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Sample records for jupiter icy moons

  1. The Icy Moons of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    The Galilean satellites formed in a nebula of dust and gas that surrounded Jupiter toward the end of the formation of the giant planet itself. Their diverse initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circum-solar nebula. The Galilean satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, which included the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation, and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces, and from geophysical modeling of the processes that can relate these lines of evidence. The three satellites with large water-ice components, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are very different from one another as a result of the ways that these processes have played out in each case. Europa has a deep liquid-water ocean with a thin layer of surface ice, Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces, and Callisto remains only partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior. A tiny inner satellite, Amalthea, also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of these moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  2. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter reference trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.; Lam, Try

    2006-01-01

    The proposed NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would have used a single spacecraft to orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa in succession. The enormous Delta-Velocity required for this mission (nearly [25 km/s]) would necessitate the use of very high efficiency electric propulsion. The trajectory created for the proposed baseline JIMO mission may be the most complex trajectory ever designed. This paper describes the current reference trajectory in detail and describes the processes that were used to construct it.

  3. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  4. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Altobelli, N.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Gurvits, L.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, I.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Sarri, G.; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    2015-10-01

    JUICE -JUpiter ICy moons Explorer -is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme[1]. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase starts in July 2015, following the selection of the prime industrial contractor. Planned for launch in June 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa.

  5. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is a bold new mission under development by the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. ITMO is examining the potential of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology to efficiently deliver scientific payloads to three Jovian moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. A critical element of the NEP vehicle is the reactor power system, consisting of the nuclear reactor, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). The emphasis of this paper is on the non-nuclear elements of the reactor power system.

  6. Neutral atmosphere near the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the formation and dynamics of the rarefied gas envelope near the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. Being the most massive icy moon, Ganymede can form a rarefied exosphere with a relatively dense near-surface layer. The main parent component of the gas shell is water vapor, which enters the atmosphere due to thermal degassing, nonthermal radiolysis, and other active processes and phenomena on the moon's icy surface. A numerical kinetic simulation is performed to investigate, at the molecular level, the formation, chemical evolution, and dynamics of the mainly H2O- and O2-dominant rarefied gas envelopes. The ionization processes in these rarefied gas envelopes are due to exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and the magnetospheric plasma. The chemical diversity of the icy moon's gas envelope is attributed to the primary action of ultraviolet solar photons and plasma electrons on the rarefied gas in the H2O- or O2-dominant atmosphere. The model is used to calculate the formation and development of the chemical diversity in the relatively dense near-surface envelope of Ganymede, where an important contribution comes from collisions between parent molecules and the products of their photolysis and radiolysis.

  7. Jupiter Icy Moons Tidal Signatures and Ocean Mapping from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X.; Bar-Server, Y. E.; Folkner, W. M.; Williams, J. G.; Zumberge, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    Following the Galileo spacecraft encounters with Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, evidence emerged suggesting that these Galilean moons of Jupiter may have liquid oceans underneath their icy shells. Detection of the oceans on one or all three moons will have profound implications on probability of life beyond the Earth. The icy satellites also have tidal environments that are among the strongest in the solar system. The leading time-varying tidal forcing term on the surface of Europa is at least 9 times larger than those on the inner planets. Tidal forcing on the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto are about 10% and 7%, respectively, of that on Europa. Since a planetary body with internal fluid deforms more than an otherwise solid body, tidal measurements offer exciting opportunities to detect the oceans.

  8. JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE): The ESA L1 Mission to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-10-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission has recently been selected by ESA as the first large mission within the Cosmic Visions 2015-2025 plan. We will introduce the mission that is being developed to thoroughly explore the Jupiter system with focus on the largest satellite, Ganymede.

  9. Surface Penetrating Radar Simulations for Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Gogineni, S. P.; Green, J. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; Song, P.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Cooper, F.

    2003-01-01

    The icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede) are of similar overall composition but show different surface features as a result of different sub-surface processes. Furthermore, each of these moons could have a liquid ocean of water buried underneath the icy crust, but their depth can only be speculated. For Europa, estimates put the thickness of the ice shell anywhere between 2-30 km, with'a few models predicting up to 100 km. Much of the uncertainties are due to the largely unknown temperature gradients and levels of water impurities across different surface layers. One of the most important geological processes is the possible transportation of heat by ice convection. If the ice is convecting, then an upper limit of about 20 km is set for the depth of the ocean underneath. Convection leads to a sharp increase in temperature followed by a thick region of nearly constant temperature. If ice is not convecting, then an exponentially increasing temperature profile is expected. The crust is thought to be a mixture of ice and rock, and although the exact percentage of rock is not known, it is expected to be low. Additionally, the ice crust could contain salt, similar to sea ice on Earth. The exact amount of salt and how that amount changes with depth is also unknown. In preparation for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, we performed simulations for a surface-penetrating radar investigating signatures for different possible surface and sub-surface structures of these moons in order to estimate the applicability of using radar with a frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. This includes simulations of power requirements, attenuation losses, layer resolutions for scenarios with and without the presence of a liquid ocean underneath the ice, cases of convecting and non-convecting ice, different impurities within the ice, and different surface roughnesses.

  10. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  11. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer: mission status after the Definition Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Sarri, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), the ESA first large-class mission within the Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025, was adopted in November 2014. The mission will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the

  12. Planetary protection for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, R.; Kohlhase, C.; Koukol, R.

    NASA is developing plans for an ambitious mission to orbit three planet-sized moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede and Europa -- which may harbor vast oceans beneath their icy surfaces. The mission, called the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would orbit each of these moons for extensive investigations of their makeup, their history and their potential for sustaining life. JIMO has been identified as the first space science mission to potentially incorporate the revolutionary nuclear power and propulsion capability being developed by NASA's Project Prometheus. Planetary protection (PP) requirements for JIMO are expected to be based on a recommendation by the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the U.S. National Research Council that in any one mission the probability of contaminating a Europan ocean with a viable Earth organism should be less than 10-4. The SSB stated that calculation of this probability should, as a minimum, take into account the following: bioburden at launch, cruise survival of the organisms, organism survival in the radiation environment adjacent to Europa, probability of landing at a geologically active site on Europa, the mechanisms of transfer of the organisms to the Europan subsurface, and organism survival and proliferation before, during, and after subsurface transfer. This presentation reports on preliminary assessment of these factors by the JIMO Project and on work in progress aimed at finding a design capable of meeting planetary protection goals for Europa with the lowest cost and risk impacts for the project. This design will potentially include: credit for sterilizing effects of in-flight radiation, pre-launch sterilization with isolation from recontamination for spacecraft elements protected from the radiation environment, identification of quarantine orbits within the Jovian system providing long term stability, providing high system reliability against failure modes that could lead to surface impact, and assuring separation of the

  13. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission is currently under study by the Office of Space Science under the Project Prometheus Program. JIMO is examining the use of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) to carry scientific payloads to three Jovian moons. A potential power system concept includes dual 100 kWe Brayton converters, a deployable pumped loop heat rejection subsystem, and a 400 Vac Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) bus. Many trades were performed in aniving at this candidate power system concept. System-level studies examined design and off-design operating modes, determined startup requirements, evaluated subsystem redundancy options, and quantified the mass and radiator area of reactor power systems from 20 to 200 kWe. In the Brayton converter subsystem, studies were performed to investigate converter packaging options, and assess the induced torque effects on spacecraft dynamics due to rotating machinery. In the heat rejection subsystem, design trades were conducted on heat transport approaches, material and fluid options, and deployed radiator geometries. In the PMAD subsystem, the overall electrical architecture was defined and trade studies examined distribution approaches, voltage levels, and cabling options.

  14. Power-Conversion Concept Designed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is a bold new mission being developed by NASA's Office of Space Science under Project Prometheus. JIMO is examining the potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology to efficiently deliver scientific payloads to three of Jupiter's moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. A critical element of the NEP spacecraft is the space reactor power system (SRPS), consisting of the nuclear reactor, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD).

  15. An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

  16. Electric Propulsion Technology Development for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During 2004, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter project, a part of NASA's Project Prometheus, continued efforts to develop electric propulsion technologies. These technologies addressed the challenges of propelling a spacecraft to several moons of Jupiter. Specific challenges include high power, high specific impulse, long lived ion thrusters, high power/high voltage power processors, accurate feed systems, and large propellant storage systems. Critical component work included high voltage insulators and isolators as well as ensuring that the thruster materials and components could operate in the substantial Jupiter radiation environment. A review of these developments along with future plans is discussed.

  17. Radar Sounding for Planetary Subsurface Exploration: Translating the Mars Experience to Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration of the subsurface of Mars using radar sounding began with MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) on Mars Express in 2005 and continued with SHARAD (Shallow Radar) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006. These instruments have been operating continuously since, providing a rich legacy of science return and observational experience in the highly variable environments and target sets at Mars. New missions to the icy moons of Jupiter, ESA's JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) and NASA's Europa Mission, will both carry radar sounders to probe the subsurface of several of the icy moons (Ganymede, Europa and Callisto by JUICE; Europa by the Europa Mission). The success of the Mars sounders demonstrated the scientific value of the technique and provided confidence that sounding of the icy moons is a promising endeavor. Icy targets at Mars have proven especially amenable to penetration by radar sounding. The polar layered deposits of Mars have been probed to their base (2-4 km deep) by MARSIS, operating at frequencies of 1.3-5.5 MHz. SHARAD, operating with a wider bandwidth at 15-25 MHz, provides higher vertical resolution that allows detection and imaging of fine details of interior layering in the ice deposits. The sounder planned for the Europa mission, REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding, Ocean to Near-Surface), will utilize simultaneous dual frequency signals to obtain complementary deep sounding and high-vertical-resolution shallow observations. Co-located observations by MARSIS and SHARAD also demonstrate that high surface roughness (relative to the radar wavelength) affects the strength of the penetrating signals, and thus the capability to detect deep or low-contrast subsurface interfaces. The icy moon sounders' wavelengths were selected, in part, to mitigate against this degradation of signals by the anticipated rough surfaces of Jupiter's moons. This paper will discusss these and other examples of lessons

  18. Impact Craters on Jupiter's Icy Moons as Astrobiological Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhaus, E. B.; Lipps, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Impact craters are prime astrobiological targets on icy moons with possible subsurface oceans. Craters are natural probes to subsurface materials; hence may sequester biologic signatures such as whole organisms, fossils, biochemicals, biomarkers, and biotextures. Craters expose a stratigraphic record. The closer to the crater center, the more deep-seated is the excavated material. All craters provide samples of the crust in the walls, overturned ice, and ejecta. Larger craters excavate deep interior ice in the central peaks, which may arise at the interface between solid ice and liquid water. The largest craters possess concentric rings, and flat floors that may be frozen water from under the icy shell that might expose information about the water column. Craters immediately deliver sub-surface materials to the surface, in contrast to endogenic processes (e.g. Europa) that likely operate over days to thousands or more years. The slower endogenic processes allow any extant life proactively to migrate from their habitats to other marginal regions or to die and degrade. Craters also offer unique habitats. A sub-surface "lens" of melt remains beneath the crater floor for up to thousands of years after impact. Life could rapidly exploit and abandon these habitats as they form and disappear, so these sub-surface melt-lenses may serve as rich - albeit temporary - locales of biological activity or repositories for fossils as they freeze. Although Europa displays the best evidence for a global ocean of the three icy Galilean satellites, Ganymede and Callisto also may have liquid water beneath their icy crusts. Ganymede, at least, bears evidence of an extensive geological history, which may have provided energy and habitats for biological processes. Though briny oceans (if they exist) are deeper beneath the icy crusts on Ganymede and Callisto than on Europa, the investigative principle largely remains the same. However, excavation to the deeply buried water requires larger

  19. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

  20. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA mission to orbit Ganymede and to characterise the Jupiter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.; Dougherty, M. K.; Coustenis, A.; Bunce, E. J.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2013-04-01

    Past exploration of Jupiter's diverse satellite system has forever changed our understanding of the unique environments to be found around gas giants, both in our solar system and beyond. The detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), which are believed to harbour subsurface water oceans, is central to elucidating the conditions for habitability of icy worlds in planetary systems in general. The study of the Jupiter system and the possible existence of habitable environments offer the best opportunity for understanding the origins and formation of the gas giants and their satellite systems. The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, selected by ESA in May 2012 to be the first large mission within the Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025, will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The investigations of the neighbouring moons, Europa and Callisto, will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons and their potential habitability. Here we describe the scientific motivation for this exciting new European-led exploration of the Jupiter system in the context of our current knowledge and future aspirations for exploration, and the paradigm it will bring in the study of giant (exo) planets in general.

  1. Current Status of Japanese Participation to Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer "JUICE"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Kimura, J.; Tohara, K.; Fujimoto, M.; Sekine, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JUICE is an ESA's L-class mission to Explore Jupiter Icy Moons. The science objectives of JUICE is to understand (1) emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants and (2) Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. JUICE was mission adopted in November 2014. JUICE will be launched by Arian-5. After 7.5 years of interplanetary transfer and Earth-Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assists JUICE will be inserted into an orbit around Jupiter in January 2030. JUICE will make observation of all the three Jupiter icy Moons that potentially have subsurface ocean under the icy crust. After inserted into Ganymede orbit in 2032, JUICE will make detailed observation of the largest Icy Moon in the solar system. Three Japanese groups were selected to provide part of the three science instruments RPWI, GALA, and PEP/JNA. Two Japanese groups were also selected as science Co-I of two instrument groups JANUS and J-MAG. JUICE is the first mission for ISAS/JAXA to participate to foreign large science mission as a junior partner who will provide part of the science instruments. Taking into account all the data to be obtained by 5 instruments that JUICE-JAPAN will participate, Japanese team will be able to contribute to most of the major science objectives relating with planet Jupiter (JANUS), Jupiter magnetosphere (PEP/JNA, RPWI, and J-MAG), and Icy Moons (GALA, J-MAG, and JANUS). JUICE-JAPAN Working Group (WG) was established in September 2013. JUICE-JAPAN WG submitted a proposal for ISAS/JAXA small project in February 2014. JUICE-JAPAN WG passed the MDR in September 2014. JUICE-JAPAN passed the ISAS SRR that was held in April 2015 and also passed the ISAS project preparation review that was held in May 2015. Currently JUICE-JAPAN is an ISAS pre-project. In the future, SDR is scheduled in the end of 2015, PDR is scheduled in 2016 and CDR is scheduled in 2017. JUICE is a long-term mission that will be completed about 20 years from now. It is quite important to take place a necessary change

  2. Feasibility Study of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Permanent Magnet Alternator Start Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Tokars, Roger P.

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission was a proposed, (recently cancelled) long duration science mission to study three moons of Jupiter: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. One design of the JIMO spacecraft used a nuclear heat source in conjunction with a Brayton rotating machine to generate electrical power for the electric thrusters and the spacecraft bus. The basic operation of the closed cycle Brayton system was as follows. The working fluid, a heliumxenon gas mixture, first entered a compressor, then went through a recuperator and hot-side heat exchanger, then expanded across a turbine that drove an alternator, then entered the cold-side of the recuperator and heat exchanger and finally returned to the compressor. The spacecraft was to be launched with the Brayton system off-line and the nuclear reactor shut down. Once the system was started, the helium-xenon gas would be circulated into the heat exchangers as the nuclear reactors were activated. Initially, the alternator unit would operate as a motor so as to drive the turbine and compressor to get the cycle started. This report investigated the feasibility of the start up sequence of a permanent magnet (PM) machine, similar in operation to the alternator unit, without any position or speed feedback sensors ("sensorless") and with a variable load torque. It is found that the permanent magnet machine can start with sensorless control and a load torque of up to 30 percent of the rated value.

