Nataša; Kovač, Minka; Bucar, Franz; Jeršek, Barbara; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2018-03-01

    The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni can cause bacterial gastrointestinal infections. Biofilm formation amplifies the risk of human infection by improving survival and persistence of C. jejuni in food processing environments and its transmission through the food chain. We aimed to control C. jejuni using an alternative strategy of low doses of Juniperus communis fruit preparations to target bacterial adhesion properties in the first step of biofilm formation. First, we defined the anti-Campylobacter activity of a juniper fruit crude extract and its fractionated biflavonoids, flavone glycosides, and purified amentoflavone, of juniper fruit essential oil and of juniper fruit postdistillation waste material extract. For accurate quantification of adherent C. jejuni, we optimised digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR for construction of standard curves and quantification. We show for the first time that juniper fruit formulations can effectively inhibit adhesion of C. jejuni to polystyrene. Furthermore, ≥94% of the antiadhesion activity of juniper fruit crude extract and juniper fruit essential oil remained under food-related conditions: modified culture medium with glucose, or a stainless steel surface, or mixed co-cultures of C. jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes. This study indicates that addition of juniper fruit formulations can control growth and adhesion of C. jejuni and thus limit food chain transmission of campylobacters. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessment of tar pollution on the United Arab emirates beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.; Khordagui, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    In light of the inadequate information concerning stranded tar on the southwest beaches of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, particularly following the massive oil releases during the Gulf War, the present investigation was designed to provide reference-integrated information on the nature, location, and levels of stranded tar balls on the beaches of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The recorded levels appeared to be higher than expected or previously reported. The tar distribution pattern, in addition to the degree of weathering, indicates that the massive oil release during the Gulf War did not reach the UAE shorelines. Themore » highest reported levels of stranded tar ever recorded in the Arabian Gulf at Jabal Dhannah apparently originated from oil spills and tankers' ballast water at the main oil terminal at the Al-Ruwaiss oil refinery some 10 km to the east. The surprising, relatively high levels of stranded tar on the beaches of the Gulf of Oman were solely attributed to the heavy navigation traffic close to the shorelines. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  9. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  10. California's western juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands: area, stand characteristics, wood volume, and fenceposts.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1989-01-01

    The results of a statewide inventory of western juniper and pinyon-juniper woodlands are presented. Included are statistics on area of woodland by type and ownership; area of rangeland with scattered juniper and pinyon trees; wood volume by ownership, species, and tree size; juniper fenceposts; tree and stand age distribution; stand characteristics, including overstory...

  11. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Southwest Caspian Coast, Iran using fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-10-15

    In 2012, a significant number of tar balls occurred along the Southwest coasts of the Caspian Sea (Iran). Several oil fields of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran might be sources of oil spills and lead to the formation of these tar balls. For source identification, 6 tar ball samples were collected from the Southwest beaches of the Caspian Sea and subjected to fingerprint analysis based on the distribution of the source-specific biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and steranes. Comparing the diagenic ratios revealed that the tar balls were chemically similar and originated from the same source. Results of double ratio plots (e.g., C29/C30 versus ∑C31-C35/C30 and C28 αββ/(C27 αββ+C29 αββ) versus C29 αββ/(C27 αββ+C28 αββ)) in the tar balls and oils from Iran, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan indicated that the tar balls might be the result of spills from Turkmenistan oil. Moreover, principle component analysis (PCA) using biomarker ratios on the tar balls and 20 crude oil samples from different wells of Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan oils showed that the tar balls collected at the Southwest beaches are highly similar to the Turkmenistan oil but one of the Azerbaijan oils (from Bahar field oils) was found to be also slightly close to the tar balls. The weathering characterizations based on the presence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and low/high molecular weight ratios (L/H) of alkanes and PAHs indicated the tar ball samples have been significantly influenced by natural weathering processes such as evaporation, photo-degradation and biodegradation. This is the first study of its kind in Iran to use fingerprinting for source identification of tar balls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural attenuation of aged tar-oil in soils: A case study from a former gas production site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Pavel; Eickhorst, Thilo; Wehrer, Markus; Georgiadis, Anna; Rennert, Thilo; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of soils with tar oil occurred on many industrial sites in Europe. The main source of such contamination has been former manufactured gas plants (MGP). As many of them were destroyed during the World War II or abandoned in the second half of the XXth century, the contamination is depleted in volatile and degradable hydrocarbons (HC) but enriched in the heavy oil fractions due to aging processes. We studied a small tar-oil spill in a former MGP reservoir basin. The tar-oil had a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 245 mg/g. At the margin of the spill, vegetation has started to overgrow and intensively root the tar-oil layer. This zone comprised the uppermost 5-7 cm of our profile and contained 28 mg/g of TPH (A-layer)- The layer below the root zone (7-15 cm) was the most contaminated, with 90 mg/g TPH (B-layer). The layer underneath (15-22 cm) had smaller concentrations of 16 mg/g TPH (C-layer). Further down in the profile (D-layer) we found only slightly higher TPH content than in the control samples (1,4 mg/g vs 0,6 mg/g). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis showed the same distribution throughout all layers with highest contents of the PAHs with 4-6 condensed aromatic rings. Direct cell count and extraction of microbial biomass showed that the highly contaminated soil layers A and B had 2-3 times more bacteria than the control soils. CARD-FISH analysis revealed that in samples from layers A and B Archaea were more abundant (12% opposing to 6-7% in control soil). Analysis of bacteria (tested for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria and Actinobacteria) showed the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria in the layer A and C both beneath and above the most contaminated layer B. The primers covered the whole microbial consortia in these two layers, leaving almost no unidentified cells. In the most contaminated layer B Alphaproteobacteria amounted only to 20% of the microbial consortium, and almost 40% of the cells remained

  13. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  14. Ubiquitous tar balls with a California-source signature on the shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Carlson, P.R.; Rapp, J.B.; Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A.

    1995-01-01

    Although the shorelines of Prince William Sound still bear traces of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, most of the flattened tar balls that can be found today on these shorelines are not residues of Exxon Valdez oil. Instead, the carbon-isotopic and hydrocarbon-biomarker signatures of 61 tar ball samples, collected from shorelines throughout the northern and western parts of the sound, are all remarkably similar and have characteristics consistent with those of oil products that originated from the Monterey Formation source rocks of California. The carbon-isotopic compositions of the tar balls are all closely grouped (??13CPDB = -23.7 ?? 0.2???), within the range found in crude oils from those rocks, but are distinct from isotopic compositions of 28 samples of residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (??13CPDB = -29.4 ?? 0.1???). Likewise, values for selected biomarker ratios in the tar balls are all similar but distinct from values of residues from the 1989 oil spill. Carbon-isotopic and biomarker signatures generally relate the tar balls to oil products used in Alaska before ???1970 for construction and pavements. How these tar balls with such similar geochemical characteristics became so widely dispersed throughout the northern and western parts of the sound is not known with certainty, but the great 1964 Alaska earthquake was undoubtedly an important trigger, causing spills from ruptured storage facilities of California-sourced asphalt and fuel oil into Prince William Sound.

  15. Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S.; McNeil, R.I.

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small [open quote]slice[close quote] of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ([ge]40[degrees] API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay).more » Large tar deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ([delta][sup 13]C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140[degrees]C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C[sub 7] oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15[degrees]API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.« less

  16. Managing pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Kieth E. Severson

    1994-01-01

    A renewed interest in pinyon-juniper woodlands has accelerated debate regarding management of this unique ecosystem. Should these woodlands be managed only to provide livestock forage through overstory removal-popular programs in the 1950s and 1960s-or should they be managed for production of multiple resource products and amenities? Pinyon-juniper woodlands have...

  17. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  18. Technology for the production of Zero Q.I pitch from coal tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Rao, C. V. Nageswara; Kumar, B. Vinod; Murty, J. V. S.

    2013-06-01

    Zero Quinoline Insolubles (Q.I) pitch is a special type of pitch obtained from pre-treatment of coal tar, which is converted into pitch. This is used for impregnation of electrodes for improving the strength, electrical properties and also used as a pre-cursor for Mesophase pitch for producing Mesophase pitch based carbon fibers, carbon foam, and Meso carbon micro beads. This paper discusses the technology of Q.I separation from Coal Tar by using decantation of Coal Tar mixed with Heavy Creosote Oil (HC Oil) at different temperatures. By this method we were able to produce the Zero Q.I pitch with a Q.I value of 0.1%.

  19. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more thanmore » 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.« less

  20. Southwestern U. S. juniper savanna and piñon-juniper woodland communities: Ecological history and natural range of variability

    Treesearch

    Brian F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    Juniper savanna and pinon-juniper woodland communities collectively represent a widespread and diverse vegetation type that occupies foothill and mesa landforms at middle elevations in semi-arid portions of the American Southwest. Ecological understanding and proper management of these juniper and pinon types requires local knowledge of component species, site history...

  1. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  3. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  4. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281; Sutijan

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 – 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 – 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporatedmore » at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H{sup 2} productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.« less

  5. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  6. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  7. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Zakaria, M P; Naik, B G; Prasad, K V S R

    2013-05-15

    Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (δ¹³C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pinyon-juniper woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L.; Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have been altered by changes in climatic patterns and human use and, often, abuse. Management of these lands since European settlement has varied from light exploitation and benign neglect, to attempts to remove the trees in favor of forage for livestock, and then to a realization that these lands contain useful resources and should be managed accordingly. Land management agencies are committed to ecosystem management. While there are several definitions of ecosystem management, the goal is to use ecological approaches to create and maintain diverse, productive, and healthy ecosystems (Kaufmann et al. 1994). Ecosystem management recognizes that people are an integral part of the system and that their needs must be considered. Ecological approaches are central to the concept, but our understanding of basic woodland ecology is incomplete, and there are different opinions and interpretations of existing information (Gottfried and Severson 1993). There are many questions concerning proper ecosystem management of the pinyon-juniper woodlands and how managers can achieve these goals (Gottfried and Severson 1993). While the broad concept of ecosystem management generally is accepted, the USDA Forest Service, other public land management agencies, American Indian tribes, and private landowners may have differing definitions of what constitutes desired conditions. Key questions about the pinyon-juniper ecosystems remain unanswered. Some concern the basic dynamics of biological and physical components of the pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Others concern the distribution of woodlands prior to European settlement and changes

  9. Pinyon/juniper woodlands [Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Robin J. Tausch; Sharon Hood

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in 10 states and cover large areas in many of them. These woodlands can be dominated by several species of pinyon pine (Pinus spp. L.) and juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) (Lanner 1975; Mitchell and Roberts 1999; West 1999a). A considerable amount of information is available on the expansion of the woodlands that has occurred over large parts...

  10. Uses of pinyon and juniper

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2008-01-01

    There is an overabundance of pinyon and juniper, especially in the Southwest. Finding value in these undesirable trees will help it pay its way off the land. This presentation provides information on potential uses of pinyon and juniper. The value of wood products made from these trees could range from $10/ton to more than $200/ ton. Unfortunately the higher valued...

  11. Herbaceous production response to juniper treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) has expanded and infilled into other plant communities the past 130 to 150 years in the semi-arid Pacific Northwest. The increase in juniper reduces herbaceous forage and browse provided by shrubs for livestock and big-game. We measured herbaceous prod...

  12. Yields of southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Frederick W. Smith; Thomas Schuler

    1988-01-01

    Site quality and growth-growing stock relations were developed for southwestern woodlands of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) or Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Anamorphic height-age site index curves for pinyon were developed from a regional sample of 60 woodlands. Site index was...

  13. Conventional and catalytic pyrolysis of pinyon juniper biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yathavan, Bhuvanesh Kumar

    Pinyon and juniper are invasive woody species in Western United States that occupy over 47 million acres of land. The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has embarked on harvesting these woody species to make room for range grasses for grazing. The major application of harvested pinyon-juniper (PJ) is low value firewood. Thus, there is a need to develop new high value products from this woody biomass to reduce the cost of harvesting. In this research PJ biomass was processed through pyrolysis technology to produce value added products. The first part of the thesis demonstrates the effect of PJ wood, bark and mixture biomass and temperature on the product yield and on the quality of the bio-oil produced. The second part focuses on the optimization of process parameters for maximum yield and the third part focuses on upgrading the bio-oil with an industrial catalyst (HZSM5) and an industrial waste product (red mud). The results obtained from the first part showed that PJ wood produced maximum bio-oil yield, followed by PJ mixture and bark. The bio-oil yield from PJ wood had low viscosity when compared to PJ mixture and PJ bark. The second part focused on studying the effect of process parameters (temperature, feed rate and the gas flow rate) on the total liquid, organic, water, char and gas yield. The results show that each response is affected by different factor level combinations, and maximum yield for each response was obtained at different factors level. The third part focused on catalytic pyrolysis of PJ biomass using both HZSM-5 catalyst and red mud. The mechanisms of catalysis by the two catalysts were quite different. Whereas the HZSM-5 rejected oxygen mostly as carbon monoxide and water and produced lower amounts of carbon dioxide, on the contrary the red mud produced more carbon dioxide and water and less carbon monoxide. The higher heating value of the red mud catalyzed oil (29.46 MJ/kg) was slightly higher than that catalyzed by HZSM-5 (28.55 MJ/kg). Thus

  14. Prescribed burning in mid and late successional juniper woodlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper woodlands of the western United States have expanded rapidly since settlement in the late 1800’s. To recover shrub steppe and other plant communities requires that invasive junipers be controlled. We have evaluated recovery of several plant associations after combinations of junipe...

  15. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997-1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  16. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  17. Characterization of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tar-balls collected from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chandru, Kuhan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Anita, Sofia; Shahbazi, Azadeh; Sakari, Mahyar; Bahry, Pourya Shahpoury; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2008-05-01

    The East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia faces the South China Sea and is vulnerable to oil pollution because of intense petroleum production activities in the area. The South China Sea is also a favored route for supertankers carrying crude oil to the Far East. Consequently, oil spills can occur, causing pollution and contamination in the surrounding areas. Residual oil spills stranded on coastal beaches usually end up as tar-balls. Elucidating the sources of tar-balls using a molecular marker approach is essential in assessing environmental impacts and perhaps settling legal liabilities for affected parties. This study utilizes a multimodal molecular marker approach through the use of diagnostic ratios of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the source, distribution and weathering of tar-balls. Hopane ratios (e.g., C29/C30, and summation C31-C35/C30 ratios) were used to identify the sources of tar-balls. The weathering effects were distinguished by using alkanes, namely the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and low molecular weight/high molecular weight (L/H) ratios. Similarly, PAHs were also used for the determination of weathering processes undergone by the tar-balls. This multimodal molecular marker gave a very strong indication of the sources of tar-balls in this study. For example, 16 out of 17 samples originated from South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO) with one sample from Merang, Terengganu originating from North Sea Oil (Troll). The TRME-2 sample may have come from a supertanker's ballast water discharge. The second possibility is that the tar-ball may have been transported via oceanographic currents. All 'weathered' sample characterizations were based on the presence of UCM and other ratios. The multimodal molecular marker approach applied in this study has enabled us to partially understand the transport behavior of tar-balls in the marine environment and has revealed insights into the weathering process of tar-balls.

  18. A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India).

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the impact of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on the coastal ecosystem of Goa. The factors responsible for degrading the marine ecosystem of the Goan coastline are analyzed. Uncontrolled activities were found to degrade the marine and coastal biodiversity, in turn polluting all beaches. This had a direct impact on the Goan economy through a decline in tourism. The government must adopt the necessary control measures to restore Goan beaches and the surrounding coastal areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecology of pinon-juniper vegetation in the Southwest and Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Rex D. Pieper

    2008-01-01

    Pinon-juniper vegetation is conspicuous in foothills surrounding most mountain ranges in the Great Basin and the Southwest. Utah has the largest percentage of pinon-juniper vegetation, followed by New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Colorado. Although pinon-juniper stands may appear to be similar, the vegetation component varies. The most abundant junipers are Juniperus...

  20. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn; Kenney, Kevin Louis

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvementmore » in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.« less

  1. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 1. Process Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Uinta Basin .......................too.... 11 b . Asphalt Ridge ........................ 13 c.* Tar Sand Triangle ..... to .. .. . .. .. . 15 e...Estimated ............**..* 7 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF UTAH’S MAJOR TAR SANDS ....... 12 4 UINTA BASIN DEPOSITS ................... *........ 13 *.5 UINTA ...7 UINTA BASIN , UTAH PROPERTIES -SUNNYSIDE ........ 20 8 UINTA BASIN , UTAH PROPERTIES -P. R. SPRINGS . 22 r9 ESTIMATED CALIFORNIA TAR SAND DISTRIBUTION

  2. Are western juniper seeds dispersed through diplochory?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed dispersal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) appears to be convergent on a strategy utilized by fruit-bearing trees in that this conifer produces fleshy female cones (a.k.a., juniper “berries”) that are consumed by frugivorous birds, which then disperse the seeds through endozoochory b...

  3. Desired future conditions for pinon-juniper ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Douglas W. Shaw; Earl. F. Aldon; Carol LoSapio

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to assist the USDA Forest Service, other federal land management agencies, and the Arizona State Land Office in managing pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Southwest. Authors assessed the current state of knowledge about the pinon-juniper resource and helped develop desired future conditions.

  4. Off-road transport of pinyon/juniper

    Treesearch

    J. Klepac; B. Rummer

    2012-01-01

    A 8-wheel forwarder was observed while transporting pinyon pine (P. edulis) and Utah juniper (J. osteosperma) from woods to landing in southern Utah. The forwarder was part of a 2-machine system used to treat pinyon-juniper stands. Trees were felled using a rubber tracked skid steer with a shear head, then transported to a collection point with a Ponsse Buffalo King 20...

  5. Western juniper drying project summaries, 1993-96.

    Treesearch

    Scott Leavengood; Larry Swan

    1999-01-01

    Drying tests and trials for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) were conducted between 1993 and 1996 to (1) test and refine existing dry kiln schedules; (2) develop moisture meter correction factors; (3) test dry western juniper in different types of kilns, both by itself and with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  6. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

    Treesearch

    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  7. Welcome to the Piñon-Juniper WebZone!

    Science.gov Websites

    Juniper Stand Panorama The Pinyon-Juniper Zone About this Site This site provides reference extensive REFERENCE LIST. If you are aware of literature that has been missed or new articles coming out please send a complete reference to Richard.Miller@oregonstate.edu. References About Piñon & Juniper

  8. Commercialization of fuels from Pinyon-Juniper biomass in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-12-31

    This study analyzes and defines energy applications and markets that could stimulate the commercial use of Eastern Nevada`s Pinyon-Juniper resources. The commercialization potential for producing energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass is analyzed by examining the resource base and resource availability for a commercial harvesting and processing operation. The study considered the spectrum of available equipment and technology for carrying out harvesting and processing operations, investigated the markets that might be able to use energy products derived from Pinyon-Juniper biomass, analyzed the costs of harvesting, processing, and transporting Pinyon-Juniper fuels, and set forth a plan for developing the commercial potential of thesemore » resources. The emerging residential pellet-fuels market is a promising entry market for the commercialization of an energy from Pinyon-Juniper biomass industry in Eastern Nevada, although there are serious technical issues that may render Pinyon-Juniper biomass an unsuitable feedstock for the manufacture of pellet fuels. These issues could be investigated at a moderate cost in order to determine whether to proceed with development efforts in this direction. In the longer term, one or two biomass-fired power plants in the size range of 5-10 MW could provide a stable and predictable market for the production and utilization of fuels derived from local Pinyon-Juniper biomass resources, and would provide valuable economic and environmental benefits to the region. Municipal utility ownership of such facilities could help to enhance the economic benefits of the investments by qualifying them for federal energy credits and tax-free financing.« less

  9. Juniper for Streambank Stabilization in Eastern Oregon

    Treesearch

    Guy R. Sheeter; Errol W. Claire

    1989-01-01

    Cut juniper trees (Juniperous osteosperma Hook.) anchored along eroded streambanks proved beneficial in stabilizing 96 percent of the erosion on eight streams evaluated in eastern Oregon over a 14-year-period. Juniper revetment was a successful substitute for costly rock structures on straight or slightly curved banks, but failed when placed on outside curves or when...

  10. Comparative habitat use in a juniper woodland bird community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlacky, D.C.; Anderson, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared vegetation structure used by 14 bird species during the 1998 and 1999 breeding seasons to determine what habitat features best accounted for habitat division and community organization in Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands of southwestern Wyoming. Habitat use was quantified by measuring 24 habitat variables in 461 bird-centered quadrats, each 0.04 ha in size. Using discriminant function analysis, we differentiated between habitat used by 14 bird species along 3 habitat dimensions: (1) variation in shrub cover, overstory juniper cover, mature tree density, understory height, and decadent tree density; (2) a gradient composed of elevation and forb cover; and (3) variation in grass cover, tree height, seedling/sapling cover, and bare ground/rock cover. Of 14 species considered, 9 exhibited substantial habitat partitioning: Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides), Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus), Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus), Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri), Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), and Cassin's Finch (Carpodacus cassinii). Our results indicate juniper bird communities of southwestern Wyoming are organized along a 3-dimensional habitat gradient composed of woodland maturity, elevation, and juniper recruitment. Because juniper birds partition habitat along successional and altitudinal gradients, indiscriminate woodland clearing as well as continued fire suppression will alter species composition. Restoration efforts should ensure that all successional stages of juniper woodland are present on the landscape.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah

    DOE Data Explorer

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah. Site Description - The Juniper Savanna site is located in the Southwestern Tablelands in central New Mexico on a private ranch. Its vegetation is composed of Juniperus monosperma and intermittently grazed C4 perennial grasses of which the dominant species is Bouteloua gracilis.

  12. Plant community dynamics 25 years after juniper control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 to 150 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) expansion in the northern Great Basin has reduc...

  13. Mechanical mastication of Utah juniper encroaching sagebrush steppe increases inorganic soil N

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) has encroached millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species, but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication ...

  14. Tar balls from Deep Water Horizon oil spill: environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR) formation during crude weathering.

    PubMed

    Kiruri, Lucy W; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawo

    2013-05-07

    Tar balls collected from the Gulf of Mexico shores of Louisiana and Florida after the BP oil spill have shown the presence of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra characteristic of organic free radicals as well as transition metal ions, predominantly iron(III) and manganese(II). Two types of organic radicals were distinguished: an asphaltene radical species typically found in crude oil (g = 2.0035) and a new type of radical resulting from the environmental transformations of crude (g = 2.0041-47). Pure asphaltene radicals are resonance stabilized over a polyaromatic structure and are stable in air and unreactive. The new radicals were identified as products of partial oxidation of crude components and result from the interaction of the oxidized aromatics with metal ion centers. These radicals are similar to semiquinone-type, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) previously observed in combustion-generated particulate and contaminated soils.

  15. Tar Balls from Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill: Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFR) Formation During Crude Weathering

    PubMed Central

    Kiruri, Lucy W.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawo

    2014-01-01

    Tar balls collected from the Gulf of Mexico shores of Louisiana and Florida after the BP oil spill have shown the presence of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra characteristic of organic free radicals as well as transition metal ions, predominantly iron(III) and manganese(II). Two types of organic radicals were distinguished: an asphaltene radical species typically found in crude oil (g = 2.0035) and a new type of radical resulting from the environmental transformations of crude (g = 2.0041−47). Pure asphaltene radicals are resonance stabilized over a polyaromatic structure and are stable in air and unreactive. The new radicals were identified as products of partial oxidation of crude components and result from the interaction of the oxidized aromatics with metal ion centers. These radicals are similar to semiquinone-type, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) previously observed in combustion-generated particulate and contaminated soils. PMID:23510127

  16. The western juniper resource of eastern Oregon, 1999.

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote; Paul A. Dunham

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes resource statistics for eastern Oregon's juniper forests, which are in Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. We sampled all ownerships outside of the National Forest System; we report the statistics on juniper forest on...

  17. Phomopsis Blight of Junipers

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson; C. S. Jr. Hidges

    1982-01-01

    Phomopsis blight has been a serious problem for more than 75 years in nurseries producing juniper seedlings and grafts. Phomopsis juniperovora Hahn, the fungus causing this disease, is widespread in the United States.

  18. Improvement of cadmium ion removal by base treatment of juniper fiber

    Treesearch

    S.H. Min; J.S. Han; E.W. Shin; J.K. Park

    2004-01-01

    Juniper is a small-diameter underutilized lignocellulosic material. We evaluated the efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) for cadmium (Cd2+) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for removing Cd2+ from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that carboxylate ion is a major functional group responsible for Cd2+...

  19. Dendrochronology of Utah Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little)

    Treesearch

    R. Justin Derose; Matthew F. Bekker; Roger Kjelgren; Brendan M. Buckley; James H. Speer; Eric B. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Utah juniper was a foundational species for the discipline of dendrochronology, having been used in the early 20th Century investigations of Mesa Verde, but has been largely ignored by dendrochronologists since. Here we present dendrochronological investigations of Utah juniper core and cross-sectional samples from four sites in northern Utah. We demonstrate that,...

  20. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores.

  1. Mechanical treatment methods in the pinon-juniper type

    Treesearch

    Brent J. Racher

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Mechanical treatments in the pinon-juniper type are driven by the objectives of the treatment. Objectives of restoring meadows or grassland from encroachment or returning to a savanna can require a different method of treatment than thinning pinon-juniper woodlands. Often these types of objectives are intermingled within a...

  2. Response of spectral reflectances and vegetation indices on varying Juniper cone densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniper trees are widely distributed throughout the world and are common sources of allergies when microscopic pollen grains are transported by wind and inhaled. In this study, we investigated the spectral influences of pollen discharging male juniper cones within a juniper canopy. This was done thr...

  3. Old-growth definition for western juniper woodlands: Texas ashe juniper dominated or codominated communities. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.D.

    1997-09-01

    Ashe juniper dominated or codominated woodlands are extensive within the Edwards Plateu in Texas. Almost all contemporary woodlands are the result of various disturbances, especially grazing and fire suppression. Old-growth examples are rare. Several different geomorphic situations once supported natural Ashe juniper communities with different dynamics and composition. These included mesic slopes and canyon systems, shallow-soiled uplands (hardscrabble), and deeper-soiled uplants. The most extensive and most diverse woodlands were in canyon systems, where Ashe juniper shared dominance with a diversity of oaks and other broad-leaved trees, Drier upland woodlands were less diverse, with live oak, shin oak, and Vasey oakmore » variously important. Ashe junipr woodlands harbor a diverse biota, including rare and endemic species, and, thus, preservation of representative old-growth examples is an important conservation concern.« less

  4. Do bark beetle sprays prevent Phloeosinus species from attacking cypress and juniper?

    Treesearch

    Chris Hayes; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; Joel McMillin; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Phloeosinus-caused mortality of Arizona cypress, (Cupressus arizonica), oneseed juniper, (Juniperus monosperma) and alligator juniper, (J. deppeana) has been observed at high levels in Arizona during the past 3 years. Currently, there are limited preventative measures to protect high-value cypress and juniper trees against...

  5. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Converting wood volume to biomass for pinyon and juniper. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnacky, D.C.; Moisen, G.G.

    1993-03-01

    A technique was developed to convert pinyon-juniper volume equation predictions to weights. The method uses specific gravity and biomass conversion equations to obtain foliage weight and total wood weight of all stems, branches, and bark. Specific gravity data are given for several Arizona pinyon-juniper species. Biomass conversion equations are constructed from pinyon-juniper data collected in Nevada. Results provide an interim means of estimating pinyon-juniper aboveground biomass from available volume inventory data.

  7. JUNIPER CUTTING AND PRESCRIBED FIRE COMBINATIONS; SOUTH MOUNTAIN, IDAHO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper expansion into sagebrush steppe plant communities in the northern Great Basin has resulted in diminished shrub-steppe productivity and reduced plant and wildlife diversity. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the use of cut juniper to provide enough dry surface fuels to c...

  8. Sage-grouse groceries: forb response to pinon-juniper treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past 150 years, juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) and piñon (Pinus spp. L.) coniferous woodlands have increased 2 to 10-fold in 9 ecoregions spanning the Intermountain area of the western United States. Control of piñon-juniper woodlands by mechanical treatments and prescribed fire have been appli...

  9. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-03-01

    Lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA, were characterized to assess the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the concentration-dependent effects of a residual oil tar phase on sorption mechanism and availability of PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated similar aromaticity for both lampblack carbon and the oil tar phase, with pronounced resonance signals in the range of 100 to 150 ppm. Scanning-electron microscopic images revealed a physically distinct oil tar phase, especially at high concentrations in lampblack, which resulted in an organic-like film structure when lampblack particles became saturated with the oil tar. Sorption experiments were conducted on a series of laboratory-prepared lampblack samples to systematically evaluate influences of an oil tar phase on PAH sorption to lampblack. Results indicate that the sorption of PAHs to lampblack exhibits a competition among sorption phases at low oil tar contents when micro- and mesopores are accessible. When the oil tar content increases to more than 5 to 10% by weight, this tar phase fills small pores, reduces surface area, and dominates PAH sorption on lampblack surface. A new PAH partitioning model, Kd = KLB-C(1 - ftar)alpha + ftarKtar (alpha = empirical exponent), incorporates these effects in which the control of PAH partitioning transits from being dominated by sorption in lampblack (KLB-C) to absorption in oil tar (Ktar), depending on the fraction of tar (ftar). This study illustrates the importance of understanding interactions among PAHs, oil tar, and lampblack for explaining the differences in availability of PAHs among site soils and, consequently, for refining site-specific risk assessment and establishing soil cleanup levels.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Mpj Mountainair Pinyon-Juniper Woodland

    DOE Data Explorer

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Mpj Mountainair Pinyon-Juniper Woodland. Site Description - The Pinon Juniper site is located in Deer Canyon Preserve in central New Mexico. It is situated on an extensive mesa at an elevation of 2100m. The predominant tree species are Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma with an understory composed of the C4 perennial grass Bouteloua gracilis.

  11. Juniper wood structure under the microscope.

    PubMed

    Bogolitsyn, Konstantin G; Zubov, Ivan N; Gusakova, Maria A; Chukhchin, Dmitry G; Krasikova, Anna A

    2015-05-01

    The investigations confirm the physicochemical nature of the structure and self-assembly of wood substance and endorse its application in plant species. The characteristic morphological features, ultra-microstructure, and submolecular structure of coniferous wood matrix using junipers as the representative tree were investigated by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Novel results on the specific composition and cell wall structure features of the common juniper (Juniperus Communis L.) were obtained. These data confirm the possibility of considering the wood substance as a nanobiocomposite. The cellulose nanofibrils (20-50 nm) and globular-shaped lignin-carbohydrate structures (diameter of 5-60 nm) form the base of such a nanobiocomposite.

  12. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  13. Restoring mountain big sagebrush steppe habitat after western juniper control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper is being controlled across large acreages in the northern Great Basin to restore sagebrush steppe plant communities. One of the most common control methods is prescribed burning. After burning juniper stands, sagebrush is absent from the community and the herbaceous understory may ...

  14. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Plant establishment and soil microenvironments in Utah juniper masticated woodlands

    Treesearch

    Kert R. Young

    2012-01-01

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and bunchgrass communities has reduced understory plant cover and allowed juniper trees to dominate millions of hectares of semiarid rangelands. Trees are mechanically masticated or shredded to decrease wildfire potential and increase desirable understory plant cover. When trees are masticated after...