  3. Analysis of Thrust Vectoring Capabilities for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B .; Gromov, Konstantin; Murray, Emmanuell

    2005-01-01

    A strategy to mitigate the impact of the trajectory design of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) on the attitude control design is described in this paper. This paper shows how the thrust vectoring control torques, i.e. the torques required to steer the vehicle, depend on various parameters (thrust magnitude, thrust pod articulation angles, and thrust moment arms). Rather than using the entire reaction control system (RCS) system to steer the spacecraft, we investigate the potential utilization of only thrust vectoring of the main ion engines for the required attitude control to follow the representative trajectory. This study has identified some segments of the representative trajectory where the required control torque may exceed the designed ion engine capability, and how the proposed mitigation strategy succeeds in reducing the attitude control torques to within the existing capability.

  4. High-Power Radar Sounders for the Investigation of Jupiter Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Ostro, S.; Rodriquez, E.; Blankenship, D.; Kurth, W.; Kirchner, D.

    2005-01-01

    The high power and high data rate capability made available by a Prometheus class spacecraft could significantly enhance our ability to probe the subsurface of the planets/moons and asteroid/comets. The main technology development driver for our radar is the proposed Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (or JIMO) mission due to its harsh radiation environment. We plan to develop a dual-band radar at 5 and 50 MHz in response to the two major science requirements identified by the JIMO Science Definition Team: studying the near subsurface (less than 2 km) at high resolution and detection of the ice/ocean interface for Europa (depth up to 30 km). The 50-MHz band is necessary to provide high spatial resolution (footprint and depth) as required by the JIMO mission science requirements as currently defined. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the 50-MHz system is not required to be as high-power as the 5-MHz system since it will be more limited by the surface clutter than the Jupiter or galactic background noise. The low frequency band (e.g. 5 MHz), which is the focus of this effort, would be necessary to mitigate the performance risks posed by the unknown subsurface structure both in terms of unknown attenuation due to volumetric scattering and also the detection of the interface through the attenuative transition region at the ice/ocean interface. Additionally, the 5-MHz band is less affected by the surface roughness that can cause loss of coherence and clutter noise. However, since the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of the 5-MHz radar band is reduced due to Jupiter noise when operating in the Jupiter side of the moon, it is necessary to increase the radiated power. Our challenge is to design a high-power HF radar that can hnction in Jupiter's high radiation environment, yet be able to fit into spacecraft resource constraints such as mass and thermal limits. Our effort to develop the JIMO radar sounder will rely on our team's experience with planetary radar sounder design

  5. Compositional Impact of Io Volcanic Emissions on Jupiter's Magnetosphere and the Icy Galilean Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John; Fegley, Bruce; Lipatov, Alexander; Richardson, John; Sittler, Edward

    2011-01-01

    measured throughout the jovian magnetosphere and in the local moon environments can act as tracers if we know from direct measurements and models the distributions at the mostly likely sources, i.e. at IO. However, our knowledge of these abundances are very limited from earlier in-situ and remote measurements, mainly confined to major (S, O) and some minor (Na, K, Cl) species with abundances at or above a few percent relative to O. Future in-situ plasma measurements by the planned Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter missions should extend the abundance coverage to minor and even trace elemental species. For Europa astrobiological investigations it is also important to specify iogenic inputs and surface processing of isotopic species. We discuss the range of abundance distributions arising from models for IO hot volcanic emissions, and from the subsequent dynamics of ion injection, magnetospheric transport, and icy moon surface bombardment.

  6. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-01-01

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant-RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton Power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor i the 1980's and early 1990's. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste hear is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared radiator. The radiator consists of two coplanar wings, which would be deployed after the reactor is in space. System trades were performed to vary cycle state point temperatures and convertor design as well as power output. Other redundancy combinations were considered to understand the affects of convertor

  7. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-01

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared

  8. Main Power Distribution Unit for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papa, Melissa R.

    2004-01-01

    Around the year 2011, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) will be launched and on its way to orbit three of Jupiter s planet-sized moons. The mission goals for the JIMO project revolve heavily around gathering scientific data concerning ingredients we, as humans, consider essential: water, energy and necessary chemical elements. The JIM0 is an ambitious mission which will implore propulsion from an ION thruster powered by a nuclear fission reactor. Glenn Research Center is responsible for the development of the dynamic power conversion, power management and distribution, heat rejection and ION thrusters. The first test phase for the JIM0 program concerns the High Power AC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Test Bed. The goal of this testing is to support electrical performance verification of the power systems. The test bed will incorporate a 2kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) to simulate the nuclear reactor as well as two ION thrusters. The first module of the PMAD Test Bed to be designed is the Main Power Distribution Unit (MPDU) which relays the power input to the various propulsion systems and scientific instruments. The MPDU involves circuitry design as well as mechanical design to determine the placement of the components. The MPDU consists of fourteen relays of four different variations used to convert the input power into the appropriate power output. The three phase system uses 400 Vo1ts(sub L-L) rms at 1000 Hertz. The power is relayed through the circuit and distributed to the scientific instruments, the ION thrusters and other controlled systems. The mechanical design requires the components to be positioned for easy electrical wiring as well as allowing adequate room for the main buss bars, individual circuit boards connected to each component and power supplies. To accomplish creating a suitable design, AutoCAD was used as a drafting tool. By showing a visual layout of the components, it is easy to see where there is extra room or where the

  9. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-06

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared

  10. Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) Remote Sensing: Geology and Geochemistry Science Goals and Objectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Spencer, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) Science Definition Team met with the broader science community to identify the key outstanding science goals and objectives that could be met by the JIMO mission at the Forum on Concepts and Approaches for JIMO in Houston, Texas on June 14-15, 2003. The Remote Sensing: Geology and Geochemistry subgroup identified that our primary objective was to determine the coupled compositional evolution of the Jovian Satellites by determining the composition, origin, physical state, and distribution of surface materials of all four Galilean Satellites. Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and Io have undergone complex geological and chemical processing which have important implications for the evolution of the satellites and the habitability of Europa. To meet this goal, the following science objectives for JIMO were identified: 1) Identify major and minor surface components, distributions, geological ages, including abiotic and biotic organic molecules, trapped volatiles; 2) Characterize currently and recently geologically active areas; 3) Characterize exogenics vs. endogenic processes via spatial distribution patterns or other characteristics such as time variability (diurnal or longer timescales) of surface chemistry; 4) Map regolith thermophysical properties; 5) Determine heat flow on Europa and Io to investigate their coupled thermal evolution; 6) Determine temperature-dependent physical and chemical stability of surface components; 7) Map isotopic components that elucidate fractionation processes; and 8) Map regolith photometric properties. In addition JIMO should collect data needed to identify and characterize potential landing sites from both science and engineering perspectives given the potential for follow on missions to search for life on Europa in situ.

  11. Theoretical studies of the radar properties of the icy Galilean moons of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1993-01-01

    The icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter - Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto - have unusual radar scattering properties compared with those of the terrestrial planets or Earth's Moon. There are three main features of the data that distinguish these targets: (1) the radar cross-section normalized by the geometrical cross-section is an order of magnitude larger than that of any terrestrial planet; (2) the reflected power is almost evenly distributed between two orthogonal polarizations with more power being returned in the same circular polarization as was transmitted whereas virtually all of the power returned from the terrestrial planets is contained in the opposite circular polarization to the one that was transmitted; and (3) the echo power spectra have a broad shape indicating a nearly uniformly radar-bright surface in contrast to the spectra from the terrestrial planets that contain a strong quasi-specular component from the vicinity of the sub-radar point and very little reflected power from the rest of the surface. The normalized radar cross-sections decrease as the areal water ice coverage decreases from Europa to Ganymede to Callisto. Recently, radar echoes from the polar caps of Mars and Mercury, and from Saturn's satellite Titan imply similarly strong cross-sections and have classically unexpected polarization properties and it is also thought that this is due to the presence of ice on the surface. A model called the radar glory model is analyzed and it is shown that the main features of the radar echoes calculated from this model agree well with the observations from all three icy Galilean satellites. This model involves long radar paths in the ice below the surface and special structures in which the refractive index decreases abruptly at a hemispherical boundary. It is not known whether such structures exist or how they could be created, but possible scenarios can be imagined such as the formation of an impact crater followed by deposition of a frost layer

  12. The HADES Mission Concept - Astrobiological Survey of Jupiter's Icy Moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, T.; Huber, L.; Le Corre, L.; Leitner, J.; McCarthy, D.; Nilsson, R.; Teixeira, C.; Vaquer Araujo, S.; Wilson, R.

    2009-04-01

    The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterise Europa's internal structure, the lander will survey local dynamics of the ice layer and the surface environment. The lander releases a cryobot, that melts into the ice, will sample the pristine subsurface and is expected to provide data on organic and gaseous content and putative bio-signatures. In summary, we present the scientific objectives for an astrobiological investigation of Europa, resulting in a mission concept with a detailed evaluation of scientific instrumentation, mission sequences, basic design of the spacecraft, technology needs and cost estimations.

  13. The HADES mission concept - astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Thomas; Huber, Liliane; Le Corre, Lucille; Leitner, Johannes; McCarthy, David; Nilsson, Ricky; Teixeira, Carlos; Vaquer Araujo, Sergi; Wilson, Rebecca C.; Adjali, Fatah; Altenburg, Martin; Briani, Giacomo; Buchas, Peter; Le Postollec, Aurélie; Meier, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize Europa's internal structure, the lander will survey local dynamics of the ice layer and the surface environment. The lander releases a cryobot, that melts into the ice, will sample the pristine subsurface and is expected to provide data on organic and gaseous content and putative bio-signatures. In summary, we present the scientific objectives for an astrobiological investigation of Europa, resulting in a mission concept with a detailed evaluation of scientific instrumentation, mission sequences, basic design of the spacecraft, technology needs and cost estimations.

  14. Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erd, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile

  15. Evaluation of the measurement technologies required for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D. E.; Kisner, R. A.; Bryan, W. L.; Hardy, J. E.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) evaluation of the measurement technologies required for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) reactor. The specific reactor parameters considered are neutron flux, temperature, coolant flow, and control element position. All four of the notional reactor module concepts are considered, to the extent technically relevant (i.e., liquid metal-thermoelectric, liquid metal-Brayton, heat pipe-Brayton, and direct cycle gas-cooled-Brayton). The mission environmental condition and the associated survival requirement assumptions are based upon the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) descriptions of the mission profile and ORNL estimation of the reactor contribution to the environment. Each reactor parameter measurement section includes a survey of the current state-of-the-art to identify candidate measurement technologies given the environmental conditions and duration of the JIMO mission and an evaluation of the potential technologies as well as the selection process rationale underlying the evaluation. The environmental conditions and performance requirements for fore-of-shield neutron detectors require technologies significantly beyond the current commercial state-of-the-art. The most challenging mission requirement is the combination of the necessity to observe the initial reactor approach to critical with fresh, highly enriched fuel combined with the strong desirability of the capability to monitor low-power, hot reactor dynamics in space with a long-lifetime detector system. The mission background radiation environment would significantly contaminate the signals from non-fission-based detector technologies located aft-of-shield. Shielded fission counters are, therefore, a strongly preferred detector technology due to their larger signal pulse sizes (which provides the additional benefit of being able to drive longer cable lengths) and consequent signal separability from the background space radiation

  16. Development of radiative transfer code for JUICE/SWI mission toward the atmosphere of icy moons of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takayoshi; Kasai, Yasuko; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-07-01

    The Submillimeter Wave Instrument (SWI) is one of the scientific instruments on the JUpiter Icy moon Explorer (JUICE). We plan to observe atmospheric compositions including water vapor and its isotopomers in Galilean moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto). The frequency windows of SWI are 530 to 625 GHz and 1080 to 1275 GHz with 100 kHz spectral resolution. We are developing a radiative transfer code in Japan with line-by-line method for Ganymede atmosphere in THz region (0 - 3 THz). Molecular line parameters (line intensity and partition function) were taken from JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) catalogue. The pencil beam was assumed to calculate a spectrum of H _{2}O and CO in rotational transitions at the THz region. We performed comparisons between our model and ARTS (Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator). The difference were less than 10% and 5% for H _{2}O and CO, respectively, under the condition of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Comparison with several models with non-LTE assumption will be presented.

  17. Habitability potential of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Solomonidou, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Hirtzig, M.; Sohl, F.; Hussmann, H.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Seymour, K.; Bratsolis, E.; Moussas, X.

    2012-09-01

    The satellites of Jupiter and Saturn have been revealed as extremely astrobiologically interesting bodies presenting promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans, among other. Additionally, Jupiter's Europa and Ganymede show indications of harboring liquid water oceans under their icy crusts, which may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm through time by tidally generated heat. All of these environments satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and "nutrients" over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). In order to study the habitability of icy moons around giant planets, we look at the atmosphere-surface-interior connections with their similarities with the Earth as a starting point [1]. The discovery of the water jets on Enceladus, the possibility for cryovolcanic processes on Titan and the hypothetically active mantle of Europa suggest that icy moons around giant planets may well contain subsurface oceans.

  18. Exploring Jupiter's icy moons with old techniques and big facilities - new insights on sulfuric acid hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Avdeev, M.; Brand, H.; Wallwork, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfuric acid hydrates have been proposed to be abundant on the surface of Europa [1], and hence would be important planetary forming materials for this moon and its companions Ganymede and Callisto. Understanding of the surface features and subsurface of these moons could be advanced by firmer knowledge of the icy materials that comprise them [2], insight into which can be drawn from firmer knowledge of physical properties and phase behaviour of the candidate materials. We wish to present results from a study that started with the question ';What form of sulfuric acid hydrate would form on the surface of Europa'. The intrinsic hydrogen-domination of planetary ices, makes studying these materials with laboratory powder diffraction very challenging. Insights into their crystalline phase behavior and the extraction of a number of thermal and mechanical properties is often only accessible with high-flux synchrotron x-ray diffraction and utilization of the large scattering cross section with neutron diffraction. We have used the Powder Diffraction beamline at Australian synchrotron [4] and the Echidna (High-resolution neutron powder diffraction) instrument of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, [5] to obtain an number of new insights into the crystalline phases formed from sulfruic acid and water mixtures. These instruments have enabled the discovery a new water-rich sulfuric acid hydrate form [6], improved structural characterisation of existing forms [7] and a charting the phase diagram of this fundamental binary system [8]. This has revealed exciting potential for understanding more about the surface of Europa from space, perhaps even providing a window into its past. [1] Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson, Science, 1999. 286(5437): p. 97-99. [2] Fortes, A.D. and M. Choukroun. Space Sci Rev, 2010. 153(1-4): p. 185-218. [3] Blake, D., et al., Space Sci Rev,, 2012. 170(1-4): p. 341-399. [4] Wallwork, K.S., Kennedy B. J. and Wang, D

  19. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  20. Jupiter's Moons: Family Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage shows the best views of Jupiter's four large and diverse 'Galilean' satellites as seen by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft during its flyby of Jupiter in late February 2007. The four moons are, from left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The images have been scaled to represent the true relative sizes of the four moons and are arranged in their order from Jupiter.

    Io, 3,640 kilometers (2,260 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The original image scale was 13 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 6 degrees south, 22 degrees west. Io is notable for its active volcanism, which New Horizons has studied extensively.

    Europa, 3,120 kilometers (1,938 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 01:28 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles). The original image scale was 15 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Europa coordinates 6 degrees south, 347 degrees west. Europa's smooth, icy surface likely conceals an ocean of liquid water. New Horizons obtained data on Europa's surface composition and imaged subtle surface features, and analysis of these data may provide new information about the ocean and the icy shell that covers it.

    New Horizons spied Ganymede, 5,262 kilometers (3,268 miles) in diameter, at 10:01 Universal Time on February 27 from 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) away. The original scale was 17 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Ganymede coordinates 6 degrees south, 38 degrees west. Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a dirty ice surface cut by fractures and peppered by impact craters. New Horizons' infrared observations may provide insight into the composition of the moon's surface and interior.

    Callisto, 4,820 kilometers (2,995 miles) in diameter, was imaged

  1. Early development of Science Opportunity Analysis tools for the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Frew, David; Llorente, Rosario; Costa, Marc; Almeida, Miguel; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    JUICE is the first large mission in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on three of the Galilean Moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.The mission has recently been adopted and big efforts are being made by the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the European Space and Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid for the development of tools to provide the necessary support to the Science Working Team (SWT) for science opportunity analysis and early assessment of science operation scenarios. This contribution will outline some of the tools being developed within ESA and in collaboration with the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL.The Mission Analysis and Payload Planning Support (MAPPS) is developed by ESA and has been used by most of ESA's planetary missions to generate and validate science observation timelines for the simulation of payload and spacecraft operations. MAPPS has the capability to compute and display all the necessary geometrical information such as the distances, illumination angles and projected field-of-view of an imaging instrument on the surface of the given body and a preliminary setup is already in place for the early assessment of JUICE science operations.NAIF provides valuable SPICE support to the JUICE mission and several tools are being developed to compute and visualize science opportunities. In particular the WebGeoCalc and Cosmographia systems are provided by NAIF to compute time windows and create animations of the observation geometry available via traditional SPICE data files, such as planet orbits, spacecraft trajectory, spacecraft orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and instrument footprints. Other software tools are being developed by ESA and other collaborating partners to support the science opportunity analysis for all missions, like the SOLab (Science Operations Laboratory) or new interfaces for observation definitions and

  2. Traveling Wave Tube (TVT) RF Power Combining Demonstration for use in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is set to launch between the years 2012 and 2015. It will possibly utilize a nuclear reactor power source and ion engines as it travels to the moons of Jupiter. The nuclear reactor will produce hundreds of kilowatts of power for propulsion, communication and various scientific instruments. Hence, the RF amplification devices aboard will be able to operate at a higher power level and data rate. The initial plan for the communications system is for an output of 1000 watts of RF power, a data rate of at least 10 megabits a second, and a frequency of 32 GHz. A higher data rate would be ideal to fully utilize the instruments aboard JIMO. At NASA Glenn, one of our roles in the JIMO project is to demonstrate RF power combining using multiple traveling wave tubes (TWT). In order for the power of separate TWT s to be combined, the RF output waves from each must be in-phase and have the same amplitude. Since different tubes act differently, we had to characterize each tube using a Network Analyzer. We took frequency sweeps and power sweeps to characterize each tube to ensure that they will behave similarly under the same conditions. The 200 watt Dornier tubes had been optimized to run at a lower power level (120 watts) for their extensive use in the ACTS program, so we also had to experiment with adjusting the voltage settings on several internal components (helix, anode, collector) of the tubes to reach the full 200 watt potential. from the ACTS program. Phase shifters and power attenuators were placed in the waveguide circuit at the inputs to the tubes so that adjustments could be made individually to match them exactly. A magic tee was used to route and combine the amplified electromagnetic RF waves on the tube output side. The demonstration of 200 watts of combined power was successful with efficiencies greater than 90% over a 500 MHz bandwidth. The next step will be to demonstrate the use of three amplifiers using two magic tees by

  3. The Earth transiting the Sun as seen from Jupiter's moons: detection of an inverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect produced by the opposition surge of the icy Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Barbieri, M.; Monaco, L.; Zaggia, S.; Lovis, C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a multiwavelength observational campaign which followed the Earth's transit on the Sun as seen from Jupiter on 2014 January 2014. Simultaneous observations of Jupiter's moons Europa and Ganymede obtained with high accuracy radial velocity planetary searcher (HARPS) from La Silla, Chile and HARPS-N from La Palma, Canary Islands were performed to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect due to the Earth's passage using the same technique successfully adopted for the 2012 Venus Transit. The expected modulation in radial velocities was of ≈20 cm s-1 but an anomalous drift as large as ≈38 m s-1, i.e. more than two orders of magnitude higher and opposite in sign, was detected instead. The consistent behaviour of the two spectrographs rules out instrumental origin of the radial velocity drift and Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network observations rule out the possible dependence on the Sun's magnetic activity. We suggest that this anomaly is produced by the opposition surge on Europa's icy surface, which amplifies the intensity of the solar radiation from a portion of the solar surface centred around the crossing Earth which can then be observed as a sort of inverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. in fact, a simplified model of this effect can explain in detail most features of the observed radial velocity anomalies, namely the extensions before and after the transit, the small differences between the two observatories and the presence of a secondary peak closer to Earth passage. This phenomenon, observed here for the first time, should be observed every time similar Earth alignments occur with rocky bodies without atmospheres. We predict that it should be observed again during the next conjunction of Earth and Jupiter in 2026.

  4. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  5. The long-period librations of large synchronous icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-11-01

    A moon in synchronous rotation has longitudinal librations because of its non-spherical mass distribution and its elliptical orbit around the planet. We study the long-period librations of the Galilean satellites and Titan and include deformation effects and the existence of a subsurface ocean. We take into account the fact that the orbit is not keplerian and has other periodicities than the main period of orbital motion around Jupiter or Saturn due to perturbations by the Sun, other planets and moons. An orbital theory is used to compute the orbital perturbations due to these other bodies. For Titan we also take into account the large atmospheric torque at the semi-annual period of Saturn around the Sun.We numerically evaluate the amplitude and phase of the long-period librations for many interior structure models of the icy moons constrained by the mass, radius and gravity field.

  6. Map of Jupiter's moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-04-01

    Map of Jupiter's moon Io The first global geologic map of the Jovian satellite Io has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the agency announced on 19 March. “More than 130 years after the USGS first began producing quality geologic maps here on Earth, it is exciting to have the reach of our science extend across 400 million miles to this volcanically active moon of Jupiter,” said USGS director Marcia McNutt. “Somehow it makes the vast expanse of space seem less forbidding to know that similar geologic processes which have shaped our planet are active elsewhere.” The map illustrates the geologic character of the unique and active volcanoes on Io, a planetary body that has about 25 times more volcanic activity than Earth does, according to USGS.

  7. Two Moons Meet over Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This beautiful image of the crescents of volcanic Io and more sedate Europa was snapped by New Horizons' color Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) at 10:34 UT on March 2, 2007, about two days after New Horizons made its closest approach to Jupiter.

    The picture was one of a handful of the Jupiter system that New Horizons took primarily for their artistic, rather than scientific value. This particular scene was suggested by space enthusiast Richard Hendricks of Austin, Texas, in response to an Internet request by New Horizons scientists for evocative, artistic imaging opportunities at Jupiter.

    This image was taken from a range of 4.6 million kilometers (2.8 million miles) from Io and 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from Europa. Although the moons appear close in this view, a gulf of 790,000 kilometers (490,000 miles) separates them. The night side of Io is illuminated here by light reflected from Jupiter, which is out of the frame to the right. Europa's night side is completely dark, in contrast to Io, because that side of Europa faces away from Jupiter.

    Here, Io steals the show with its beautiful display of volcanic activity. Three volcanic plumes are visible. Most conspicuous is the enormous 300-kilometer (190-mile) -high plume from the Tvashtar volcano at the 11 o'clock position on Io's disk. Two much smaller plumes are barely visible: one from the volcano Prometheus, at the 9 o'clock position on the edge of Io's disk, and one from the volcano Amirani, seen between Prometheus and Tvashtar along Io's terminator (the line dividing day and night). The plumes appear blue because of the scattering of light by tiny dust particles ejected by the volcanoes, similar to the blue appearance of smoke. In addition, the contrasting red glow of hot lava can be seen at the source of the Tvashtar plume.

    The images are centered at 1 degree north, 60 degrees west on Io, and 0 degrees north, 149 degrees west on Europa. The color in this

  8. A passive low frequency instrument for radio wave sounding the subsurface oceans of the Jovian icy moons: An instrument concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogh, P.; Ilyushin, Ya. A.

    2016-10-01

    Exploration of subsurface oceans on Jovian icy moons is a key issue of the icy moons' geology. Electromagnetic wave propagation is the only way to probe their icy mantles from the orbit. In the present paper, a principal concept of a passive interferometric instrument for deep sounding of the icy moons' crust is proposed. Its working principle is measuring and correlating Jupiter's radio wave emissions with reflections from the deep sub-surface of the icy moons. A number of the functional aspects of the proposed experiment are studied, in particular, impact of the wave scattering on the surface terrain on the instrument performance and digital sampling of the noisy signal. Results of the test of the laboratory prototype of the instrument are also presented in the paper.

  9. Icy Satellites Impactor Probes for the Jovian Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Strauss, W.; Ivlev, R.; Duong, T.; Hunter, D.; Slimko, E.; Nacaise, F.; Archer, E.; Nesmith, B.

    2003-01-01

    We present a preliminary design and mission description for Icy Satellites Impactor Probes (IPS). This design addresses two of the scientific themes of this Icy Galilean Satellites Forum: Surface Chemistry and Geophysics, and Interior Structures. Impactor probes may also make significant contributions in the areas of surface geology and mineralogy.

  10. Saturn and 4 Icy Moons, Enhanced Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This enhanced-color picture shows Saturn, its rings, and four of its icy satellites. Three satellites (Tethys, Dione, and Rhea) are visible against the darkness of space, and another smaller satellite (Mimas) is visible against Saturn's cloud tops very near the left horizon and just below the rings. The dark shadows of Mimas and Tethys are also visible on Saturn's cloud tops, and the shadow of Saturn is seen across part of the rings. Saturn, second in size only to Jupiter in our Solar System, is 120,660 km (75,000 mi) in diameter at its equator (the ring plane) but, because of its rapid spin, Saturn is 10% smaller measured through its poles. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of ice particles ranging from microscopic dust to boulders in size. These particles orbit Saturn in a vast disk that is a mere 100 meters (330 feet) or so thick. The rings' thinness contrasts with their huge diameter--for instance 272,400 km (169,000 mi) for the outer part of the bright A ring, the outermost ring visible here. The pronounced concentric gap in the rings, the Cassini Division (named after its discoverer), is a 3500-km wide region (2200 mi, almost the width of the United States) that is much less populated with ring particles than the brighter B and A rings to either side of the gap. The rings also show some enigmatic radial structure ('spokes'), particularly at left. This image was synthesized from images taken in Voyager's orange, blue, and ultraviolet filters and was processed to create an exaggerated false color.

  11. Radiation Synthesis of New Molecules on Jupiter's Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. H.; Hudson, R. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Spectra of Jupiter's icy satellites reveal surfaces dominated by water-ice, minor amounts of SO2 and CO2, and (for Europa) H2O2 along with hydrated materials. Jovian magnetospheric ions (protons, sulfur, and oxygen) and electrons significantly modify the chemical composition of these moons' surfaces in times ranging from a few years for Europa to thousands of years for Callisto at micrometer depths. Appropriate laboratory studies examining relevant volatile and non-volatile materials under low-temperature radiation conditions can provide information on likely radiation chemical mechanisms, on the stability and evolution of species, and on new species awaiting detection. Although the molecules detected on the icy moons are relatively simple, predicting their responses to radiation in space remains difficult. One problem is that there is a dearth of fundamental data examining solid-phase reactions. Our laboratory experiments have focused on infrared studies (2.5 to 25 microns) of a few simple irradiated ices. We have measured the spectra of proton-irradiated H2O ice containing SO2, H2S, and/or CO2. Ices with H2O/SO2 or H2O/H2S ratios of 3 and 30 have been irradiated at 86 K, 110 K, and 132 K. In irradiated H2O + SO2 ices new ions have been identified: SO4(-2), HSO4(-) and H3O(+). After warming to 260 K the residual spectrum is similar to that of H2SO4. Ices with H2O + H2S form SO2. After warming to 175 K, the residual sample matches the spectrum of hydrated H2SO4. H2O + CO2 ice forms carbonic acid, H2CO3 which is stable to temperatures near 230 K. In addition, OCS has been detected in irradiated ices containing H2O + SO2 + CO2. The radiation half-life of SO2 and H2S in H2O has been calculated. Our results give compelling evidence for the presence of new species awaiting detection. Future experiments will examine the signatures of these ices and hydrated materials in the 1 to 5 micron region, where possible weaker overtone bands may occur. In addition, absolute

  12. Geologic Evolution of Saturn's Icy Moon Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Stephan, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Neukum, G.; Porco, C. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tethys, 1072 km in diameter, is a mid-sized icy moon of Saturn imaged for the first time in two Voyager flybys [1][2][3]. Since July 2004, its surface has been imaged by the Cassini ISS cameras at resolutions between 200 and 500 m/pxl. We present results from our ongoing work to define and map geologic units in camera images obtained preferentially during Cassini’s Equinox and Solstice mission phases. In the majority of Tethys’ surface area a densely cratered plains unit [1][2][3][this work] is abundant. The prominent graben system of Ithaca Chasma is mapped as fractured cratered plains. Impact crater and basin materials can be subdivided into three degradational classes. Odysseus is a fresh large impact basin younger than Ithaca Chasma according to crater counts [4]. Heavily degraded craters and basins occur in the densely cratered plains unit. A smooth, less densely cratered plains unit in the trailing hemisphere was previously identified by [2] but mapping of its boundaries is difficult due to varying viewing geometries of ISS images. To the south of Odysseus, we identified a cratered plains unit not seen in Voyager data, characterized by remnants of highly degraded large craters superimposed by younger fresher craters with a lower crater density compared to the densely cratered plains unit. Its distinct linear northern contact with the densely cratered plains suggests a tectonic origin. Sets of minor fractures can be distinguished in the densely cratered plains, and locally, features of mass wasting can be observed. References: [1] Smith B. A. et al. (1981), Science 212, 163-191. [2] Smith B. A. et al. (1982), Science 215, 504-537. [3] Moore J. M. and Ahern J. L. (1983), JGR 88 (suppl.), A577-A584. [4] Giese B. et al. (2007), GRL 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL031467.