  16. Chemistry and origin of Miocene and Eocene oils and tars in the onshore and offshore Santa Cruz Basins, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kornacki, A.S.; McNeil, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Cruz (La Honda) Basin is a small {open_quote}slice{close_quote} of the San Joaquin Basin that has been displaced c. 300 km to the northwest by the San Andreas Fault. The poorly-explored offshore area that now lies within the Monterey Bay NMS includes portions of the Outer Santa Cruz and Bodega basins. A modest amount (c. 1.3 MM bbl) of variable-quality oil has been produced from Eocene and Pliocene pay zones in the La Honda Field. Much smaller amounts of light oil ({ge}40{degrees} API) have been produced from three other fields (Oil Creek; Moody Gulch; Half Moon Bay). Large tarmore » deposits also outcrop near the city of Santa Cruz. Proven source rocks in this basin include the Eocene Twobar Shale and three Miocene units: the Lambert Shale, Monterey Formation, and the Santa Cruz Mudstone. A high-gravity oil sample from the Oil Creek Field contains isotopically-light carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C = - 28.2 per mil) and has a relatively high pristane/phytane ratio. This oil was generated at high temperature (c. 140{degrees}C) by pre-Miocene source rocks (probably the Twobar Shale). The presence of isotopically-heavy carbon in all other oil and tar samples demonstrates they were generated by Miocene source rocks. But the C{sub 7} oil-generation temperatures, sulfur content, vanadium/nickel ratios, and biomarker chemistry of these Miocene oils are significantly different than in Monterey oils from the prolific Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The sulfur content (8.0 wt%) and V-Ni chemistry of tarry petroleum recovered in the P-036-1 well (Outer Santa Cruz Basin) resembles the chemistry of very heavy (<15{degrees}API) oils generated by phosphatic Monterey shales in the SMB.« less

  17. The Effects of Ashe Juniper on Groundwater Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Gregory, L. F.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding groundwater recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities. As population around San Antonio continues to grow, so does the demand for water and the stress placed on the aquifer. A method that is commonly believed to augment water yields is brush management. Recently on the Edwards Plateau decreasing streamflow has coincided with increasing juniper density. This has led many to believe that removing juniper would increase available water. Due to its karstic nature, the recharge zone of the Edwards Aquifer is assumed to be a prime location for augmenting water yields through vegetation manipulation. This study assesses the dynamics of recharge and the effects of manipulating surface vegetation. To accomplish this, a shallow cave located in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone in San Antonio, Texas was instrumented to monitor drip recharge in response to simulated rainfall events. In 2004, simulations were conducted over the cave to measure recharge rates with a dense Ashe juniper canopy. The data and observations from the initial simulations were used to establish a baseline with the juniper in place. In March 2008 the juniper stand was cleared and the rainfall simulations were reproduced in June and July 2008. Results initially indicated that removing the juniper decreases recharge, however, surface runoff was significantly increased. From the results we can conclude that the dynamics of recharge are affected initially following removal of juniper.

  18. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A.

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  19. Microbial Diversity in Natural Asphalts of the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Shik; Crowley, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria commonly inhabit subsurface oil reservoirs, but almost nothing is known yet about microorganisms that live in naturally occurring terrestrial oil seeps and natural asphalts that are comprised of highly recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. Here we report the first survey of microbial diversity in ca. 28,000-year-old samples of natural asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Microbiological studies included analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA encoding aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from two tar pits differing in chemical composition. Our results revealed a wide range of phylogenetic groups within the Archaea and Bacteria domains, in which individual taxonomic clusters were comprised of sets of closely related species within novel genera and families. Fluorescent staining of asphalt-soil particles using phylogenetic probes for Archaea, Bacteria, and Pseudomonas showed coexistence of mixed microbial communities at high cell densities. Genes encoding dioxygenases included three novel clusters of enzymes. The discovery of life in the tar pits provides an avenue for further studies of the evolution of enzymes and catabolic pathways for bacteria that have been exposed to complex hydrocarbons for millennia. These bacteria also should have application for industrial microbiology and bioremediation. PMID:17416692

  20. Low-tar and high-tar cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, P.G.; Chalmer, J.E.; Roberts, L.M.

    Mice were exposed for 7 to 8 minutes on weekdays to fresh smoke from high-tar (HT) or low-tar (LT) cigarettes for varying periods of up to 36 weeks. Mice exposed to HT cigarettes exhibited more marked alterations in humoral immune responsiveness, hematological profiles, and pulmonary pathologic findings than those exposed to LT cigarettes. However, cell-mediated immune responsiveness to both bacterial and tumor-specific antigens was depressed similarly in animals exposed to HT or LT cigarettes. Furthermore, the growth rates of subcutaneously established tumors were enhanced similarly in the two groups, with respect to those in control animals.

  1. Effect of aspect on sagebrush steppe recovery post-fire juniper woodlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoration of sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire in mountain big sagebrush communities is needed to improve wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush on north and south aspects after juniper control with prescribed burning. We included...

  2. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered. PMID:26659905

  3. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

    PubMed

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  4. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  5. Topical tar: Back to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A.

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearingmore » of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.« less

  6. Restoring mountain big sagebrush communities after prescribed fire in juniper encroached rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper encroachment into sagebrush steppe communities has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion and runoff risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlle...

  7. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  8. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J. N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  9. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  10. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J N; Dedrick, Allison G; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C; Coates, Peter S; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  11. Impacts of pinyon-juniper treatments on water yields: A historical perspective

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody Stropki

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are not normally considered a high water-yielding type largely because of the low precipitation amounts and high evapotranspiration rates encountered. Nevertheless, a recommendation was made in the 1950s to evaluate the effectiveness of increasing water yields by converting pinyon-juniper overstories to herbaceous covers. A series of process...

  12. The roles of precipitation regimes on juniper forest encroachment on grasslands in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been dominantly explained by fire suppression, grazing and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. As different root depths of grasses and trees in soils, increased precipitation intensity was expected to facilitate the woody plant abundance, which was demonstrated by the field precipitation test in a sub-tropical savanna ecosystem. However, it is lacking to compressively examine the roles of precipitation regimes on woody plant encroachment at regional scales based on long-term observation data. This study examined the relationships between changes of precipitation regimes (amounts, frequency and intensity) and dynamics of juniper forest coverage using site-based rainfall data and remote sensing-based juniper forest maps in 1994-2010 over Oklahoma State. Our results showed that precipitation amount and intensity played larger roles than frequency on the juniper forest encroachment into the grassland in Oklahoma, and increased precipitation amount and intensity could facilitate the juniper woody encroachment. This practice based on observation data at the regional scale could be used to support precipitation experiments and model simulations and predicting the juniper forest encroachment.

  13. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  14. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  15. Predicting success of prescribed fires in pinyon-juniper woodlands in Nevada

    Treesearch

    Allen D. Bruner; Donald A. Klebenow

    1979-01-01

    Thirty prescribed burns were attempted in pinyon-juniper woodlands from fall 1974 to fall 1976. These attempts were made out of fire season, during varied atmospheric conditions, and in several pinyon-juniper communities. An analysis of the successful burns provided us with a method for predicting burning success from windspeed, air temperature, and vegetation cover....

  16. Ecological implications of using goats for control of juniper in Texas

    Treesearch

    Stephan A. Nelle

    2001-01-01

    The Edwards Plateau region of central Texas supports a rich diversity of plants and animals. The diversity and abundance of trees and shrubs is especially noteworthy, but two species of juniper (Juniperus ashei, Juniperus pinchotii) now dominate much of the landscape. Goats are currently being recommended to control juniper infestations. The concept of using biological...

  17. Characteristics of western juniper encroachment into sagebrush communities in central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Robin J. Tausch; Susan Geer; Michael J. Wisdom

    2008-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands in Oregon have expanded four-fold from 600,000 ha in 1930 to > 2.6 million ha, often resulting in the reduction and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities. We documented dynamics of western juniper across the John Day Ecological Province in central Oregon by recording size class and growth form at...

  18. Belowground carbon distribution in a pinon-juniper / short grass prairie site

    Treesearch

    John Harrington

    2008-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands encompass over 22.5 million hectares in the Western United States. However, little is known about the ability of these ecosystems to sequester carbon. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation on the belowground carbon distribution in a pinon-juniper/short grass prarie site in north-central New Mexico. Using a systematic...

  19. Concentrations of the Genotoxic Metals, Chromium and Nickel, in Whales, Tar Balls, Oil Slicks, and Released Oil from the Gulf of Mexico in the Immediate Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Crisis: Is Genotoxic Metal Exposure Part of the Deepwater Horizon Legacy?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster. PMID:24552566

  20. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    PubMed

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  1. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  2. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  3. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Treesearch

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  4. Base-treated juniper fiber media for removing heavy metals in stormwater runoff

    Treesearch

    S.-H. Min; Thomas Eberhardt; Jang Min

    2007-01-01

    The viability of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) media for removing toxic heavy metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+) in stormwater runoff was investigated. The sorption ability ofthe BTJF for all metals was much higher than that of untreated juniper. The affinity sequence of both...

  5. Ecohydrological controls on soil moisture and hydraulic conductivity within a pinyon‐juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebron, I.; Madsen, M.D.; Chandler, D.G.; Robinson, D.A.; Wendroth, O.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of pinyon‐juniper woodland encroachment on rangeland ecosystems is often associated with a reduction of streamflow and recharge and an increase in soil erosion. The objective of this study is to investigate vegetational control on seasonal soil hydrologic properties along a 15‐m transect in pinyon‐juniper woodland with biocrust. We demonstrate that the juniper tree controls soil water content (SWC) patterns directly under the canopy via interception, and beyond the canopy via shading in a preferred orientation, opposite to the prevailing wind direction. The juniper also controls the SWC and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured close to water saturation (K(h)) under the canopy by the creation of soil water repellency due to needle drop. We use this information to refine the hydrologic functional unit (HFU) concept into three interacting hydrologic units: canopy patches, intercanopy patches, and a transitional unit formed by intercanopy patches in the rain shadow of the juniper tree. Spatial autoregressive state‐space models show the close relationship between K(h) close to soil water saturation and SWC at medium and low levels, integrating a number of influences on hydraulic conductivity.

  6. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  7. Performance of finishes on western juniper lumber and particleboard during outdoor exposure

    Treesearch

    R. Sam Williams; Larry Swan; Peter Sotos; Mark Knaebe; William C. Feist

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of western juniper trees per acre and the expansion of its range is resulting in watershed degradation, loss of site productivity, decrease in forage production, loss of wildlife habitat, and overall reduction in biodiversity. Previous studies and anecdotal evidence indicate western juniper has fairly good resistance to decay and insect attack,...

  8. Silviculture and multi-resource management case studies for southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the Western United States. The woodlands are heterogeneous, consisting of numerous combinations of tree, shrub, and herbaceous species and stand densities that are representative of the wide range of sites and habitat types they occupy. Silvicultural methods can be employed on better sites to meet...

  9. Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior ofmore » each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.« less

  10. Mapping the dynamics of juniper forest encroachment into grasslands during 1984-2010 based on PALSAR and Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.; Dong, J.

    2016-12-01

    Juniper species widely encroaching into native grasslands has negatively affected the production of forage and livestock, wildlife habitats, and altered the water, carbon, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. However, time series of juniper maps are not available across landscape, watershed and regional scales to facilitate these studies. This study examined the dynamics of juniper forest encroachment into native grasslands in Oklahoma using a pixel and phenology-based algorithm based on PALSAR mosaic data in 2010 and 10,871 Landsat 5/7 images during 1984-2010. The juniper forest maps in 2010 and five historical epochs: the late 1980s (1984-1989), early 1990s (1990-1994), late 1990s (1995-1999), early 2000s (2000-2004), and late 2000s (2005-2010) were generated. We analyzed the area dynamics at various spatial scales of state, county and geographic regions. This study found that (1) the juniper forest expanded to the northwest of Oklahoma at an annual rate of 5% during 1984-2010; (2) the geographic distribution of juniper forest has notable spatial heterogeneity, varies from one county to another; (3) the area of the juniper forest has the most significant increase in the northwestern counties, and (4) stand age analysis suggested that 65% juniper forests in Oklahoma are young with forest stand age less than 15 years. This practice at the state level demonstrated the potential to trace back the juniper encroachment into the grasslands using time series Landsat images and PALSAR data. The resultant maps can be used to support studies on the driving factors and consequences, and future estimates of the juniper forest encroachment.

  11. Dynamics of western juniper woodland expansion into sagebrush communities in central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Robin J. Tausch; Susan Greer; Michael J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands in Oregon have expanded four-fold from 600,000 ha in 1930 to > 2.6 million ha, often resulting in the reduction and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities. We documented dynamics of western juniper across the John Day Ecological Province in central Oregon by recording size class and growth form at...

  12. Diablo trust pinon-juniper restoration sites: Restoring structure to woodlands and savannas

    Treesearch

    Andrew Gascho Landis; John Duff Bailey

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Pinon-juniper restoration sites are being implemented in northern Arizona on lands managed by the Diablo Trust that have experienced increased pinon and juniper densities. Such land managers want to restore basic ecosystem structure and function to their lands in a way that preserves their livelihoods and open space in the region...

  13. Rocky Mountain juniper study: Preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Jill Barbour

    2002-01-01

    Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) seed are hard to germinate in the nursery, containers, or laboratory because they have multiple dormancies. The seedcoat and prophylactic sheath surrounding the embryo impede water absorption. The embryo's epicotyl is not dormant; only the hypocotyl displays dormancy and requires cold...

  14. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by successional phase of western juniper woodland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) has expanded and infilled into other plant communities the past 130 to 150 years in the semi-arid Pacific Northwest. The increase in juniper reduces herbaceous forage and browse provided by shrubs for livestock and big-game. We measured herbaceous prod...

  15. Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopiesmore » with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  16. Juniper Encroachment and Management in the Intermountain West Relative to Wildfires Utilizing Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Howerton, R.; Ramos, S.; Simpson, Z.; Weber, K.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most pronounced vegetation changes in recent history is the expansion of junipers (Juniperus spp.) throughout the intermountain west United States. These native species have expanded from their traditional fire-safe habitats into fire-dependent communities as a result of climatic fluctuations, grazing patterns, and wildfire suppression efforts. As junipers expand their range, they begin to dominate plant communities resulting in the recession of shrubs, grasses, and forbs. Land management agencies have a strong commitment to find areas that are vulnerable to juniper encroachment, so that these areas can be studied and more effectively managed. Aiding in this effort, this project used remote sensing to develop two tools that determine fire intensity on a per pixel basis and identify different phases of juniper encroachment, respectively. Landsat 8, representing land cover data was combined with topography information (slope and aspect) in a linear regression model that quantified fire intensity on a per pixel basis, identifying areas that would burn hotter and longer based on fuel type. The overall accuracy of the model was 86% with a kappa coefficient of 0.81. Visual validation using NAIP imagery in comparison with the fuel classification result showed good visual correlation of the fuel model with dense juniper stands. The second output of the project was an image/object based classification tool that uses multispectral imagery and supervised point classification to classify different vegetation types according to the spectral detail of the objects. The goal of the model is to improve phase identification of juniper stands. Initial visual verification with NAIP shows the model to be performing very satisfactorily but is dependent on the spatial resolution of the user fed input imagery. Furnishing land managers with these tools will assist in forecasting areas prone to juniper invasion based upon surrounding seedbanks, as well as, predict the ensuing

  17. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  18. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  19. Process for hydrogenation of hydrocarbon tars

    DOEpatents

    Dolbear, Geoffrey E.

    1978-07-18

    Hydrocarbon tars of high asphaltene content such as tars obtained from pyrolysis of coal are dissolved in a solvent formed from the hydrogenation of the coal tars, and the resultant mixture hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst at a pressure from about 1500 to 5000 psig at a temperature from about 500.degree. F to about the critical temperature of the solvent to form a light hydrocarbon as a solvent for the tars. Hydrogen content is at least three times the amount of hydrogen consumed.

  20. Rate of increase of redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) canopy cover in western Texas: Ecological and economic implications

    Treesearch

    Darrell N. Ueckert; Robert A. Phillips; Joseph L. Petersen; X. Ben Wu

    2001-01-01

    Redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) is a major problem on Texas rangelands, yet little is known about the rate it is increasing. This study estimated long-term rates of change of redberry juniper canopy cover on undisturbed sites and adjacent sites that were either chained or grubbed at five locations in western Texas. Juniper cover was estimated from positive...

  1. Tree regeneration following drought- and insect-induced mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Miranda D; Barger, Nichole N

    2013-10-01

    Widespread piñon (Pinus edulis) mortality occurred across the southwestern USA during 2002-2003 in response to drought and bark beetle infestations. Given the recent mortality and changes in regional climate over the past several decades, there is a keen interest in post-mortality regeneration dynamics in piñon-juniper woodlands. Here, we examined piñon and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) recruitment at 30 sites across southwestern Colorado, USA that spanned a gradient of adult piñon mortality levels (10-100%) to understand current regeneration dynamics. Piñon and juniper recruitment was greater at sites with more tree and shrub cover. Piñon recruitment was more strongly facilitated than juniper recruitment by trees and shrubs. New (post-mortality) piñon recruitment was negatively affected by recent mortality. However, mortality had no effect on piñon advanced regeneration (juveniles established pre-mortality) and did not shift juvenile piñon dominance. Our results highlight the importance of shrubs and juniper trees for the facilitation of piñon establishment and survival. Regardless of adult piñon mortality levels, areas with low tree and shrub cover may become increasingly juniper dominated as a result of the few suitable microsites for piñon establishment and survival. In areas with high piñon mortality and high tree and shrub cover, our results suggest that piñon is regenerating via advanced regeneration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Ecohydrologic relationships of two juniper woodlands with different precipitation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.; Deboodt, T.; Fernald, A.; Ray, G.

    2015-12-01

    The significant expansion of juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands throughout the western U.S. during the last two centuries has disrupted important ecological functions and hydrologic processes. The relationships between water and vegetation distribution are highly impacted by the ongoing shift from shrub steppe and grassland to woodland-dominated landscapes. We investigated vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes occurring in two distinct juniper landscapes with different precipitation regimes in the Intermountain West region: A winter snow-dominated (Oregon) and a summer rain-dominated with some winter precipitation (New Mexico) landscape. Results from the Oregon site showed marginal differences (1-2%) in soil moisture in treated vs untreated watersheds throughout the dry and wet seasons. In general, soil moisture was greater in the treated watershed in both seasons. Canopy cover affected soil moisture over time. Perennial grass cover was positively correlated with changes in soil moisture, whereas juniper cover was negatively correlated with changes in soil moisture. Shallow groundwater response observed in upland and valley monitoring wells indicate there are temporary hydrologic connections between upland and valley locations during the winter precipitation season. Results from the New Mexico site provided valuable information regarding timing and intensity of monsoon-driven precipitation and the rainfall threshold (5 mm/15 min) that triggers runoff. Long-term vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes were evaluated based on pre- and post-juniper removal (70%) in three watersheds. In general, less runoff and greater forage response was observed in the treated watersheds. During rainfall events, soil moisture was less under juniper canopy compared with inter-canopy; this difference in soil moisture was intensified during high intensity, short duration rainstorms in the summer months. We found that winter snow precipitation helped recharge soil moisture

  3. Distribution of western juniper seeds across an ecotone and implications for seed dispersal processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western juniper forests have been the focus of extensive research and management due to range expansion and infilling that began over a century ago. Understanding juniper seed dispersal is vital to identifying processes behind increases in density and range. Dispersal of Juniperus seeds has generall...

  4. Method for treatment of tar-bearing fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Frauen, L.L.; Kasper, S.

    1986-01-07

    A process is described of producing a fuel gas which contains condensable tar vapor when it leaves a gasifier, the improvement wherein the tar-bearing gases are treated to remove tar therefrom. The process consists of: (a) continuously conducting hot fuel gas from a gasifier to and discharging it into a spray chamber where the hot tar-bearing gas is contacted with a fine spray of water thereby cooling the tar vapor and evaporating the water to produce a fog-like dispersion of tar in an atmosphere of fuel gas with the temperature in the spray chamber maintained above the dew point ofmore » water; (b) continuously transferring the fuel gas and the dispersion of tar and water to an electrostatic precipitator and precipitating therein at least most of the condensed tar as a liquid; (c) removing the liquid tar so precipitated and conducting at least most of it to a tar burner; (d) burning the tar with no more than the stoichiometric supply of oxygen provided by air to produce oxygen-free and tar-free hot combustion gases; (e) conducting the hot combustion gases directly into a mixer into which the fuel gas and water vapor flows from the precipitator, thereby adding to the fuel gas the sensible heat of the combustion gases; and (f) conducting the mixture so produced to a place of use as a hot fuel gas mixture.« less

  5. Vegetation response to western juniper slash treatments.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments (P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of

  6. Dynamics of a pinyon-juniper stand in northern Arizona: a half-century history

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2002-01-01

    This paper adds to the limited knowledge of stand dynamics in pinyon-juniper woodlands by reporting on the changes in species composition, numbers of trees, arrangements of trees, and total height and volume in a stand from late 1938 to early 1991. This information should be helpful in managing pinyon-juniper woodlands to sustain their productivity and maintain their...

  7. Rainfall, soil moisture, and runoff dynamics in New Mexico pinon-juniper woodland watersheds

    Treesearch

    Carlos Ochoa; Alexander Fernald; Vincent Tidwell

    2008-01-01

    Clearing trees in pinon-juniper woodlands may increase grass cover and infiltration, leading to reduced surface runoff and erosion. This study was conducted to evaluate pinon-juniper hydrology conditions during baseline data collection in a paired watershed study. We instrumented six 1.0 to 1.3 ha experimental watersheds near Santa Fe, NM to collect rainfall, soil...

  8. Runoff and erosion from a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, B.P.; Davenport, D. W.; Pitlick, J.

    1996-02-01

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been a widely recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. A more complete understanding will come only through long-term observations of erosion and related factors. To this end, we are conducting a study of a small (1-ha) catchment in a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland. Since July 1993, we have been collecting data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions in the catchment, as well as on the topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) the catchment is currently in a cycle ofmore » accelerated erosion that began concomitant with a shift from ponderosa pine forest to pinyon-juniper woodland that was initiated by a prolonged drought; (2) the intercanopy soils cannot be sustained at the current erosion rates and will be mostly stripped away in about a century; (3) large summer thunderstorms are the most important agents of erosion (4) erosion increases dramatically as the scale increases; (5) runoff makes up <10% of the water budget.« less

  9. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Treesearch

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  10. Biomass of singleleaf pinyon and Utah juniper

    Treesearch

    E. L. Miller; R. O. Meeuwig; J. D. Budy

    1981-01-01

    Biomass determinations in singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) - Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) stands in Nevada indicate that stem diameter and average crown diameter are the tree measurements most highly correlated with ovendry weights. The equations and tables developed provide a means for estimating the total aboveground...

  11. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions in runoffs by modified alfalfa and juniper

    Treesearch

    J.S. Han; J.K. Park; S.H. Min

    2000-01-01

    A series of batch isotherm tests was performed with alfalfa and juniper fibers to evaluate the effectiveness in filtering toxic heavy metals from stormwater. The adsorption of the heavy metal ions on the alfalfa and juniper fibers was strongly dependent on the equilibrium pH value of the solution. The change in sorption rate over time showed that two different sorption...

  12. Shrubland ecohydrologic response and recovery over a ten year period following pinyon and juniper removal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pinyon and juniper range expansion has altered plant community structure, hydrologic function, ecological condition, and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services on millions of hectares in the western US. On many rangeland sites, encroaching pinyon and juniper trees out-compete shrubs and herba...

  13. Impacts of pinyon and juniper control on ecosystems processes in the Porter Canyon Experimental Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The opportunistic encroachment of native pinyon and juniper trees into areas formerly dominated by sagebrush has reduced the presence of shrubs and grasses, impacting critical habitat and forage availability. Pinyon and juniper currently occupy 19 million ha in the Intermountain West and prior to 18...

  14. Restoration of Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe Following Prescribed Burning to Control Western Juniper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Madsen, M. D.; Nafus, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. Western juniper has been successfully controlled with partial cutting followed by prescribed burning the next fall, but the herbaceous understory and sagebrush may be slow to recover. We evaluated the effectiveness of seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlled by partially cutting and prescribed burning. Treatments tested at each site included an unseeded control, herbaceous seed mix (aerially seeded), and the herbaceous seed mix plus sagebrush seed. In the third year post-treatment, perennial grass cover and density were twice as high in plots receiving the herbaceous seed mix compared to the control plots. Sagebrush cover and density in the sagebrush seeded plots were between 74- and 290-fold and 62- and 155-fold greater than the other treatments. By the third year after treatment, sagebrush cover was as high as 12 % in the sagebrush seeded plots and between 0 % and 0.4 % where it was not seeded. These results indicate that aerial seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation can accelerate the recovery of perennial grasses which likely stabilize the site. Our results also suggest that seeding mountain big sagebrush after prescribed burning encroaching juniper can rapidly recover sagebrush cover and density. In areas where sagebrush habitat is limited, seeding sagebrush after juniper control may increase sagebrush habitat and decrease the risks to sagebrush-associated species.

  15. Restoration of mountain big sagebrush steppe following prescribed burning to control western juniper.

    PubMed

    Davies, K W; Bates, J D; Madsen, M D; Nafus, A M

    2014-05-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. Western juniper has been successfully controlled with partial cutting followed by prescribed burning the next fall, but the herbaceous understory and sagebrush may be slow to recover. We evaluated the effectiveness of seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlled by partially cutting and prescribed burning. Treatments tested at each site included an unseeded control, herbaceous seed mix (aerially seeded), and the herbaceous seed mix plus sagebrush seed. In the third year post-treatment, perennial grass cover and density were twice as high in plots receiving the herbaceous seed mix compared to the control plots. Sagebrush cover and density in the sagebrush seeded plots were between 74- and 290-fold and 62- and 155-fold greater than the other treatments. By the third year after treatment, sagebrush cover was as high as 12 % in the sagebrush seeded plots and between 0 % and 0.4 % where it was not seeded. These results indicate that aerial seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation can accelerate the recovery of perennial grasses which likely stabilize the site. Our results also suggest that seeding mountain big sagebrush after prescribed burning encroaching juniper can rapidly recover sagebrush cover and density. In areas where sagebrush habitat is limited, seeding sagebrush after juniper control may increase sagebrush habitat and decrease the risks to sagebrush-associated species.

  16. Drought induced tree mortality and ensuing bark beetle outbreaks in southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Clifford; Monique E. Rocca; Robert Delph; Paulette L. Ford; Neil S. Cobb

    2008-01-01

    The current drought and ensuing bark beetle outbreaks during 2002 to 2004 in the Southwest have greatly increased tree mortality in pinyon-juniper woodlands. We studied causes and consequences of the drought-induced mortality. First, we tested the paradigm that high stand densities in pinyon-juniper woodlands would increase tree mortality. Stand densities did not...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject to...

  19. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Hohmann, Judit

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (-) Escherichia coli F'lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 delta/1 and 0425 52C strains. The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F'lac bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with the checkerboard method. Peppermint oil and menthol displayed additive synergy with oxytetracycline. A new mechanism of plasmid curing was established for one of the oil components.

  20. Foliar carbon dynamics of piñon and juniper in response to experimental drought and heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, A.; Ryan, M. G.; Adams, H. D.; Dickman, L. T.; Garcia-Forner, N.; Grossiord, C.; Powers, H. H.; Sevanto, S.; McDowell, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant respiration (R) is generally well-coupled with temperature and in the absence of thermal acclimation, respiration is expected to increase as climate change brings higher temperatures. Increased drought is also predicted for future climate, which could drive respiration higher if the carbon (C) cost to maintain tissues (Rm) or grow increases, or lower if substrate or other factors become limiting. We examined the effects of temperature and drought on R as well as photosynthesis, growth, and carbohydrate storage of mature individuals of two co-dominant tree species. Three mature, in-situ piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees were assigned to each of the following treatments: +4.8 °C; 45% reduced precipitation; a combination of both (heat + drought); along with ambient control and treatment controls. Rm measured prior to foliar and twig growth was far more sensitive to drought in piñon, and heat in juniper. Total respiration (Rt, R not partitioned) acclimated to temperature in piñon such that elevated temperature had minimal impacts on Rt; however, juniper exhibited higher Rt with elevated temperature, thus juniper did not display any thermal acclimation. Rt in both species was weakly associated with temperature, but strongly correlated with pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic assimilation (A) rates, and in piñon, foliar carbohydrates. For both species, heat caused far more days where A-R was negative than did drought. The consequences of drought alone and heat alone in piñon included higher Rt per unit growth, indicating that each abiotic stress forces a greater allocation of Rt to maintenance costs, and both drought + heat in combination results in far fewer days that foliar carbohydrates could sustain R in both species. Notably, the much higher A and R of juniper than piñon is consistent with predicted superior carbon budget regulation of juniper than piñon during drought; however, juniper's lack of temperature acclimation

  1. Avian community responses to vegetation structure within chained and hand-cut pinyon-juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Crow, Claire

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in fuels-reduction treatment areas within pinyon-juniper woodlands at locations over the Colorado Plateau. The goal of this study was to document differences in avian community responses to two types of pinyon-juniper fuels-reduction treatments (chained vs. hand-cut), relative to control sites. We selected 73 vegetation plots in southern Utah and northern Arizona, of which 33 had been previously thinned by handcutting or chaining, and 40 control plots in untreated pinyon-juniper woodlands. At the 73 locations we documented vegetation structure and counted birds within 3.1 ha circular plots during the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons. We focused in particular on the effects of fuels-reduction treatments to 16 bird species that are considered pinyon-juniper obligates. We found that density of pinyon pines was the most important variable in predicting bird species richness in all treatments and at control sites. Abundance of Brewer’s Sparrow (Spizella breweri) was negatively related to chained, but positively related to hand cut areas. Vesper Sparrow (Poocetes graminius) abundance was negatively related to both chaining and handcutting. Within 16 pinyon-juniper obligate bird species, abundance of five was positively related to pinyon-pine density, while two were positively related to juniper density. These responses, along with other bird-vegetation relationships influenced by treatment type, need to be considered by land managers when planning fuels reduction treatments in pinyon-juniper woodland habitat in the Colorado Plateau.

  2. Characterizating western juniper expansion via a fusion of Landsat 5 thematic mapper and LiDAR data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniper encroachment into shrub steppe and grassland systems is one of the most prominent changes occurring in rangelands of western North America. Most studies on juniper change are conducted over small areas, although encroachment is occurring across large regions. Development of image-based met...

  3. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-975-000] Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. The value of Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) woodlands in South Dakota as small mammal habitat

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1988-01-01

    Small mammals and vegetation were sampled over two years in Rocky Mountain juniper woodlands and adjacent grasslands in South Dakota. Juniper woodlands provided specialized habitat for two woodland species, white-footed mice and bushy-tailed woodrats, and attracted a number of species generally associated with grasslands.

  6. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  7. Wildlife management in southwestern Pinon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Jeffery C. Whitney

    2008-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands in the southwestern United States (Arizona and New Mexico) represent approximately 54,000 square miles, equivalent to roughly 20% of the land base for the two states. Within this broad habitat type, there is a high degree of variability of vegetation in terms of species composition, their relative abundance, percent canopy cover, and typically...

  8. Juniper seed sources in the Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Cunningham; Rudy M. King

    2000-01-01

    At age 10, 100% of eastern redcedar ( L.) and Rocky Mountain juniper ( Sarg.) trees from several seed sources throughout the Great Plains had survived. Seed sources from southeastern Texas had the poorest survival. Eastern redcedar trees from Kansas seed sources grew tallest, and trees from Montana and southeastern Texas seed sources were the shortest. Rocky Mountain...

  9. Method for filtering solvent and tar sand mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kelterborn, J. C.; Stone, R. A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for filtering spent tar sands from a bitumen and organic solvent solution comprises separating the solution into two streams wherein the bulk of the coarser spent tar sand is in a first stream and has an average particle size of about 10 to about 100 mesh and the bulk of the finer spent tar sand is in a second stream; producing a filter cake by filtering the coarser spent tar sand from the first stream; and filtering the finer spent tar sand from the second stream with the filter cake. The method is particularly useful for filtering solutionsmore » of bitumen extracted from bitumen containing diatomite, spent diatomite and organic solvent.« less

  10. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  11. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  12. Smokers' knowledge and understanding of advertised tar numbers: health policy implications.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J B

    1996-01-01

    This article examines health policy implications of providing smokers with numerical tar yield information in cigarette advertising. Results of a national probability telephone survey regarding smokers' knowledge and understanding of numerical tar yields and deliveries are reported. Few smokers knew the tar level of their own cigarettes (the exception being smokers of 1- to 5-mg tar cigarettes), and a majority could not correctly judge the relative tar levels of cigarettes. Smokers were unsure whether switching to lower-tar cigarettes would reduce their personal health risks. Many smokers relied on absolute numbers in making trade-offs between number of cigarettes smoked and their tar levels, thus confusion machine-rated tar-yields with actual amounts ingested. The wisdom of the present method of providing tar and nicotine numbers in ads and recommendations for modifying the test protocol are now under discussion. This research indicates that these tar numbers and their implications are poorly understood. The paper recommends revisions in tar ratings to make them more useful and a required statement on cigarette packages to more explicitly relate tar levels to major health risks.

  13. Impact of grazing abandonment on floristic diversity in the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrahnakis, Michael; Kazoglou, Yannis; Fotiadis, George; Kakouros, Petros; Nasiakou, Stamatia; Soutsas, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    The habitat type *9562 Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) includes Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) forests and they are found mainly in the western sector of the Prespa National Park, NW Greece. Greek juniper forests are considered extremely rare for EU-28, recommending a priority habitat type in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC. In addition, their ecological importance is great given its high plant taxa richness; they harbor most of the 900 plant taxa found in the western sector of the Park, many of them being important for EU or global scale. The accelerated invasion of deciduous hardwoods is the most significant risk for the habitat, since its rich flora is well-adapted to open light conditions produced by the open spaced Greek junipers. Also, the dense vegetated conditions deprive the regeneration of the photophilous Greek juniper. The invasion results from the lack of its natural controller, i.e. the grazing livestock. It is estimated that the total area of juniper forests for the Devas area decreased to 89% of the area of 1945 in favor of invasive hardwoods. The paper presents the analysis of the floristic diversity of the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods (Juniperetum excelsae) (GJWs). Four (4) types of juniper forest ranges (GJWs) were distinguished in terms of canopy cover: (a) pure GJWs, (b) mixed open GJWs, (c) open GJWs, and (d) mixed dense GJWs. A total of 171 plant taxa were recorded, and distributed within 43 botanical families; the largest one being Leguminosae (26 taxa). The statistically estimated plant taxa richness for pure GJWs was 116.4, for mixed open 152.6, for open 57.9, and for mixed dense 90.2 taxa. The analysis of α-diversity indices did not reveal any specific trend of diversity for the four GJWs. The behavior of the variability of diversity among the four range types of GJWs was depending on the emphasis the used indices place on properties such as taxa richness or abundance. This fact was

  14. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibilitymore » problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and

  15. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low-tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low-tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low-tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low-tar theme and was included in the analysis. Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low-tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low-tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low-tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low-tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low-tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low-tar alternative brands. Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low-tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low-tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low-tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low-tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher-tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands

  16. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.76 - Asphalt and tar removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Asphalt and tar removers. 3201.76 Section 3201.76... Designated Items § 3201.76 Asphalt and tar removers. (a) Definition. Cleaning agents designed to remove asphalt or tar from equipment, roads, or other surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal...

  18. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  19. Smokers' knowledge and understanding of advertised tar numbers: health policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This article examines health policy implications of providing smokers with numerical tar yield information in cigarette advertising. METHODS. Results of a national probability telephone survey regarding smokers' knowledge and understanding of numerical tar yields and deliveries are reported. RESULTS. Few smokers knew the tar level of their own cigarettes (the exception being smokers of 1- to 5-mg tar cigarettes), and a majority could not correctly judge the relative tar levels of cigarettes. Smokers were unsure whether switching to lower-tar cigarettes would reduce their personal health risks. Many smokers relied on absolute numbers in making trade-offs between number of cigarettes smoked and their tar levels, thus confusion machine-rated tar-yields with actual amounts ingested. CONCLUSIONS. The wisdom of the present method of providing tar and nicotine numbers in ads and recommendations for modifying the test protocol are now under discussion. This research indicates that these tar numbers and their implications are poorly understood. The paper recommends revisions in tar ratings to make them more useful and a required statement on cigarette packages to more explicitly relate tar levels to major health risks. PMID:8561236

  20. The Australian tar derby: the origins and fate of a low tar harm reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    King, W; Carter, S; Borland, R; Chapman, S; Gray, N

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To document the development of the low tar harm reduction programme in Australia, including tobacco industry responses. Data sources: Tobacco industry documents, retail tobacco journals, newspapers, medical journals, and Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (ACCV) newsletters and archival records. Study selection: Documents on the strategies and knowledge bases of the ACCV, other Australian health authorities, and the tobacco industry. Results: The ACCV built a durable system for measuring and publicising the tar and nicotine yields of Australian cigarettes and influencing their development. The tobacco industry initially sought to block the development of this system but later appeared to cooperate with it, as is evidenced by the current market dominance of low tar brands. However, behind the scenes, the industry used its substantial knowledge advantage regarding compensatory smoking and its ability to re-engineer cigarettes to gain effective control of the system and subvert the ACCV's objectives. Conclusions: Replacement of the low tar programme with new means of minimising the harms from cigarette smoking should be a policy priority for the Australian government. This will require regulation, rather than further voluntary agreements, and stringent monitoring of successor programmes will be necessary. PMID:14645950

  1. Climatic signals in stable carbon isotope ratios of Juniper and Oak tree rings from northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroozan, Zeynab; Pourtahmasi, Kambiz; Bräuning, Achim

    2018-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios in tree rings are increasingly used as palaeoclimatic archive and ecophysiological indicator. We used cross-dated tree-ring series from different tree functional types, i.e. the evergreen conifer Juniperus polycarpus and the deciduous broadleaved Quercus macranthera. The samples were collected from Chaharbagh Gorgon forest in northern Iran, where oaks and junipers grow on north-facing and south-facing slopes, respectively. We extracted α-cellulose from the whole wood of annually separated tree rings and evaluated their potential for palaeoclimate reconstructions by examining the relationships between variations of δ13C in tree-ring cellulose and climate parameters. Based on tree-ring δ13C, we calculated intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and evaluated changes in water availability at the study site over the past 50 years. We found significant negative relationships between tree-ring δ13C values in oak and juniper and precipitation in April and spring (only in junipers), while no significant correlations of tree-ring δ13C with temperature occurred. A strong negative relationship between tree-ring δ13C and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was found at the drier site, indicating that juniper growing on south-facing slopes is a better indicator of drought stress in semiarid environments. A continuous increase in iWUE in both species was observed. δ13C variations in both species reflect the combined influence of climate and local site conditions. The interplay between climatic conditions and species behavior determines the inter-annual δ13C patterns of oak and juniper trees. Due to its more enriched mean δ13C (i.e., less negative average δ13C) and its higher climatic sensitivity, juniper is a more suitable proxy for paleoclimatic reconstructions in northern Iran.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands,more » high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.« less

  3. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low‐tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low‐tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low‐tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low‐tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low‐tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low‐tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low‐tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low‐tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low‐tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low‐tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low‐tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low‐tar brands in the mid‐1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low‐tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low‐tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low‐tar

  4. Pinyon and juniper encroachment into sagebrush ecosystems impacts distribution and survival of greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian; Ricca, Mark; Gustafson, K. Ben; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems, encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; hereafter, “pinyon-juniper”) trees has increased dramatically since European settlement. Understanding the impacts of this encroachment on behavioral decisions, distributions, and population dynamics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and other sagebrush obligate species could help benefit sagebrush ecosystem management actions. We employed a novel two-stage Bayesian model that linked avoidance across different levels of pinyon-juniper cover to sage-grouse survival. Our analysis relied on extensive telemetry data collected across 6 yr and seven subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS), on the border of Nevada and California. The first model stage indicated avoidance behavior for all canopy cover classes on average, but individual grouse exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in avoidance behavior of the lowest cover class (e.g., scattered isolated trees). The second stage modeled survival as a function of estimated avoidance parameters and indicated increased survival rates for individuals that exhibited avoidance of the lowest cover class. A post hoc frailty analysis revealed the greatest increase in hazard (i.e., mortality risk) occurred in areas with scattered isolated trees consisting of relatively high primary plant productivity. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that local sage-grouse distributions and demographic rates are influenced by pinyon-juniper, especially in habitats with higher primary productivity but relatively low and seemingly benign tree cover. Such areas may function as ecological traps that convey attractive resources but adversely affect population vital rates. To increase sage-grouse survival, our model predictions support reducing actual pinyon-juniper cover as low as 1.5%, which is lower than the published target of 4.0%. These results may represent effects of pinyon-juniper

  5. Proceedings - pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Includes more than 90 papers bringing together research accomplishments of the last 10 years including ongoing research on the ecology and management of pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Scientist and management points of view are presented.

  6. Dynamic Response of Southwest Juniper to Shifting Climate and Natural and Anthropogenic Changes in Atmospheric pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinniker, D. A.; Holmgren, C. A.; Pagani, M.

    2008-12-01

    Fossil packrat middens in the southwestern US contribute critical details to our understanding of past climate change and floral migrations across geography and elevation. Our presentation discusses the development of a largely unexplored molecular organic archive preserved in packrat middens from the southwestern US: the stable isotopic analysis of diet-averaged taxon specific biomarkers in both modern middens from southern Arizona and New Mexico and ancient middens from the Peloncillo Mountains of SE Arizona. The stable carbon isotope values of taxon specific makers allow estimations of changing growing season intra-leaf CO2 concentrations, carbon assimilation rates, and water use efficiency. Hydrogen isotope values aid in estimating growing season relative humidity. This more specifically reflects the extent of dry season transpiration and associated deuterium enrichment and can be seen as a simplified proxy for growing season phenology in perennial desert shrubs and trees. For southwest juniper, the derived isotopic record of phenology and growth indicates a remarkable sensitivity to changes in hydrology, temperature, and pCO2. Juniper growth rates are interpreted to have increased 70% from the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene in response to CO2 fertilization. However, a decrease in deuterium enrichment during the Bølling Allerod and Holocene indicates that elevated temperatures and limited access to soil moisture considerably shortened juniper growing seasons during these periods. Low midden preservation rates and rare juniper macrofossils in the Early and Mid Holocene provide additional evidence of overall drying and the seasonality of shallow groundwater during these periods. Increasing midden occurrence, juniper macrofossils, and deuterium enrichment in the Late Holocene suggest that afforestation during this time period was associated with lengthening juniper growing seasons. Carbon isotopic shifts between pre-industrial and modern middens suggest a 30

  7. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We also studied responses of breeding birds to mechanical reduction of pinyon-juniper woodlands scattered across sagebrush steppe in 11 control and 9 treatment plots at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, in 2005 and 2006. We surveyed birds in 3.1-ha (7.6-acre) plots during the breeding season before and following treatment. Thinning in April 2006 removed a mean of 92 percent (standard error = 6.4 percent) of the live trees from treatment plots. Two of 14 species, Gray Vireo (Vireo vicinior) and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), were not detected after thinning. Shrub-nesting birds, including sagebrush specialist Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri), increased in relative abundance in treatment areas compared to controls. However, some species may exhibit a time lag in response, and further changes in community composition and abundance could result. Our findings lend support to the concept that multiple small-scale fuels-reduction treatments, applied over the landscape, may provide the variety of successional stages needed to support a full assemblage of avian species in pinyon-juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau. Limiting scale and increasing precision of fuels-reduction projects in pinyon-juniper vegetation communities may maximize the benefits of management to both the pinyon-juniper and sagebrush steppe avian communities. We conclude that small-scale fuels-reduction treatments can benefit many bird species while reducing fire risk and restoring an ecological balance.

  8. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... condensate and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Drip gases are also... importation into the United States of an equal or greater quantity and an equal or better quality of crude oil or of a quantity and quality of petroleum products listed in Supplement No. 1 to this part that is...

  9. Process for obtaining liquid fuel-oil and/or gaseous hydrocarbons from solid carbonaceous feed stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hollaway, J.W.

    1978-02-28

    A process for forming a fuel-oil from coal is disclosed. The coal is treated in a low temperature carbonization retort to give coke, coal-gas and tar-oil. The coke is converted to water-gas which is then synthesized in a Fischer-Tropsch synthesizer to form fuel-oil. The tar-oil is hydrogenated in a hydro-treater by hydrogen produced from the coal-gas. Hydrogen is produced from coal-gas either in a thermal cracking chamber or by reforming the methane content to hydrogen and passing the resultant hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixture through a water-gas shift reactor and a carbon dioxide scrubber.

  10. Proceedings of the western juniper ecology and management workshop.

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Martin; J. Edward Dealy; David L. Caraher

    1977-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) is an important invader of range lands in central and eastern Oregon. Many people have asked questions about its control, effect on range productivity, and its benefits. The papers in this proceedings resulted from a conference held in Bend, Oregon, January 1977, to...

  11. Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars II: Distributions, orientations, and ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Daniel C.; Balme, Matthew R.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2011-05-01

    Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs), 10 m scale, ripple-like aeolian bedforms with simple morphology, are widespread on Mars but it is unknown what role they play in Mars' wider sediment cycle. We present the results of a survey of all Mars Global Surveyor Narrow angle images in a pole-to-pole study area, 45° longitude wide. Following on from the classification scheme and preliminary surveys of Balme et al. (Balme, M.R., Berman, D.C., Bourke, M.C., Zimbelman, J.R. [2008a]. Geomorphology 101, 703-720) and Wilson and Zimbelman (Wilson, S.A., Zimbelman, J.R. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (E10). doi: 10.1029/2004JE002247) we searched more than 10,000 images, and found that over 2000 reveal at least 5% areal cover by TARs. The mean TAR areal cover in the study area is about 7% (3% in the northern hemisphere and 11% in the southern hemisphere) but TARs are not homogenously distributed - they are concentrated in the mid-low latitudes and almost absent poleward of 35°N and 55°S. We found no clear correlation between TAR distribution and any of thermal inertia, kilometer-scale roughness, or elevation. We did find that TARs are less common at extremes of elevation. We found that TARs are most common near the equator (especially in the vicinity of Meridiani Planum, in which area they have a distinctive "barchan-like" morphology) and in large southern-hemisphere impact craters. TARs in the equatorial band are usually associated with outcrops of layered terrain or steep slopes, hence their relative absence in the northern hemisphere. TARs in the southern hemisphere are most commonly associated with low albedo, intercrater dune fields. We speculate that the mid-latitude mantling terrain (e.g., Mustard, J.F., Cooper, C.D., Rifkin, M.K. [2001]. Nature 412, 411-414; Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. [2002]. J. Geophys. Res. 29 (15). doi: 10.1029/2002GL015392) could also play a role in covering TARs or inhibiting saltation. We compared TAR distribution with general circulation model (GCM

  12. Atmospheric tar balls from biomass burning in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    Tar balls are spherical, organic aerosol particles that result from biofuel or biomass burning. They absorb sunlight and cause warming of the atmosphere. Although distinctive when viewed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) because of their spherical shape, much remains to be determined about details of their compositions, occurrences, and generation. Here we aim to characterize the occurrences of tar balls using individual-particle analyses with a TEM and to study their formation in young biomass-burning smoke. The samples were collected using the U.S. Forest Service Twin Otter aircraft during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) campaign conducted in March 2006. We analyzed 84 TEM grid samples from ~30 biomass-burning events near Mexico City and over Yucatan. Sixty samples were from young smoke (less than an hour old), and others were from haze that mainly occurred from biomass burning. Tar balls have neither an evident nucleus nor are they normally attached to other particles. They are almost perfectly spherical on TEM grids, indicating that they were solid when collected. It appears as if tar balls consist of lower volatility organic matter than many other organic aerosol particles. On average, 9% by number of biomass-burning aerosol particles were tar balls in samples collected between a few minutes to an hour after emission. On the other hand, samples collected within a few minutes after emission included few or no tar balls. The occurrences and abundances of atmospheric tar balls are important when evaluating the effects of smoke on local and regional climate.

  13. Ecological scale of bird community response to piñon-juniper removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) removal is a common management approach to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) vegetation in areas experiencing woodland expansion. Because many management treatments are conducted to benefit sagebrush-obligate birds, we surveyed bird communities to assess treatment effectiveness in establishing sagebrush bird communities at study sites in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon. Our analyses included data from 1 or 2 yr prior to prescribed fire or mechanical treatment and 3 to 5 yr posttreatment. We used detrended correspondence analysis to 1) identify primary patterns of bird communities surveyed from 2006 to 2011 at point transects, 2) estimate ecological scale of change needed to achieve treatment objectives from the relative dissimilarity of survey points to the ordination region delineating sagebrush bird communities, and 3) measure changes in pre- and posttreatment bird communities. Birds associated with sagebrush, woodlands, and ecotones were detected on our surveys; increased dissimilarity of survey points to the sagebrush bird community was characterized by a gradient of increased juniper and decreased sagebrush cover. Prescribed fires burned between 30% and 97% of our bird survey points. However, from 6% to 24% cover of piñon-juniper still remained posttreatment on the four treatment plots. We measured only slight changes in bird communities, which responded primarily to current vegetation rather than relative amount of change from pretreatment vegetation structure. Bird communities at survey points located at greater ecological scales from the sagebrush bird community changed least and will require more significant impact to achieve changes. Sagebrush bird communities were established at only two survey points, which were adjacent to a larger sagebrush landscape and following almost complete juniper removal by mechanical treatment. Our results indicate that management treatments that leave residual woodland cover

  14. Atmospheric Tar Balls: Particles from Biomass and Biofuel Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posfai, Mihaly; Gelencser, Andras; Simonics, Renata; Arato, Krisztina; Li, Jia; Hobbs, Peter V.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Tar balls are amorphous, carbonaceous spherules that occur in the tropospheric aerosol as a result of biomass and biofuel burning. They form a distinct group of particles with diameters typically between 30 and 500 nm and readily identifiable with electron microscopy. Their lack of a turbostratic microstructure distinguishes them from soot, and their morphology and composition (approximately 90 mol% carbon) renders them distinct from other carbonaceous particles. Tar balls are particularly abundant in slightly aged (minutes to hours old) biomass smoke, indicating that they likely form by gas-to-particle conversion within smoke plumes. The material of tar balls is initially hygroscopic; however, the particles become largely insoluble as a result of free radical polymerization of their organic molecules. Consequently, tar balls are primarily externally mixed with other particle types, and they do not appreciably increase in size during aging. When tar balls coagulate with water-bearing particles, their material may partly dissolve and no longer be recognizable as distinct particles. Tar balls may contain organic compounds that absorb sunlight. They are an important, previously unrecognized type of carbonaceous (organic) atmospheric particle.

  15. Tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of some Nigerian cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Awotedu, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Onadeko, B O

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cigarette brands manufactured in Nigeria in 1981 were analysed to determine the tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields. Five of the brands belonged to the high and middle to high tar category (greater than 22 mg/cigarette) and nine to the middle tar (17-22 mg/cigarette) category. None of the cigarettes was in the low to middle and low tar (less than 17 mg/cigarette) category. The nicotine and carbon monoxide yields were similar to those of European cigarettes. Tobacco companies need to manufacture low tar cigarettes in the Third World as is the practice in the economically developed parts of the world. PMID:6619721

  16. Ecosystem water availability in juniper versus sagebrush snow-dominated rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western Juniper (J. occidentalis Hook.) now dominates over 3.6 million ha of rangeland in the Intermountain Western US. Critical ecological relationships among snow distribution, water budgets, plant community transitions, and habitat requirements for wildlife, such as sage grouse, remain poorly und...

  17. Hydrologic response of mechanical mastication in juniper woodland in Utah

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various vegetation control methods have been used to reduce juniper (Juniperus ssp.) woodland encroachment. Mechanical mastication (reducing trees to a mulch residue) has recently been used in some western states. We investigated the hydrologic impacts of rubber tire tracks from the masticating vehi...

  18. Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes

    Treesearch

    Rodman R. Linn; Carolyn H. Sieg; Chad M. Hoffman; Judith L. Winterkamp; Joel D. McMillin

    2013-01-01

    We used a physics-based model, HIGRAD/FIRETEC, to explore changes in within-stand wind behavior and fire propagation associated with three time periods in pinyon-juniper woodlands following a drought-induced bark beetle outbreak and subsequent tree mortality. Pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes are highly heterogeneous. Trees often are clumped, with sparse patches...

  19. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization whichmore » have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.« less

  20. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Western Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.F.; Bates, J.D.; Svejcar, T.J.; Pierson, F.B.; Eddleman, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Strong evidence indicates that western juniper has significantly expanded its range since the late 1800s by encroaching into landscapes once dominated by shrubs and herbaceous vegetation (fig. 1). Woodland expansion affects soil resources, plant community structure and composition, water, nutrient and fire cycles, forage production, wildlife habitat, and biodiversity. Goals of juniper management include an attempt to restore ecosystem function and a more balanced plant community that includes shrubs, grasses, and forbs, and to increase ecosystem resilience to disturbances. Developing a management strategy can be a difficult task due to uncertainty about how vegetation, soils, hydrologic function, and wildlife will respond to treatments.

  2. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Historical and modern roles of fire in pinyon-juniper

    Treesearch

    George E. Gruell

    1999-01-01

    Fire history investigations were carried out in three widely separated Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodlands in east-central Nevada, southeastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada, and western Nevada. Study results suggested frequent fires on deep soils that produced an abundance of fine fuels and infrequent fires on shallow soils and rocky sites where fuels were sparse....

  4. Carbon isotopic comparisons of oil products used in the developmental history of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R.; Warden, A.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the fate of oil released into Prince William Sound, AK, as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, have led to an unexpected discovery. In addition to oil-like residues attributed to the spill, the ubiquitous presence of flattened tar balls, the carbon isotopic compositions of which fall within a surprisingly narrow range [??13C(PDB) = -23.7 ?? 0.3??? (n = 65)], were observed on the shorelines of the northern and western parts of the sound. These compositions are similar to those of some oil products [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 35)] that were shipped from California and used in Alaska for fuel, lubrication, construction, and paving before ~ 1970. These products include fuel oil, asphalt, and lubricants [-23.8 ?? 0.5??? (n = 11)], caulking, sealants, and roofing tar [-23.7 ?? 0.7??? (n = 16)], and road pavements and airport runways [-23.5 ?? 0.9??? (n = 8)]. Fuel oil and asphalt [-23.5 ?? 0.1??? (n = 3)], stored at the old Valdez town site and spilled during the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, appear to be the source of most of the beached tar balls. Oil products with lighter carbon isotopic compositions, between -25 and -30??? (n = 18), appear to have been used more recently in Alaska, that is, after ~ 1970. The source of some of the products used for modern pavement and runways [-29.3 ?? 0.2??? (n = 6)] is likely Alaskan North Slope crude oil, an example of which was spilled in the 1989 oil spill [-29.2??? (n = 1)].

  5. Fractal-like Tar Ball Aggregates from Wildfire Smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Girotto, Giulia; China, Swarup; Bhandari, Janarjan

    Tar balls are atmospheric particles abundant in slightly aged biomass burning smoke and have a significant, but highly uncertain, role on Earth's radiative balance. Tar balls are typically detected using electron microscopy; they are resistant to the electron beam, and generally, they are observed as individual spheres. Here, we report new observations of a significant fraction of tar ball aggregates (~27% by number) from samples collected in a plume of the Whitewater-Baldy Complex fire in New Mexico. The structure of these aggregates is fractal-like and follows a scale invariant power law similar to that of soot particles, despite the considerablymore » larger size and smaller number of monomers. We also present observations of tar ball aggregates from four other geographical locations, including from a remote high elevation site in the North Atlantic Ocean. Aggregation affects the particle optical properties and therefore, their climatic impact. We performed numerical simulations based on the observed morphology and estimated the effects of aggregation on the tar balls optical properties. We find that aggregation can enhance single scattering albedo by up to 41%.« less

  6. Mapping "old" versus "young" piñon-juniper stands with a predictive topo-climatic model in north-central New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, B. F.; Romme, W.H.; Allen, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    Piñon pine and juniper woodlands in the southwestern United States are often represented as an expanding and even invasive vegetation type, a legacy of historic grazing, and culpable in the degradation of western rangelands. A long-standing emphasis on forage production, in combination with recent hazard fuel concerns, has prompted a new era of woodland management with stated restoration objectives. Yet the extent and dynamics of piñon–juniper communities that predate intensive Euro-American settlement activities are poorly known or understood, while the intrinsic ecological, aesthetic, and economic values of old-growth woodlands are often overlooked. Historical changes in piñon–juniper stands include two related, but poorly differentiated processes: recent tree expansion into grass- or shrub-dominated (i.e., non-woodland) vegetation and thickening or infilling of savanna or mosaic woodlands predating settlement. Our work addresses the expansion pattern, modeling the occurrence of “older” savanna and woodland stands extant prior to 1850 in contrast to “younger” piñon–juniper growth of more recent, postsettlement origin. We present criteria in the form of a diagnostic key for distinguishing “older,” pre-Euro-American settlement piñon–juniper from “younger” (post-1850) stands and report results of predictive modeling and mapping efforts within a north-central New Mexico study area. Selected models suggest a primary role for soil moisture in the current distribution of “old” vs. “young” piñon–juniper stands. Presettlement era woodlands are shown to occupy a discrete ecological space, defined by the interaction of effective (seasonal) moisture with landform setting and fine-scale (soil/water) depositional patterns. “Older” stands are generally found at higher elevations or on skeletal soils in upland settings, while “younger” stands (often dominated by one-seed juniper, Juniperus monosperma) are most common at lower

  7. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  8. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in pinyon-juniper vegetation of the Western U.S.

    Treesearch

    William H. Romme; Craig D. Allen; John D. Bailey; William L. Baker; Brandon T. Bestelmeyer; Peter M. Brown; Karen S. Eisenhart; M. Lisa Floyd; David W. Huffman; Brian F. Jacobs; Richard F. Miller; Esteban H. Muldavin; Thomas W. Swetnam; Robin J. Tausch; Peter J. Weisberg

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of Pinons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic...

  9. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief…

  10. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010.In response to the BP oil spill, EPA sampled air, water, sediment, and waste generated by the cleanup operations.

  11. Characterisation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids of coal tar using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; McGregor, Laura; Richards, Phil; Kerr, Stephanie; Glenn, Aliyssa; Thomas, Russell; Kalin, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is a recently developed analytical technique in which two capillary columns with different stationary phases are placed in series enabling planar resolution of the analytes. The resolution power of GCxGC is one order of magnitude higher than that of one dimension gas chromatography. Because of its high resolution capacity, the use of GCxGC for complex environmental samples such as crude oils, petroleum derivatives and polychlorinated biphenyls mixtures has rapidly grown in recent years. We developed a one-step method for the forensic analysis of coal tar dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites. Coal tar is the by-product of the gasification of coal for heating and lighting and it is composed of thousands of organic and inorganic compounds. Before the boom of natural gases and oils, most towns and cities had one or several manufactured gas plants that have, in many cases, left a devastating environmental print due to coal tar contamination. The fate of coal tar DNAPLs, which can persist in the environment for more than a hundred years, is therefore of crucial interest. The presented analytical method consists of a unique clean-up/ extraction stage by pressurized liquid extraction and a single analysis of its organic chemical composition using GCxGC coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). The chemical fingerprinting is further improved by derivatisation by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) of the tar compounds containing -OH functions such as alcohols and carboxylic acids. We present here how, using the logical order of elution in GCxGC-TOFMS system, 1) the identification of never before observed -OH containing compounds is possible and 2) the isomeric selectivity of an oxidation reaction on a DNAPL sample can be revealed. Using samples collected at various FMGP sites, we demonstrate how this GCxGC method enables the simultaneous

  12. Drought predisposes piñon-juniper woodlands to insect attacks and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Monica L; Kolb, Thomas E; Pockman, William T; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Macalady, Alison K; Pangle, Robert E; McDowell, Nate G

    2013-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that drought predisposes trees to insect attacks, we quantified the effects of water availability on insect attacks, tree resistance mechanisms, and mortality of mature piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) using an experimental drought study in New Mexico, USA. The study had four replicated treatments (40 × 40 m plot/replicate): removal of 45% of ambient annual precipitation (H2 O-); irrigation to produce 125% of ambient annual precipitation (H2 O+); a drought control (C) to quantify the impact of the drought infrastructure; and ambient precipitation (A). Piñon began dying 1 yr after drought initiation, with higher mortality in the H2 O- treatment relative to other treatments. Beetles (bark/twig) were present in 92% of dead trees. Resin duct density and area were more strongly affected by treatments and more strongly associated with piñon mortality than direct measurements of resin flow. For juniper, treatments had no effect on insect resistance or attacks, but needle browning was highest in the H2 O- treatment. Our results provide strong evidence that ≥ 1 yr of severe drought predisposes piñon to insect attacks and increases mortality, whereas 3 yr of the same drought causes partial canopy loss in juniper. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in pinon-juniper vegetation of the western U.S.

    Treesearch

    William H. Romme; Craig D. Allen; John D. Bailey; William L. Baker; Brandon T. Bestelmeyer; Peter M. Brown; Karen S. Eisenhart; Lisa Floyd-Hanna; Dustin W. Huffman; Brian F. Jacobs; Richard F. Miller; Esteban H. Muldavin; Thomas W. Swetnam; Robin J. Tausch; Peter J. Weisberg

    2008-01-01

    Pinon-juniper is one of the major vegetation types in western North America. It covers a huge area, provides many resources and ecosystem services, and is of great management concern. Management of pinon-juniper vegetation has been hindered, especially where ecological restoration is a goal, by inadequate understanding of the variability in historical and modern...

  14. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.P.