  13. Exchange processes from the deep interior to the surface of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.

    Space exploration provides outstanding images of planetary surfaces. Galileo space- craft around Jupiter, and now Cassini in the saturnian system have revealed to us the variety of icy surfaces in the solar system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billions years. Composition of ices is also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. Water ice can be mixed with salts (Europa?), with hydrocarbons (Titan?) or with silicates (Callisto). The present surfaces of icy moons are the results of both internal (tectonic; volcanism; mantle composition; magnetic field; . . . ) and external processes (radiations, atmospheres, impacts, . . . ). Internal activity (past or present) is almost unknown. While the surfaces indicate clearly that an important activity existed (Ganymede, Europa, Titan, . . . ) or still exists (Enceladus, Titan?, . . . ), volcanic and tectonic processes within icy mantles are still very poorly understood. This project proposes some key studies for improving our knowledge of exchange processes within icy moons, which are: 1) Surface compositions: Interpretation of mapping spectrometer data. It addresses the interpretation of remote sensing data. These data are difficult to understand and a debate between people involved in Galileo and those who are now trying to interpret Cassini data might be fruitful. As an example, interpretation of Galileo data on Europa are still controversial. It is impossible to affirm that the "non-icy" material which does not present the classic infrared signature of pure ice is due to the presence of magnesium hydrates, sodium hydrates, magnesium sulfurs, "clays", or even altered water ice. Discussion on the subject are still needed. On Titan, the presence of the atmosphere impedes to link IR data from Cassini to the composition of the surface. 2) Past and

  14. Habitability potential of icy moons: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Bampasidis, Georgios; Wagner, Frank; Raulin, François; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-05-01

    environments to look for biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. If the silicate mantles of Eu-ropa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical en-ergy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Titan has been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphol-ogy and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In a recent study by Sohl et al. [2013], we have shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of inter-nal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of am-monia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. Such habi-tability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE-Laplace (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth : the search for habitable worlds in the Universe

  15. The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) on the JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, L.; Plaut, J.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bovolo, F.; Campbell, B. A.; Castelletti, D.; Gim, Y.; Ilisei, A. M.; Kofman, W. W.; Komatsu, G.; McKinnon, W. B.; Mitri, G.; Moussessian, A.; Notarnicola, C.; Orosei, R.; Patterson, G. W.; Pettinelli, E.; Plettemeier, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) is one of the main instruments included in the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) ESA mission. It is a radar sounder designed for studying the subsurface geology and geophysics of Galilean icy moons (i.e., Ganymede, Europa and Callisto) and for detecting possible subsurface water. RIME is designed for penetration of the icy moons up to a depth of 9 km. Two main operation scenarios are foreseen for RIME: i) flyby observations of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (from a distance of 1000 km to the closest approach of about 400 km); and ii) circular orbital observations around Ganymede at 500 km of altitude. According to these scenarios, RIME is designed to explore the icy shell of the Galilean icy satellites by characterizing the wide range of compositional, thermal, and structural variation found in the subsurface of these moons. RIME observations will profile the ice shells of the Galilean icy satellites with specific focus on Ganymede given the circular orbital phase. The acquired measures will provide geological context on hemispheric (thousands of km), regional (hundreds of km with multiple overlaps), and targeted (tens of km) scales appropriate for a variety of hypothesis tests. RIME will operate in a single frequency band, centred at 9 MHz. The frequency was selected as the result of extensive study of penetration capabilities, surface roughness of the moons, Jovian radio noise, antenna accommodation, and system design. The 9 MHz frequency provides penetration capabilities and mitigation of surface scattering (which can cause signal loss and clutter issues), at the expense of mapping coverage, as it is likely to obtain high SNR observations only on the anti-Jovian side of the target moons. The RIME antenna is a 16 m dipole. The chirp pulse bandwidth is up to 3 MHz, which provides vertical resolution of about 50 m in ice after side lobe weighting. RIME will also operate with 1 MHz bandwidth to reduce data volume when

  16. Inverse theory resolution analysis in planning radio science gravity investigations of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganse, A.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of an icy satellite's interior relates fundamentally to its composition, thermal structure, formation and evolution history, and prospects for supporting life. Gravity measurements via radio Doppler information during spacecraft flybys constitute an important tool to infer gross interior structure. Liquid water and ice layers have previously been inferred for the interiors of Jupiter's icy satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto on the basis of magnetic field measurements by the Galileo probe. On Europa and Callisto induced magnetic field signatures measured by the Galileo probe provided strong evidence for an ionic aqueous ocean. Among the chief goals of the proposed Europa Clipper mission in returning to Europa is characterizing the structure of the moon's icy shell. A geophysical inverse theory resolution analysis can be calculated at the pre-measurement mission planning stage, contributing planning considerations from the point of view of the search for mass anomalies in the ice shell (meteorites or diapiric upwellings) or near the H2O/rock interface (seamounts). The analysis allows us to assess the location-varying resolution of an icy moon's interior density anomaly distribution that can be estimated from radio Doppler measurements. It considers the tradeoff between the resolution of the estimated density anomaly distribution and its estimation uncertainty, and investigates issues in distinguishing between ocean anomalies (e.g., seamounts) and mass anomalies within or near the surface of the ice layer. We apply the resolution analysis to proposed Europa Clipper trajectories and past Galileo spacecraft trajectories about Europa and Ganymede.

  17. Exobiology and Planetary Protection of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, François; Hand, Kevin P.; McKay, Christopher P.; Viso, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The outer solar system is an important area of investigation for exobiology, the study of life in the universe. Several moons of the outer planets involve processes and structures comparable to those thought to have played an important role in the emergence of life on Earth, such as the formation and exchange of organic materials between different reservoirs. The study of these prebiotic processes on, and in, outer solar system moons is a key goal for exobiology, together with the question of habitability and the search for evidence of past or even present life. This chapter reviews the aspects of prebiotic chemistry and potential presence of life on Europa, Enceladus and Titan, based on the most recent data obtained from space missions as well as theoretical and experimental laboratory models. The habitability of these extraterrestrial environments, which are likely to include large reservoirs of liquid water in their internal structure, is discussed as well as the particular case of Titan’s hydrocarbon lakes. The question of planetary protection, especially in the case of Europa, is also presented.

  18. Crustal failure on icy Moons from a strong tidal encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Giannella, David; Shaw, John G.; Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Close tidal encounters among large planetesimals and Moons should have been more common than grazing or normal impacts. Using a mass spring model within an N-body simulation, we simulate the deformation of the surface of an elastic spherical body caused by a close parabolic tidal encounter with a body that has similar mass as that of the primary body. Such an encounter can induce sufficient stress on the surface to cause brittle failure of an icy crust and simulated fractures can extend a large fraction of the radius of body. Strong tidal encounters may be responsible for the formation of long graben complexes and chasmata in ancient terrain of icy Moons such as Dione, Tethys, Ariel and Charon.

  19. Compositional Remote Sensing of Icy Planets and Satellites Beyond Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.

    2002-01-01

    The peak of the solar energy distribution occurs at visual wavelengths and falls off rapidly in the infrared. This fact, improvements in infrared detector technology, and the low surface temperatures for most icy objects in the outer solar system have resulted in the bulk of telescopic and spacecraft observations being performed at visual and near-infrared wavelengths. Such observations, begun in the early 1970's and continuing to present, have provided compositional information regarding the surfaces of the satellites of Saturn and Uranus, Neptune's moon Triton, Pluto, Pluto's moon Charon, Centaur objects, and Kuiper belt objects. Because the incident sunlight penetrates the surface and interacts with the materials present there, the measured reflected sunlight contains information regarding the surface materials, and the ratio of the reflected to incident sunlight provides a mechanism of identifying the materials that are present.

  20. Surface charging of thick porous water ice layers in ion sputtering experiments: implications for the surfaces of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Vorburger, Audrey; Pommerol, Antoine; Wurz, Peter; Jost, Bernhard; Poch, Olivier; Brouet, Yann; Tulej, Marek; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We use a laboratory facility to study the sputtering properties of centimeter-thick porous water ice subjected to the bombardment of ions and electrons to better constrain exosphere models of the icy moons of Jupiter. Our ice samples are as similar as possible to the expected surface properties of Europa. Surface charging of these samples may distort any experimental results for ion sputtering. In this preparatory study we therefore focus on the electric properties of ice at different temperatures, in particular the time scales for charging and discharging when subjected to a beam of ions. Regarding the ion sputtering yield, our experiments yield similar results as previous experiments where thin dense ice layers were sputtered off a micro-balance. However, our experiments also allow us to derive an electric conductivity of porous ice. The results imply that electron precipitation and sputtering play a non-negligible role for certain plasma conditions at the icy moons of Jupiter.

  1. ESO Observations of New Moon of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    Two astronomers, both specialists in minor bodies in the solar system, have performed observations with ESO telescopes that provide important information about a small moon, recently discovered in orbit around the solar system's largest planet, Jupiter. Brett Gladman (of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and working at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, France) and Hermann Boehnhardt ( ESO-Paranal) obtained detailed data on the object S/1999 J 1 , definitively confirming it as a natural satellite of Jupiter. Seventeen Jovian moons are now known. The S/1999 J 1 object On July 20, 2000, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced on IAU Circular 7460 that orbital computations had shown a small moving object, first seen in the sky in 1999, to be a new candidate satellite of Jupiter. The conclusion was based on several positional observations of that object made in October and November 1999 with the Spacewatch Telescope of the University of Arizona (USA). In particular, the object's motion in the sky was compatible with that of an object in orbit around Jupiter. Following the official IAU procedure, the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams designated the new object as S/1999 J 1 (the 1st candidate Satellite of Jupiter to be discovered in 1999). Details about the exciting detective story of this object's discovery can be found in an MPC press release and the corresponding Spacewatch News Note. Unfortunately, Jupiter and S/1999 J 1 were on the opposite side of the Sun as seen from the Earth during the spring of 2000. The faint object remained lost in the glare of the Sun in this period and, as expected, a search in July 2000 through all available astronomical data archives confirmed that it had not been seen since November 1999, nor before that time. With time, the extrapolated sky position of S/1999 J 1 was getting progressively less accurate. New observations were thus urgently needed to "recover

  2. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  3. Cassini finds an oxygen-carbon dioxide atmosphere at Saturn's icy moon Rhea.

    PubMed

    Teolis, B D; Jones, G H; Miles, P F; Tokar, R L; Magee, B A; Waite, J H; Roussos, E; Young, D T; Crary, F J; Coates, A J; Johnson, R E; Tseng, W-L; Baragiola, R A

    2010-12-24

    The flyby measurements of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn's moon Rhea reveal a tenuous oxygen (O(2))-carbon dioxide (CO(2)) atmosphere. The atmosphere appears to be sustained by chemical decomposition of the surface water ice under irradiation from Saturn's magnetospheric plasma. This in situ detection of an oxidizing atmosphere is consistent with remote observations of other icy bodies, such as Jupiter's moons Europa and Ganymede, and suggestive of a reservoir of radiolytic O(2) locked within Rhea's ice. The presence of CO(2) suggests radiolysis reactions between surface oxidants and organics or sputtering and/or outgassing of CO(2) endogenic to Rhea's ice. Observations of outflowing positive and negative ions give evidence for pickup ionization as a major atmospheric loss mechanism.

  4. X-Ray Probes of Jupiter's Auroral Zones, Galilean Moons, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we review the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the Jovian system and describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing study for possible application to future missions to Jupiter such as JIMO. X-MIME has the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  5. Habitability of the giant icy moons: current knowledge and future insights from the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Fletcher, L.; van Hoolst, T.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Wielders, A.

    2012-09-01

    Large satellites of gas giants, at orbits beyond the snow-line, such as Jupiter or Saturn, can contain a large amount of water (almost 45% in mass). Hydrospheres are extremely thick, ~600 km for Ganymede and Callisto, and may possess liquid layers below the icy crust. Thus, the Galilean satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft revealed the potential of these satellites in this context. The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will greatly enhance our understanding of their potential habitability. It is known, even at Earth where life mostly depends on solar energy, that habitats exist deep in the oceans in eternal darkness feeding on chemical energy. Aqueous layers are suspected below the icy crusts of the moons, which possess similar physical characteristics than Earth's deep oceans. Since they are certainly very stable through time, and because complex chemistry and energy sources may be available, life may have originated within such subsurface habitats despite the hostile surface conditions. Liquid water reservoirs have been proposed on Ganymede, Europa and Callisto from geophysical models, based on Galileo observations. These oceans that are covered by ice shells exist independently of the input of stellar energy, and are located well outside the conventional habitable zone of the Sun. Considering the pressure range encountered within the icy moons, four different scenarios can be defined. These result from varying thicknesses of the water ice layers and the liquid ocean with respect to the silicate floor (Figure 1). Case 2 in Figure 1 is highly probable for the largest moons (Ganymede and Callisto), while case 3 is more probable for Europa and smaller icy moons if they host liquid reservoirs such as has been discovered at Enceladus. Europa's ocean is unique because it may be in contact with the rock layer. This substrate may be

  6. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project (http://ukr-vo.org/) we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) (www.imcce.fr/sat) online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  7. Moons over Jupiter: transits and shadow transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, J. H.; et al.

    2003-06-01

    There is no more beautiful illustration of orbital motions than the movements of Jupiter's satellites. Every six years, their movements are most strikingly displayed, when the jovian system is presented edge-on to Earth. This means that there is a higher frequency of multiple transits over the face of the planet, as all the moons transit across the equatorial zone, whereas in other years Ganymede and Callisto transit near the poles or not at all. Also, for a few months, the satellites pass in front of each other, displaying mutual eclipses and occultations. In 2002/2003 we have been able to observe a fine series of these multiple and mutual events. On the cover, and on these pages, are some of the highest-resolution images received.

  8. Absorption of trapped particles by Jupiter's moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption effects of the four innermost moons in the radial transport equations for electrons and protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere are presented. The phase space density n at 2 R sub J for electrons with equatorial pitch angles less than 69 deg is reduced by a factor of 4.2 x 1000 when lunar absorption is included in the calculation. For protons with equatorial pitch angles less than 69 deg, the corresponding reduction factor is 3.2 x 100000. The effect of the satellites becomes progressively weaker for both electrons and protons as equatorial pitch angles of pi/2 are approached, because the likelihood of impacting a satellite becomes progressively smaller. The large density decreases which we find at the orbits of Io, Europa, and Ganymede result in corresponding particle flux decreases that should be observed by spacecraft making particle measurements in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The characteristic signature of satellite absorption should be a downward pointing cusp in the flux versus radius curve at the L-value corresponding to each satellite.