    1993-09-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% ofmore » the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.« less

  15. Defining modeling parameters for juniper trees assuming pleistocene-like conditions at the NTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tarbox, S.R.; Cochran, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses part of Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) efforts to assess the long-term performance of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Of issue is whether the GCD site complies with 40 CFR 191 standards set for transuranic (TRU) waste burial. SNL has developed a radionuclide transport model which can be used to assess TRU radionuclide movement away from the GCD facility. An earlier iteration of the model found that radionuclide uptake and release by plants is an important aspect of the system to consider. Currently, the shallow-rooted plants at the NTS domore » not pose a threat to the integrity of the GCD facility. However, the threat increases substantially it deeper-rooted woodland species migrate to the GCD facility, given a shift to a wetter climate. The model parameters discussed here will be included in the next model iteration which assumes a climate shift will provide for the growth of juniper trees at the GCD facility. Model parameters were developed using published data and wherever possible, data were taken from juniper and pinon-juniper studies that mirrored as many aspects of the GCD facility as possible.« less

  16. Hydrologic processes in the pinyon-juniper woodlands: A literature review

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    Hydrologic processes in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the western region of the United States are variable because of the inherent interactions among the occurring precipitation regimes, geomorphological settings, and edaphic conditions that characterize the ecosystem. A wide range of past and present land-use practices further complicates comprehensive evaluations...

  17. Exploration for heavy crude oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Heavy oil and tar sand reserves are enormous, and this 700-page volume breaks the topic down into six emphasis areas of: regional resources worldwide; characterization, maturation, and degradation; geological environments and migration; exploration methods; exploration histories; and recovery. An appendix presents a guidebook to Santa Maria, Cuyama, Taft-McKettrick, and Edna oil districts, Coast Ranges, California.

  18. Oil turmoil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1979-07-01

    A review of US oil production, refining, and retailing reveals the severity of the energy problem and illustrates the confusion over what can be accomplished by decontrolling oil prices. Conflicting statements from members of Congress, the President, and the oil industry have further confused the public. The shortages can be traced to a decline in domestic production incentives and foreign production, a slowdown in refinery expansion because of environmental constraints, competition between home heating oil and gasoline for priority, the failure of states to enforce speed limits, and a national preoccupation with oil profits. Senator Kennedy, for example, advocates continuedmore » price controls with a world-wide drilling program funded by the World Bank, while decontrol advocates feel price controls will only artifically restrain US production. The economic effects of decontrol on inflation are unclear, but conservation efforts, the development of alternative energy sources, and oil development from shale and tar sands are predicted to increase as political rhetoric declines.« less

  19. AmeriFlux US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper

    DOE Data Explorer

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper. Site Description - Freeman Ranch is a 4200 ha research area owned by Texas State University. It is located on the easter Edwards Plateau in central Texas and overlies and recharges the Edwards Aquifer. Most of the ranch is occupied by upland habitats.

  20. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Treesearch

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  1. Removal of pinyon-juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau

    Treesearch

    Michael Peters; Neil S. Cobb

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) woodland is the 3rd largest vegetation type in the United States, covering 35.5% of the Colorado Plateau, it is the largest vegetation type administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on the Colorado Plateau. These woodlands have been increasing dramatically in density and extent over the last 100...

  2. AmeriFlux US-SCw Southern California Climate Gradient - Pinyon/Juniper Woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, Mike

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SCw Southern California Climate Gradient - Pinyon/Juniper Woodland. Site Description - Half hourly data are available at https://www.ess.uci.edu/~california/. This site is one of six Southern California Climate Gradient flux towers operated along an elevation gradient (sites are US-SCg, US-SCs, US-SCf, US-SCw, US-SCc, US-SCd). This site is a Pinyon Juniper woodland with trees that are at least 150 years old, and ephemeral herbaceous cover following winter or spring rains. The site has experienced repeated drought during the record and roughly 50% Pinyon mortality over the last decade. Amore » nearby tower site (US-SCc) burned in a 1994 wildfire; comparisons between US-SCw and US-SCc provide a measure of the effects of the 1994 on land-atmosphere exchange.« less

  3. Redberry juniper as a roughage source in lamb feedlot rations: performance and serum nonesterified fatty acids, urea nitrogen, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Muir, J P

    2010-04-01

    Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with dry redberry juniper leaves on performance and serum NEFA, urea N, and IGF-1 were investigated in Rambouillet lambs (n = 24, initial BW = 28.6 +/- 4.94 kg). In a study with 2 feeding periods (period 1 = 65% concentrate ration, 28 d; period 2 = 85% concentrate ration, 49 d), lambs were individually fed ad libitum treatment diets containing cottonseed hulls (control; CSH), one-half of the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (CSHJ), or all the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (JUN). Lamb BW was similar on d 0 and 14, but increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.04) BW on d 28. Differences in BW during period 1 are attributed to ADG and average daily DMI linearly decreasing (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of juniper, with lambs fed CSH, CSHJ, or JUN diets having ADG of 0.34, 0.30, and 0.14 kg, respectively. Differences in average daily DMI are attributed to secondary compounds in the cottonseed hulls and juniper and nutrient-toxin interactions. Lambs fed CSHJ diets had the greatest (P = 0.04) G:F compared with lambs fed CSH and JUN during period 1. Lambs fed JUN diets tended to have the greatest (P = 0.09) NEFA concentrations during period 1, and increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.006) serum urea N and IGF-1 on d 14 and 28, respectively. During period 2, intake and growth of lambs fed JUN diet rapidly increased, resulting in all lambs having similar ADG, DMI, G:F, and BW. When period 2 began (d 33), serum NEFA and urea N were similar (P > 0.12) among lambs, but serum IGF-1 tended to be linearly reduced (P = 0.09) by increasing juniper in the diet. At times during period 2, lambs fed CSHJ had the greatest (P < 0.02) serum urea N (d 40 and 82) and IGF-1 (d 54) concentrations. Results were interpreted to indicate that air-dried redberry juniper leaves can replace all of the cottonseed hulls in lamb feedlot rations. Feeding 30% juniper in the diet for a longer

  4. Oil and the Future of Marine Corps Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    World Oil Consumption by Sector 2003-2030 21 2 World Oil Consumption by Region and Country Group 2003-2030 21 3 Hubbert’s Original 1956...is increasing. This theory will be examined in more detail below. Unconventional fuels created from coal , tar sands, and oil shale are a potential...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel from coal . The so called Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process supplied a substantial amount of Germany’s fuels during World War II

  5. Determine the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio in arid and semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, Hadi; Suzuki, Rikie

    2012-11-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera. L (pistachio) and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper). Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. In this study, we estimated the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. In this research spectral reflectance are able to specify of multispectral from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) that provided by JAXA. These data included PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, has one band with a wavelength of 0.52-0.77 μm and AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42-0.50 μm), green (0.52-0.60 μm), red (0.61-0.69 μm), and near infrared (0.76-0.89 μm). Total ratio vegetation index (TRVI) of optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio have been evaluated. The result of TRVI for Pistachio and juniper were (R2= 0.71 and 0.55). I hope this research can provide decision of managers to helping sustainable management for arid and semi-arid regions in Iran.

  6. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  7. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification.more » Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a

  8. Cubic-foot tree volume equations and tables for western juniper.

    Treesearch

    Judith M. Chittester; Colin D. MacLean

    1984-01-01

    This note presents cubic-foot volume equations and tables for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook. ). Total cubicfoot volume (ground to tip, excluding all branches (CVTS)) is expressed as a function of diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height. Utilizable cubic-foot volume (top of 12-inch stump to a 4-inch top, excluding all...

  9. Banded TARs in Iapygia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-10

    The tropics of Mars are commonly littered with small bright ripples that were somehow shaped by the wind. NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter might provide a valuable clue to the formation of transverse aeolian ridges TARs elsewhere on Mars.

  10. Shrub-steppe early succession following invasive juniper cutting and prescribed fire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Piñon-juniper woodlands of the western United States have expanded in area nearly 10-fold since the late 1800’s. Woodland dominance in sagebrush steppe has several negative consequences including reductions in herbaceous production and diversity, decreased wildlife habitat, higher erosion and runof...

  11. Population-wide changes in pinyon-juniper woodlands caused by drought in the American Southwest: Effects on structure, composition, and distribution

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    A complex of drought, insects, and disease caused widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest types of the American Southwest in recent years. Data from 14,929 plots spanning 25 years and representing over 25 million hectares were analyzed to characterize effects of drought-related mortality on the structure, composition, and distribution of pinyon and juniper...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  17. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. Themore » transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.« less

  18. Viewpoint: Sustainability of piñon-juniper ecosystems - A unifying perspective of soil erosion thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, David W.; Breshears, D.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Allen, Craig D.

    1998-01-01

    Many pinon-juniper ecosystem in the western U.S. are subject to accelerated erosion while others are undergoing little or no erosion. Controversy has developed over whether invading or encroaching pinon and juniper species are inherently harmful to rangeland ecosystems. We developed a conceptual model of soil erosion in pinon-jumper ecosystems that is consistent with both sides of the controversy and suggests that the diverse perspectives on this issue arise from threshold effects operating under very different site conditions. Soil erosion rate can be viewed as a function of (1) site erosion potential (SEP), determined by climate, geomorphology and soil erodibility; and (2) ground cover. Site erosion potential and cove act synergistically to determine soil erosion rates, as evident even from simple USLE predictions of erosion. In pinon-juniper ecosystem with high SEP, the erosion rate is highly sensitive to ground cover and can cross a threshold so that erosion increases dramatically in response to a small decrease in cover. The sensitivity of erosion rate to SEP and cover can be visualized as a cusp catastrophe surface on which changes may occur rapidly and irreversibly. The mechanisms associated with a rapid shift from low to high erosion rate can be illustrated using percolation theory to incorporate spatial, temporal, and scale-dependent patterns of water storage capacity on a hillslope. Percolation theory demonstrates how hillslope runoff can undergo a threshold response to a minor change in storage capacity. Our conceptual model suggests that pinion and juniper contribute to accelerated erosion only under a limited range of site conditions which, however, may exist over large areas.

  19. Antioxidant activities and volatile constituents of various essential oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Alfreda; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2007-03-07

    Thirteen essential oils were examined for their antioxidant activity using three different assay systems. Jasmine, parsley seed, rose, and ylang-ylang oils inhibited hexanal oxidation by over 95% after 40 days at a level of 500 microg/mL in the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Scavenging abilities of the oils for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical ranged from 39% for angelica seed oil to 90% for jasmine oil at a level of 200 microg/mL. The greatest inhibitory activity toward malonaldehyde (MA) formation from squalene upon UV-irradiation was obtained from parsley seed oil (inhibitory effect, 67%), followed by rose oil (46%), and celery seed oil (23%) at the level of 500 microg/mL. The main compounds of oils showing high antioxidant activity were limonene (composition, 74.6%) in celery seed, benzyl acetate (22.9%) in jasmine, alpha-pinene (33.7%) in juniper berry, myristicin (44%) in parsley seed, patchouli alcohol (28.8%) in patchouli, citronellol (34.2%) in rose, and germacrene (19.1%) in ylang-ylang.

  20. Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning for genomics studies and synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning represents a unique tool for isolation and manipulation of large DNA molecules. The technique exploits a high level of homologous recombination in the yeast Sacharomyces cerevisiae. So far, TAR cloning is the only method available to selectively recover chromosomal segments up to 300 kb in length from complex and simple genomes. In addition, TAR cloning allows the assembly and cloning of entire microbe genomes up to several Mb as well as engineering of large metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize applications of TAR cloning for functional/structural genomics and synthetic biology. PMID:27116033

  1. The potential use of tar sand bitumen as paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper several research reports describing the preparation of potential paving asphalts from tar sand bitumen are reviewed and the results of the studies compared. The tar sand asphalts described in the studies were prepared from 1) hot water-recovered bitumen from deposits near San Luis Obispo, California (Edna deposits), and deposits near Vernal and Sunnyside, Utah; and 2) bitumen recovered from the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposits near Vernal, Utah, by both in situ steamflood and in situ combustion recovery processes. Important properties of the tar sand asphalts compare favorably with those of specification petroleum asphalts. Laboratory data suggest thatmore » some tar sand asphalts may have superior aging characteristics and produce more water-resistant paving mixtures than typical petroleum asphalts.« less

  2. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H.; Bergboer, Judith G.M.; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M.J.J.; Hato, Stanleyson V.; van der Valk, Pieter G.M.; Schröder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte–mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine–mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD. PMID:23348739

  3. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Bergboer, Judith G M; Vonk-Bergers, Mieke; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; Hato, Stanleyson V; van der Valk, Pieter G M; Schröder, Jens Michael; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2013-02-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular mechanism of coal tar therapy is unknown. Using organotypic skin models with primary keratinocytes from AD patients and controls, we found that coal tar activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), resulting in induction of epidermal differentiation. AHR knockdown by siRNA completely abrogated this effect. Coal tar restored filaggrin expression in FLG-haploinsufficient keratinocytes to wild-type levels, and counteracted Th2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of skin barrier proteins. In AD patients, coal tar completely restored expression of major skin barrier proteins, including filaggrin. Using organotypic skin models stimulated with Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, we found coal tar to diminish spongiosis, apoptosis, and CCL26 expression, all AD hallmarks. Coal tar interfered with Th2 cytokine signaling via dephosphorylation of STAT6, most likely due to AHR-regulated activation of the NRF2 antioxidative stress pathway. The therapeutic effect of AHR activation herein described opens a new avenue to reconsider AHR as a pharmacological target and could lead to the development of mechanism-based drugs for AD.

  4. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods.

  5. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-01

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  6. Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A; Bakar, M Z A

    2013-05-01

    A new effective RF tar thermocatalytic treatment process with low energy intensive has been proposed to remove tar from biomass gasification. Toluene and naphthalene as biomass tar model compounds were removed via both thermal and catalytic treatment over a wide temperature range from 850 °C to 1200 °C and 450 °C to 900 °C, respectively at residence time of 0-0.7 s. Thermal characteristics of the new technique are also described in this paper. This study clearly clarified that toluene was much easier to be removed than naphthalene. Soot was found as the final product of thermal treatment of the tar model and completely removed during catalytic treatment. Radical reactions generated by RF non-thermal effect improve the tar removal. The study showed that Y-zeolite has better catalytic activity compared to dolomite on toluene and naphthalene removal due to its acidic nature and large surface area, even at lower reaction temperature of about 550 °C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemistry of throughfall under douglas fir and Rocky Mountain juniper. [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca; Juniperus scopulorum

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.E.; Parent, D.R.

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrate were measured in throughfall under isolated douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) trees in northern Utah for 39 storms in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations were 3-16 times greater under the trees than in the open. Throughfall under douglas fir invariably had higher concentrations than that under juniper. Since most of the chemical input occurs as dry fallout between storms, surface area and form of the canopy are believed to be the prime factors influencing throughfall chemistry in this region. 15 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Managing pinon-juniper ecosystems for sustainability and social needs; proceedings of the symposium 1993 April 26-30; Sante Fe, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Earl F. Aldon; Douglas W. Shaw

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to assist the USDA Forest Service, other federal land management agencies, and the New Mexico State Land Office in the future development and management of the pinon-juniper ecosystem in the Southwest. Authors assessed the current state of knowledge about the pinon-juniper resource and helped develop future research and management...

  9. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in ...

  10. Effects of garlic and juniper berry essential oils on ruminal fermentation and on the site and extent of digestion in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Benchaar, C; Ametaj, B N; Chaves, A V; He, M L; McAllister, T A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding essential oils from garlic (GAR) and juniper berry (JUN), or monensin (MO) on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, the site and extent of digestion, microbial protein synthesis, milk production, and immune status in dairy cows. Four midlactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and 4 treatments: control (no additive), MO (330 mg/cow per d), GAR (5 g/cow per d), and JUN (2 g/cow per d). Cows were fed ad libitum a TMR consisting of 40% forage and 60% barley-based concentrate. Dry matter intake averaged 20.4 kg/d and was not affected by dietary additives. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, fiber, and starch were not affected by experimental treatments. However, ruminal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher (+13%) for GAR and JUN than for the control diet, mainly because of increased crude protein digestion in the rumen. Feeding GAR and JUN increased ruminal digestion of dietary protein by 11% as compared with the control. In contrast, ruminal digestion of dietary protein was reduced by 11% with MO as compared with the control. Milk fat content was lower for MO (2.68%) than for the GAR (3.46%), JUN (3.40%), and control (3.14%) diets. No effects of GAR, JUN, or MO were observed on milk production, ruminal microbial protein synthesis, ruminal pH, and ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia N. The total and differential numbers of white blood cells as well as serum amyloid A and haptoglobin were not affected by the treatments, suggesting that additives had no effect on the immune status of cows. Results of this study indicate that supplementing dairy cows with GAR (5 g/d) and JUN (2 g/d) essential oils improved feed digestibility in the rumen, but possibly at the expense of a reduction in the flow of bypass protein to the small intestine. Feeding monensin could

  11. A landscape-scale assessment of plant communities, hydrologic processes, and state-and-transition theory in a western juniper dominated ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Steven L.

    Western juniper has rapidly expanded into sagebrush steppe communities in the Intermountain West during the past 120 years. This expansion has occurred across a wide range of soil types and topographic positions. These plant communities, however, are typically treated in current peer-reviewed literature generically. The focus of this research is to investigate watershed level response to Western juniper encroachment at multiple topographic positions. Data collected from plots used to measure vegetation, soil moisture, and infiltration rates show that intercanopy sites within encroached Western juniper communities generally exhibit a significant decrease in intercanopy plant density and cover, decreased infiltration rates, increased water sediment content, and lower soil moisture content. High-resolution remotely sensed imagery and Geographic Information Systems were used with these plot level measurements to characterize and model the landscape-scale response for both biotic and abiotic components of a Western juniper encroached ecosystem. These data and their analyses included an inventory of plant density, plant cover, bare ground, gap distance and cover, a plant community classification of intercanopy patches and juniper canopy cover, soil moisture estimation, solar insulation prediction, slope and aspect. From these data, models were built that accurately predicted shrub density and shrub cover throughout the watershed study area, differentiated by aspect. We propose a new model of process-based plant community dynamics associated with current state-and-transition theory. This model is developed from field measurements and spatially explicit information that characterize the relationship between the matrix mountain big sagebrush plant community and intercanopy plant community patterns occurring within a Western juniper dominated woodland at a landscape scale. Model parameters (states, transitions, and thresholds) are developed based on differences in shrub

  12. Using goats and sheep to control juniper saplings: what we've learned

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary findings and conclusions were synthesized from a series of papers published between 2006-2014 from studies conducted at CRLRC and the NMSU Campus Farm seeking to determine the feasibility of using sheep and goats to suppress oneseed juniper sapling encroachment. We found that protein sup...

  13. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa.

  14. Frijolito Watershed: Integrated investigations of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, B.P.; Pitlick, J.; Allen, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been widely recognized, but few process-based studies of this phenomenon have been undertaken. In an attempt to identify the underlying causes, and the factors that affect erosion processes, we have initiated an interdisciplinary study of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Since July 1993, we have collected data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions from a 1-ha catchment study area and have conducted surveys of topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that although runoff makes up lessmore » than 10% of the annual water budget, runoff events - which are frequent in the summer - are capable of moving large amounts of sediment. We estimate that between July 1993 and October 1994, between 25,000 and 50,000 kg of sediment has eroded and been transported from the catchment. The information gained from such studies is essential to our ability to formulate effective strategies for managing these rapidly eroding woodlands.« less

  15. Cocarcinogenicity of phenols from Estonian shale tars (oils).

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Mirme, H I

    1979-01-01

    Many phenols have carcinogenic activity. The Estonian shale oils contain up to 40 vol % phenols. The promoting activity after initiation of phenols of Estonian shale oils was tested in mice with a single subthreshold dose (0.36 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene. C57Bl and CC57Br mice were used in skin painting experiments. Weak carcinogenic activity was found in the total crude water-soluble phenols recovered from the wastewater of a shale processing plant. In two-stage experiments a clear promoting action of the total crude phenols was established, whereas the fractions A and B (training reagents), obtained by selective crystallization of the total phenols exerted a considerably weaker promoting action. Epo-glue, a commercial epoxy product produced from unfractionated crude phenols, had no promoting activity, which may be due to the processing of the phenols involving polymerization. The mechanism of action of phenols is not clear. According to some data from the literature, phenol and 5-methylresorcinol reduce the resorption speed of BP in mouse skin, causing prolongation of the action fo the carcinogen. PMID:446449

  16. Cocarcinogenicity of phenols from Estonian shale tars (oils).

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P A; Mirme, H I

    1979-06-01

    Many phenols have carcinogenic activity. The Estonian shale oils contain up to 40 vol % phenols. The promoting activity after initiation of phenols of Estonian shale oils was tested in mice with a single subthreshold dose (0.36 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene. C57Bl and CC57Br mice were used in skin painting experiments. Weak carcinogenic activity was found in the total crude water-soluble phenols recovered from the wastewater of a shale processing plant. In two-stage experiments a clear promoting action of the total crude phenols was established, whereas the fractions A and B (training reagents), obtained by selective crystallization of the total phenols exerted a considerably weaker promoting action. Epo-glue, a commercial epoxy product produced from unfractionated crude phenols, had no promoting activity, which may be due to the processing of the phenols involving polymerization. The mechanism of action of phenols is not clear. According to some data from the literature, phenol and 5-methylresorcinol reduce the resorption speed of BP in mouse skin, causing prolongation of the action fo the carcinogen.

  17. Hydraulic limits preceding mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland under experimental drought.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hill, Judson; Pangle, Robert; Sperry, John S; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2012-09-01

    Drought-related tree mortality occurs globally and may increase in the future, but we lack sufficient mechanistic understanding to accurately predict it. Here we present the first field assessment of the physiological mechanisms leading to mortality in an ecosystem-scale rainfall manipulation of a piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We measured transpiration (E) and modelled the transpiration rate initiating hydraulic failure (E(crit) ). We predicted that isohydric piñon would experience mortality after prolonged periods of severely limited gas exchange as required to avoid hydraulic failure; anisohydric juniper would also avoid hydraulic failure, but sustain gas exchange due to its greater cavitation resistance. After 1 year of treatment, 67% of droughted mature piñon died with concomitant infestation by bark beetles (Ips confusus) and bluestain fungus (Ophiostoma spp.); no mortality occurred in juniper or in control piñon. As predicted, both species avoided hydraulic failure, but safety margins from E(crit) were much smaller in piñon, especially droughted piñon, which also experienced chronically low hydraulic conductance. The defining characteristic of trees that died was a 7 month period of near-zero gas exchange, versus 2 months for surviving piñon. Hydraulic limits to gas exchange, not hydraulic failure per se, promoted drought-related mortality in piñon pine. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; De Schrijver, A; Leroux, O; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2014-02-01

    Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11,943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadi, N., E-mail: nurhadi@tekmira.esdm.go.id; Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the mostmore » promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.« less

  20. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  1. EPA's New Oil and Dispersant Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has initiated a new component of its oil spills research program to develop baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and toxicity and efficacy of dispersant agents. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands are currently being t...

  2. Western Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rapid expansion of western juniper into neighboring plant communities during the past 130 years has been linked to increased soil erosion; reduced forage production; altered wildlife habitat; changes in plant community composition, structure, and biodiversity. Impacts of post-settlement woodland...

  3. Deciphering structure-activity relationships in a series of Tat/TAR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Lise; González, Alejandro López; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Gaysinski, Marc; Teixido Closa, Jordi; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    A series of pentameric "Polyamide Amino Acids" (PAAs) compounds derived from the same trimeric precursor have been synthesized and investigated as HIV TAR RNA ligands, in the absence and in the presence of a Tat fragment. All PAAs bind TAR with similar sub-micromolar affinities but their ability to compete efficiently with the Tat fragment strongly differs, IC50 ranging from 35 nM to >2 μM. While NMR and CD studies reveal that all PAA interact with TAR at the same site and induce globally the same RNA conformational change upon binding, a comparative thermodynamic study of PAA/TAR equilibria highlights distinct TAR binding modes for Tat competitor and non-competitor PAAs. This led us to suggest two distinct interaction modes that have been further validated by molecular modeling studies. While the binding of Tat competitor PAAs induces a contraction at the TAR bulge region, the binding of non-competitor ones widens it. This could account for the distinct PAA ability to compete with Tat fragment. Our work illustrates how comparative thermodynamic studies of a series of RNA ligands of same chemical family are of value for understanding their binding modes and for rationalizing structure-activity relationships.

  4. Use of saltcedar and Utah juniper as fillers in wood–plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Craig Clemons; Nicole Stark

    2007-01-01

    Invasive and small-diameter species have become more prevalent, creating numerous environmental and ecological problems. One potential method to control and eliminate invasive species and thereby promote natural rangeland restoration is developing new, value-added uses for them. Saltcedar (Tamarisk ramosissima) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) were investigated...

  5. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resouce growth pool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching into (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and to increase cover and density of desirable understory species. A major concern for using prescribed fire or mechanical treatments to reduce trees is th...

  6. Environmental, genetic, and ecophysiological variation of western and Utah juniper and their hybrids: A model system for vegetation response to climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, R.S.; Tausch, R.J.

    1998-11-01

    This report focuses on the following two research projects relating to the biological effects of climate change: Hybridization and genetic diversity populations of Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western (Juniperus occidentalis) juniper: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA; and Ecophysiological patterns of pinyon and juniper.

  7. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in piñon-juniper vegetation of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romme, William H.; Allen, Craig D.; Bailey, John D.; Baker, William L.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Brown, Peter M.; Eisenhart, Karen S.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Huffman, David W.; Jacobs, Brian F.; Miller, Richard F.; Muldavin, Esteban H.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Tausch, Robin J.; Weisberg, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Piñon–juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of piñons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic disturbance regimes; and 3) the mechanisms driving changes in vegetation structure and composition during the past 150 yr. This article summarizes what we know (and don't know) about three fundamentally different kinds of piñon–juniper vegetation. Persistent woodlands are found where local soils, climate, and disturbance regimes are favorable for piñon, juniper, or a mix of both; fires have always been infrequent in these woodlands. Piñon–juniper savannas are found where local soils and climate are suitable for both trees and grasses; it is logical that low-severity fires may have maintained low tree densities before disruption of fire regimes following Euro-American settlement, but information is insufficient to support any confident statements about historical disturbance regimes in these savannas. Wooded shrublands are found where local soils and climate support a shrub community, but trees can increase during moist climatic conditions and periods without disturbance and decrease during droughts and following disturbance. Dramatic increases in tree density have occurred in portions of all three types of piñon–juniper vegetation, although equally dramatic mortality events have also occurred in some areas. The potential mechanisms driving increases in tree density—such as recovery from past disturbance, natural range expansion, livestock grazing, fire exclusion, climatic variability, and CO2 fertilization—generally have not received enough empirical or experimental investigation to predict which is most important in any given location. The intent of this synthesis is 1) to provide a

  8. Effect of water addition in a microwave assisted thermal cracking of biomass tar gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsita, A.; Surya, I.

    2018-02-01

    Producer gas from biomass gasification is plagued by the presence of tar which causes pipe blockages. Thermal and catalytic treatments in a microwave reactor have been shown to be effective methods for removing tar from producer gas. A question arises as to the possibility of enhancing the removal mechanism by adding water into the reactor. Thermal treatment with a various amount of water was added at temperatures in the range of 800-1200°C. The tar removal efficiency obtained 96.32% at the optimum temperature of 1200°C at the water to tar ratio (W/T) of 0.3. This study shows that the removal of tar by microwave irradiation with water addition is a significant and effective method in tar cracking.

  9. Why is cultural resource site density high in the pinon-juniper woodland?

    Treesearch

    Sarah Schlanger; Signa Larralde

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Hunter gatherers relied on healthy pinon-juniper woodland because it supports a wide variety of small game, large game, and bird species that shelter in the trees and forage on pinon nuts, a rich food source for humans as well as game.

  10. The TAR effect: when the ones who dislike become the ones who are disliked.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram; Walther, Eva

    2008-09-01

    Four studies tested whether a source's evaluations of other individuals can recursively transfer to the source, such that people who like others acquire a positive valence, whereas people who dislike others acquire a negative valence (Transfer of Attitudes Recursively; TAR). Experiment 1 provides first evidence for TAR effects, showing recursive transfers of evaluations regardless of whether participants did or did not have prior knowledge about the (dis)liking source. Experiment 2 shows that previously but not subsequently acquired knowledge about targets that were (dis)liked by a source overrode TAR effects in a manner consistent with cognitive balance. Finally, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that TAR effects are mediated by higher order propositional inferences (in contrast to lower order associative processes), in that TAR effects on implicit attitude measures were fully mediated by TAR effects on explicit attitude measures. Commonalities and differences between the TAR effect and previously established phenomena are discussed.

  11. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ground-water contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Garbarino, John R.; Hult, Marc F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed.

  13. Big sagebrush in pinyon-juniper woodlands: Using forest inventory and analysis data as a management tool for quantifying and monitoring mule deer habitat

    Treesearch

    Chris Witt; Paul L. Patterson

    2011-01-01

    We used Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IW-FIA) data to identify conditions where pinyon-juniper woodlands provide security cover, thermal cover, and suitable amounts of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp.) forage to mule deer in Utah. Roughly one quarter of Utah's pinyon-juniper woodlands had a big sagebrush component in their understory....

  14. Role of TAR RNA splicing in translational regulation of simian immunodeficiency virus from rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Viglianti, G A; Rubinstein, E P; Graves, K L

    1992-01-01

    The untranslated leader sequences of rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus mRNAs form a stable secondary structure, TAR. This structure can be modified by RNA splicing. In this study, the role of TAR splicing in virus replication was investigated. The proportion of viral RNAs containing a spliced TAR structure is high early after infection and decreases at later times. Moreover, proviruses containing mutations which prevent TAR splicing are significantly delayed in replication. These mutant viruses require approximately 20 days to achieve half-maximal virus production, in contrast to wild-type viruses, which require approximately 8 days. We attribute this delay to the inefficient translation of unspliced-TAR-containing mRNAs. The molecular basis for this translational effect was examined in in vitro assays. We found that spliced-TAR-containing mRNAs were translated up to 8.5 times more efficiently than were similar mRNAs containing an unspliced TAR leader. Furthermore, these spliced-TAR-containing mRNAs were more efficiently associated with ribosomes. We postulate that the level of TAR splicing provides a balance for the optimal expression of both viral proteins and genomic RNA and therefore ultimately controls the production of infectious virions. Images PMID:1629957

  15. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis)

    PubMed Central

    Gruwez, R.; De Frenne, P.; De Schrijver, A.; Leroux, O.; Vangansbeke, P.; Verheyen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. Methods In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11 943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Key Results Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Conclusions Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. PMID:24284814

  16. Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B.; Guerin, M. R.

    Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.

  17. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Treesearch

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  18. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S.