  9. Fitting Orbits to Jupiter's Moons with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes how a spreadsheet is used to fit a circular orbit model to observations of Jupiter's moons made with a small telescope. Kepler's Third Law and the inverse square law of gravity are observed. (AIM)

  10. Icy moon exospheres: the interface between Jovian environment and satellite surfaces as a key scientific target for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Milillo, Anna; Grassi, Davide; Mura, Alessandro; Massetti, Stefano; Orsini, Stefano; Mangano, Valeria; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Rispoli, Rosanna

    2016-04-01

    The exospheres of Jupiter's icy satellites -often referred to as tenuous atmospheres- represent the actual interface between the surfaces of these moons and the giant planet's environment. In this perspective, their characterization is of key importance to achieve a fully understanding of the alteration processes induced on the icy surfaces by the radiation environment. Therefore, a full interpretation of the surface data and a thorough understanding of the surface evolution history, have as a necessary prerequisite the accurate determination of the role of the exospheres in the interactions between the icy moons and the Jupiter's magnetospheric environment. Moreover, in order to understand the mass and energy exchange between satellites and Jovian environment, the detailed characterization of the exosphere as a boundary region between the moon and the giant planet's magnetosphere, is fundamental. In this paper, we show that the achievement of the science objectives of the JUICE mission related to the icy satellites exospheres will be feasible only through an interdisciplinary approach characterized by coordinated observation scenarios and joint campaigns in payload operations. It is evidenced that it is of key importance to measure - in the larger possible extent - the following quantities: density of neutral species; density of ionosphere and charged particles fluxes; efficiency of interactions of the exosphere with particle and photon radiation fields. Through the planning of potential synergies between different datasets to be obtained during different mission phases, the current paper aims to contribute to the achievement of both of the JUICE mission's Key Science Goals, i.e. 1) the characterization of Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats and 2) the exploration of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The suggested planning for joint observations by different JUICE payload instruments could be extended later in

  11. Automated Estimation of the Orbital Parameters of Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, Emma; Ruch, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Every semester the Physics Department at the University of St. Thomas has the Physics 104 class complete a Jupiter lab. This involves taking around twenty images of Jupiter and its moons with the telescope at the University of St. Thomas Observatory over the course of a few nights. The students then take each image and find the distance from each moon to Jupiter and plot the distances versus the elapsed time for the corresponding image. Students use the plot to fit four sinusoidal curves of the moons of Jupiter. I created a script that automates this process for the professor. It takes the list of images and creates a region file used by the students to measure the distance from the moons to Jupiter, a png image that is the graph of all the data points and the fitted curves of the four moons, and a csv file that contains the list of images, the date and time each image was taken, the elapsed time since the first image, and the distances to Jupiter for Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. This is important because it lets the professor spend more time working with the students and answering questions as opposed to spending time fitting the curves of the moons on the graph, which can be time consuming.

  12. High energy electron processing of icy regoliths on Saturn's moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    A unique space weathering phenomenon has been identified on several icy Saturnian moons. Cassini revealed anomalous lens shaped regions in both optical and thermal wavelengths, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' feature, which are centered on the leading hemispheres and approximately symmetric about the equators. In particular, the Cassini InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) measurements of thermal emission in the mid-IR showed that surface temperature variations during a diurnal cycle were smaller inside the anomalous regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. However, the mechanisms by which thermal conductivity enhancement occur lack quantitative comparison with theoretical and experimental results.Electron interactions with the grains can excite molecules, which, if near enough to an intergrain contact, can cause atoms or molecules to migrate into the contact region, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Sintering improves the thermal contact between grains, leading to increased effective thermal conductivity of the regolith. Equations previously developed to describe material behavior in nuclear reactor were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to describe the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, the unique electron energy distribution measured in the vicinity of each of the moons was used in the calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations of excited electrons in water ice were carried out to determine the length scale for an average electron excitation or ionization event. This length scale determines the distance from the primary reaction at which electrons can still be mobilized to move into the contact region

  13. Investigating Saturn's Icy Moons using HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Noll, K. S.; Spencer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The inner moons of Saturn - Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - exhibit remarkable large-scale albedo and color variations. These trends can be linked to a combination of the unique exogenic processes occurring the Saturn system, including E-ring grain bombardment and charged particle bombardment. One of the fascinating characteristics of the Saturn system is that the icy satellites, though their surface compositions are dominated by water ice, are spectrally red - they are absorbing in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength region (wavelengths <~550 nm) - a spectral feature not typical of pure water ice. In fact, the existing data show that in the UV, absorptions appear to be present superimposed on the overall red slope. Thus, though Cassini instruments have learned much about the surfaces of the icy moons, a basic question that remains is: What is their surface composition and what are the species or processes that cause these UV absorptions? Cassini's spectral coverage is lacking in precisely the near-UV wavelength regime in which the satellites appear to absorb most strongly. To resolve this issue and determine some understanding of the surface species present, we have obtained data using HST/STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph). We have utilized the STIS G230L detector to obtain high SNR spectra in the 180-320 nm region along with short G430L exposures to obtain spectra in the 320-570 nm range, to completely fill in the Cassini gap in spectral coverage. Full-disk measurements have been made of the trailing and leading hemispheres of Mimas, Dione and Rhea; a spectrum of Enceladus was also obtained. We report on the results. In particular, we discuss implications for the presence of ammonia, ozone and organics.

  14. Onset of convection and differentiation in the hydrated cores of icy moons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn have revealed that the three large Jovian icy moons and Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, are at least partly differentiated. Their normalized moments of inertia are smaller than 2/5, which is the value for undifferentiated moons. We present new simulations of the thermal evolution, dehydration process, differentiation, and onset of convection in the hydrated cores of large icy satellites. The motivation is to investigate whether convection can start before dehydration starts in the cores. Such a process would prevent differentiation. The viscosity of antigorite, the hydrated silicate supposed to compose the hydrated cores, is strongly non-Newtonian and weakly temperature-dependent. The cores are volumetrically heated by natural radioactivity. We have adapted the theory developed for non-Newtonian fluids heated from below [1] to the case of volumetrically heated fluids. A recent review [2] of the physical parameters relevant to the thermal evolution of hydrated cores made of antigorite provides values quite different from those used in previous studies [3,4], which seriously modifies the results of previous simulations including the predicted present interior structure of the large icy satellites. The numerical simulations presented in this study suggest that the inner part of the hydrated core of icy moons would dehydrate for a large range of parameters, the most important of which is the amount of 40K. The outer core would remain hydrated. It is shown that convection could start in the outer core for large values of internal heating. Implications for subsequent thermal evolution are being investigated. [1] Solomatov V.S. (1995) Scaling of temperature and stressdependent viscosity convection; Phys. Fluids 7, 266; doi: 10.1063/1.868624. [2] Reynard B. (2012) Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos, doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.012 [3] Grinrod P.M., A.D. Fortes, F. Nimmo, D.L. Feltham

  15. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Video Gallery

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  16. Role of radiolysis in the formation and destruction of molecules on the Jovian icy moons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. H.; Hudson, R. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    2003-05-01

    Spectra of the icy moons of Jupiter reveal surfaces dominated by water-ice along with hydrated materials and minor amounts of SO2, and CO2 (1). The surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto undergo significant bombardment by the Jovian magnetospheric radiation (protons, electrons, sulfur and oxygen ions), which can alter surface compositions through radiolysis and ion implantation. Results from our laboratory studies of the IR spectra of proton-irradiated ices relevant to these moons provide new information about possible chemical pathways. Our data also predict possible species for future IR detections, and serve as inputs for understanding the physical habitability of ice surface layers that is of interest for future missions. We will review the formation and identification of several radiation products from H2O + SO2, H2O + H2S, and H2O + SO2 + CO2 ices. The formation and stability of hydrated sulfuric acid in a radiation environment is examined. In addition, a more complicated four component mixture, H2O + SO2 + CO2 + CH4, has been examined to determine the evolution of methane's 3.3 micron feature during radiolysis. The IR detection of CH4 is of interest to astrobiologists as a possible marker of methanogens in an irradiated ice environment. This research is supported through NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs. (1) see review by Roush, T.L., JGR 2001, 106, 33,315.

  17. Iceless Icy Moons: Is the Nice Model In Trouble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dones, Henry C. Luke; Levison, H. F.

    2012-05-01

    Nimmo and Korycansky (2012; henceforth NK12) stated that if the outer Solar System underwent a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) in the Nice model, the mass striking the icy satellites at speeds up to tens of km/s would have vaporized so much ice that moons such as Mimas, Enceladus, and Miranda would have been devolatilized. NK12's possible explanations of this apparent discrepancy with observations include (1) the mass influx was a factor of 10 less than that in the Nice model; (2) the mass distribution of the impactors was top-heavy, so that luck might have saved some of the moons from suffering large, vapor-removing impacts; or (3) the inner moons formed after the LHB. NK12 calculated the mass influx onto the satellites from the lunar impact rate estimated by Gomes et al. (2005) and scaling factors calculated by Zahnle et al. (1998, 2003; also see Barr and Canup 2010). Production of vapor in hypervelocity impacts is calculated from Kraus et al. (2011). Our preliminary results show that there is about an order-of-magnitude uncertainty in the mass striking the satellites during the LHB, with NK12's estimate at the upper end of the range. We will discuss how the mass influx depends on the velocity and mass distributions of the impactors. The Nice model lives. We thank the NASA Lunar Science Institute (http://lunarscience.nasa.gov/) for support. Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M., Nature Geoscience 3, 164-167 (2010). Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A., Nature 435, 466-469 (2005). Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.E., Stewart, S.T., Icarus 214, 724-738 (2011). Nimmo, F., Korycansky, D.G., Icarus, in press, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103512000310 (2012). Zahnle, K., Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Icarus 136, 202-222 (1998). Zahnle, K., Schenk, P., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., Icarus 163, 263-289 (2003).

  18. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life. PMID:26060981

  19. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  20. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer solar system may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons, Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto, may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the universe. Recently, in-situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the Jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  1. Saturn and 4 Icy Moons in Natural Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This approximate natural-color image shows Saturn, its rings, and four of its icy satellites. Three satellites (Tethys, Dione, and Rhea) are visible against the darkness of space, and another smaller satellite (Mimas) is visible against Saturn's cloud tops very near the left horizon and just below the rings. The dark shadows of Mimas and Tethys are also visible on Saturn's cloud tops, and the shadow of Saturn is seen across part of the rings. Saturn, second in size only to Jupiter in our Solar System, is 120,660 km (75,000 mi) in diameter at its equator (the ring plane) but, because of its rapid spin, Saturn is 10% smaller measured through its poles. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of ice particles ranging from microscopic dust to boulders in size. These particles orbit Saturn in a vast disk that is a mere 100 meters (330 feet) or so thick. The rings' thinness contrasts with their huge diameter--for instance 272,400 km (169,000 mi) for the outer part of the bright A ring, the outermost ring visible here. The pronounced concentric gap in the rings, the Cassini Division (named after its discoverer), is a 3500-km wide region (2200 mi, almost the width of the United States) that is much less populated with ring particles than the brighter B and A rings to either side of the gap. The rings also show some enigmatic radial structure ('spokes'), particularly at left. This image was synthesized from images taken in Voyager's blue and violet filters and was processed to recreate an approximately natural color and contrast.

  2. Core Shadow Zones of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, F.; Knapmeyer, M.; Gassner, L.; Lange, C.; Wagner, F. W.

    2011-12-01

    The internal dynamics of a planetary core is strongly dependent on its total radius. The volume/surface ratio of a planetary core is linked directly to the outgoing heat flux, which is also an indicator for the element partition between the surrounding mantle and the core. The determination of the core radius is thus an elementary step to better understand the origin and evolution of a planetary body. An observable that has been shown to serve as indicator for core size is the extent of the seismological (P-wave-) core shadow. It appears that the variation of seismic velocities with depth is dominated by quadratic terms, if not an essentially depth independent velocity can be assumed. The observed and predicted core shadow extents of many terrestrial planet models, computed as function of the relative core radius, thus align closely to the analytically derived function for objects with constant velocity profiles. The heavier solar system terrestrial planets, especially Venus and Earth, show the largest deviation from the relation between core radius and shadow width that holds for small bodies. For terrestrial planets more massive than Earth, as found for several exoplanets, the increasing internal pressure would cause increased curvature of tentative seismic rays and thus a more pronounced excursion from the relation for bodies with depth-independent elastic parameters. For Titan, a geophysical network has been suggested as a follow up to the highly successful Cassini-Huygens mission that is currently orbiting Saturn. Titan belongs to the class of weakly differentiated icy moons, which consist of an icy crust, underlain by a deep internal ocean and a central ice-rock body. Unlike any other moon in the solar system, Titan has a thick atmosphere that gives rise to surface processes resembling those on Earth. The goal of the proposed network is an improved understanding of the interactions between atmosphere, surficial ice and a putative subsurface water ocean. Key

  3. Looking for planetary moons in the spectra of distant Jupiters.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Knacke, R F

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 nearby stars are known to have at least one Jupiter-sized planet. Whether any of these giant gaseous planets has moons is unknown, but here we suggest a possible way of detecting Earth-sized moons with future technology. The planned Terrestrial Planet Finder observatory, for example, will be able to detect objects comparable in size to Earth. Such Earth-sized objects might orbit their stars either as isolated planets or as moons to giant planets. Moons of Jovian-sized planets near the habitable zones of main-sequence stars should be noticeably brighter than their host planets in the near-infrared (1-4 microm) if their atmospheres contain methane, water, and water vapor, because of efficient absorption of starlight by these atmospheric components. By taking advantage of this spectral contrast, future space observatories will be able to discern which extrasolar giant planets have Earth-like moons capable of supporting life. PMID:15383243

  4. Looking for planetary moons in the spectra of distant Jupiters.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Knacke, R F

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 nearby stars are known to have at least one Jupiter-sized planet. Whether any of these giant gaseous planets has moons is unknown, but here we suggest a possible way of detecting Earth-sized moons with future technology. The planned Terrestrial Planet Finder observatory, for example, will be able to detect objects comparable in size to Earth. Such Earth-sized objects might orbit their stars either as isolated planets or as moons to giant planets. Moons of Jovian-sized planets near the habitable zones of main-sequence stars should be noticeably brighter than their host planets in the near-infrared (1-4 microm) if their atmospheres contain methane, water, and water vapor, because of efficient absorption of starlight by these atmospheric components. By taking advantage of this spectral contrast, future space observatories will be able to discern which extrasolar giant planets have Earth-like moons capable of supporting life.

  5. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons

    PubMed Central

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons—Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto—may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life. Key Words: Planetary science—Europa—Planetary habitability and biosignatures—Extraterrestrial life—Extraterrestrial organic compounds. Astrobiology 15, 430–441. PMID:26060981

  6. Galilean Moons, Kepler's Third Law, and the Mass of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Simulations of physical systems are widely available online, with no cost, and are ready to be used in our classrooms. ,2 Such simulations offer an accessible tool that can be used for a range of interactive learning activities. The Jovian Moons Applet2 allows the user to track the position of Jupiter's four Galilean moons with a variety of viewing options. For this activity, data are obtained from the orbital period and orbital radii charts. Earlier experiments have used telescopes to capture the orbital motion of the Galilean moons,3 although observation of astronomical events and the measurement of quantities may be difficult to achieve due to a combination of cost, training, and observing conditions. The applet allows a suitable set of data to be generated and data analysis that verifies Kepler's third law of planetary motion, which leads to a calculated value for the mass of Jupiter.

  7. Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert

    2016-10-01

    In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8 January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609 (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that, whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not, Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's 1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft for his consultations.