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of suchmore » compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.« less

  19. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  20. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  1. Effects of feeding ground redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to gestating ewes on pre- and postpartum performance, serum metabolites and hormones, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Hallford, D M; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Naumann, H D

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum. Treatment DM diet intake overall (g/kg BW) in ewes receiving no juniper was similar ( ≥ 0.38) to that of those receiving increasing concentrations of juniper. Changes in ewe BW and BCS were similar ( ≥ 0.24) in ewes throughout gestation. All serum metabolites and hormones were within normal clinical ranges; however, serum IGF-1 decreased linearly ( = 0.003), alanine increased (linear; = 0.003), and serum Na decreased (linear; = 0.049) as the percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Ewe milk fatty acid composition was similar ( > 0.05) for the majority of fatty acids across treatment groups, with the exception of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) being greater ( < 0.02) in 54JUN vs. CNTL ewe milk. Lamb birth weights were similar ( = 0.13), whereas lamb ADG tended to differ (quadratic; = 0.06) from d 0 to 14, with 18JUN being the least. At weaning, BW tended ( = 0.09) to linearly decrease in lambs born to ewes consuming greater concentrations of juniper but were not different ( = 0.26) between CNTL and 18JUN, 36JUN, and 54JUN. Results indicated that feeding increasing levels of ground juniper in supplements did not negatively alter ewe performance or serum metabolites and hormones measured pre- and postpartum. Lamb birth weight and preweaning performance

  2. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05) and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves

  3. Holocene fire occurrence and alluvial responses at the leading edge of pinyon–juniper migration in the Northern Great Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weppner, Kerrie N.; Pierce, Jennifer L.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2013-01-01

    Fire and vegetation records at the City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), south-central Idaho, display the interaction of changing climate, fire and vegetation along the migrating front of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma). Radiocarbon dating of alluvial charcoal reconstructed local fire occurrence and geomorphic response, and fossil woodrat (Neotoma) middens revealed pinyon and juniper arrivals. Fire peaks occurred ~ 10,700–9500, 7200–6700, 2400–2000, 850–700, and 550–400 cal yr BP, whereas ~ 9500–7200, 6700–4700 and ~ 1500–1000 cal yr BP are fire-free. Wetter climates and denser vegetation fueled episodic fires and debris flows during the early and late Holocene, whereas drier climates and reduced vegetation caused frequent sheetflooding during the mid-Holocene. Increased fires during the wetter and more variable late Holocene suggest variable climate and adequate fuels augment fires at CIRO. Utah juniper and single-leaf pinyon colonized CIRO by 3800 and 2800 cal yr BP, respectively, though pinyon did not expand broadly until ~ 700 cal yr BP. Increased fire-related deposition coincided with regional droughts and pinyon infilling ~ 850–700 and 550–400 cal yr BP. Early and late Holocene vegetation change probably played a major role in accelerated fire activity, which may be sustained into the future due to pinyon–juniper densification and cheatgrass invasion.

  4. Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.

    PubMed

    Umezu, T

    2000-06-01

    The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice.

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected essential oils and some of their main compounds.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

    2010-09-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils of cabreuva (Myrocarpus fastigiatus Allemao, Fabaceae) from Brazil, cedarwood (Juniperus ashei, Cupressaceae) from Texas, Juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) and myrrh (Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., Burseraceae) were analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils and some of their main compounds were tested against eleven different strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by using agar diffusion and agar serial dilution methods. Animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria were selected. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all tested organisms, except Pseudomonas, using both test methods. Higher activity was observed against Gram-positive strains in comparison with Gram-negative bacteria. Cabreuva oil from Brazil showed similar results, but in comparison with the other oils tested, only when higher concentrations of oil were used.

  6. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  7. An object-based image analysis of pinyon and juniper woodlands treated to reduce fuels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanical and prescribed fire treatments are commonly used to reduce fuel loads and maintain or restore sagebrush steppe rangelands across the Great Basin where pinyon (Pinus) and juniper (Juniperus) trees are encroaching and infilling. Geospatial technologies, particularly remote sensing, could p...

  8. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best.

  9. Wildlife associations in Rocky Mountain juniper in the northern Great Plains, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; John E. Gobeille

    1995-01-01

    Rocky Mountain juniper is an important habitat component in the northern Great Plains. These woodlands provide vertical and horizontal vegetative structure that enhances wildlife use. Ecological approaches to managing habitats require understanding relationships between wildlife species and succession in plant communities. We determined bird, small mammals and large...

  10. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected pinon-juniper woodland

    Treesearch

    Erin Berryman; John D. Marshall; Thom Rahn; Marcie Litvak; John Butnor

    2013-01-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting pinon-juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of...

  11. A management-oriented classification of pinyon-juniper woodlands of the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Neil E. West; Robin J. Tausch; Paul T. Tueller

    1998-01-01

    A hierarchical framework for the classification of Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodlands was based on a systematic sample of 426 stands from a random selection of 66 of the 110 mountain ranges in the region. That is, mountain ranges were randomly selected, but stands were systematically located on mountain ranges. The National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units...

  12. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Treesearch

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  13. Understanding the stability of pyrolysis tars from biomass in a view point of free radicals.

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Liu, Qingya; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhenyu; Ci, Donghui; Lievens, Caroline; Guo, Xiaofen; Liu, Muxin

    2014-03-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass has attracted increasing attention worldwide to produce bio-tars that can be upgraded into liquid fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-tars are usually poor in quality and stability and are difficult to be upgraded. To better understand the nature of the bio-tars, this work reveals radical concentration of tars derived from pyrolysis of two kinds of biomass. The tars were obtained by condensing the pyrolysis volatiles in 3s. It shows that the tars contain large amounts of radicals, at a level of 10(16)spins/g, and are able to generate more radicals at temperatures of 573K or higher, reaching a level of 10(19)spins/g at 673K in less than 30min. The radical generation in the tar samples is attributed to the formation of THF insoluble matters (coke), which also contain radicals. The radical concentrations of the aqueous liquids obtained in pyrolysis are also studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalytic Tar Reduction for Assistance in Thermal Conversion of Space Waste for Energy Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne Joan; Devor, Robert William; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Nur, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    The Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigates technologies for converting waste generated during spaceflight into various resources. One of these technologies was gasification, which employed a downdraft reactor designed and manufactured at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the conversion of simulated space trash to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide would then be converted to methane for propulsion and water for life support systems. A minor byproduct of gasification includes large hydrocarbons, also known as tars. Tars are unwanted byproducts that add contamination to the product stream, clog the reactor and cause complications in analysis instrumentation. The objective of this research was to perform reduction studies of a mock tar using select catalysts and choose the most effective for primary treatment within the KSC downdraft gasification reactor. Because the KSC reactor is operated at temperatures below typical gasification reactors, this study evaluates catalyst performance below recommended catalytic operating temperatures. The tar reduction experimentation was observed by passing a model tar vapor stream over the catalysts at similar conditions to that of the KSC reactor. Reduction in tar was determined using gas chromatography. Tar reduction efficiency and catalyst performances were evaluated at different temperatures.

  15. Coal-tar-based pavement sealants—a potent source of PAHs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    P avement sealants are applied to the asphalt pavement of many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds in North America (Figure 1), where, when first applied, they render the pavement glossy black and looking like new. Sealant products used commercially in the central, eastern, and northern United States typically are coal-tarbased, whereas those used in the western United States typically are asphalt-based. Although the products look similar, they are chemically different. Coal-tarbased pavement sealants typically are 25-35 percent (by weight) coal tar or coal-tar pitch, materials that are known human carcinogens and that contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related chemicals (unless otherwise noted, all Figure 1. Pavement sealant is commonly used to seal parking lots, playgrounds, and driveways throughout the United States. Sealants used in the central, northern, eastern, and southern United States typically contain coal tar or coal-tar pitch, both of which are known human carcinogens. Photos by the U.S. Geological Survey. data in this article are from Mahler et al. 2012 and references therein).

  16. Consideration of Sludge Formation in HFC-134a / Polyol Ester oil Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Tethuya; Simizu, Yasuhiko; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Takizawa, Kikuo

    A refrigeration test employing HFC-134a and polyol ester oil was carried out in order to make clear the causes of the sludge formation in the capillary tube. Compressors used were two types: a hermetic reciprocating compressor and a rotary compressor. Installed dryer contained desiccant of the compound zeolite type. The results showed that the amount of capillary sludge increased as the compressor temperature rose. The capillary sludge was determined to consist of desiccant and metal dust for the reciprocating compressor, and of tar-like substance for the rotary compressor. Thermal stability test which was used to check the degree of deterioration of the ester oil, suggested that the presence of desiccant and high compressor temperature might produce tar-like substance by the break down and polymerization of the ester oil. In addition, it was confirmed that factors affecting the sludge formation were the dirtiness of the refrigeration circuit for the reciprocating compressor, and the presence of desiccant, for the rotary compressor.

  17. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste.

  19. Estimating tar and nicotine exposure: human smoking versus machine generated smoke yields.

    PubMed

    St Charles, F K; Kabbani, A A; Borgerding, M F

    2010-02-01

    Determine human smoked (HS) cigarette yields of tar and nicotine for smokers using their own brand in their everyday environment. A robust, filter analysis method was used to estimate the tar and nicotine yields for 784 subjects. Seventeen brands were chosen to represent a wide range of styles: 85 and 100 mm lengths; menthol and non-menthol; 17, 23, and 25 mm circumference; with tar yields [Federal Trade Commission (FTC) method] ranging from 1 to 18 mg. Tar bands chosen corresponded to yields of 1-3 mg, 4-6 mg, 7-12 mg, and 13+ mg. A significant difference (p<0.0001) in HS yields of tar and nicotine between tar bands was found. Machine-smoked yields were reasonable predictors of the HS yields for groups of subjects, but the relationship was neither exact nor linear. Neither the FTC, the Massachusetts (MA) nor the Canadian Intensive (CI) machine-smoking methods accurately reflect the HS yields across all brands. The FTC method was closest for the 7-12 mg and 13+ mg products and the MA method was closest for the 1-3mg products. The HS yields for the 4-6 mg products were approximately midway between the FTC and the MA yields. HS nicotine yields corresponded well with published urinary and plasma nicotine biomarker studies. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of long-term precipitation manipulation on hydraulic architecture and xylem anatomy of piñon and juniper in Southwest USA.

    PubMed

    Hudson, P J; Limousin, J M; Krofcheck, D J; Boutz, A L; Pangle, R E; Gehres, N; McDowell, N G; Pockman, W T

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic architecture imposes a fundamental control on water transport, underpinning plant productivity, and survival. The extent to which hydraulic architecture of mature trees acclimates to chronic drought is poorly understood, limiting accuracy in predictions of forest responses to future droughts. We measured seasonal shoot hydraulic performance for multiple years to assess xylem acclimation in mature piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) after 3+ years of precipitation manipulation. Our treatments consisted of water addition (+20% ambient precipitation), partial precipitation-exclusion (-45% ambient precipitation), and exclusion-structure control. Supplemental watering elevated leaf water potential, sapwood-area specific hydraulic conductivity, and leaf-area specific hydraulic conductivity relative to precipitation exclusion. Shifts in allocation of leaf area to sapwood area enhanced differences between irrigated and droughted K L in piñon but not juniper. Piñon and juniper achieved similar K L under ambient conditions, but juniper matched or outperformed piñon in all physiological measurements under both increased and decreased precipitation treatments. Embolism vulnerability and xylem anatomy were unaffected by treatments in either species. Absence of significant acclimation combined with inferior performance for both hydraulic transport and safety suggests piñon has greater risk of local extirpation if aridity increases as predicted in the southwestern USA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ecology, management, and restoration of pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine ecosystems: combined proceedings of the 2005 St. George, Utah and 2006 Albuquerque, New Mexico workshops

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; John D. Shaw; Paulette L. Ford

    2008-01-01

    Southwestern pinon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and adjacent Colorado. Ponderosa pine forests are the most common timberland in the Southwest. All three ecosystems provide a variety of natural resources and economic benefits to the region. There are different perceptions of desired conditions. Public and private land...

  2. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements...

  7. Task 3.9 -- Catalytic tar cracking. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Tar produced in the gasification of coal is deleterious to the operation of downstream equipment including fuel cells, gas turbines, hot-gas stream cleanup filters, and pressure swing adsorption systems. Catalytic cracking of tars to smaller hydrocarbons can be an effective means to remove these tars from gas streams and, in the process, generate useful products, e.g., methane gas, which is crucial to the operation of molten carbonate fuel cells. The objectives of this project are to investigate whether gasification tars can be cracked by synthetic nickel-substituted micamontmorillonite, zeolite, or dolomite material; and whether the tars can be cracked selectively bymore » these catalysts to produce a desired liquid and/or gas stream. Results to date are presented in the cited papers.« less

  8. Microwave-induced cracking of pyrolytic tars coupled to microwave pyrolysis for syngas production.

    PubMed

    Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Montes-Morán, M A; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

    2016-10-01

    Herein a new process is proposed to produce a syngas-rich gas fraction (>80vol% H2+CO) from biowaste based on microwave heating within two differentiated steps in order to avoid tars production. The first step consists of the microwave pyrolysis of biowaste induced by a char-based susceptor at 400-800°C; tars, char and syngas-rich gas fractions being produced. The tars are then fed into the second step where a portion of the char from the first step is used as a bed material in a 0.3:1wt% ratio. This bed is heated up by microwaves up to 800°C, allowing thermal cracking of tars and additional syngas (>90vol% H2+CO) being then produced. This new concept arises as an alternative technology to the gasification of biowastes for producing syngas with no need for catalysts or gasifying reagents to minimise tars production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of bark and woodboring beetles to host volatiles and wounding on western juniper

    Treesearch

    Jane L. Hayes; Patricia L. Johnson; Andris Eglitis; Donald W. Scott; Lia Spiegel; Craig L. Schmitt; Steven E. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In central Oregon, management of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook.) has included use of prescribed fire and mechanical removal. After these treatments, several species of bark and wood-boring beetles have been observed on treated trees and also occasionally on trees outside management areas, suggesting...

  10. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ΣPAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ΣPAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  16. Effect of latitude and altitude on the terpenoid and soluble phenolic composition of juniper (Juniperus communis) needles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity in the boreal zone.

    PubMed

    Martz, Françoise; Peltola, Rainer; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Stark, Sari

    2009-10-28

    The demand for dry juniper (Juniperus communis) needles as a raw material for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries has increased rapidly in recent years. Juniper needles are known to be rich in terpenoids and phenolics, but their chemical composition and antibacterial properties have not been well-characterized. In this study, we describe the soluble phenolic and terpenoid composition of juniper needles collected in Finland (n = 125) and demonstrate that the concentration of these compounds clearly increased with latitude and altitude with, however, a stronger latitudinal effect (a higher content of monoterpenoids, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols in northern latitudes). Analysis of methanolic extracts showed quite good activity against both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and suggested an important role of the soluble phenolic fraction. Finally, we demonstrate the relative lack of toxicity of juniper extracts on keratinocytes and fibroblastic cells, raising the possibility of their use in preventing bacterial skin infection.

  17. Relationship of stand characteristics to drought-induced mortality in three Southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    M. Lisa Floyd; Michael Clifford; Neil S. Cob; Dustin Hanna; Robert Delph; Paulette Ford; Dave Turner

    2009-01-01

    Extreme drought conditions accompanied by rising temperatures have characterized the American Southwest during the past decade, causing widespread tree mortality in pinon-juniper woodlands. Pinon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) mortality is linked primarily to outbreaks of the pinyon ips (Ips confusus (Leconte)) precipitated by drought conditions. Although we searched...

  18. Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oil. Phase I. Preliminary Process Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-09

    OIL RESERVOIRS OF THE UNITED STATES Resource: Oil -in-Place State Field Name (County) (Million Bbls.) Arkansas Smackover Old (Union) 1,6U0 California...Flow Schematic for Gas Oil Feed Hydrotreater 94 14 Summary of Case Studies for Processing Bitumen from New Mexico 95 15 Summary of Case Studies for...Naphtha Hydrotreating Process Estimates 112 14 Gas Oil Hydrocracking Process Estimates 113 l! Gas Oil Hydrotreating Process Estimate 114 16 Fluid

  19. Growth and yield of southwest pinyon-juniper woodlands: Modeling growth and drought effects

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    A complex of drought, insects, and disease caused widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest types of the American Southwest in recent years. Most public and scientific attention has been given to the extent of drought-related mortality and causal factors. At the same time, there has been relatively little attention given to non-lethal drought effects. As part...

  20. Ecohydrological Linkages, Multi-scale Processes, Temporal Variability, and Drivers of Change in a Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Watershed: Implications for Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    In 1993 long-term research began on the runoff and erosion dynamics of a pinyon-juniper woodland hillslope at Bandelier National Monument in northern New Mexico (USA). In the 1.09 ha Frijolito watershed, erosion has been continuously studied at 3 spatial scales: 1 square meter, about 1000 square meters, and the entire watershed. This site is currently representative of degraded woodlands of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in this region, exhibiting marked connectivity of exposed bare soil interspaces between tree canopy patches and obvious geomorphic signs of accelerated soil erosion (e.g., pedestalling, actively expanding rill networks). Ecological and land use histories show that this site has undergone a number of dramatic ecohydrological shifts since ca. C.E. 1850, transitioning from: 1) open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) overstory with limited pinyon-juniper component and substantial herbaceous understory that supported surface fires and constrained soil erosion, to; 2) ponderosa pine with reduced herbaceous cover due to livestock grazing after ca.1870, resulting in collapse of the surface fire regime and increased establishment of young pinyon and juniper trees, to; 3) mortality of all of the ponderosa pine during the extreme drought of the 1950s, leaving eroding pinyon-juniper woodland, to; 4) mortality of all mature pinyon at or above sapling size during the 2002-2003 drought, with juniper now the only dominant woody species. Detailed measurements since 1993 document high rates of soil erosion (> 2.75 Mg/ha/year on average at the watershed scale) that are rapidly stripping the local soils. Long-term observations are needed to distinguish short-term variability from longer term trends, as measurements of runoff and erosion show extreme variability at multiple time scales since 1993. The multi-scale erosion data from the Frijolito watershed reveal little dropoff in erosion rate (g/meter-squared) between the one meter

  1. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat—Potential concerns for human health and aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Woodside, Michael D.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2016-04-20

    Aquatic Life Concerns—Runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement, even runoff collected more than 3 months after sealcoat application, is acutely toxic to fathead minnows and water fleas, two species commonly used to assess toxicity to aquatic life. Exposure to even highly diluted runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement can cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair. These findings demonstrate that coal-tar-sealcoat runoff can remain a risk to aquatic life for months after application.

  2. 77 FR 67663 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Land Use Plan Amendments for Allocation of Oil Shale and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... quality, climate change, water quality and quantity, socio- economic concerns, wildlife concerns, and...] Notice of Availability of the Proposed Land Use Plan Amendments for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands... (BLM) has prepared the Proposed Resource Management Plan (RMP) Amendments for Allocation of Oil Shale...

  3. Evaluating mountain meadow groundwater response to pinyon-juniper and temperature in a great basin watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expansion of deeply-rooted Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) has altered water partitioning and reduced water availability to discharging meadows. Research highlights the development and application of GSFLOW to a semi-arid, snow-dominated watershed in the Great Basin to evaluate PJ and temperature controls on mo...

  4. Assessment of effects of canopy disturbance on plants in a pinion-juniper stand (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Malchus B. Baker; William H. Kruse

    2000-01-01

    An important objective of studying understory/ overstory relationships is to determine the patterns of succession or development within the understory plant community following a severe disturbance to the overstory. In 1988, a commercial fuelwood harvest was applied to a pinyon-juniper stand. The remaining noncommercial overstory was cut and lopped. Two years later,...

  5. Expansion and contraction tension zones in western pinon-juniper woodlands under projected climate change

    Treesearch

    Jacob Gibson; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracey S. Frescino; Thomas C. Jr. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Populations of pinons and junipers across the interior west have been highly dynamic over the last two centuries, undergoing an overall expansion but punctuated with regional mortality. Accumulating demographic studies across the interior west indicate the drivers of expansion and contraction of populations are compounded by regional land use legacies, but have an...

  6. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelialmore » cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.« less

  7. Terpene profile of one-seed juniper saplings explains differential herbivory by small ruminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted in central New Mexico to examine the relationship between terpene profile and one-seed juniper sapling herbivory by sheep and goats. Fifteen does (47.9 ± 1.1 kg) and four ewes (69.2 ± 0.9 kg) were allotted to 16 paddocks (20 x 30m) for 6 days in summer 2006 and spring 2007. Lea...

  8. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smokingmore » ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.« less

  9. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Needles from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees are known to cause late term abortions in cattle. Recently, there have been several reports of abortion rates of 10-15% within cattle herds in Oregon after cattle were pastured in areas with abundant western juniper trees (Juniperus occidentalis)....

  10. Chemistry of through-fall and stem-flow leachate following rainfall simulation over pinyon and juniper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We hypothesized that leachate from pinyon and juniper canopies, following rainfall events, may contribute sizable levels of solutes and C to the soil surface. We quantified solutes and dissolved carbon in stem-flow (SF) and through-fall (TF) following replicated rainfall simulation events in a pinyo...

  11. Influence of Prescribed Fire on Ecosystem Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in a Pinyon Juniper Woodland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pinyon and juniper woodland encroachment associated with climate change and land use history in the Great Basin is thought to provide offsets for carbon emissions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long ...

  12. Pollutant sensitivity of the endangered Tar River Spinymussel as assessed by single chemical and effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Thomas P.; Wang, Ning; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The federally endangered Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana) is endemic to the Tar River and Neuse River systems in North Carolina. The extent to which water quality limits Tar River spinymussels’ recovery is important to establish, and one aspect of that is understanding the species’ pollutant sensitivity. The primary objectives of this study were to 1) develop captive propagation and culture methods for Tar River spinymussels; 2) determine the pollutant sensitivity of captively propagated Tar River spinymussels; 3) examine the utility of the non-endangered yellow lance (Elliptio lanceolata), yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa) and notched rainbow (Villosa constricta) as surrogates for the Tar River spinymussels’ chemical sensitivity; 4) develop a 7-d method for conducting effluent toxicity tests starting with newly transformed mussels; 5) assess the toxicity of municipal wastewater effluents discharged into the Tar River spinymussels’ current and historic habitat; and, 6) evaluate the protection afforded by existing effluent toxicity test requirements.

  13. Effects of human chromosome 12 on interactions between Tat and TAR of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, A; Cujec, T P; Peterlin, B M

    1994-01-01

    Rates of transcriptions of the human immunodeficiency virus are greatly increased by the viral trans activator Tat. In vitro, Tat binds to the 5' bulge of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA stem-loop, which is present in all viral transcripts. In human cells, the central loop in TAR and its cellular RNA-binding proteins are also critical for the function of Tat. Previously, we demonstrated that in rodent cells (CHO cells), but not in those which contain the human chromosome 12 (CHO12 cells), Tat-TAR interactions are compromised. In this study, we examined the roles of the bulge and loop in TAR in Tat trans activation in these cells. Whereas low levels of trans activation depended solely on interactions between Tat and the bulge in CHO cells, high levels of trans activation depended also on interactions between Tat and the loop in CHO12 cells. Since the TAR loop binding proteins in these two cell lines were identical and different from their human counterpart, the human chromosome 12 does not encode TAR loop binding proteins. In vivo binding competition studies with TAR decoys confirmed that the binding of Tat to TAR is more efficient in CHO12 cells. Thus, the protein(s) encoded on human chromosome 12 helps to tether Tat to TAR via its loop, which results in high levels of trans activation. Images PMID:8083988

  14. Influence of cigarette filter ventilation on smokers' mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Caraway, John W; Ashley, Madeleine; Bowman, Sheri A; Chen, Peter; Errington, Graham; Prasad, Krishna; Nelson, Paul R; Shepperd, Christopher J; Fearon, Ian M

    2017-12-01

    Cigarette filter ventilation allows air to be drawn into the filter, diluting the cigarette smoke. Although machine smoking reveals that toxicant yields are reduced, it does not predict human yields. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cigarette filter ventilation and mouth level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine in cigarette smokers. We collated and reviewed data from 11 studies across 9 countries, in studies performed between 2005 and 2013 which contained data on MLE from 156 products with filter ventilation between 0% and 87%. MLE among 7534 participants to tar and nicotine was estimated using the part-filter analysis method from spent filter tips. For each of the countries, MLE to tar and nicotine tended to decrease as filter ventilation increased. Across countries, per-cigarette MLE to tar and nicotine decreased as filter ventilation increased from 0% to 87%. Daily MLE to tar and nicotine also decreased across the range of increasing filter ventilation. These data suggest that on average smokers of highly ventilated cigarettes are exposed to lower amounts of nicotine and tar per cigarette and per day than smokers of cigarettes with lower levels of ventilation. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of genetic variants on haematopoiesis in patients with thrombocytopenia absent radii (TAR) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manukjan, Georgi; Bösing, Hendrik; Schmugge, Markus; Strauß, Gabriele; Schulze, Harald

    2017-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia absent radii (TAR) syndrome is clearly defined by the combination of radial aplasia and reduced platelet counts. The genetics of TAR syndrome has recently been resolved and comprises a microdeletion on Chromosome 1 including the RBM8A gene and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) either at the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) or within the first intron of RBM8A. Although phenotypically readily diagnosed after birth, the genetic determination of particular SNPs in TAR syndrome harbours valuable information to evaluate disease severity and treatment decisions. Here, we present clinical data in a cohort of 38 patients and observed that platelet counts in individuals with 5'UTR SNP are significantly lower compared to patients bearing the SNP in intron 1. Moreover, elevated haemoglobin values could only be assessed in patients with 5'UTR SNP whereas white blood cell count is unaffected, indicating that frequently observed anaemia in TAR patients could also be SNP-dependent whereas leucocytosis does not correlate with genetic background. However, this report on a large cohort provides an overview of important haematological characteristics in TAR patients, facilitating evaluation of the various traits in this disease and indicating the importance of genetic validation for TAR syndrome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pinon and juniper field guide: Asking the right questions to select appropriate management actions

    Treesearch

    R. J. Tausch; R. F. Miller; B. A. Roundy; J. C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding...

  17. Annual increments of juniper dwarf shrubs above the tree line on the central Tibetan Plateau: a useful climatic proxy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Eryuan; Lu, Xiaoming; Ren, Ping; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Liping; Eckstein, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Dendroclimatology is playing an important role in understanding past climatic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Forests, however, are mainly confined to the eastern Tibetan Plateau. On the central Tibetan Plateau, in contrast, shrubs and dwarf shrubs need to be studied instead of trees as a source of climate information. The objectives of this study were to check the dendrochronological potential of the dwarf shrub Wilson juniper (Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii) growing from 4740 to 4780 m a.s.l. and to identify the climatic factors controlling its radial growth. Forty-three discs from 33 stems of Wilson juniper were sampled near the north-eastern shore of the Nam Co (Heavenly Lake). Cross-dating was performed along two directions of each stem, avoiding the compression-wood side as far as possible. A ring-width chronology was developed after a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope had been fit to the raw measurements. Then, correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded by a weather station around 100 km away. Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Wilson juniper, based on its longevity (one individual was 324 years old), well-defined growth rings, reliable cross-dating between individuals and distinct climatic signals reflected by the ring-width variability. Unlike dwarf shrubs in the circum-arctic tundra ecosystem which positively responded to above-average temperature in the growing season, moisture turned out to be growth limiting for Wilson juniper, particularly the loss of moisture caused by high maximum temperatures in May-June. Because of the wide distribution of shrub and dwarf shrub species on the central Tibetan Plateau, an exciting prospect was opened up to extend the presently existing tree-ring networks far up into one of the largest tundra regions of the world.

  18. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-01-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent

  19. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  20. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  1. Exosomes from HIV-1-infected Cells Stimulate Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines through Trans-activating Response (TAR) RNA*

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin C.; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Schwab, Angela; Barclay, Robert; Punya, Shreya; Chung, Myung-Chul; Hakami, Ramin M.; Asad Zadeh, Mohammad; Lepene, Benjamin; Klase, Zachary A.; El-Hage, Nazira; Young, Mary; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic illness because long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy can lower viral titers to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases virus burden. Moreover, patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy frequently develop various metabolic disorders, neurocognitive abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that exosomes containing trans-activating response (TAR) element RNA enhance susceptibility of undifferentiated naive cells to HIV-1 infection. This study indicates that exosomes from HIV-1-infected primary cells are highly abundant with TAR RNA as detected by RT-real time PCR. Interestingly, up to a million copies of TAR RNA/μl were also detected in the serum from HIV-1-infected humanized mice suggesting that TAR RNA may be stable in vivo. Incubation of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells with primary macrophages resulted in a dramatic increase of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-β, indicating that exosomes containing TAR RNA could play a direct role in control of cytokine gene expression. The intact TAR molecule was able to bind to PKR and TLR3 effectively, whereas the 5′ and 3′ stems (TAR microRNAs) bound best to TLR7 and -8 and none to PKR. Binding of TAR to PKR did not result in its phosphorylation, and therefore, TAR may be a dominant negative decoy molecule in cells. The TLR binding through either TAR RNA or TAR microRNA potentially can activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate cytokine expression. Collectively, these results imply that exosomes containing TAR RNA could directly affect the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and may explain a possible mechanism of inflammation observed in HIV-1-infected patients under cART. PMID:26553869

  2. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  3. Overview of Aquatic Toxicity Testing under the U.S. EPA Oil Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is developing baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products, chemical dispersants, and other spill mitigating substances as part of its Oil Research Program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sand...

  4. Thermal Cracking of Tars in a Continuously Fed Reactor with Steam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Fluidized Bed using biomass 8 Tars  Mixture of organic components present in gasification product gas with high molecular weight hydrocarbons [MW...Disable sulfur removal systems FoulingPlugging [Ref. 3: Biomass Gasification – Tar and Particles in Product Gases Sampling and Analysis”, European...P., and Nussbaumer T., “Gas Cleaning Requirements for Internal Combustion Engine Applications of Fixed Bed Biomass Gasification ”, Biomass and

  5. Proceedings: western juniper forum '97: Proceedings of a meeting; 1997 April 21; Bend, OR.

    Treesearch

    Scott Leavengood; Larry Swan; eds.

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings is a compilation of 30 articles on various aspects of the management and commercialization of western juniper. The topics are split between commercial and industrial topics, and science and management topics. Presenters were asked to provide abstracts, not full papers, and to include who to contact for more information or a copy of the complete paper,...

  6. Reconsidering the process for bow-stave removal from juniper trees in the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; Kevin T. Smith

    2017-01-01

    We question the growth arrestment hypothesis for bow stave removal used by indigenous people in the western Great Basin. Using modern understanding of tree growth and wound response, we suggest that growth would not be arrested by one or two transverse notches along a juniper stem. Rather these would trigger compartmentalization, which limits cambial death to within 10...

  7. Cold Preparation of Heroin in a Black Tar Market.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Armenta, Richard F; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldshear, Jesse L; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-07-29

    Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California. PWID completed quarterly behavioral assessments and serological testing for blood-borne viruses. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess for individual, social, and structural correlates of preparing heroin without heat within the preceding 6 months. Nearly half of black tar heroin users (149/305) reported they had prepared heroin without heat within 6 months. In multivariable analysis, cold preparation was independently associated with younger age (10 year decrease; AOR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.53), more drug injecting acquaintances (per 5 acquaintance increase; AOR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and prefilled syringe use (injecting drugs from syringes that are already filled with drugs before purchase; AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). Conclusions/Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report that PWID living in a black tar heroin market are preparing heroin without heat. Additional research is needed to determine whether this is an endemic practice or PWID are engaging in new forms of drug preparation in response to changes in the environment.

  8. The Auxin Biosynthetic TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED TaTAR2.1-3A Increases Grain Yield of Wheat.

    PubMed

    Shao, An; Ma, Wenying; Zhao, Xueqiang; Hu, Mengyun; He, Xue; Teng, Wan; Li, Hui; Tong, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    Controlling the major auxin biosynthetic pathway to manipulate auxin content could be a target for genetic engineering of crops with desired traits, but little progress had been made because low or high auxin contents often cause developmental inhibition. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) to identify the Tryptophan Aminotransferase of Arabidopsis1/Tryptophan Aminotransferase-Related (TAA1/TAR) genes that function in the tryptophan-dependent pathway of auxin biosynthesis. Sequence mining together with gene cloning identified 15 TaTAR genes, among which 12 and three genes were phylogenetically close to Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtTAR2 and AtTAR3, respectively. TaTAR2.1 had the most abundant transcripts in the TaTAR2 genes and was expressed mainly in roots and up-regulated by low nitrogen (N) availability. Knockdown of TaTAR2.1 caused vegetative and reproductive deficiencies and impaired lateral root (LR) growth under both high- and low-N conditions. Overexpressing TaTAR2.1-3A in wheat enhanced LR branching, plant height, spike number, grain yield, and aerial N accumulation under different N supply levels. In addition, overexpressing TaTAR2.1-3A in Arabidopsis elevated auxin accumulation in the primary root tip, LR tip, LR primordia, and cotyledon and hypocotyl and increased primary root length, visible LR number, and shoot fresh weight under high- and low-N conditions. Our results indicate that TaTAR2.1 is critical for wheat growth and also shows potential for genetic engineering to reach the aim of improving the grain yield of wheat. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Partitioning studies of coal-tar constituents in a two-phase contaminated ground-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Organic compounds derived from coal-tar wastes in a contaminated aquifer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, were identified, and their partition coefficients between the tar phase and aqueous phase were determined and compared with the corresponding n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Coal tar contains numerous polycyclic aromatic compounds, many of which are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Groundwater contamination by these toxic compounds may pose an environmental health hazard in nearby public water-supply wells. Fluid samples from this aquifer developed two phases upon settling: an upper aqueous phase, and a lower oily-tar phase. After separating the phases, polycyclic aromatic compounds in each phase were isolated using complexation with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and identified by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thirty-one of the polycyclic aromatic compounds were chosen for further study from four different classes: 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 10 nitrogen heterocycles, 5 sulfur heterocycles, and 4 oxygen heterocycles. Within each compound class, the tar/water partition coefficients of these compounds were reasonably comparable with the respective n-octanol/water partition coefficient.

  10. Using state-and-transition models to project cheatgrass and juniper invasion in Southeastern Oregon sagebrush steppe

    Treesearch

    Megan K. Creutzburg; Joshua S. Halofsky; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2012-01-01

    Many threats are jeopardizing the sagebrush steppe of the Columbia Basin, including the spread of invasive species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and the expansion of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) into historic shrub steppe. Native sagebrush steppe provides productive grazing lands and important...

  11. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a Great Basin pinyon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation, burning, and time

    Treesearch

    B. M. Rau; D. W. Johnson; R. R. Blank; J. C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Much of the Great Basin, U.S. is currently dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. (Rydb.) Boivin) ecosystems. At intermediate elevations, sagebrush ecosystems are increasingly influenced by pinyon (Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma Torr.) expansion. Some...

  12. Anti-biofilm properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil against periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Gursoy, Mervi; Gursoy, Orhan Vedat; Cakmakci, Lutfu; Könönen, Eija; Uitto, Veli-Jukka

    2009-08-01

    Essential oils of several plants are widely used in ethnomedicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited data exist on their use in connection to periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacterial growth inhibiting and anti-biofilm effects of Satureja hortensis L. (summer savory), Salvia fruticosa M. (sage), Lavandula stoechas L. (lavender), Myrtus communis L., and Juniperus communis L. (juniper) essential oils. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) with the agar dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by the microplate biofilm assay. The toxicity of each essential oil was tested on cultured keratinocytes. Of the 5 essential oils, S. hortensis L. essential oil had the strongest growth inhibition effect. Subinhibitory dose of S. hortensis L. essential oil had anti-biofilm effects only against Prevotella nigrescens. Essential oils did not inhibit keratinocyte viability at the concentrations of 1 and 5 microl/ml, however at the concentration of 5 microl/ml epithelial cells detached from the culture well bottom. The present findings suggest that S. hortensis L. essential oil inhibits the growth of periodontal bacteria in the concentration that is safe on keratinocytes, however, in the subinhibitory concentration its anti-biofilm effect is limited.

  13. The phytochemical and genetic survey of common and dwarf juniper (Juniperus communis and Juniperus nana) identifies chemical races and close taxonomic identity of the species.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Ochocka, J Renata; Asztemborska, Monika

    2006-07-01

    Juniperus communis L. (= J. communis var. communis) and Juniperus nana Willd. (= J. communis var. SAXATILIS) are subspecies of juniper. J. communis grows widely in both hemispheres, primarily in lower elevations while J. nana is mainly observed in high mountains. Although they can be distinguished by morphological features, it is not known whether they are genetically and phytochemically distinct entities. We aimed to check whether it is possible to distinguish these two plants (i) by pharmaceutically important chemical traits and (ii) on the basis of intraspecifically highly polymorphic fragment of chloroplast DNA. We used GC with achiral as well as with enantioselective stationary phase columns to identify the main monoterpenes of the essential oil. Sequence analysis of the TRNL (UAA)- TRNF (GAA) intergenic spacer of the chloroplast genome was used as a genetic marker of taxonomic identity between these two subspecies. The chromatographic analysis showed the existence of three chemical races - the alpha-pinene type, the sabinene type and one with intermediate contents of these terpenes among both J. communis and J. nana. Surprisingly, sequence analysis of TRNL (UAA)- TRNF (GAA) revealed 100 % similarity between the common and the dwarf juniper. Thus, the monoterpene pattern is related to geographical origin, and not to the species identity. We suggest that the three chemical races identified in the present study should be considered as separate sources of pharmaceutical raw material. Our results demonstrate that the contents of alpha-pinene and sabinene may be applied as a quick diagnostic test for preliminary evaluation of plant material.

  14. A photographic method for estimating wear of coal tar sealcoat from parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo Scoggins; Tom Ennis; Nathan Parker

    2009-07-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat has been recognized as an important source of PAHs to the environment through wear and transport via stormwater runoff. Sealcoat removal rates have not been measured or even estimated in the literature due to the complex array of physical and chemical process involved. A photographic study was conducted that incorporates all sources of wear using 10 coal tar-sealed parking lots in Austin, Texas, with sealcoat age ranging from 0 to 5 years. Randomly located photographs from each parking lot were analyzed digitally to quantify black sealed areas versus lighter colored unsealed areas at the pixel level. The resultsmore » indicate that coal tar sealcoat wears off of the driving areas of parking lots at a rate of approximately 4.7% per year, and from the parking areas of the lots at a rate of approximately 1.4% per year. The overall annual loss of sealcoat was calculated at 2.4%. This results in an annual delivery to the environment of 0.51 g of PAHs per m{sup 2} of coal tar-sealed parking lot. These values provide a more robust and much higher estimate of loading of PAHs from coal tar sealcoated parking lots when compared to other available measures. 20 refs., 6 figs.« less

  15. Analytical filtration model for nonlinear viscoplastic oil in the theory of oil production stimulation and heating of oil reservoir in a dual-well system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovich Astafev, Vladimir; Igorevich Gubanov, Sergey; Alexandrovna Olkhovskaya, Valeria; Mikhailovna Sylantyeva, Anastasia; Mikhailovich Zinovyev, Alexey

    2018-02-01

    Production of high-viscosity oil and design of field development systems for such oil is one of the most promising directions in the development of world oil industry. The ability of high-viscosity oil to show in filtration process properties typical for non-Newtonian systems is proven by experimental studies. Nonlinear relationship between the pressure gradient and the rate of oil flow is due to interaction of high-molecular substances, in particular, asphaltenes and tars that form a plastic structure in it. The authors of this article have used the analytical model of stationary influx of nonlinear viscoplastic oil to the well bottom in order to provide rationale for the intensifying impact on a reservoir. They also have analyzed the method of periodic heating of productive reservoir by means of dual-wells. The high-temperature source is placed at the bottom of the vertical well, very close to the reservoir; at the same time the side well, located outside the zone of expected rock damage, is used for production. Suggested method of systemic treatment of reservoirs with dual wells can be useful for small fields of high-viscosity oil. The effect is based on the opportunity to control the structural and mechanical properties of high-viscosity oil and to increase depletion of reserves.

  16. Morphology of transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) on Mars from a large sample: Further evidence of a megaripple origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Boulding, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Using HiRISE digital terrain models (DTMs), we developed a large morphological dataset to examine the three-dimensional shape, size, and scaling of Martian transverse aeolian ridges (TARs). Considerable debate exists on the characteristic morphology of TARs and the origins of these enigmatic bedforms. Some researchers suggest polygenesis or multiple classes of similar bedforms. Reliably characterizing the morphology of TARs is an essential prerequisite to developing and evaluating process-based models of TAR genesis and unraveling aeolian processes on the surface of Mars. We present measurements of TAR morphology from a large, DTM-derived dataset (n = 2295). We focused on TARs with 'simple' morphologies in order enable more defensible discretization. Histograms and cumulative log-frequency plots of morphometric parameters (length, width, height, elongation ratio, and wavelength) indicate the sample represents a continuum of bedforms from a single population. A typical TAR from our dataset is 88.5 m long (longest planview axis), 17.3 m wide (shortest planview axis), 1.3 m tall, and has a wavelength of 25.8 m. Combined with these data, the bulk of evidence presented to date suggests that interpreting TARs as megaripples is the most viable working hypothesis.

  17. Understory cover responses to pinon-juniper treatments across tree dominance gradients in the Great Basin

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Roundy; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Kert Young; April Hulet; Ben Rau; Brad Jessop; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dennis Eggett

    2014-01-01

    Pinon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees are reduced to restore native vegetation and avoid severe fires where they have expanded into sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) communities. However, what phase of tree infilling should treatments target to retain desirable understory cover and avoid weed dominance? Prescribed fire and tree felling were applied...

  18. Ecohydrology of pinon-juniper woodlands in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: Runoff, erosion, and restoration

    Treesearch

    Craig D. Allen

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Woodlands of pinon (Pinus edulis) and oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in the Jemez Mountains at Bandelier National Monument in northern New Mexico exhibit greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion, triggered by historic land use practices (livestock grazing and fire suppression). This erosion is degrading these...

  19. TarPmiR: a new approach for microRNA target site prediction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-09-15

    The identification of microRNA (miRNA) target sites is fundamentally important for studying gene regulation. There are dozens of computational methods available for miRNA target site prediction. Despite their existence, we still cannot reliably identify miRNA target sites, partially due to our limited understanding of the characteristics of miRNA target sites. The recently published CLASH (crosslinking ligation and sequencing of hybrids) data provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the characteristics of miRNA target sites and improve miRNA target site prediction methods. Applying four different machine learning approaches to the CLASH data, we identified seven new features of miRNA target sites. Combining these new features with those commonly used by existing miRNA target prediction algorithms, we developed an approach called TarPmiR for miRNA target site prediction. Testing on two human and one mouse non-CLASH datasets, we showed that TarPmiR predicted more than 74.2% of true miRNA target sites in each dataset. Compared with three existing approaches, we demonstrated that TarPmiR is superior to these existing approaches in terms of better recall and better precision. The TarPmiR software is freely available at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/miRNA/TarPmiR/ CONTACTS: haihu@cs.ucf.edu or xiaoman@mail.ucf.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  1. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  2. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    PubMed

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Modeling the impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on tar yield and its fluctuations during biomass fast pyrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Qingang; Ramirez, Emilio; Pannala, Sreekanth; ...

    2015-10-09

    The impact of bubbling bed hydrodynamics on temporal variations in the exit tar yield for biomass fast pyrolysis was investigated using computational simulations of an experimental laboratory-scale reactor. A multi-fluid computational fluid dynamics model was employed to simulate the differential conservation equations in the reactor, and this was combined with a multi-component, multi-step pyrolysis kinetics scheme for biomass to account for chemical reactions. The predicted mean tar yields at the reactor exit appear to match corresponding experimental observations. Parametric studies predicted that increasing the fluidization velocity should improve the mean tar yield but increase its temporal variations. Increases in themore » mean tar yield coincide with reducing the diameter of sand particles or increasing the initial sand bed height. However, trends in tar yield variability are more complex than the trends in mean yield. The standard deviation in tar yield reaches a maximum with changes in sand particle size. As a result, the standard deviation in tar yield increases with the increases in initial bed height in freely bubbling state, while reaches a maximum in slugging state.« less

  4. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    Data are presented on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25(0) API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are noncarbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. An extensive basis for heavy oil development is provided, however, it is recommended that data on carbonate reservoirs, and tar sands be compiled. It was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  5. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population whenmore » patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.« less

  6. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  7. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  8. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat–TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat–TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates. PMID:27405089

  9. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-12

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat-TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates.

  10. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oils Against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (Vre) And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Feta Soft Cheese And Minced Beef Meat

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy

    2011-01-01

    Eleven essential oils (EOs) were evaluated for their antibacterial properties, against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) and E. coli O157:H7. EOs were introduced into Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI) (15ml) at a concentration of 0.25 to 2% (vol/vol) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each pathogen evaluated. Results showed that the most active essential oils against bacteria tested were thyme oil, with MIC90 and MBC90 for the VRA strains of 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. Eucalyptus, juniper and clove oils were the least potent agent, with MIC90 and MBC90 of 2%. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EO were evaluated against VRE and E. coli O157:H7, experimentally inoculated (103 cfu/g) in Feta soft cheese and minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) of the EO and stored at 7 °C for 14 days. Out of eucalyptus, juniper, mint, rosemary, sage, clove and thyme oils tested against target bacteria sage and thyme showed the best results. Clove and mint did not show any effect on VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in both kinds of studied foods. The addition of thyme oil at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% caused best significant reduction in the growth rate of VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in cheese and meat at 7 oC. It is concluded that selected plant EOs can act as potent inhibitors of both microorganisms in a food product. The results revealed the potential of thyme oil as a natural preservative in feta soft cheese and minced beef meat against VRE and E. coli O157:H7 contamination. PMID:24031620

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate

    SciTech Connect

    Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.

    The periplasmic domain of the E. coli aspartate receptor Tar was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized with and without bound ligand. The crystals obtained diffracted to resolutions of 1.58 and 1.95 Å, respectively. The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni{sup 2+}. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 weremore » grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40 Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C2, respectively.« less

  13. Soil and vegetation changes in a pinyon-juniper area in central Arizona after prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Steven T. Overby; Will H. Moir; George T. Robertson

    2000-01-01

    Prescribed fire has been used as an inexpensive and rapid method for disposing of slash following fuelwood sales in pinyon-juniper sites. Soil heating during a fire has a direct effect on soil nutrients and microbial activity. The potential for understory cover quantity and quality, along with soil nutrient changes should be the determining factors in management...

  14. Influence of prescribed fire on ecosystem biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in a pinyon juniper woodland

    Treesearch

    Benjamin M. Rau; Robin Tausch; Alicia Reiner; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Annmarrie Lucchesi

    2010-01-01

    Increases in pinyon and juniper woodland cover associated with land-use history are suggested to provide offsets for carbon emissions in arid regions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long-term storage in fire-prone ecosystems. Also, the objectives of carbon storage may...

  15. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands together with... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands and associated... pipeline and pipeline system or processing facility which transports or processes oil and gas after it...

  16. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands together with... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands and associated... pipeline and pipeline system or processing facility which transports or processes oil and gas after it...

  17. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands together with... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands and associated... pipeline and pipeline system or processing facility which transports or processes oil and gas after it...

  18. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands together with... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands and associated... pipeline and pipeline system or processing facility which transports or processes oil and gas after it...

  19. 16 CFR 802.3 - Acquisitions of carbon-based mineral reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands together with... gas, shale or tar sands, or rights to reserves of oil, natural gas, shale or tar sands and associated... pipeline and pipeline system or processing facility which transports or processes oil and gas after it...

  20. Shrub-Steppe Early Succession Following Juniper Cutting and Prescribed Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kirk W.; Sharp, Robert N.

    2011-03-01

    Pinus- Juniperus L. (Piñon-juniper) woodlands of the western United States have expanded in area nearly 10-fold since the late 1800's. Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) dominance in sagebrush steppe has several negative consequences, including reductions in herbaceous production and diversity, decreased wildlife habitat, and higher erosion and runoff potentials. Prescribed fire and mechanical tree removal are the main methods used to control J. occidentalis and restore sagebrush steppe. However, mature woodlands become difficult to prescribe burn because of the lack of understory fuels. We evaluated partial cutting of the woodlands (cutting 25-50% of the trees) to increase surface fuels, followed by prescribed fire treatments in late successional J. occidentalis woodlands of southwest Idaho to assess understory recovery. The study was conducted in two different plant associations and evaluated what percentage of the woodland required preparatory cutting to eliminate remaining J. occidentalis by prescribed fire, determined the impacts of fire to understory species, and examined early post-fire successional dynamics. The study demonstrated that late successional J. occidentalis woodlands can be burned after pre-cutting only a portion of the trees. Early succession in the cut-and-burn treatments were dominated by native annual and perennial forbs, in part due to high mortality of perennial bunchgrasses. By the third year after fire the number of establishing perennial grass seedlings indicated that both associations would achieve full herbaceous recovery. Cutting-prescribed fire combinations are an effective means for controlling encroaching late successional J. occidentalis and restoring herbaceous plant communities. However, land managers should recognize that there are potential problems associated with cutting-prescribed fire applications when invasive weeds are present.

  1. Shrub-steppe early succession following juniper cutting and prescribed fire.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jonathan D; Davies, Kirk W; Sharp, Robert N

    2011-03-01

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon-juniper) woodlands of the western United States have expanded in area nearly 10-fold since the late 1800's. Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) dominance in sagebrush steppe has several negative consequences, including reductions in herbaceous production and diversity, decreased wildlife habitat, and higher erosion and runoff potentials. Prescribed fire and mechanical tree removal are the main methods used to control J. occidentalis and restore sagebrush steppe. However, mature woodlands become difficult to prescribe burn because of the lack of understory fuels. We evaluated partial cutting of the woodlands (cutting 25-50% of the trees) to increase surface fuels, followed by prescribed fire treatments in late successional J. occidentalis woodlands of southwest Idaho to assess understory recovery. The study was conducted in two different plant associations and evaluated what percentage of the woodland required preparatory cutting to eliminate remaining J. occidentalis by prescribed fire, determined the impacts of fire to understory species, and examined early post-fire successional dynamics. The study demonstrated that late successional J. occidentalis woodlands can be burned after pre-cutting only a portion of the trees. Early succession in the cut-and-burn treatments were dominated by native annual and perennial forbs, in part due to high mortality of perennial bunchgrasses. By the third year after fire the number of establishing perennial grass seedlings indicated that both associations would achieve full herbaceous recovery. Cutting-prescribed fire combinations are an effective means for controlling encroaching late successional J. occidentalis and restoring herbaceous plant communities. However, land managers should recognize that there are potential problems associated with cutting-prescribed fire applications when invasive weeds are present.

  2. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    PubMed

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (k s) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between k s and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (E C) and conductance (G C). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and k s under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and k s in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in k s under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant k s also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (g s) and net photosynthesis (A n) declined strongly with decreasing k s. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant k s was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy E C and G C. Our data indicate that significant reductions in k s precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon-juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and

  3. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    DOE PAGES

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (k s) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine ( Pinus edulis) and juniper ( Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between k s and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (E C) and conductance (G C). Formore » both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and k s under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and k s in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in k s under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant k s also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (g s) and net photosynthesis (A n) declined strongly with decreasing k s. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant k s was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy E C and G C. Our data indicate that significant reductions in k s precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more

  4. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.

    Plant hydraulic conductance (k s) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine ( Pinus edulis) and juniper ( Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between k s and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (E C) and conductance (G C). Formore » both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and k s under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and k s in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in k s under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant k s also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (g s) and net photosynthesis (A n) declined strongly with decreasing k s. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant k s was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy E C and G C. Our data indicate that significant reductions in k s precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more

  5. Plant community dynamics of burned and unburned sagebrush and pinyon-juniper vegetation in West-Central Utah

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey E. Ott; E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2001-01-01

    Fire ecology of sagebrush and pinyon-juniper vegetation in the Great Basin has been influenced by human disturbances and exotic plant introductions. Late-seral woody vegetation, which increased following Euro-American settlement, is now decreasing because of wildfire and exotic annuals. Multiple successional pathways following fire have been observed in these...

  6. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A comparison of physicochemical methods for the remediation of porous medium systems contaminated with tar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, Scott C.; Miller, Cass T.

    2014-10-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites contaminated with tar DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids) presents a significant challenge. The tars are viscous mixtures of thousands of individual compounds, including known and suspected carcinogens. This work investigates the use of combinations of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation approaches to remove and degrade tars and tar components in porous medium systems. Column experiments were conducted using several flushing solutions, including an alkaline-polymer (AP) solution containing NaOH and xanthan gum (XG), a surfactant-polymer (SP) solution containing Triton X-100 surfactant (TX100) and XG, an alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solution containing NaOH, TX100, and XG, and base-activated sodium persulfate both with and without added TX100. The effectiveness of the flushing solutions was assessed based on both removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass and on the reduction of dissolved-phase PAH concentrations. SP flushes of 6.6 to 20.9 PV removed over 99% of residual PAH mass and reduced dissolved-phase concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. ASP flushing efficiently removed 95-96% of residual PAH mass within about 2 PV, and significantly reduced dissolved-phase concentrations of several low molar mass compounds, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene. AP flushing removed a large portion of the residual tar (77%), but was considerably less effective than SP and ASP in terms of the effect on dissolved PAH concentrations. Persulfate was shown to oxidize tar components, primarily those with low molar mass, however, the overall degradation was relatively low (30-50% in columns with low initial tar saturations), and the impact on dissolved-phase concentrations was minimal.

  8. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Majewski, Michael S; Mahler, Barbara J; Foreman, William T; Braun, Christopher L; Wilson, Jennifer T; Burbank, Teresa L

    2012-06-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH(8)) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m(-3)) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m(-3)). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m(-3)) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m(-3)). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Development of secondary chamber for tar cracking-improvement of wood pyrolysis performance in pre-vacuum chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, S.; Homma, H.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    Energy crisis and global warming, in other words, climate change are critical topics discussed in various parts of the world. Global warming primarily result from too much emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. To mitigate global warming, or climate change and improve electrification in rural areas, wood pyrolysis technology is developed in a laboratory scale, of which gases are directly applicable to the gas engine generator. Our laboratory has developed a prototype of wood pyrolysis plant with a pre-vacuum chamber. However, tar yield was around 40 wt% of feedstock. This research aims to reduce tar yield by secondary tar cracking. For the secondary tar cracking, a secondary pre-vacuum chamber is installed after primary pre-vacuum chamber. Gases generated in the primary pre-vacuum chamber are lead into the secondary chamber that is heated up to 1000 K. This paper reports performance of the secondary chamber for secondary tar cracking in homogeneous mode and heterogeneous mode with char.

  10. Production of white oil from West Siberian crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenkov, L.A.; Popova, L.V.; Radchenko, K.A.

    White oils, such as pharmaceutical white mineral oil, perfume oil, solvent for initiator of ethylene polymerization reaction, oil for the lubrication of high-pressure compressors in polyethylene production, and cable oils, are finding more and more industrial applications. The distinguishing feature of all of these oils is their high degree of dearomatization. The content of naphthenes plus paraffins, as determined by adsorptive separation on silica gel, is at least 98%. White oils are produced by multistage sulfonation of the original raw material (oil) with oleum or gaseous sulfur trioxide with subsequent neutralization and clay contact finishing. The advantages of gaseous sulfurmore » trioxide over oleum are the lower consumption of sulfonating agent and the smaller amount of acid tar that is formed, giving higher yields of sulfonic acid that are in turn a raw material for the production of sulfonate additives. This paper presents results of a research program in which crude from West Siberia was tested as raw materials for the production of white oils. Results are presented which demonstrate suitability of crude tested for the production of perfume oil, pharmaceutical white mineral oil, S-220 cable oil, oil for use in polyethylene production (solvent for initiator of ethylene polymerization reaction), and compressor oil. 9 refs.« less

  11. Effects of spring prescribed fire in expanding pinyon-juniper woodlands on seedling establishment of sagebrush species

    Treesearch

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Joan G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Pinyon and juniper trees are expanding into mountain sagebrush communities throughout their ranges. Fire is used to restore these sagebrush communities, but limited information is available on seedling establishment of native shrubs and herbs. We examined effects of spring prescribed fire in the Great Basin on emergence and survival of five species (Artemisia...

  12. Preliminary thinning guidelines using stand density index for the maintenance of uneven-aged pinyon-juniper ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Douglas H. Page

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how Stand Density Index may be used to guide postthinning stand structure for the sustainable management of pinyon-juniper ecosystems. The post-thinning residual stand density can be varied to achieve various management objectives. Uneven-aged management is recommended, where possible, as a better approximation of the natural development process...

  13. Effect of species mix on size/density and leaf-area relations in the southwest pinyon/juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler; Frederick W. Smith

    1988-01-01

    The effects of species mix on stand structure and growth are evaluated for 117 pinyon (Pinus edulis Engelm.) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg and J. osteosperma (Torr.) Little) woodlands of the southwestern United States. Maximum-size/density relations, leaf area and growth of pure and mixed-...

  14. The Other Major 2010 Oil Spill: Oil weathering after the Kalamazoo River Dilbit Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, B.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Fundaun, S. E.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the oil sands (tar sands) of western Canada is increasingly being transported to US markets. North America's largest inland oil spill and the first major oil sands spill in a freshwater environment occurred in 2010, when at least 843,000 gallons leaked from a pipeline into the Kalamazoo River of southwest Michigan. Cleanup of this oil was unusually difficult and protracted, lasting through 2014 and costing over a billion dollars, largely because a substantial fraction of the oil became submersed and deposited in slack water areas over 60 km of river channel, reservoirs, and floodplain backwaters. To investigate the fate of the spilled dilbit from the 2010 Kalamazoo River release, black rings, presumably oil residues, on the bark of dead trees were collected in 2015. These residues were deposited on the trees during high flood levels that have not been observed since the spill and represent an opportunity to constrain weathering processes excluding dissolution. This material contained a major non-GC amenable fraction of 90-95%, presumably oxygenated hydrocarbons. The GC amenable portion was consistent with laboratory weathered dilbit. We used a variety of analytical tools to characterize the dilbit residues, as well as to identify dilbit weathering processes that occurred since the spill.

  15. Analysis of change in pinon-juniper woodlands based on aerial photography, 1930's-1980's

    Treesearch

    Alan R. Johnson; Bruce T. Milne; Peter Hraber

    1999-01-01

    We conducted an analysis of land cover change in selected piñon-juniper woodlands of New Mexico and Arizona, using aerial photographs from the 1930's through the 1980's. Both increases and decreases in woodland cover were observed. Fractal dimensions of woodland patches and cover-type changes were analyzed following the method of Krummel and others (1987)....

  16. Optical, Physical and Chemical Properties of Tar Balls Observed During the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Jenny L.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, Alexander

    2005-11-09

    The Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study of summer 2002 (YACS) occurred during an active fire season in the western U. S., and provided an opportunity to investigate many unresolved issues related to the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols. Single particle analysis was performed on field collected aerosol samples using an array of electron microscopy techniques. Amorphous carbon spheres, or “tar balls”, were present in samples collected during episodes of high particle light scattering coefficients that occurred during the peak of a smoke/haze event. The highest concentrations of light-absorbing carbon from a dual-wavelength aethalometer (λ = 370 and 880 nm) occurredmore » during periods when the particles were predominantly tar balls, indicating they do absorb light in the UV and near-IR range of the solar spectrum. Closure experiments of mass concentrations and light scattering coefficients during periods dominated by tar balls did not require any distinct assumptions of organic carbon molecular weight correction factors, density, or refractive index compared to periods dominated by other types of organic carbon aerosols. Measurements of the hygroscopic behavior of tar balls using an environmental SEM indicate that tar balls do not exhibit deliquescence, but do uptake some water at high (~83 %) relative humidity. The ability of tar balls to efficiently scatter and absorb light, and to absorb water has important implications for their role in regional haze and climate fence.« less

  17. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  18. Variation in ant populations with elevation, tree cover, and fire in a pinyon-juniper-dominated watershed

    Treesearch

    Eugenie M. MontBlanc; Jeanne C. Chambers; Peter E. Brussard

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and fire suppression have facilitated expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands into sagebrush- steppe ecosystems of the Great Basin, USA, resulting in a loss of biological diversity. To assess the effects of using prescribed fire in restoration efforts, ant abundance, species richness, and composition were examined pre- and post-burn along the elevation and...

  19. Drought-Related Mortality in Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: A Test Case for the FIA Annual Inventory System

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Several years of drought in the Southwest United States are associated with widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest type. A complex of drought, insects, and disease is responsible for pinyon mortality rates approaching 100 percent in some areas, while other areas have experienced little or no mortality. Implementation of the Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  20. Response of Fuelbed Characteristics to Restoration Treatments in Pinyon-Juniper-Encroached Shrublands on the Shivwits Plateau, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Helen Y. Smith; Sharon Hood; Matt Brooks; JR Matchett; Curt Deuser

    2006-01-01

    The recent encroachment of piñon (Pinus edulis) and juniper trees (Juniperus osteosperma) into historically shrub- and grass-dominated landscapes has caused major changes in ecosystem structure and function, including dramatic changes in fuel structure and fire regimes. Such encroachment is currently occurring on thousands of acres...

  1. Modeling dynamics of western juniper under climate change in a semiarid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Flores, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling future vegetation dynamics in response to climate change and disturbances such as fire relies heavily on model parameterization. Fine-scale field-based measurements can provide the necessary parameters for constraining models at a larger scale. But the time- and labor-intensive nature of field-based data collection leads to sparse sampling and significant spatial uncertainties in retrieved parameters. In this study we quantify the fine-scale carbon dynamics and uncertainty of juniper woodland in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in southern Idaho, which is a proposed critical zone observatory (CZO) site for soil carbon processes. We leverage field-measured vegetation data along with airborne lidar and timeseries Landsat imagery to initialize a state-and-transition model (VDDT) and a process-based fire-model (FlamMap) to examine the vegetation dynamics in response to stochastic fire events and climate change. We utilize recently developed and novel techniques to measure biomass and canopy characteristics of western juniper at the individual tree scale using terrestrial and airborne laser scanning techniques in RCEW. These fine-scale data are upscaled across the watershed for the VDDT and FlamMap models. The results will immediately improve our understanding of fine-scale dynamics and carbon stocks and fluxes of woody vegetation in a semi-arid ecosystem. Moreover, quantification of uncertainty will also provide a basis for generating ensembles of spatially-explicit alternative scenarios to guide future land management decisions in the region.