  8. Is Jupiter's Moon Amalthea a Captured Trojan Asteroid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Andrew J.

    In 2002 the Galileo spacecraft discovered that the small irregular Jovian moon Amalthea is a porous assemblage of rock and ice. Its bulk density is ~1 g/cc. This is much less than the value ~3.8 g/cc expected of the mixture of rock and metal that would form at this Jovian orbit had Amalthea moon condensed from a gas ring shed by the proto-Jovian cloud (Prentice 2001 Earth Moon Planets 87 11). Thus rather than being a native moon of Jupiter and especially because of its small size relative to the Galilean satellites Amalthea is probably a captured asteroid. Prentice and ter Haar (1979 Nature 280 300) had predicted Amalthea to be a C-type asteroid. Galileo has found Amalthea to be even less dense than the porous main-belt C-asteroid Mathilde so suggesting the presence of ice. Most likely therefore Amalthea originally condensed as a planetesimal within the gas ring shed by the proto-Solar cloud at the orbit of Jupiter. The predicted bulk chemical composition by mass is asteroidal rock (65%) graphite (1%) and water ice (34%) [see Prentice in URL: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/mercury01]. The zero-porosity density is 1.8 g/cc. Amalthea is simply a first cousin of the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter.

  9. Tour of Jupiter Galilean moons: Winning solution of GTOC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colasurdo, Guido; Zavoli, Alessandro; Longo, Alessandro; Casalino, Lorenzo; Simeoni, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the trajectory designed by the Italian joint team Politecnico di Torino & Sapienza Università di Roma (Team5), winner of the 6th edition of the Global Trajectory Optimization Competition (GTOC6). In the short time available in these competitions, Team5 resorted to basic knowledge, simple tools and a powerful indirect optimization procedure. The mission concerns a 4-year tour of the Jupiter Galilean moons. The paper explains the strategy that was preliminarily devised and eventually implemented by looking for a viable trajectory. The first phase is a capture that moves the spacecraft from the arrival hyperbola to a low-energy orbit around Jupiter. Six series of flybys follow; in each one the spacecraft orbits Jupiter in resonance with a single moon; criteria to construct efficient chains of resonant flybys are presented. Transfer legs move the spacecraft from resonance with a moon to another one; precise phasing of the relevant moons is required; mission opportunities in a 11-year launch window are found by assuming ballistic trajectories and coplanar circular orbits for the Jovian satellites. The actual trajectory is found by using an indirect technique.

  10. Project GALILEO: Farewell to the Major Moons of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theilig, E.

    2002-01-01

    After a six year odyssey, Galileo has completed its survey of the large moons of Jupiter. In the four years since the end of the primary mission, Galileo provided new insights into the fundamental questions concerning Jupiter and its moons and magnetosphere. Longevity, changing orbital geometry, and multiple flybys afforded the opportunity to distinguish intrinsic versus induced magnetic fields on the Galilean moons, to characterize the dusk side of the magnetosphere, to acquire high resolution observations supporting the possibility of subsurface water within Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, and to monitor the highly dynamic volcanic activity of Io. In January 2002, a final gravity assist placed the spacecraft on a two-orbit trajectory culminating in a Jupiter impact in September 2003. With the successful completion of the Io encounters, plans are being made for the final encounter of the mission. In November 2002, the spacecraft will fly one Jupiter radius above the planet's cloud-tops, sampling the inner magnetosphere and the gossamer rings. The trajectory will take Galileo close enough to Amalthea, (a small inner moon) to obtain the first gravity data for this body. Because a radiation dose of 73 krads is expected on this encounter, which will bring the total radiation dose to greater than four times the spacecraft design limits, the command sequence has to account for the possibility of subsystem failure and the loss of spacecraft control after this perijove passage. One of the primary objectives this year has been to place the spacecraft on a trajectory to impact Jupiter on orbit 35. Galileo's discovery of water beneath the frozen surface of Europa raised concerns about forward contamination by inadvertently impacting that moon and resulted in an end of mission requirement to dispose of the spacecraft. A risk assessment of the final two Io encounters was performed to manage the project's ability to meet this requirement. Radiation affected the extended mission

  11. 2.7- to 4.1-micron spectrophotometry of icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spectrophotometry is presented in the 2.7-4.1 micrometer spectral region for icy satellites of Saturn (Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Iapetus and Hyperion) and Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto). The 3.6-micrometer reflectance peak characteristic of fine-grained water ice is observed prominently on the satellites of Saturn, faintly on the leading side of Europa, and not at all on Ganymede, Callisto or the dark side of Iapetus. The spectral reflectances of these icy satellites may be affected by their equilibrium surface temperatures and magnetospheric effects.

  12. Detection of an oxygen atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Europa.

    PubMed

    Hall, D T; Strobel, D F; Feldman, P D; McGrath, M A; Weaver, H A

    1995-02-23

    Europa, the second large satellite out from Jupiter, is roughly the size of Earth's Moon, but unlike the Moon, it has water ice on its surface. There have been suggestions that an oxygen atmosphere should accumulate around such a body, through reactions which break up the water molecules and form molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The lighter H2 molecules would escape from Europa relatively easily, leaving behind an atmosphere rich in oxygen. Here we report the detection of atomic oxygen emission from Europa, which we interpret as being produced by the simultaneous dissociation and excitation of atmospheric O2 by electrons from Jupiter's magnetosphere. Europa's molecular oxygen atmosphere is very tenuous, with a surface pressure about 10(-11) that of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level.

  13. Numerical investigation of mapping orbits about Jupiter's icy moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, John

    2005-01-01

    A proposed mission that would orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa will require low altitude, high inclination orbits for gravity and surface mapping. This paper explores the dynamics of these orbits by direct propagation against an ephemeris model. Initial conditions within the context of a mapping mission's likely requirements are considered. The results complement the analytical studies and reveal additional dependencies.

  14. Regional geology and stratigraphy of Saturn's icy moon Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Stephan, Katrin; Schmedemann, Nico; Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Neukum, Gerhard; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2013-04-01

    Tethys, with a diameter of 1060 km one of the 6 mid-sized icy moons of Saturn, was imaged for the first time in the early 1980ies by the cameras aboard the two Voyager spacecraft at resolutions of 1 km/pxl and lower [1][2][3]. These images show that most of Tethys is densely cratered and displays two major landmarks: the ~ 400 km large impact structure Odysseus and the huge graben system of Ithaca Chasma [1][2]. Since July 2004, Cassini has been in orbit about Saturn and has made several close passes at Tethys, providing an almost complete global image coverage at regional scale (200 - 500 m/pxl). However, varying viewing geometries between images taken during different orbits still impede the identification and mapping of geologic units. In this work we present an update of Tethys' regional geology and stratigraphy, based on Cassini ISS images. Crater distribution measurements, by us and in comparison with measurements of other groups [4], are used to support stratigraphic findings. Most of Tethys' surface consists of a hilly, rugged, heavily cratered plains unit, as identified in Voyager images [1][2][3]. A smooth, less densely cratered plains unit in the trailing hemisphere was previously observed by [2] which is also identifiable in Cassini ISS, but its exact boundaries are difficult to map due to varying viewing geometries of ISS observations. Another sparsely cratered plains unit not seen in Voyager images can be located to the south of Odysseus. It features remnants of highly degraded large craters superimposed by younger fresher craters with a lower crater density compared to the heavily cratered plains. Its distinct linear northern contact with the heavily cratered plains suggests an origin related to tectonism. Again, varying viewing conditions hamper to map the exact boundaries of this unit. The prominent graben system of Ithaca Chasma represents fractured cratered plains. The high resolution of Cassini ISS images reveals that tectonism on Tethys is more

  15. Hubble Provides Infrared View of Jupiter's Moon, Ring, and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Probing Jupiter's atmosphere for the first time, the Hubble Space Telescope's new Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) provides a sharp glimpse of the planet's ring, moon, and high-altitude clouds.

    The presence of methane in Jupiter's hydrogen- and helium-rich atmosphere has allowed NICMOS to plumb Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing bands of high-altitude clouds. Visible light observations cannot provide a clear view of these high clouds because the underlying clouds reflect so much visible light that the higher level clouds are indistinguishable from the lower layer. The methane gas between the main cloud deck and the high clouds absorbs the reflected infrared light, allowing those clouds that are above most of the atmosphere to appear bright. Scientists will use NICMOS to study the high altitude portion of Jupiter's atmosphere to study clouds at lower levels. They will then analyze those images along with visible light information to compile a clearer picture of the planet's weather. Clouds at different levels tell unique stories. On Earth, for example, ice crystal (cirrus) clouds are found at high altitudes while water (cumulus) clouds are at lower levels.

    Besides showing details of the planet's high-altitude clouds, NICMOS also provides a clear view of the ring and the moon, Metis. Jupiter's ring plane, seen nearly edge-on, is visible as a faint line on the upper right portion of the NICMOS image. Metis can be seen in the ring plane (the bright circle on the ring's outer edge). The moon is 25 miles wide and about 80,000 miles from Jupiter.

    Because of the near-infrared camera's narrow field of view, this image is a mosaic constructed from three individual images taken Sept. 17, 1997. The color intensity was adjusted to accentuate the high-altitude clouds. The dark circle on the disk of Jupiter (center of image) is an artifact of the imaging system.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are

  16. Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.

    2003-12-01

    Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.

  17. Experimental Facilities to Synthesize and Study Clathrate Hydrates: Applications to Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Menn, E.; Nna Mvondo, D.; Bezacier, L.; Bollengier, O.; Grasset, O.; Tobie, G.

    2014-02-01

    A series of experimental investigations are being carried out on mixed CH4-N2 and CH4-CO2 clathrate hydrates, compounds of high interest for icy moons. First results on their phase diagram and their infrared and Raman signatures will be presented.

  18. The dust halo of Saturn's largest icy moon, Rhea.

    PubMed

    Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Beckmann, U; Coates, A J; Crary, F; Dandouras, I; Dikarev, V; Dougherty, M K; Garnier, P; Hansen, C J; Hendrix, A R; Hospodarsky, G B; Johnson, R E; Kempf, S; Khurana, K K; Krimigis, S M; Krüger, H; Kurth, W S; Lagg, A; McAndrews, H J; Mitchell, D G; Paranicas, C; Postberg, F; Russell, C T; Saur, J; Seiss, M; Spahn, F; Srama, R; Strobel, D F; Tokar, R; Wahlund, J-E; Wilson, R J; Woch, J; Young, D

    2008-03-01

    Saturn's moon Rhea had been considered massive enough to retain a thin, externally generated atmosphere capable of locally affecting Saturn's magnetosphere. The Cassini spacecraft's in situ observations reveal that energetic electrons are depleted in the moon's vicinity. The absence of a substantial exosphere implies that Rhea's magnetospheric interaction region, rather than being exclusively induced by sputtered gas and its products, likely contains solid material that can absorb magnetospheric particles. Combined observations from several instruments suggest that this material is in the form of grains and boulders up to several decimetres in size and orbits Rhea as an equatorial debris disk. Within this disk may reside denser, discrete rings or arcs of material.

  19. The dust halo of Saturn's largest icy moon, Rhea.

    PubMed

    Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Beckmann, U; Coates, A J; Crary, F; Dandouras, I; Dikarev, V; Dougherty, M K; Garnier, P; Hansen, C J; Hendrix, A R; Hospodarsky, G B; Johnson, R E; Kempf, S; Khurana, K K; Krimigis, S M; Krüger, H; Kurth, W S; Lagg, A; McAndrews, H J; Mitchell, D G; Paranicas, C; Postberg, F; Russell, C T; Saur, J; Seiss, M; Spahn, F; Srama, R; Strobel, D F; Tokar, R; Wahlund, J-E; Wilson, R J; Woch, J; Young, D

    2008-03-01

    Saturn's moon Rhea had been considered massive enough to retain a thin, externally generated atmosphere capable of locally affecting Saturn's magnetosphere. The Cassini spacecraft's in situ observations reveal that energetic electrons are depleted in the moon's vicinity. The absence of a substantial exosphere implies that Rhea's magnetospheric interaction region, rather than being exclusively induced by sputtered gas and its products, likely contains solid material that can absorb magnetospheric particles. Combined observations from several instruments suggest that this material is in the form of grains and boulders up to several decimetres in size and orbits Rhea as an equatorial debris disk. Within this disk may reside denser, discrete rings or arcs of material. PMID:18323452

  20. Natural radio emission of Jupiter as interferences for radar investigations of the icy satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Hess, S.; Hérique, A.; Santovito, M. R.; Santos-Costa, D.; Zarka, P.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Bruzzone, L.; Kofman, W.

    2012-02-01

    Radar instruments are part of the core payload of the two Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) spacecraft: NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). At this point of the project, several frequency bands are under study for radar, which ranges between 5 and 50 MHz. Part of this frequency range overlaps with that of the natural jovian radio emissions, which are very intense in the decametric range, below 40 MHz. Radio observations above 40 MHz are free of interferences, whereas below this threshold, careful observation strategies have to be investigated. We present a review of spectral intensity, variability and sources of these radio emissions. As the radio emissions are strongly beamed, it is possible to model the visibility of the radio emissions, as seen from the vicinity of Europa or Ganymede. We have investigated Io-related radio emissions as well as radio emissions related to the auroral oval. We also review the radiation belts synchrotron emission characteristics. We present radio sources visibility products (dynamic spectra and radio source location maps, on still frames or movies), which can be used for operation planning. This study clearly shows that a deep understanding of the natural radio emissions at Jupiter is necessary to prepare the future EJSM radar instrumentation. We show that this radio noise has to be taken into account very early in the observation planning and strategies for both JGO and JEO. We also point out possible synergies with RPW (Radio and Plasma Waves) instrumentations.

  1. Natural radio emission of Jupiter as interferences for radar investigations of the icy satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Hess, S.; Hérique, A.; Santovito, M. R.; Santos-Costa, D.; Zarka, P.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D.; Bougeret, J. L.; Bruzzone, L.; Kofman, W.

    2011-10-01

    Radar instruments are part of the core payload of the two Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) spacecraft: NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). At this point of the project, several frequency bands are under study for radar, which ranges between 5MHz and 50MHz. Part of this frequency range overlaps with that of the natural Jovian radio emissions, which are very intense in the decametric range, below 40 MHz. Radio observations above 40 MHz are free of interferences, whereas below this threshold, careful observation strategies have to be investigated. We present a review of spectral intensity, variability and sources of these radio emissions. As the radio emission are strongly beamed, it is possible to model the visibility of the radio emissions, as seen from the vicinity of Europa or Ganymede. We have investigated Io-related radio emissions as well as radio emissions related to the auroral oval. We also review the radiation belts synchrotron emission characteristics. We present radio sources visibility products (dynamic spectra and radio source location maps, on still frames or movies), which can be used for operation planning. This study clearly shows that a deep understanding of the natural radio emissions at Jupiter is necessary to prepare the future EJSM radar instrumentation. We show that this radio noise has to be taken into account very early in the observation planning and strategies for both JGO and JEO. We also point out possible synergies with RPW (Radio and Plasma Waves) instrumentations.

  2. Experimental techniques to study clathrate hydrates in the context of giant icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Menn, E.; Bezacier, L.; Bollengier, O.; Oancea, A.; Grasset, O.; Tobie, G.