  2. Comparative evaluation of topical calcipotriol versus coal tar and salicylic acid ointment in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Gupta, Surabhi; Abidi, Afroz; Krishna, Arvind

    2013-08-01

    Calcipotriol is a newer topical treatment option available for plaque psoriasis and coal tar being one of the oldest treatment and still in use. To evaluate and compare the differences in terms of efficacy, safety and relapse with Calcipotriol 0.005% (50 mcg/gm) and 6% coal tar and 3% salicylic ointment in patients with Plaque psoriasis. SETTING and Study conducted on 60 patients of plaque psoriasis, who attended the skin OPD in our hospital. The patients with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis were selected. 60 patients were enrolled for the study after obtaining informed consent. Subjects were asked to apply Calcipotriol 0.005% (50 mcg/gm) (Heximar Win care) twice a day on the right side plaques and on left side plaques, Petroleum jelly (Vaseline) in the morning and 6% coal tar and 3% salicylic ointment (Protar® Percos) at nighttime. PASI score was used to assess the reponse to therapy at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th week. After treatment subjects were observed for 6 weeks for any relapse. It was done by paired t-test and independent sample t-test. The results showed that statistically significant difference was seen in the mean percentage reduction of PASI score between both the groups, at all the assessment visits, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, the mean percentage reduction at 2 weeks for calcipotriol being 21±12.06 and for coal tar being 13.44±11.19 (P=0.000), at 4 weeks for calcipotriol was 40±16.71 and for coal tar 25±99 (P=0.000), at 6 weeks for calcipotriol was 53.99+-22.43 and for coal tar 41±21.23 (P=0.002), at 8 weeks for calcipotriol was 62.73±24.04 and for coal tar was 51.53±23.27 (P=0.11). Relapse was seen in 5/60 (8.3%) of patients on calcipotriol treated side and 9/60 (15%) of patients with coal tar treated side. Thus it can be concluded that calcipotriol cream is more efficacious when compared with coal tar and does have a quick response. It is well tolerated and acceptable cosmetically.

  3. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories.more » 4 figures, 6 tables.« less

  4. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  5. Ligand-induced changes in 2-aminopurine fluorescence as a probe for small molecule binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    BRADRICK, THOMAS D.; MARINO, JOHN P.

    2004-01-01

    Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is regulated in part through an interaction between the virally encoded trans-activator protein Tat and the trans-activator responsive region (TAR) of the viral RNA genome. Because TAR is highly conserved and its interaction with Tat is required for efficient viral replication, it has received much attention as an antiviral drug target. Here, we report a 2-aminopurine (2-AP) fluorescence-based assay for evaluating potential TAR inhibitors. Through selective incorporation of 2-AP within the bulge (C23 or U24) of a truncated form of the TAR sequence (Δ TAR-ap23 and Δ TAR-ap24), binding of argininamide, a 24-residue arginine-rich peptide derived from Tat, and Neomycin has been characterized using steady-state fluorescence. Binding of argininamide to the 2-AP ΔTAR constructs results in a four- to 11-fold increase in fluorescence intensity, thus providing a sensitive reporter of that interaction (KD ~ 1 mM). Similarly, binding of the Tat peptide results in an initial 14-fold increase in fluorescence (KD ~ 25 nM), but is then followed by a slight decrease that is attributed to an additional, lower-affinity association(s). Using the ΔTAR-ap23 and TAR-ap24 constructs, two classes of Neomycin binding sites are detected; the first molecule of antibiotic binds as a noncompetitive inhibitor of Tat/argininamide (KD ~ 200 nM), whereas the second, more weakly bound molecule(s) becomes associated in a presumably nonspecific manner (KD ~ 4 μM). Taken together, the results demonstrate that the 2-AP fluorescence-detected binding assays provide accurate and general methods for quantitatively assessing TAR interactions. PMID:15273324

  6. Effects of a spring prescribed burn on the soil seed bank in sagebrush steppe exhibiting pinyon-juniper expansion

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Allen; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert S. Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper (Pinus monophylla-Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands are expanding into shrubsteppe ecosystems in western portions of the Great Basin. Often, highly competitive trees displace the understory, and prescribed fire is increasingly used as a restoration tool. To inform management decisions about post-fire recovery, we...

  7. Assessing mechanical mastication and thinning-piling-burning treatments on the pinyon-juniper woodlands of southwestern Colorado

    Treesearch

    Gerald Gottfried; Steve Overby

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge of fire regimes in the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the interior western United States has altered management views. Once known as being at low wildfire risk, these woodlands are now at a higher risk for severe wildfires because of high tree densities exacerbated by ongoing drought and region-wide bark beetle (Ips confusus) infestation. To help reduce...

  8. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of amino acids that promote specific and rigid TAR RNA-tat protein complex formation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Robinson, Bruce H; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2005-03-01

    The Tat protein and the transactivation responsive (TAR) RNA form an essential complex in the HIV lifecycle, and mutations in the basic region of the Tat protein alter this RNA-protein molecular recognition. Here, EPR spectroscopy was used to identify amino acids, flanking an essential arginine of the Tat protein, which contribute to specific and rigid TAR-Tat complex formation by monitoring changes in the mobility of nitroxide spin-labeled TAR RNA nucleotides upon binding. Arginine to lysine N-terminal mutations did not affect TAR RNA interfacial dynamics. In contrast, C-terminal point mutations, R56 in particular, affected the mobility of nucleotides U23 and U38, which are involved in a base-triple interaction in the complex. This report highlights the role of dynamics in specific molecular complex formation and demonstrates the ability of EPR spectroscopy to study interfacial dynamics of macromolecular complexes.

  10. Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tree Removal as a Mechanism to Reverse Ecohydrologic Thresholds in Pinyon- and Juniper-Encroached Shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Nouwakpo, S.; Weltz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper encroachment has altered vegetation structure, ecological condition, hydrologic function, and delivery of ecosystem goods and services on millions of hectares of sagebrush rangelands in the western US. Pinyon and juniper out-compete shrubs and herbaceous vegetation for water and nutrients and facilitate a decline in vigor and cover of understory plants. These cover declines educe a shift from biotic-controlled resource retention to abiotic-driven losses of critical soil resources over time (soil erosion feedback). Our research objective was to evaluate tree removal by mastication, burning, and cutting as a threshold-reversal mechanism for restoration of sagebrush steppe ecohydrologic resilience over a ten year period. We examined vegetation, soils, infiltration, runoff, and erosion from artificial rainfall and concentrated flow experiments across multiple scales in two late succession woodlands before and 1, 2, and 10 yr after tree removal to address two research questions: 1) Can tree removal decrease late-succession woodland ecohydrologic resilience by increasing vegetation and ground cover within the first 10 yr post-treatment?, and 2) Is the soil erosion feedback reversible in the later stages of woodland encroachment? Distributing shredded tree debris into bare areas improved infiltration and reduced soil erosion in the first few years following tree mastication. Cutting and placing downed trees in bare patches had no initial effect on runoff and erosion. Burning initially reduced infiltration and increased runoff and erosion at the sites, but favorable grass and forb cover recruitment 2 yr after burning reduced erosion from the mostly bare intercanopy between tree mounds. Our presentation of the overall study will chronicle these published pre-fire, 1 yr, and 2 yr responses and preliminary results from the 10th yr post-treatment to address the questions outlined above. The collective results advance understanding of pinyon and juniper

  12. A case-control study of asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer in minorities.

    PubMed

    McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K

    2011-11-01

    Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (e.g., smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wild-type subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (P-value(interaction) = 0.02). These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Case-Control Study of Asphalt and Tar Exposure and Lung Cancer in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Sison, Jennette D; Quesenberry, Charles P; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Considerable controversy surrounds the carcinogenic potential of asphalt and tar. Since minority individuals may have had relatively high historical exposures, we investigated asphalt and tar exposure and lung cancer risk among African Americans and Latino Americans. Methods We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer among African Americans and Latino Americans in the San Francisco Bay area (422 cases, 894 controls). A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed work histories and exposure information. Self-reported exposure to asphalt and tar as well as other factors (eg. smoking, automobile exhaust, and asbestos) were evaluated as predictors of lung cancer risk. Potential effect modification by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 was also explored. Results Self-reported duration of exposure to asphalt and tar was associated with a statistically significant excess risk of lung cancer in the overall population (OR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01–1.22), evaluating risk per year of exposure. Years of exposure to automobile exhaust (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05) and asbestos (OR: 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02–1.06) were also associated with statistically significant elevations in risk. In Latino Americans, the lung cancer risks associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-related exposures were consistently higher in the CYP1A1 wildtype subjects as compared to the variant genotype subjects, and the interaction was statistically significant for smoking and the CYP1A1 M2 polymorphism (p-valueinteraction=0.02). Conclusions These data are consistent with the literature suggesting that exposure to asphalt and tar may increase risk of lung cancer. However, it was not possible to separate the effects and asphalt and tar in this study. PMID:21882217

  14. The linear relationship between cigarette tar and nicotine yields: regulatory implications for smoke constituent ratios.

    PubMed

    St Charles, F K; Cook, C J; Clayton, P M

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoke analyte yields are often expressed as ratios relative to tar or nicotine yields, usually to compare different products or to estimate human uptake of smoke in relation to nicotine uptake measurements. The method, however, can lead to distorted interpretations, especially in the case of ratios from ultra-low tar yield cigarettes. In brief, as tar yields decrease below the 5–6 mg per cigarette range, the tar-to-nicotine ratio (TNR) decreases rapidly in a non-linear fashion. If, however, the nicotine yield, rather than the ratio, is plotted versus the tar yield, the non-linearity disappears and a straight line is obtained, with a slight positive intercept for nicotine on the ordinate. Unlike the ratio, the slope appears to depend only on the concentration of the nicotine in the blend and does not appear to vary with smoking parameters such as puff volume, puff interval or length smoked or with cigarette design parameters such as length, circumference or the amount of filtration or filter ventilation. Therefore, such a slope is analogous to the TNR although, unlike that ratio, it is invariant. Even more simply, the concentration of the nicotine in the blend, at least for American blend-style cigarettes, provides a similar index.

  15. Sagebrush steppe and pinyon-juniper ecosystems: effects of changing fire regimes, increased fuel loads, and invasive species

    Treesearch

    Jeanne C. Chambers; E. Durant McArthur; Steven B. Monson; Susan E. Meyer; Nancy L. Shaw; Robin J. Tausch; Robert R. Blank; Steve Bunting; Richard R. Miller; Mike Pellant; Bruce A. Roundy; Scott C. Walker; Alison Whittaker

    2005-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands and Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems have undergone major changes in vegetation structure and composition since settlement by European Americans. These changes are resulting in dramatic shifts in fire frequency, size and severity. Effective management of these systems has been hindered by lack of information on: (1) presettlement fire regimes...

  16. Design-Based Peptidomimetic Ligand Discovery to Target HIV TAR RNA Using Comparative Analysis of Different Docking Methods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junjie; Xia, Amy; Dai, Yao; Qi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA. In this work, we performed molecular docking study with HIV TAR RNA using previously identified cyclic peptide L22 and its analogues with varying affinities toward HIV-1 TAR RNA. Furthermore, sarcosine scan was conducted to generate derivatives of CGP64222, a peptide-peptoid hybrid with inhibitory activity on Tat/TAR RNA interaction. Each compound was docked using CDOCKER, Surflex-Dock and FlexiDock to compare the effectiveness of each method. It was found that FlexiDock energy values correlated well with the experimental Kd values and could be used to predict the affinity of the ligands toward HIV-1 TAR RNA with a superior accuracy. Our results based on comparative analysis of different docking methods in RNA-ligand modeling will facilitate the structure-based discovery of HIV TAR RNA ligands for antiviral therapy.

  17. Depth-Resolved Quantification of Anaerobic Toluene Degraders and Aquifer Microbial Community Patterns in Distinct Redox Zones of a Tar Oil Contaminant Plume▿

    PubMed Central

    Winderl, Christian; Anneser, Bettina; Griebler, Christian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Lueders, Tillmann

    2008-01-01

    Microbial degradation is the only sustainable component of natural attenuation in contaminated groundwater environments, yet its controls, especially in anaerobic aquifers, are still poorly understood. Hence, putative spatial correlations between specific populations of key microbial players and the occurrence of respective degradation processes remain to be unraveled. We therefore characterized microbial community distribution across a high-resolution depth profile of a tar oil-impacted aquifer where benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degradation depends mainly on sulfate reduction. We conducted depth-resolved terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and quantitative PCR of bacterial 16S rRNA and benzylsuccinate synthase genes (bssA) to quantify the distribution of total microbiota and specific anaerobic toluene degraders. We show that a highly specialized degrader community of microbes related to known deltaproteobacterial iron and sulfate reducers (Geobacter and Desulfocapsa spp.), as well as clostridial fermenters (Sedimentibacter spp.), resides within the biogeochemical gradient zone underneath the highly contaminated plume core. This zone, where BTEX compounds and sulfate—an important electron acceptor—meet, also harbors a surprisingly high abundance of the yet-unidentified anaerobic toluene degraders carrying the previously detected F1-cluster bssA genes (C. Winderl, S. Schaefer, and T. Lueders, Environ. Microbiol. 9:1035-1046, 2007). Our data suggest that this biogeochemical gradient zone is a hot spot of anaerobic toluene degradation. These findings show that the distribution of specific aquifer microbiota and degradation processes in contaminated aquifers are tightly coupled, which may be of value for the assessment and prediction of natural attenuation based on intrinsic aquifer microbiota. PMID:18083871

  18. 77 FR 5833 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Allocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands... of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the BLM in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming... preferred method of commenting. Mail: Addressed to: Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources Draft Programmatic EIS...

  19. Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data from four western juniper-dominated experimental catchments in southwestern Idaho, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weather, snow, stream, topographic, and vegetation data are presented from the South Mountain Experimental Catchments. This study site was established in 2007 as a collaborative, long-term research laboratory to address the impacts of western juniper encroachment and treatments in the interior Great...

  20. Composition and Properties of Deposits Formed on the Internal Surface of Oil Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulieva, N. K.; Mustafaev, I. I.; Sabzaliev, A. A.; Garibov, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of oil deposits formed in pipelines during the transport of oil from Azerbaijani fields were studied by atomic absorption, chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Up to 20% of the deposits were shown to be composed of paraffins, tars, and other heavy oil fractions, while asphaltenes and mechanical impurities (iron, sulfur, manganese, calcium, and silicon compounds) comprise about 80%. The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and radionuclides are within permissible levels, while the content of some heavy metals exceeds the permissible level by a factor of 1000. These data should be used in the management of waste products in petroleum pipelines.

  1. Microplastic and tar pollution on three Canary Islands beaches: An annual study.

    PubMed

    Herrera, A; Asensio, M; Martínez, I; Santana, A; Packard, T; Gómez, M

    2018-04-01

    Marine debris accumulation was analyzed from three exposed beaches of the Canary Islands (Lambra, Famara and Las Canteras). Large microplastics (1-5mm), mesoplastics (5-25mm) and tar pollution were assessed twice a month for a year. There was great spatial and temporal variability in the Canary Island coastal pollution. Seasonal patterns differed at each location, marine debris concentration depended mainly of local-scale wind and wave conditions. The most polluted beach was Lambra, a remote beach infrequently visited. The types of debris found were mainly preproduction resin pellets, plastic fragments and tar, evidencing that pollution was not of local origin, but it cames from the open sea. The levels of pollution were similar to those of highly industrialized and contaminated regions. This study corroborates that the Canary Islands are an area of accumulation of microplastics and tar rafted from the North Atlantic Ocean by the southward flowing Canary Current. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects frommore » thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.« less

  3. Restoring grassland savannas from degraded pinyon-juniper woodlands: effects of mechanical overstory reduction and slash treatment alternatives

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Richard G. Gatewood; Randi B. Paris

    2002-01-01

    Although the distribution and structure of pinyon-juniper woodlands in the Southwestern United States are thought to be the result of historic fluctuations in regional climatic conditions, more recent increases in the areal extent, tree density, soil erosion rates, and loss of understory plant diversity are attributed to heavy grazing by domestic livestock and...

  4. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory answers the question: What is happening to pinyon-juniper woodlands?

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; Brytten E. Steed; Larry T. DeBlander

    2005-01-01

    Widespread mortality in the pinyon-juniper forest type is associated with several years of drought in the southwestern United States. A complex of drought, insects, and disease is responsible for pinyon mortality rates approaching 100% in some areas, while other areas have experienced little or no mortality. Implementation of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)...

  5. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels Volume IX: oak/juniper in southern Arizona and New Mexico.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Geoffrey B. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    A series of single and stereo photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings in evergreen and deciduous oak/juniper woodland and savannah ecosystems in southern Arizona and New Mexico. This group of photos includes inventory data summarizing vegetation composition, structure, and loading; woody material loading and density by size class; forest...

  6. Fluorescence emission spectral measurements for the detection of oil on shore

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Di Benedetto, J.A.; Lutz, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    The US DOE Special Technologies Laboratory is developing an airborne Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging (LIFI) system to support environmental management of government Utilities. This system, or a system to be derived from it, is being evaluated for its potential to detect spilled oils on shore, in wetlands, and on ice. To more fully understand the detectivity of oil spills, emphasis has been placed on the spectral contrast between the oil signatures and signatures associated with the natural backgrounds (sand, vegetation, etc.). To support this evaluation, two series of controlled measurements have been performed to provide rigorous characterization of the excitation-emission propertiesmore » of some oils and background materials, and to look at the effects of weathering of oil on terrestrial background materials. Oil targets included a heavy crude oil, diesel, kerosene, and aviation fuel and backgrounds included beach sand, straw, mud, tar and kelp. Fluorescence of oil on background materials decreases rapidly over the first few days of exposure to the environment and is more rapid than for neat oil samples.« less

  7. Fluorescence emission spectral measurements for the detection of oil on shore

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, L.K.; Di Benedetto, J.A.; Lutz, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. DOE Special Technologies Laboratory is developing an airborne Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging (LIFI) system to support environmental management of government facilities. This system, or a system to be derived from it, is being evaluated for its potential to detect spilled oils oN shore, in wetlands, and on ice. To more fully understand the detectivity of oil spills, emphasis has been placed on the spectral contrast between the oil signatures and signatures associated with the natural backgrounds (sand, vegetation, etc.). To support this evaluation, two series of controlled measurements have been performed to provide rigorous characterization of the excitation-emission propertiesmore » of some oils and background materials, and to look at the effects of weathering of oil on terrestrial background materials. Oil targets included a heavy crude oil, diesel, kerosene, and aviation fuel and backgrounds included beach sand, straw, mud, tar and kelp. Fluorescence of oil on background materials decreases rapidly over the first few days of exposure to the environment and is more rapid than for neat oil samples.« less

  8. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors.

  9. DeepMirTar: a deep-learning approach for predicting human miRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Cong, Peisheng; Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Hongmei; Li, Tonghua

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Because the underlying mechanisms associated with miRNA binding to mRNA are not fully understood, a major challenge of miRNA studies involves the identification of miRNA-target sites on mRNA. In silico prediction of miRNA-target sites can expedite costly and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most promising miRNA-target-site candidates. In this study, we reported the design and implementation of DeepMirTar, a deep-learning-based approach for accurately predicting human miRNA targets at the site level. The predicted miRNA-target sites are those having canonical or non-canonical seed, and features, including high-level expert-designed, low-level expert-designed, and raw-data-level, were used to represent the miRNA-target site. Comparison with other state-of-the-art machine-learning methods and existing miRNA-target-prediction tools indicated that DeepMirTar improved overall predictive performance. DeepMirTar is freely available at https://github.com/Bjoux2/DeepMirTar_SdA. lith@tongji.edu.cn, hongmeilu@csu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 LTR TATA and TAR region sequences required for transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J A; Harrich, D; Soultanakis, E; Wu, F; Mitsuyasu, R; Gaynor, R B

    1989-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 LTR is regulated at the transcriptional level by both cellular and viral proteins. Using HeLa cell extracts, multiple regions of the HIV LTR were found to serve as binding sites for cellular proteins. An untranslated region binding protein UBP-1 has been purified and fractions containing this protein bind to both the TAR and TATA regions. To investigate the role of cellular proteins binding to both the TATA and TAR regions and their potential interaction with other HIV DNA binding proteins, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of both these regions was performed followed by DNase I footprinting and transient expression assays. In the TATA region, two direct repeats TC/AAGC/AT/AGCTGC surround the TATA sequence. Mutagenesis of both of these direct repeats or of the TATA sequence interrupted binding over the TATA region on the coding strand, but only a mutation of the TATA sequence affected in vivo assays for tat-activation. In addition to TAR serving as the site of binding of cellular proteins, RNA transcribed from TAR is capable of forming a stable stem-loop structure. To determine the relative importance of DNA binding proteins as compared to secondary structure, oligonucleotide-directed mutations in the TAR region were studied. Local mutations that disrupted either the stem or loop structure were defective in gene expression. However, compensatory mutations which restored base pairing in the stem resulted in complete tat-activation. This indicated a significant role for the stem-loop structure in HIV gene expression. To determine the role of TAR binding proteins, mutations were constructed which extensively changed the primary structure of the TAR region, yet left stem base pairing, stem energy and the loop sequence intact. These mutations resulted in decreased protein binding to TAR DNA and defects in tat-activation, and revealed factor binding specifically to the loop DNA sequence. Further mutagenesis which inverted

  11. PAH sorption mechanism and partitioning behavior in lampblack-impacted soils from former oil-gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Ghosh, Upal; Mahajan, Tania; Zare, Richard N; Luthy, Richard G

    2003-08-15

    This study assessed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) association and aqueous partitioning in lampblack-impacted field soils from five sites in California that formerly housed oil-gas process operations. Lampblack is the solid residue resulting from the decomposition of crude oil at high temperatures in the gas-making operation and is coated or impregnated with oil gasification byproducts, among which PAHs are the compounds of the greatest regulatory concern. A suite of complementary measurements investigated the character of lampblack particles and PAH location and the associated effects on PAH partitioning between lampblack and water. PAH analyses on both whole samples and density-separated components demonstrated that 81-100% of PAHs in the lampblack-impacted soils was associated with lampblack particles. FTIR, 13C NMR, and SEM analyses showed that oil-gas lampblack solids comprise primarily aromatic carbon with soot-like structures. A free-phase aromatic oil may be present in some of the lampblack soils containing high PAH concentrations. Comparable long-term aqueous partitioning measurements were obtained with an air-bridge technique and with a centrifugation/alum flocculation procedure. Large solid/water partition coefficient (Kd) values were observed in samples exhibiting lower PAH and oil levels, whereas smaller Kd values were measured in lampblack samples containing high PAH levels. The former result is in agreement with an oil-soot partitioning model, and the latter is in agreement with a coal tar-water partitioning model. Lampblack containing high PAH levels appears to exhaust the sorption capacity of the soot-carbon, creating a free aromatic oil phase that exhibits partitioning behavior similar to PAHs in coal tar. This study improves mechanistic understanding of PAH sorption on aged lampblack residuals at former oil-gas sites and provides a framework for mechanistic assessment of PAH leaching potential and risk from such site materials.

  12. The persistence and character of stranded oil on coarse-sediment beaches.

    PubMed

    Owens, Edward H; Taylor, Elliott; Humphrey, Blair

    2008-01-01

    Small amounts of oil that can persist for decades in the intertidal zone of coarse-sediment beaches have been documented in a few well-studied cases. Oil that survives attenuation over the short-term (weeks to months) will persist until there is a change in the environmental conditions, as might occur where there is a seasonal storm-wave climate or as a beach undergoes long-term (erosional) changes. Oil residues can persist on the beach surface as tar mats, asphalt-like pavements, or as veneers on sediment particles or hard surfaces. Subsurface oil residues can persist in similar forms or as fill or partial fill of the pore spaces between coarse-sediment particles. Oil penetrates until it reaches fine-grained sediment, the water table, bedrock, or other penetration-limiting layers. Amounts of persistent oil are very small fractions of the volumes that were originally stranded and these protected residues can continue to biodegrade as they become thinner and more discontinuous.

  13. An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 microg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 microg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 microg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 microg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  14. 76 FR 21003 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Possible Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land Management in... to prepare a Programmatic EIS for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands... following methods: Web site: http://blm.gov/st5c . Mail: BLM Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources Leasing...

  15. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents determined under the U.S. EPA Oil Spill Research Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acu...

  16. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the conformational ensemble of the TAR RNA by X-ray scattering interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The conformational ensembles of structured RNA's are crucial for biological function, but they remain difficult to elucidate experimentally. We demonstrate with HIV-1 TAR RNA that X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) can be used to determine RNA conformational ensembles. X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) is based on site-specifically labeling RNA with pairs of heavy atom probes, and precisely measuring the distribution of inter-probe distances that arise from a heterogeneous mixture of RNA solution structures. We show that the XSI-based model of the TAR RNA ensemble closely resembles an independent model derived from NMR-RDC data. Further, we show how the TAR RNA ensemble changes shape at different salt concentrations. Finally, we demonstrate that a single hybrid model of the TAR RNA ensemble simultaneously fits both the XSI and NMR-RDC data set and show that XSI can be combined with NMR-RDC to further improve the quality of the determined ensemble. The results suggest that XSI-RNA will be a powerful approach for characterizing the solution conformational ensembles of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes under diverse solution conditions. PMID:28108663

  18. Determination of the conformational ensemble of the TAR RNA by X-ray scattering interferometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuesong; Walker, Peter; Harbury, Pehr B; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-05-05

    The conformational ensembles of structured RNA's are crucial for biological function, but they remain difficult to elucidate experimentally. We demonstrate with HIV-1 TAR RNA that X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) can be used to determine RNA conformational ensembles. X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI) is based on site-specifically labeling RNA with pairs of heavy atom probes, and precisely measuring the distribution of inter-probe distances that arise from a heterogeneous mixture of RNA solution structures. We show that the XSI-based model of the TAR RNA ensemble closely resembles an independent model derived from NMR-RDC data. Further, we show how the TAR RNA ensemble changes shape at different salt concentrations. Finally, we demonstrate that a single hybrid model of the TAR RNA ensemble simultaneously fits both the XSI and NMR-RDC data set and show that XSI can be combined with NMR-RDC to further improve the quality of the determined ensemble. The results suggest that XSI-RNA will be a powerful approach for characterizing the solution conformational ensembles of RNAs and RNA-protein complexes under diverse solution conditions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which aremore » common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application

  1. Distribution of Paradine plains cactus in pinyon-juniper woodland on the North Kaibab Ranger District, Kaibab National Forest

    Treesearch

    Arthur M. Phillips; Debra J. Kennedy; Barbara G. Phillips; Diedre Weage

    2001-01-01

    Surveys for Paradine plains cactus (Pediocactus paradinei B. W. Benson) conducted for the Kaibab National Forest, North Kaibab Ranger District in 1992-94 qualitatively showed a fairly substantial population of scattered individuals in the pinyon-juniper woodland, and indicated that there might be a correlation between plant distribution and dripline of trees. This...

  2. SULFUR TOLERANT CATALYSTS FOR BIOMASS TAR REMOVAL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project, NexTech Materials proposes a catalytic reforming approach to remove waste tar from gasified biomass on nickel-based catalysts. Biomass gasification is a potential renewable route to producing electricity, liquid fue...

  3. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  4. Influence of the presence of PAHs and coal tar on naphthalene sorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Rémy; Barna, Ligia; Mahjoub, Borhane; Gourdon, Rémy

    2000-11-01

    The mobility of the most water-soluble polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene in contaminated soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites or other similar sites is influenced not only by the naturally occurring soil organic matter (SOM) but also, and in many cases mostly, by the nature and concentration of coal tar xenobiotic organic matter (XOM) and other PAH molecules present in the medium under various physical states. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of these factors using batch experiments, in order to simulate naphthalene transport in soil-tar-water systems using column experiments. Naphthalene sorption was studied in the presence of (i) solid coal tar particles, (ii) phenanthrene supplied as pure crystals, in the aqueous solution or already sorbed onto the soil, (iii) fluoranthene as pure crystals, and (iv) an aqueous solution of organic molecules extracted from a liquid tar. All experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions using short naphthalene/sorbent contact times of 24-60 h. Although these tests do not reflect true equilibrium conditions which usually take more time to establish, they were used to segregate relatively rapid sorption phenomena ("pseudo equilibrium") from slow sorption and other aging phenomena. For longer contact times, published data have shown that experimental biases due to progressive changes in the characteristics of the soil and the solution may drastically modify the affinity of the solutes for the soil. Slow diffusion in the microporosity and in dense organic phases may also become significant over the long term, along with some irreversible aging phenomena which have not been addressed in this work. Results showed that PAHs had no effect on naphthalene sorption when present in the aqueous solution or as pure crystals, due to their low solubility in water. Adsorbed phenanthrene was found to reduce naphthalene adsorption only when present at relatively high

  5. Winter precipitation effect in a mid-latitude temperature-limited environment: the case of common juniper at high elevation in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, Elena; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is by far the most widespread conifer in the world. However, tree-ring research dealing with this species is still scarce, mainly due to the difficulty in crossdating associated with the irregular stem shape with strip-bark growth form in older individuals and the high number of missing and wedging rings. Given that many different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations and proved to be reliable climate proxies, this study aims to (i) test the possibility to successfully apply dendrochronological techniques on common juniper growing above the treeline and (ii) verify the climate sensitivity of the species with special regard to winter precipitation, a climatic factor that generally does not affect tree-ring growth in all Alpine high-elevation tree species. Almost 90 samples have been collected in three sites in the central and eastern Alps, all between 2100 and 2400 m in elevation. Despite cross-dating difficulties, we were able to build a reliable chronology for each site, each spanning over 200 years. Climate-growth relationships computed over the last century highlight that juniper growth is mainly controlled by the amount of winter precipitation. The high variability of the climate-growth associations among sites, corresponds well to the low spatial dependence of this meteorological factor. Fairly long chronologies and the presence of a significant precipitation signal open up the possibility to reconstruct past winter precipitation.

  6. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jasoni, Richard L; Larsen, Jessica D; Lyles, Brad F.

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ETmore » and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges

  7. Characterization and source of oil contamination on the beaches and seabird corpses, Sable Island, Nova Scotia, 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Zoe; Macgregor, Clive

    2006-07-01

    During April 1996-May 2005, 2343 oiled seabird corpses were recorded in beach surveys conducted on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. One hundred eighty-three samples of oil were collected from the beaches and from the feathers of bird corpses. Gas chromatographic (GC/FID) analysis was used to identify generic oil type and likely marine source. During this period, at least 74 marine oil discharge events were probably responsible for beached pelagic tar and contamination of seabird corpses found on Sable Island, of which 77.0% were crude oils, 14.9% were fuel oils, and 8.1% were bilge oil mixtures. While fuel and bilge oils may be discharged by all vessel and platform types, crude oil discharges are associated with tanker operations. This study demonstrates that oiling of the sea from tankers remains a serious wildlife issue in the Northwest Atlantic.

  8. Emission of Methane and Heavier Alkanes From the La Brea Tar Pits Seepage Area, Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Doezema, L. A.; Pacheco, C.