    2012-09-01

    Gas clathrate hydrates probably play a key role in the storage and transport of gas compounds in water-rich environments, especially for icy moons [1]. In order to understand how they may affect the exchange processes in these objects, a series of experiments has been set up to realise controlled synthesis of mixted gas hydrates, to perform infrared and Raman diagnostics, and to constrain their phase diagram. Experiments cover a wide pressure range, from 10-2 mbar up to 30 GPa and are focused on three gas compounds of high interest for the icy satellites of the outer solar system: methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  3. Mission Techniques for Exploring Saturn's icy moons Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiѐre hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit within NASA's New Frontiers or ESA's Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, several mission concepts have been developed that potentially fit within various cost classes. Also, a clear blueprint has been laid out for early efforts critical toward reducing the risks inherent in such missions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of potential Titan (and Enceladus) mission

  4. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  5. The Extremes of Volcanic Activity: Earth and Jupiter's Moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowes, L. L.; Lopes, R.

    2004-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the solar system's most volcanically active body, and the only place that magmatic volcanic eruptions have been observed beyond Earth. One of the first images of Io obtained by NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979 shows a plume above one of its volcanoes. The NASA Voyager and Galileo spacecraft imaged many explosive eruptions of plumes and deposits - which travel hundreds of kilometers (farther than on the Earth or the Moon). Very hot lavas that are erupting from volcanic vents on Io may be similar to lavas that erupted on Earth billions of years ago. Understanding the physical processes driving volcanic eruptions is important for the understanding of terrestrial volcanoes, not only because of their potential hazards, but also as geologic resources, biologic environments, and for their role in shaping the surface of Earth and other planets. Volcanic eruptions are perhaps the most dramatic events on Earth, and are of intrinsic interest to students, youth, and adults. Topics involving volcanoes are a part of the national science education benchmarks for understanding the Earth's composition and structure for grades 6-8 (the process of creating landforms) and grades 9-12 (the effects of movement of crustal plates). Natural events on Earth coupled with exciting discoveries in space can serve to heighten the awareness of these phenomena and provide learning opportunities for real world applications of science. Educational applications for youth to compare volcanic activity on Io and Earth have been done through NASA-sponsored field trip workshops to places such as Yellowstone National Park (allowing educators to experience environments similar to those on other worlds), targeted classroom and hands-on activities, special interest books, and other resources. A sampling of such activities will be presented, and discussion invited on other related developmentally appropriate resources and activities.

  6. Discovering New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces with Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. L.; Wray, J. J.; Hand, K. P.; Poston, M.; Carlson, R. W.; Clark, R. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Jennings, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Spectroscopy of icy satellite surfaces can aid us in understanding sources and sinks of material in the outer solar system. The spectral complexity of the Saturnian satellite system as seen in reflected sunlight suggests additional complexity may be present at mid-infrared wavelengths from which unique compositional information can be gleaned [1]. Yet to date, Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) surface compositional studies have received little attention. We are investigating the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. On Iapetus' dark terrain, we find an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a possible doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that do not correspond to any known instrument artifacts [2]. We attribute the 855 cm-1feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [3]. Silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn's icy moons have been suspected for decades, but there have been no definitive detections until now. Because peaks can shift depending on temperature, pressure, and grain size, measurements at Iapetus-like conditions are necessary for more positive feature identifications [e.g., 4]. We measured the vacuum (P<3x10-8 torr) and low temperature (125 K) mid-infrared spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates. We find that some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1and match the doublet. Identifying a specific silicate would provide clues into the origin and implications of the dark material in the Saturnian system. We also report on our ongoing exploration of the CIRS icy moon dataset and plans for additional future measurements in JPL's Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Flasar, F. M., et al. (2004), Space Sci Rev, 115, 169. [2] Young, C.L., et al. (in review), ApJ Lett. [3] Christensen, P. R., et al. (2004), Sci, 306, 1733. [4] Wray, J. J., et al. (2014), DPS 46th Meeting, Vol. 46.

  7. Identifying new surface constituents of icy moons using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, James J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic compositional studies of the icy satellites can help us to better understand the formation and evolution of material in the outer solar system. The spectral complexity of the Saturnian satellite system as seen in reflected visible light suggests additional complexity may be present at mid-infrared wavelengths from which unique compositional information can be gleaned [1]. In addition, the mid-infrared is the region of the stronger fundamental diagnostic vibrational modes of many compounds. However, Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) surface compositional studies have received little attention to date.We are exploring the suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy for discovering non-H2O compounds on icy moon surfaces. On the dark terrain of Iapetus, we find an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a potential doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that do not correspond to any known instrument artifacts [2]. We attribute the 855 cm-1 feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [3]. Although silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn’s icy moons have been suspected for decades, there have been no definitive prior detections. Serpentines measured at ambient conditions have features near 855 cm-1 and 660 cm-1 [4]. However, peaks can shift depending on temperature, pressure, and grain size, so measurements at Iapetus-like conditions are necessary for more positive identifications [e.g., 5].We measured the vacuum, low temperature (125 K) spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates. We find that some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1 and match the doublet. Identifying a specific silicate would provide clues into the sources and sinks of the dark material in the Saturnian system. We report on our ongoing exploration of the CIRS icy moon dataset and plans for future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab.[1] Flasar, F

  8. Mid-infrared spectroscopy to better characterize icy moon surface compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, James J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger Nelson; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Previous spectroscopy work on icy moons has focused primarily on the visible and near-IR portion of the spectrum due to challenges presented by a low signal to noise ratio at the longer wavelengths. However, the mid-IR is the region of the strongest fundamental vibrations of many important types of molecules (e.g., organics) and has the potential to reveal unique compositional information [1]. We use the wealth of data that is now available from Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) to average spectra over similar regions to improve the signal to noise, helping to reveal spectral features never before observed.Our initial work has already led to the detection and tentative laboratory identification of the first spectral features observed for any icy moon in the mid-IR [2]. On Iapetus' dark terrain, we found an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a possible doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that does not correspond to any known instrument artifacts. We attributed the 855 cm-1 feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [e.g., 3, 4]. Silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn's icy moons have been suspected for decades, but there have been no definitive detections until this work.We measured the vacuum, low temperature mid-IR spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates, including Mg-rich serpentines, often present in meteorites. Some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1 and exhibit a doublet. Presently, we are continuing to comb the CIRS icy moon database for spectral features (particularly focusing on the warmer surfaces in the Saturn system) and are performing further vacuum chamber measurements to experiment with more sample types and ice/sample mixtures to determine the impacts of changing conditions in the chamber on features. We are also working to understand how surface porosity and mixing with various darkening agents may

  9. Hemispheric and Topographic Asymmetry of Magnetospheric Particle Irradiation for Icy Moon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    All surfaces of icy moons without significant atmospheres, i.e. all except Titan in the giant planet systems, are irradiated by hot plasma and more energetic charged particles from the local magnetospheric environments. This irradiation can significantly impact the chemical composition, albedo, and detectable presence of signs of life on the sensible surfaces, while also limiting lifetimes and science operations of orbital spacecraft for extreme radiation environments as at Europa. Planning of surface remote sensing and lander operations, and interpretation of remote sensing and in-situ measurements, should include consideration of natural shielding afforded by the body of the moon, by any intrinsic or induced magnetic fields as at Ganyrnede, and by topographic structures.

  10. Galilean Moons, Kepler's Third Law, and the Mass of Jupiter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of physical systems are widely available online, with no cost, and are ready to be used in our classrooms. Such simulations offer an accessible tool that can be used for a range of interactive learning activities. The Jovian Moons Apple allows the user to track the position of Jupiter's four Galilean moons with a variety of…

  11. Technology for a Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Harpole, George; Zamel, James; Sen, Bashwar; Lee, Greg; Ross, Floyd; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  12. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; van Hoolst, T.

    2012-03-01

    JUICE is the next step for an in-depth exploration of the geophysical and environmental characteristics of Ganymede and exploration of Callisto and Europa, and will provide an in-depth understanding of Jupiter’s atmosphere and magnetosphere.

  13. Tidal Heating in a Magma Ocean within Jupiter's Moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Robert H.; Henning, Wade G.; Hamilton, Christopher W.

    2015-06-01

    Active volcanism observed on Io is thought to be driven by the temporally periodic, spatially differential projection of Jupiter's gravitational field over the moon. Previous theoretical estimates of the tidal heat have all treated Io as essentially a solid, with fluids addressed only through adjustment of rheological parameters rather than through appropriate extension of the dynamics. These previous estimates of the tidal response and associated heat generation on Io are therefore incomplete and possibly erroneous because dynamical aspects of the fluid behavior are not permitted in the modeling approach. Here we address this by modeling the partial-melt asthenosphere as a global layer of fluid governed by the Laplace Tidal Equations. Solutions for the tidal response are then compared with solutions obtained following the traditional solid-material approach. It is found that the tidal heat in the solid can match that of the average observed heat flux (nominally 2.25 W m-2), though only over a very restricted range of plausible parameters, and that the distribution of the solid tidal heat flux cannot readily explain a longitudinal shift in the observed (inferred) low-latitude heat fluxes. The tidal heat in the fluid reaches that observed over a wider range of plausible parameters, and can also readily provide the longitudinal offset. Finally, expected feedbacks and coupling between the solid/fluid tides are discussed. Most broadly, the results suggest that both solid and fluid tidal-response estimates must be considered in exoplanet studies, particularly where orbital migration under tidal dissipation is addressed.

  14. MAJIS (Moons and Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer): the VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer of the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; MAJIS team

    2016-10-01

    MAJIS is the VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer of JUICE. This ambitious mission of ESA's « cosmic vision » program will investigate Jupiter and its system with a specific focus on Ganymede. After a tour of more than 3 years including 2 fly-bys of Europa and up to 20 flybys of Ganymede and Callisto, the end of the nominal mission will be dedicated to an orbital phase around Ganymede with 120 days in a near-circular, near-polar orbit at an altitude of 5000 km and 130 days in a circular near-polar orbit at an altitude of 500 km. MAJIS will adress 17 of the 19 primary science objectives of JUICE, investigating the surface and exosphere of the Galilean satellites (Ganymede during the orbital phase, Europa and Callisto during close flybys, Io from a minimum distance of 570,000 km), the atmosphere / exosphere of Jupiter, small satellites and rings, and their role as sources and sinks of particles in the Jupiter magnetosphere.The main technical characteristics are the following:Spectral range : 0.5 – 5.7 µm with two overlapping channels (VIS-NIR : 0.5 – 2.35 µm ; IR : 2.25 – 5.7 µm)Spatial resolution : 0.125 to 0.15 mradSpectral sampling (VIS-NIR channel) : 2.9 to 3.45 nmSpectral sampling (IR channel) : 5.4 to 6.45 nmThe spectral and spatial resolution will be finalized in october 2016 after the selection of the MAJIS detectors.Passive cooling will provide operating temperatures < 130 K (VIS-NIR) and < 90 K (IR) so as to limit the impact of dark current on performances.The SNR as determined from the photometric model and the noise model will be larger than 100 over most of the spectral range except for high resolution observations of icy moons at low altitude due to limitations on the integration time even with motion compensation provided by a scanner and for exospheric observations due to intrinsic low signal levels.

  15. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a polar environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2014-06-20

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν{sub 3} band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO{sub 2} band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H{sub 2}O)-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν{sub 3} band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  16. Ionization chemistry in the H2O-dominant atmospheres of the icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-08-01

    The main pathways of the ionization chemistry for pure H2O- and mixed H2O+O2+CO2+NH3+CH4 atmospheres which are representative for neutral and ionized atmospheres of the icy bodies in the Jovian and Saturnian systems are discussed. The gaseous envelopes of the icy moons of the giant planets are formed usually due to the surface radiolysis by the solar UV radiation and energetic magnetospheric plasma (Johnson, 1990). The standard astrochemical UMIST2005 (UDFA05) network is used to infer the main chemical pathways of ionization chemistry in the pure or with admixtures of other volatile molecules water vapor atmospheres. In case of the H2O- dominant atmosphere the parent H2O molecules are easily dissociated and ionized by the solar UVradiation and the energetic magnetospheric electrons. These impact processes result in the formation of the secondary neutral and ionized products - chemically active radicals O and OH, and H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ ions. Secondary ions have admixture abundances in the H2O-dominant atmospheres, because they are efficiently transformed to H3O+ hydroxonium ions in the fast ion-molecular reactions. The major H3O+ hydroxonium ion does not chemically interact with other neutrals, and is destroyed in the dissociative recombination with thermal electrons mainly reproducing the chemically simple H, H2, O, and OH species. In case of the mixed H2O+O2-dominant atmosphere corresponding to the near-surface atmospheres of icy moons (Shematovich et al., 2005), the ionization chemistry results in the formation of the second major ion O2+ - because ion of molecular oxygen has the lower ionization potential comparing with other parent species -H2, H2O, CO2. The H+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ ions can be easily converted to O2+ ions through the ion-molecular reactions. In case of significant admixture of molecular hydrogen it is possible to transfer the O2+ ions to the O2H+ ions through the fast reaction with H2 and further to the H3O+ ions through the ion

  17. Tectonics of Icy Moons: A Tale of Oceans and Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenhorn, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Icy moons of the outer solar system commonly experience eccentric orbits that impart daily tidal stresses to the outer ice layer. Depending on the orbital dynamics and configuration of the moons and their host planets, these stresses may or may not be sufficiently large to deform the ice layer. Although the stresses are typically very small, many icy moons exhibit pervasively tectonized surfaces, replete with fractures, faults, and significant topography (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus, Dione, Titan, Miranda, Ariel, Titania, Triton). Deformation may be driven by various means (e.g., orbital recession, polar wander, ice shell thickening), but tidal deformation is particularly important and is enhanced if an outer ice layer is decoupled from an underlying liquid ocean. The tidal response of the ocean creates tidal bulges in the ice layer that oscillate longitudinally and in amplitude during the orbital period. The resultant diurnal tidal stress field (perhaps 10s of kPa) rotates throughout the orbit. Any fractures growing in this time frame should thus be curved (e.g., Europa's cycloidal cracks, which have been cited as the smoking gun for a subsurface ocean). Long lineaments should accumulate strike-slip offsets in such a stress field, as occurs on Europa and perhaps Enceladus. The progressive development of ice ridges to either side of central cracks may result from this shearing process. A decoupled ice layer also permits faster than synchronous rotation of the ice layer, which may allow several MPa of stress to accrue, perhaps explaining long lineaments on Europa. It is unclear if Europa continues to be tectonically active, especially given apparent ice shell thickening that would have muted the tidal response through time. Nonetheless, subtle troughs across Europa's surface crosscut all other features and may indicate some degree of ongoing activity. In contrast, active tectonics on Enceladus is implied by ongoing geyser-like eruptions of water-ice from

  18. Between ice and gas: CO2 on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, C.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites [1-6], yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated [7]. On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non-ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface. On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.1% [2; 10-12]. Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon [13] and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. We continue measurements of the infrared properties associated with CO2 adsorbed onto nonice materials under pressures and at temperatures relevant to these icy satellites using bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy from ~ 1.5 to 5.5 μm. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO2 [14]. Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate [15]. The effectiveness of transmission spectroscopy was also limited by the strong absorption of light within the pressed sample and its impermeability, which limited the coverage by adsorbate to the pellet’s outer surface. All measurements demonstrate that CO2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment

  19. Resonance locking as the source of rapid tidal migration in the Jupiter and Saturn moon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim; Luan, Jing; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    The inner moons of Jupiter and Saturn migrate outwards due to tidal energy dissipation within the planets, the details of which remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that resonance locking between moons and internal oscillations of the planet can produce rapid tidal migration. Resonance locking arises due to the structural evolution of the planet and typically produces an outward migration rate comparable to the age of the solar system. Resonance locking predicts a similar migration timescale but a different effective tidal quality factor Q governing the migration of each moon. It also predicts nearly constant migration timescales a function of semi-major axis, such that effective Q values were larger in the past. Recent measurements of Jupiter and Saturn's moon systems find effective Q values that are much smaller than expected (and are different between moons), and which correspond to migration timescales of ~10 Gyr. If confirmed, the measurements are broadly consistent with resonance locking as the dominant source of tidal dissipation in Jupiter and Saturn. Resonance locking also provides solutions to several problems posed by current measurements: it naturally explains the exceptionally small Q governing Rhea's migration, it allows the large heating rate of Enceladus to be achieved in an equilibrium eccentricity configuration, and it resolves evolutionary problems arising from present-day migration/heating rates.