    2017-11-01

    Natural hydrocarbon (oil and gas) seeps are widespread in Los Angeles, California, due to gas migration, along faults, from numerous subsurface petroleum fields. These seeps may represent important natural contributors of methane (CH4) and heavier alkanes (C2-C4) to the atmosphere, in addition to anthropogenic fossil fuel and biogenic sources. We measured the CH4 flux by closed-chamber method from the La Brea Tar Pits park (0.1 km2), one of the largest seepage sites in Los Angeles. The gas seepage occurs throughout the park, not only from visible oil-asphalt seeps but also diffusely from the soil, affecting grass physiology. About 500 kg CH4 d-1 is emitted from the park, especially along a belt of enhanced degassing that corresponds to the 6th Street Fault. Additional emissions are from bubble plumes in the lake within the park (order of 102-103 kg d-1) and at the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Curson Avenue (>130 kg d-1), along the same fault. The investigated area has the highest natural gas flux measured thus far for any onshore seepage zone in the USA. Gas migration, oil biodegradation, and secondary methanogenesis altered the molecular composition of the original gas accumulated in the Salt Lake Oil Field (>300 m deep), leading to high C1/C2+ and i-butane/n-butane ratios. These molecular alterations can be important tracers of natural seepage and should be considered in the atmospheric modeling of the relative contribution of fossil fuel (anthropogenic fugitive emission and natural geologic sources) versus biogenic sources of methane, on local and global scales.

  9. Proceedings: ecology and management of pinyon-juniper communities within the Interior West; 1997 September 15-18; Provo, UT

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens

    1999-01-01

    A symposium held September 15-18,1997, in Provo, UT, and Sanpete County, UT, provided information on the ecology, management, resource values, and restoration of pinyon-juniper communities in the Interior Western United States. The conference was hosted by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station and the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources in...

  10. 33 CFR 165.927 - Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site, Duluth, MN. 165.927 Section 165.927 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.927 Safety Zone; St. Louis River, Duluth/Interlake Tar Remediation Site...

  11. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  12. Impact of Genetic Variations in HIV-1 Tat on LTR-Mediated Transcription via TAR RNA Interaction.

    PubMed

    Ronsard, Larance; Ganguli, Nilanjana; Singh, Vivek K; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Rai, Tripti; Sridharan, Subhashree; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Kumar, Binod; Rai, Devesh; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Coumar, Mohane S; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 evades host defense through mutations and recombination events, generating numerous variants in an infected patient. These variants with an undiminished virulence can multiply rapidly in order to progress to AIDS. One of the targets to intervene in HIV-1 replication is the trans -activator of transcription (Tat), a major regulatory protein that transactivates the long terminal repeat promoter through its interaction with trans -activation response (TAR) RNA. In this study, HIV-1 infected patients ( n = 120) from North India revealed Ser46Phe (20%) and Ser61Arg (2%) mutations in the Tat variants with a strong interaction toward TAR leading to enhanced transactivation activities. Molecular dynamics simulation data verified that the variants with this mutation had a higher binding affinity for TAR than both the wild-type Tat and other variants that lacked Ser46Phe and Ser61Arg. Other mutations in Tat conferred varying affinities for TAR interaction leading to differential transactivation abilities. This is the first report from North India with a clinical validation of CD4 counts to demonstrate the influence of Tat genetic variations affecting the stability of Tat and its interaction with TAR. This study highlights the co-evolution pattern of Tat and predominant nucleotides for Tat activity, facilitating the identification of genetic determinants for the attenuation of viral gene expression.

  13. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Jaiswal, Namit; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  14. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  15. Relationship between cigarette format and mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine in smokers of Russian king-size cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Madeleine; Dixon, Mike; Prasad, Krishna

    2014-10-01

    Differences in length and circumference of cigarettes may influence smoker behaviour and exposure to smoke constituents. Superslim king-size (KSSS) cigarettes (17mm circumference versus 25mm circumference of conventional king-size [KS] cigarettes), have gained popularity in several countries, including Russia. Some smoke constituents are lower in machine-smoked KSSS versus KS cigarettes, but few data exist on actual exposure in smokers. We investigated mouth-level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine in Russian smokers of KSSS versus KS cigarettes and measured smoke constituents under machine-smoking conditions. MLE to tar was similar for smokers of 1mg ISO tar yield products, but lower for smokers of 4mg and 7mg KSSS versus KS cigarettes. MLE to nicotine was lower in smokers of 4mg KSSS versus KS cigarettes, but not for other tar bands. No gender differences were observed for nicotine or tar MLE. Under International Organization for Standardization, Health Canada Intense and Massachusetts regimes, KSSS cigarettes tended to yield less carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde, nitric oxide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, but more formaldehyde, than KS cigarettes. In summary, differences in MLE were observed between cigarette formats, but not systematically across pack tar bands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  17. Identification and characterization of a HeLa nuclear protein that specifically binds to the trans-activation-response (TAR) element of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, R A; Garcia-Blanco, M A; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNAs contain a sequence, trans-activation-response (TAR) element, which is required for tat protein-mediated trans-activation of viral gene expression. We have identified a nuclear protein from extracts of HeLa cells that binds to the TAR element RNA in a sequence-specific manner. The binding of this 68-kDa polypeptide was detected by UV cross-linking proteins to TAR element RNA transcribed in vitro. Competition experiments were performed by using a partially purified preparation of the protein to quantify the relative binding affinities of TAR element RNA mutants. The binding affinity of the TAR mutants paralleled the reported ability of those mutants to support tat trans-activation in vivo. We propose that this cellular protein moderates TAR activity in vivo. Images PMID:2333305

  18. Detecting mortality induced structural and functional changes in a pinon-juniper woodland using Landsat and RapidEye time series

    Treesearch

    Dan J. Krofcheck; Jan U. H. Eitel; Lee A. Vierling; Urs Schulthess; Timothy M. Hilton; Eva Dettweiler-Robinson; Rosemary Pendleton; Marcy E. Litvak

    2014-01-01

    Pinon-juniper (PJ) woodlands have recently undergone dramatic drought-induced mortality, triggering broad scale structural changes in this extensive Southwestern US biome. Given that climate projections for the region suggest widespread conifer mortality is likely to continue into the next century, it is critical to better understand how this climate-induced change in...

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of acid tar waste from crude benzol refining: A thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chihobo, Chido H; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Kuipa, Pardon K; Simbi, David J

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min -1 The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A variation in the activation energy with conversion revealed that the pyrolysis of the acid tar waste progresses through complex multi-step kinetics. Mass spectrometry results revealed a predominance of gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, implying that the pyrolysis of acid tar waste is potentially an energy source. Thus the pyrolysis of acid tar waste may present a viable option for its environmental treatment. There are however, some limitations imposed by the co-evolution of corrosive gaseous components for which appropriate considerations must be provided in both pyrolysis reactor design and selection of construction materials. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    PubMed

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  1. Historical fire and multidecadal drought as context for piñon - Juniper woodland restoration in western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is known to structure tree populations, but the role of broad-scale climate variability is less clear. For example, the influence of climatic “teleconnections” (the relationship between oceanic–atmospheric fluctuations and anomalous weather patterns across broad scales) on forest age structure is relatively unexplored. We sampled semiarid piñon–juniper (Pinus edulis–Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands in western Colorado, USA, to test the hypothesis that woodland age structures are shaped by climate, including links to oceanic–atmospheric fluctuations, and by past fires and livestock grazing. Low-severity surface fire was lacking, as fire scars were absent, and did not influence woodland densities, but stand-replacing fires served as long-rotation (>400–600 years), stand-initiating events. Old-growth stands (>300 years old) were found in 75% of plots, consistent with a long fire rotation. Juniper and piñon age structures suggest contrasting responses during the past several centuries to dry and wet episodes linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Juniper density increased slightly during periods of drought, positive (warm) AMO (after ∼10-year lag), and negative (cool) PDO. In contrast, piñon populations may still be recovering from a long, drought-filled period (AD 1620–1820), with pulses of recovery favored during cool AMO, warm PDO, and above-average moisture periods. Analysis of 20th-century tree establishment and instrumental climate data corroborate the long-term relationships between age structure and climate. After Euro–American settlement (AD 1881), livestock grazing reduced understory grasses and forbs, reducing competition with tree seedlings and facilitating climate-induced increases in piñons. Thus tree populations in these woodlands are in flux, affected by drought and wet periods linked to oceanic–atmospheric variability, Euro–American livestock grazing, and long

  2. Oil and gas fields in East Coast and Arctic basins of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Meneley, R.A.

    1984-09-01

    The East Coast and Arctic basins of Canada have been under serious hydrocarbon exploration for over 20 years. Although the density of drilling is low, extensive seismic control has outlined a high proportion of the structures in these basins and the stratigraphic framework of the basins is known. From west to east, the basins include the Beaufort basin, the Sverdrup basin of the high Arctic and the adjacent Parry Island foldbelt, the rift basins of Baffin Bay, and the continental-margin basins offshore Labrador, the Grand Banks and the Scotian Shelf. Each of these basins contains oil and gas fields thatmore » typify, to some degree, the pools that may be anticipated in undrilled structures. Surprises, both good and bad, await the explorer. The physical environment of these Canadian basins ranges from severe to almost impossible. As exploration has proceeded, great strides have been made in coping with the physical environment; however, the costs are becoming increasingly onerous, and the appreciation is growing regarding the cost, risk and time that will be involved in developing production from those resources. Even from a national sense of supply security, the vast reserves of oil in the tar sands and in-situ recovery deposits of heavy oil in western Canada will provide a competitive ceiling that will limit future development of frontier basins to those where production costs are not significantly higher than those of the tar sands.« less

  3. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  4. Cigarettes, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease: the effects of inhalation and tar yield.

    PubMed

    Higenbottam, T; Shipley, M J; Rose, G

    1982-06-01

    Ten-year mortality rates for lung cancer and coronary heart disease have been related to cigarette smoking habits in 17 475 male civil servants aged 40-64 and in sample of 8089 male British residents aged 35-69. Both diseases were more frequent in smokers. Lung cancer rates were higher overall for "non-inhalers", particularly in heavy smokers. Tar yield correlated with the risk of lung cancer in non-inhalers but less so in inhalers. Conversely, coronary deaths were more common among inhalers, and the effect of tar/nicotine yield (such as it was) was confined to inhalers. It appears that there are subtle interactions between the amount smoked, the tar/nicotine yield of the cigarette, and the style of smoking. Thus the effects of a change in cigarette characteristics are hard to predict, and they may be different for respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  6. Exploring the chemical composition of pelagic tar collected in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. S.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.; Aeppli, C.; Swarthout, B.; Sharpless, C.; Joyce, P.; Meyer, A. W.; Fuller, S. A.; Gosselin, K.

    2016-12-01

    Pelagic tarballs have been linked to multiple sources and their abundances follow notable historical and geographic trends. An overwhelming number of studies point to operational discharges (cargo washing) as the main source of pelagic tar. In a recent review article, Warnock et al. (2015) summarized that the abundance of tar balls has decreased over the last 30 years. The decreasing trend of tarballs has been attributed to the MARPOL 73/78 Annex I legislation, which was created from conventions held in 1973 and again in 1978 to respond to several tanker accidents and other pollution-related inputs. Two of the studies supporting the "MARPOL 73/78 effect" were based on the historical record of tarballs collected in the North Atlantic Ocean by the Sea Education Association (SEA; Woods Hole, MA). To supplement the SEA record, we performed a series of geochemical analyses on 100 of the SEA samples collected from 1988 to 2014. Bulk and gas chromatographic (GC) analyses revealed that the samples were highly variable. For example, the amount of material that could be dissolved in organic solvent but not measured by gas chromatography (referred to as the % GC amenable, a proxy on the distribution of compound classes that compose the tar) ranged from 10 to 80%, although skewed to values less than 40%. Another parameter, based on the GC data, was the perecentage of the resolved relative to the unresolved signal spanned from 0.1 to 1.8. Nine of the sampes would not dissolve in organic solvents and appear to be soot or coal. This study has an operation limitation as we choose to only examine samples > 1 cm (relative to samples smaller than 1mm). Our approach was based on the assumption that these samples were the most unlikely to be weathered and hence retain the genetic features of the initially released tar. While this study does not have the capacity to test confidently the MARPOL 73/78 effect, it does show that pelagic tars are highly variable, which in turn, have

  7. Membrane curvature and the Tol-Pal complex determine polar localization of the chemoreceptor Tar in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Saaki, Terrens N V; Strahl, Henrik; Hamoen, Leendert W

    2018-02-20

    Chemoreceptors are localized at the cell poles of Escherichia coli and other rod-shaped bacteria. Over the years different mechanisms have been put forward to explain this polar localization; from stochastic clustering, membrane curvature driven localization, interactions with the Tol-Pal complex, to nucleoid exclusion. To evaluate these mechanisms, we monitored the cellular localization of the aspartate chemoreceptor Tar in different deletion mutants. We did not find any indication for either stochastic cluster formation or nucleoid exclusion. However, the presence of a functional Tol-Pal complex appeared to be essential to retain Tar at cell poles. Interestingly, Tar still accumulated at midcell in tol and in pal deletion mutants. In these mutants, the protein appears to gather at the base of division septa, a region characterised by strong membrane curvature. Chemoreceptors, like Tar, form trimer-of-dimers that bend the cell membrane due to a rigid tripod structure. The curvature approaches the curvature of the cell membrane generated during cell division, and localization of chemoreceptor tripods at curved membrane areas is therefore energetically favourable as it lowers membrane tension. Indeed, when we introduced mutations in Tar that abolish the rigid tripod structure, the protein was no longer able to accumulate at midcell or cell poles. These findings favour a model where chemoreceptor localization in E. coli is driven by strong membrane curvature and association with the Tol-Pal complex. Importance Bacteria have exquisite mechanisms to sense and to adapt to the environment they live in. One such mechanism involves the chemotaxis signal transduction pathway, in which chemoreceptors specifically bind certain attracting or repelling molecules and transduce the signals to the cell. In different rod-shaped bacteria, these chemoreceptors localize specifically to cell poles. Here, we examined the polar localization of the aspartate chemoreceptor Tar in E. coli

  8. Tar-free fuel gas production from high temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Leguan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge was efficient for producing tar-free fuel gas. • Complete tar removal and volatile matter release were at elevated temperature of 1300 °C. • Sewage sludge was converted to residual solid with high ash content. • 72.60% of energy conversion efficiency for gas production in high temperature pyrolysis. • Investment and costing for tar cleaning were reduced. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was studied in a free-fall reactor at 1000–1400 °C. The results showed that the volatile matter in the sludge could be completely released to gaseous product at 1300 °C. Themore » high temperature was in favor of H{sub 2} and CO in the produced gas. However, the low heating value (LHV) of the gas decreased from 15.68 MJ/N m{sup 3} to 9.10 MJ/N m{sup 3} with temperature increasing from 1000 °C to 1400 °C. The obtained residual solid was characterized by high ash content. The energy balance indicated that the most heating value in the sludge was in the gaseous product.« less

  9. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Treesearch

    R. K. Chakrabarty; H. Moosmuller; L.-W. A. Chen; K. Lewis; W. P. Arnott; C. Mazzoleni; M. K. Dubey; C. E. Wold; W. M. Hao; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Angstrom coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent...

  10. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  11. 40 CFR Table 9 to Part 455 - Group 2 Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fatty acids of coconut oil (coded 079). 505200 Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. 1 Shaughnessey codes and.... 016601 2 Dry ice. 022003 Coal tar. 025001 Coal tar neutral oils. 025003 Creosote oil (Note: Derived from... BNOA. 063501 Kerosene. 063502 Mineral oil—includes paraffin oil from 063503. 063503 Petroleum...

  12. 40 CFR Table 9 to Part 455 - Group 2 Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the fatty acids of coconut oil (coded 079). 505200 Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. 1 Shaughnessey codes... aromatic naphtha. 016601 2 Dry ice. 022003 Coal tar. 025001 Coal tar neutral oils. 025003 Creosote oil... acids. 055601 BNOA. 063501 Kerosene. 063502 Mineral oil—includes paraffin oil from 063503. 063503...

  13. 40 CFR Table 9 to Part 455 - Group 2 Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the fatty acids of coconut oil (coded 079). 505200 Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. 1 Shaughnessey codes... aromatic naphtha. 016601 2 Dry ice. 022003 Coal tar. 025001 Coal tar neutral oils. 025003 Creosote oil... acids. 055601 BNOA. 063501 Kerosene. 063502 Mineral oil—includes paraffin oil from 063503. 063503...

  14. 40 CFR Table 9 to Part 455 - Group 2 Mixtures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the fatty acids of coconut oil (coded 079). 505200 Isoparaffinic hydrocarbons. 1 Shaughnessey codes... aromatic naphtha. 016601 2 Dry ice. 022003 Coal tar. 025001 Coal tar neutral oils. 025003 Creosote oil... acids. 055601 BNOA. 063501 Kerosene. 063502 Mineral oil—includes paraffin oil from 063503. 063503...

  15. Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Etuan; Beer, Gary Lee

    2015-11-10

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the tar sands formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A pressure in the portion of the formation is controlled such that the pressure remains below a fracture pressure of the formation overburden while allowing the portion of the formation to heat to a selected average temperature of at least about 280.degree. C. and at most about 300.degree. C. The pressure in the portion of the formation is reduced to a selected pressure after the portion of the formation reaches the selected average temperature.

  16. Net Changes in Above Ground Woody Carbon Stock in Western Juniper Woodlands using Wavelet Techniques and Multi-temporal Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, E. K.; Bunting, S. C.; Smith, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    Expansion of woody plant cover in semi-arid ecosystems previously occupied primarily by grasses and forbs has been identified as an important land cover change process affecting the global carbon budget. Although woody encroachment occurs worldwide, quantifying changes in carbon pools and fluxes related to this phenomenon via remote sensing is challenging because large areas are affected at a fine spatial resolution (1- 10 m) and, in many cases, at slow temporal rates. Two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis (SWA) represents a novel image processing technique that has been successful in automatically and objectively quantifying ecologically relevant features at multiple scales. We apply SWA to current and historic 1-m resolution black and white aerial photography to quantify changes in above ground woody biomass and carbon stock of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe on the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. Due to the large land area (330,000 ha) and variable availability of historical photography, we sampled forty-eight 100-ha blocks situated across the area, stratified using topographic, soil, and land stewardship variables. The average juniper plant cover increased one-fold (from 5.3% to 10.4% total cover) at the site during the time period of 1939-1946 to 1998-2004. Juniper plant density has increased by 128% with a higher percentage of the plant population in the smaller size classes compared to the size distribution 60 years ago. After image-based SWA delineation of tree crown sizes, we computed the change in above ground woody plant biomass and carbon stock between the two time periods using allometry. Areas where the shrub steppe is dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) has experienced little to no expansion of western juniper. However, on deeper, more well drained soils capable of supporting mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. vaseyana), the above

  17. Consequences of Widespread Piñon Mortality for Water Availability and Water Use Dynamics in Piñon-Juniper Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, L.; Pangle, R. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Pockman, W.; Litvak, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tree die-off events have showed a rapid increase in the last decade as a result of warmer temperatures and more severe drought. In the southwestern US, where piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands occupy 24 million ha, the turn of the century drought (1999-2002) triggered 40-95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperous monosperma). To determine the consequences of this disturbance on surface water balance we conducted a girdling experiment where all piñon trees above 7 cm of diameter at breast height in an area of 200 m2 were girdled in September 2009. We compared water and energy fluxes in this girdled site (PJG) using open-path eddy covariance (EC) to fluxes measured simultaneously in an intact PJ woodland less than 3 km away (PJC). In addition to evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from EC, canopy transpiration (ETc) was measured using sap flow probes (Granier thermal dissipation method) installed on five juniper and five piñon trees at each site. Soil water content (SWC) was also monitored using TDR probes (CS610, Campbell Scientific) under the three main cover types ( bare soil, under juniper and under piñon) and at three depths (5,10 and 30 cm depths) in both sites. Total ET at PJG decreased slowly, but progressively, relative to PJC following the girdling, with annual ET 5%, 10% and 19% lower in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, in the girdled site. Following the girdling, canopy transpiration was significantly reduced at PJG, with an observed reduction of annual ETc at PJG of 45%, 59% and 71% from 2010 to 2012 compared to the PJC site. Our results suggest that girdling triggered a significant increase of soil evaporation and understory transpiration (not directly measured) as a result of canopy cover loss. This agrees with significant higher establishment of annual forbs seen at PJG relative to PJC and the increase of solar radiation reaching the soil surface as a result of canopy cover loss. Our results suggest pi

  18. Effects of prescribed fire on fuels, vegetation, and Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) demographics in Texas juniper-oak woodlands

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson; Carl Schwope; Scott Rowin; James M. Mueller

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is an endangered songbird that breeds in mature juniper-oak woodlands restricted to Central Texas. This habitat is increasingly susceptible to crown fire due to climate change, land use change, and fire suppression. Prescribed fire is a potential tool to reduce the risk of crown fire and may be a...

  19. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  20. Use of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Crown Dimensions to Predict One Seed Juniper Woody Biomass Yield for Alternative Energy Uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Throughout the western United States there is increased interest in utilizing woodland biomass as an alternative energy source. We conducted a pilot study to predict one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) chip yield from tree-crown dimensions measured on the ground or derived from Very Large Scale ...

  1. SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueousmore » fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm 3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.« less

  2. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogensmore » were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.« less

  3. Silica removal from steamflood-produced water: South Texas tar sands pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.A.; Yost, M.E.; Cathey, S.R.

    1987-05-01

    Steamflood-produced waters commonly contain suspended solids, oil, hardness-causing minerals, sulfide, and silica. Removal of these contaminants would make many of these waters suitable for recycling as steamer feedwater. Reuse of steamflood-produced waters increases steamer feedwater supplies and reduces water disposal requirements. This paper describes a field pilot study of silica removal from steamflood-produced water in the south Texas tar sands region. A hot-lime precipitation process was used to reduce dissolved silica (SiO/sub 2/) concentrations from 400 to less than 50 mg/L SiO/sub 2/ in Mary R. Saner Ranch produced water. Most water systems using hot-lime precipitation for silica removal requiremore » the addition of magnesium salt, as well as lime, to enhance silica removal. In this field study, however, addition of magnesium salt did not improve silica removal efficiency. Hydrated lime, CA(OH)/sub 2/, alone was sufficient to attain desired silica residual, 50 mg/L SiO/sub 2/. The dissolved silica adsorbed onto the CaCO/sub 3/ crystals formed by lime reacting with the alkalinity present in the produced water. Required lime dosage was approximately 900 mg/L Ca(OH)/sub 2/.« less

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulation in Pennsylvanian-age Ten Sleep Sandstone: the Trapper Creek tar sand deposit, Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Barrell, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    Preliminary investigations indicate a potential tar sand accumulation in the Trapper Creek deposit of more than 2.13 million tons of mineralized material with a yield of 0.92 bbl per ton of 5.2/sup 0/ API oil for an approximate resource of 1.96 million bbl of recoverable petroleum. Remote sensing data suggest that the accumulation is in part controlled by two major and four minor lineaments which traverse the area. Stratigraphic and lithologic criteria can be used to infer a Minnelusa-type mode of occurrence. Ancillary stream sediment and outcrop geochemistry data yield locally anomalous but uneconomic concentrations of Mg, Ca, Ti, Mn,more » Ag, Cu, Mo, V, K, and Si, which may have significance in the identification of similar hydrocarbon accumulations along the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains.« less

  5. Remediation of Coal Tar by STAR: Self-Sustaining Propagation Across Clean Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Brown, J.; Torero, J. L.; Grant, G.

    2016-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is an emerging remediation technique which utilizes a subsurface smouldering reaction to destroy non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in situ. The reaction is self-sustaining in that, once ignited, the destructive smouldering front will propagate outwards using only the energy embedded in the contaminant. However, it is known that coal tar can occur as both a continuous pool as well as in distinct seams separated by clean intervals. This study evaluated the hypothesis that the smouldering reaction can cross or `jump' clean gaps by transferring enough heat through the gap to re-ignite the reaction in the contaminated region beyond. Column and 2D box experiments were performed at two scales to determine the maximum clean gap which could be jumped vertically and horizontally. Once the maximum gap had been determined, sensitivity to various in situ and engineering control parameters were explored including: coal tar layer thickness, soil permeability, moisture content, NAPL saturation, and air injection flowrate. High resolution thermocouples informed the progress of the reaction, continuous gas emissions analysis revealed when the reaction was active and dormant, and detailed excavation mapped the extent of remediation and whether gaps were successfully jumped. The work demonstrated that substantial clean gaps, approaching the limit of the laboratory scale, can be jumped by the smouldering reaction using convective heat transfer. Also observed in some cases was the mobilization of pre-heated coal tar into the clean gaps and the reaction's ability to propagate through and destroy coal tar both adjacent to and within the gaps. This work is providing new insights into the robust nature of the technology for in situ applications, and indicating how extreme the heterogeneity has to be before the reaction is interrupted and a new ignition location would be required.

  6. Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat and PAHs: Implications for the Environment, Human Health, and Stormwater Management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20−35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them. PMID:22296333

  7. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  8. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

    2012-03-20

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  9. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  10. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  11. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova

    2008-02-15

    The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ionmore » conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.« less

  14. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat relationships of breeding birds were examined in northwestern Colorado in pinyon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland and in openings where most overstory trees had been knocked down by anchor chaining. Vegetation characteristics and physical habitat features were measured in 233 0.04-ha circular plots around singing males of 13 species of birds from 15 May to 15 July 1980. Thirteen-group discriminant function analysis ordinated bird species along three habitat dimensions described by (1) canopy height; (2) slope, shrub size, and shrub species diversity; and (3) percentage canopy cover, large tree density, distance from a habitat edge, litter cover, and green cover. Woodland, open-area, and intermediate edge species were clearly segregated along the first discriminant axis, and species' associations with shrubs, inclination, ground cover, and edges were revealed by the ordinations along the second and third discriminant axes. Two-group discriminant analyses comparing occupied and available plots identified additional and more specific habitat associations. For example, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) were associated with mature forested habitats and forest interiors, Virginia's Warblers (Vermivora virginiae) favored steep, oak-covered draws, Rock Wrens (Salpinctes obsoletus) selected areas where percentage log cover and small tree density were high, and Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) preferred shrubby slopes with scattered large trees near woodland edges.

  15. Comparison of composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wenqiang, Guan; Shufen, Li; Ruixiang, Yan; Yanfeng, Huang

    2006-09-01

    Essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant inflorescence was obtained by supercritical CO(2) extraction and hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to characterize its components and was also tested for antifungal activity. A total of 61 compounds were identified in the hydrodistilled oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (4.46%), borneol (3.58%), terpinol (10.18%), spathulenol (10.03%), caryophyllene oxide (6.51%), juniper camphor (8.74%), Camazulene (2.05%), and camphor (3.49%). By using supercritical CO(2) at 50 degrees C and 10 MPa, the concentrations of previous main components were lower than oil obtained by hydrodistillation, while miscellaneous compounds were higher. The essential oil extracted by these two methods exhibited antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternate, two common storage pathogens of fruits and vegetables. The inhibition of B. cinerea and A. alternate were 93.3 and 84.7% for oil extracted by hydrodistillation when exposed to a concentration of 1,000 mg L(-1), while values of 70.8 and 60.5% were observed from oil extracted by supercritical CO(2).

  16. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jennifer C.; Welday, Jennifer N.; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L.; Mena, Kristina D.; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  17. Effects of varying marijuana potency on deposition of tar and delta9-THC in the lung during smoking.

    PubMed

    Matthias, P; Tashkin, D P; Marques-Magallanes, J A; Wilkins, J N; Simmons, M S

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether smoking more, compared to less, potent marijuana (MJ) cigarettes to a desired level of intoxication ("high") reduces pulmonary exposure to noxious smoke components, in 10 habitual smokers of MJ, we measured respiratory delivery and deposition of tar and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) boost, smoking topography, including cumulative puff volume (CPV) and breathholding time, change in heart rate (deltaHR) and "high" during ad lib smoking of 0, 1.77, and 3.95% MJ cigarettes on 3 separate days. At each session, subjects had access to only a single MJ cigarette. On average, smoking topography and COHb boost did not differ across the different strengths of MJ, while THC delivery, as well as HR, were significantly greater (p < 0.01) and tar deposition significantly less (p < 0.03) for 3.95% than 1.77% MJ. Although individual adaptations in smoking topography for 3.95% compared to 1.77% MJ were highly variable, three subjects with the lowest 3.95% MJ:1.77% MJ ratios for CPV also displayed the lowest 3.95% MJ:1.77% MJ ratios for tar deposition. In vitro studies using a standardized smoking technique revealed a mean 25% lower tar yield from 3.95% than 1.77% MJ (p < 0.05), but no difference between 1.77% and 0% marijuana. Under the conditions of this study, we conclude that tar delivery is reduced relative to THC content in a minority of subjects, and this reduction appears to be due to a reduced intake of smoke (decreased CPV) and/or a reduced tar yield from the stronger MJ preparation.

  18. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  19. Uptake of pyrene in a breast-fed child of a mother treated with coal tar.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Houtum, Jeanette L M; Anzion, Rob B M; Harder, Rianne; Bos, Rob P; van der Valk, Pieter G M

    2009-01-01

    A woman was treated for atopic dermatitis with coal tar containing ointments. Coal tar containing ointments contain genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Over a period of 50 days the accumulated dose of different coal tar containing ointments treatments corresponded to 993 mg of pyrene and 464 mg of benz[a]pyrene. During this treatment she gave breast milk to her 3-month-old daughter. Analysis of urine samples from the breast-fed child showed elevated levels of urinary excretion of a metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-OHP). These levels were in the same range as urinary excretion levels of this metabolite observed in the mother's urine. As no pyrene was observed in breast milk at a limit of determination of 0.0035 micromol/L, transfer of pyrene from mother to child via breast milk is not likely. Also, a low level of 1-hydroxypyrene observed in the mother's milk did not account for the observed urinary excretion levels in the child. It must therefore be assumed that pyrene was transferred from mother to child via another route, presumably direct skin-to-skin or skin-to-mouth contact. Dermatologists should inform their patients who receive treatment with coal tar containing ointments of the risk of transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by skin-to-skin or skin-to-mouth contact.

  20. Timing and petroleum sources for the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta based on 4-D modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Lewan, M.D.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Henry, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group oil sands of northern Alberta have an estimated 270.3 billion m3 (BCM) (1700 billion bbl) of in-place heavy oil and tar. Our study area includes oil sand accumulations and downdip areas that partially extend into the deformation zone in western Alberta. The oil sands are composed of highly biodegraded oil and tar, collectively referred to as bitumen, whose source remains controversial. This is addressed in our study with a four-dimensional (4-D) petroleum system model. The modeled primary trap for generated and migrated oil is subtle structures. A probable seal for the oil sands was a gradual updip removal of the lighter hydrocarbon fractions as migrated oil was progressively biodegraded. This is hypothetical because the modeling software did not include seals resulting from the biodegradation of oil. Although the 4-D model shows that source rocks ranging from the Devonian-Mississippian Exshaw Formation to the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group coals and Ostracode-zone-contributed oil to Mannville Group reservoirs, source rocks in the Jurassic Fernie Group (Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale) were the initial and major contributors. Kinetics associated with the type IIS kerogen in Fernie Group source rocks resulted in the early generation and expulsion of oil, as early as 85 Ma and prior to the generation from the type II kerogen of deeper and older source rocks. The modeled 50% peak transformation to oil was reached about 75 Ma for the Gordondale Member and Poker Chip A shale near the west margin of the study area, and prior to onset about 65 Ma from other source rocks. This early petroleum generation from the Fernie Group source rocks resulted in large volumes of generated oil, and prior to the Laramide uplift and onset of erosion (???58 Ma), which curtailed oil generation from all source rocks. Oil generation from all source rocks ended by 40 Ma. Although the modeled study area did not include possible western