  20. Resonance locking as the source of rapid tidal migration in the Jupiter and Saturn moon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim; Luan, Jing; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-06-01

    The inner moons of Jupiter and Saturn migrate outwards due to tidal energy dissipation within the planets, the details of which remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that resonance locking between moons and internal oscillation modes of the planet can produce rapid tidal migration. Resonance locking arises due to the internal structural evolution of the planet and typically produces an outward migration rate comparable to the age of the Solar system. Resonance locking predicts a similar migration time-scale but a different effective tidal quality factor Q governing the migration of each moon. The theory also predicts nearly constant migration time-scales a function of semimajor axis, such that effective Q values were larger in the past. Recent measurements of Jupiter and Saturn's moon systems find effective Q values that are smaller than expected (and are different between moons), and which correspond to migration time-scales of ˜10 Gyr. If confirmed, the measurements are broadly consistent with resonance locking as the dominant source of tidal dissipation in Jupiter and Saturn. Resonance locking also provides solutions to several problems posed by current measurements: it naturally explains the exceptionally small Q governing Rhea's migration, it allows the large heating rate of Enceladus to be achieved in an equilibrium eccentricity configuration, and it resolves evolutionary problems arising from present-day migration/heating rates.

  1. Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Young, Cindy L.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2014-11-01

    We are exploring the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. Recently we reported evidence for a new emissivity feature identified on Iapetus using Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer [1]. This 11.7 μm feature is consistent with emissivity minima (transparency features) of very fine-grained silicates. Its position and shape may be diagnostic of silicate type, but most lab data at these wavelengths have been acquired using coarser grains and/or at Earth surface pressures and temperatures. Infrared spectra can change substantially under low-temperature, vacuum conditions [e.g., 2,3].We prepared sieved (<0.4 mm) and very fine-grained (few μm) powders of six different silicates and measured their VNIR (0.35-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra under ambient air, and mid-IR (1.2-20 μm) spectra in a purged N2 glovebox. All silicates exhibited mid-IR transparency features (and loss of other features) in micronized form that were not observed for the coarser grain sizes. Muscovite, a phyllosilicate mineral possibly similar to those tentatively identified on Europa [4], provided the closest match to Iapetus in the mid-IR--although clear VNIR features of muscovite have not been identified on Iapetus [5]--and therefore we measured muscovite across the same wavelength range under Iapetus-like conditions (T=125 K, P<3x10^-8 torr). We will report on our ongoing analysis and plans for additional future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Young, C.L., et al. (2014), Workshop on the Habitability of Icy Worlds, Abstract #4038.[2] Logan, L.M., et al. (1973), J. Geophys. Res., 78(23), 4983-5003.[3] Donaldson Hanna, K.L., et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00H05.[4] Shirley, J.H., et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #P54A-07.[5] Clark, R.N., et al. (2012), Icarus, 218, 831-860.

  2. Physicochemical Requirements Inferred for Chemical Self-Organization Hardly Support an Emergence of Life in the Deep Oceans of Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert

    2016-05-01

    An approach to the origin of life, focused on the property of entities capable of reproducing themselves far from equilibrium, has been developed recently. Independently, the possibility of the emergence of life in the hydrothermal systems possibly present in the deep oceans below the frozen crust of some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn has been raised. The present report is aimed at investigating the mutual compatibility of these alternative views. In this approach, the habitability concept deduced from the limits of life on Earth is considered to be inappropriate with regard to emerging life due to the requirement for an energy source of sufficient potential (equivalent to the potential of visible light). For these icy moons, no driving force would have been present to assist the process of emergence, which would then have had to rely exclusively on highly improbable events, thereby making the presence of life unlikely on these Solar System bodies, that is, unless additional processes are introduced for feeding chemical systems undergoing a transition toward life and the early living organisms.

  3. Io-Jupiter system: a unique case of moon-planet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Michael, M.

    2002-10-01

    Io and Jupiter constitute a moon-planet system that is unique in our solar system. Io is the most volcanically active planetary body, while Jupiter is the first among the planets in terms of size, mass, magnetic field strength, spin rate, and volume of the magnetosphere. That Io is electrodynamically linked to Jupiter is known for nearly four decades from the radio emissions. Io influences Jupiter by supplying heavy ions to its magnetosphere, which dominates its energetic and dynamics. Jupiter influences Io by tidally heating its interior, which in turn drives the volcanic activity on Io. The role of Io and Jupiter in their mutual interaction and the nature of their coupling were first elaborated in greater detail by the two Voyagers flybys in 1979. Subsequent exploration of this system by ground-based and Earth-satellite-borne observatories and by the Galileo orbiter mission has improved our understanding of the highly complex electrodynamical interaction between Io and Jupiter many fold. A distinct feature of this interaction has been discovered in Jupiter's atmosphere as a auroral-like bright emission spot along with a comet-like tail in infrared, ultraviolet (UV), and visible wavelengths at the foot of Io flux tube (IFT). The HST and Galileo and Cassini imagining experiments have observed emissions from Io's atmosphere at UV and visible wavelengths. which could be produced by energetic electrons in the IFT. In this paper an overview on these aspects of the Io-Jupiter system is presented, which by virtue of the nature of its electrodynamical coupling, has implications for the extra-solar planetary systmes and binary stars.

  4. Clump detections and limits on moons in Jupiter's ring system.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Mark R; Cheng, Andrew F; Weaver, Harold A; Stern, S Alan; Spencer, John R; Throop, Henry B; Birath, Emma M; Rose, Debi; Moore, Jeffrey M

    2007-10-12

    The dusty jovian ring system must be replenished continuously from embedded source bodies. The New Horizons spacecraft has performed a comprehensive search for kilometer-sized moons within the system, which might have revealed the larger members of this population. No new moons were found, however, indicating a sharp cutoff in the population of jovian bodies smaller than 8-kilometer-radius Adrastea. However, the search revealed two families of clumps in the main ring: one close pair and one cluster of three to five. All orbit within a brighter ringlet just interior to Adrastea. Their properties are very different from those of the few other clumpy rings known; the origin and nonrandom distribution of these features remain unexplained, but resonant confinement by Metis may play a role. PMID:17932287

  5. The effect of viscosity on impact cratering and possible application to the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J.; Gault, D.; Greeley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Impact experiments in Newtonian fluids with a range of viscosities of 0.001 to 60 Pa s demonstrate that transient crater volume and shape depend on target viscosity as well as on gravity. Volume is reduced, and depth-to-diameter ratio is increased for cratering events in which viscosity plays a dominant role. In addition to being affected by target kinematic viscosity, viscous scaling is most strongly influenced by projectile diameter, less strongly by projectile velocity, and least strongly by gravity. In a planetary context, viscous effects can occur for craters formed by small or slow moving impacting bodies, low planetary surface densities, high surface viscosities, and low gravity values; conditions all likely for certain impacts into the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, especially if liquid mantles were still present beneath solid crusts. Age dating based on crater counts and size-frequency distributions for these icy bodies may have to be modified to account for the possibility that viscosity-dominated craters were initially smaller and deeper than their gravity-controlled counterparts.

  6. Tidal reorientation and the fracturing of Jupiter's moon Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The most striking characteristic of Europa is the network of long linear albedo markings over the surface, suggestive of global-scale tectonic processes. Various explanations for the fractures have been proposed: Freezing and expansion of an early liquid water ocean1, planetary expansion due to dehydration of hydrated silicates2, localization by weak points in the crust generated by impacts3, and a combination of stresses due to planetary volume change and tidal distortions from orbital recession and orbital eccentricity4,5. Calculations by Yoder6 and Greenberg and Weidenschilling7 have shown that Europa may rotate slightly more rapidly than the synchronous rate, with a rotation period (reorientation through 360??) ranging from 20 to >103 yr if a liquid mantle is present, or up to 1010 yr if the satellite is essentially solid7. Helfen-stein and Parmentier8 modelled the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation, and concluded that this could explain the long fractures in part of the anti-jovian hemisphere. In this note, I present a global map of lineaments with long arc lengths (>20?? or 550 km), and compare the lineament orientations to the tensile stress trajectories due to tidal distortions (changes in the lengths of three principal semiaxes) and to nonsynchronous rotation (longitudinal reorientation of two of the principal semiaxes). An excellent orthogonal fit to the lineaments is achieved by the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation with the axis radial to Jupiter located 25?? east of its present position. This fit suggests that nonsynchronous rotation occurred at some time in Europa's history. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Deconvolution of IRTF Observations of Jupiter's Moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernher, Hannah; Rathbun, Julie A.; Spencer, John R.

    2016-10-01

    Io is a active volcanic world with a heat output more than 40 times that of earth. While spacecraft have been used to study Io's volcanoes, their high level of variability requires Earth-based observations to reveal their eruptions in the absence of spacecraft data. Our nearly 20 years of observations from the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) have been used to monitor volcanic eruptions on Io. Our observations allow us not only to better understand the eruption properties of Ionian volcanoes, but also how the volcanic eruptions affect the rest of the Jovian system, such as the Io plasma torus, sodium clouds, Jovian magnetosphere, and aurorae. While our Jupiter occultation lightcurves of an eclipsed Io have been the focus of this program, due to their ability to determine volcano brightnesses and 1D locations, those observations only allow us to measure volcanic eruptions on the sub-Jovian hemisphere. We also observe Io in reflected sunlight so that we can observe other longitudes on Io. But, brighter eruptions are required for us to be able to distinguish them above the reflected sunlight. We are able to increase the spatial resolution of these images of in order to detect and locate fainter hotspots. We have employed shift-and-add techniques using multiple short exposures to detect eruptions in the past (Rathbun and Spencer, 2010). We will report on the use of publically available deconvolution algorithms to further improve spatial resolution and hot spot detectability, using images of a standard star as our PSF, including experiments with performing the deconvolution both before and after shift and add. We will present results of observations from 2007 and 2013.

  8. Development and Testing of a Laser-Powered Cryobot for Outer Planet Icy Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, V.; Stone, W.; Hogan, B.; Lelievre, S.; Flesher, C.

    2013-12-01

    Project VALKYRIE (Very-deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer) is a NASA-funded effort to develop the first laser powered cryobot - a self-contained intelligent ice penetrator capable of delivering science payloads through ice caps of the outer planet icy moons. The long range objective is to enable a full-scale Europa lander mission in which an autonomous life-searching underwater vehicle is transported by the cryobot and launched into the sub-surface Europan ocean. Mission readiness testing will involve an Antarctic sub-glacial lake cryobot sample return through kilometers of ice cap thickness. A key element of VALKYRIE's design is the use of a high energy laser as the primary power source. 1070 nm laser light is transmitted at a power level of 5 kW from a surface-based laser and injected into a custom-designed optical waveguide that is spooled out from the descending cryobot. Light exits the downstream end of the fiber, travels through diverging optics, and strikes a beam dump, which channels thermal power to hot water jets that melt the descent hole. Some beam energy is converted, via photovoltaic cells, to electricity for running onboard electronics and jet pumps. Since the vehicle can be sterilized prior to deployment and the melt path freezes behind it, preventing forward contamination, expansions on VALKYRIE concepts may enable cleaner and faster access to sub-glacial Antarctic lakes. Testing at Stone Aerospace between 2010 and 2013 has already demonstrated high power optical energy transfer over relevant (kilometer scale) distances as well as the feasibility of a vehicle-deployed optical waveguide (through which the power is transferred). The test vehicle is equipped with a forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can detect obstacles out to 1 kilometer from the vehicle. The initial ASTEP test vehicle will carry a science payload consisting of a DUV flow cytometer and a water sampling sub-system that will be

  9. 3GM: Gravity and Geophysics of Jupiter and the Galilean Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iess, L.

    2013-09-01

    3GM (Gravity and Geophysics of Jupiter and the Galilean Moons) addresses JUICE scientific goals pertaining to gravity, geophysics and atmospheric science with radio occultations. The 3GM payload comprises two elements, namely a high performance Ka-band transponder (KaT) and an ultra-stable oscillator (USO). Thanks to the adoption of an advanced microwave tracking system, the gravity fields of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa will be determined to the best accuracy allowed by the spacecraft design and mission profile. Probing of Jupiter's atmosphere will be enhanced by the use of two frequencies (8.4 and 32.5 GHz) and by the proposed onboard recording of the uplink signal.

  10. Shock vaporization and the accretion of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The known properties of water and ice over a wide range of pressures and temperatures are applied to describe constraints on the shock vaporization processes for water and ice in the solar system. In particular, the role of impact vaporization acting during the formation of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites is examined in an attempt to explain the observed density in terms of composition of these rock and ice objects. A possible model of accretion of icy satellites is considered which predicts that the amount of ice devolatilization is related to planetary size.

  11. Volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io and its relation to interior processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System and offers insight into processes of tidal heating, melt generation, and magma ascent. Investigating these processes contributes to a better understanding of Io's geologic history, internal structure, and tidal dissipation mechanisms, as well as to understanding similar processes operating on other tidally-heated worlds (e.g., Europa, Enceladus, and some exoplanets). Four recent developments provide new observational constraints that prompt re-examination of the relationships between Io's surficial geology and interior structure. These developments include: (1) completion of the first 1:15,000,000 scale geologic map of Io based on a synthesis of Voyager and Galileo data; (2) re-interpretation of Galileo magnetometer data, which suggests that Io has a globally continuous subsurface magma ocean; (3) new global surveys of the power output from volcanic centers on Io; and (4) identification of an offset between volcano concentrations and surface heat flux maxima predicted by solid body tidal heating models. In this study, the spatial distributions of volcanic hotspots and paterae on Io are characterized using distance-based clustering techniques and nearest neighbor statistics. Distance-based clustering results support a dominant role for asthenospheric heating within Io, but show a 30-60° eastward offset in volcano concentrations relative to locations of predicted surface heat flux maxima. The observed asymmetry in volcano concentrations, with respect to the tidal axis, cannot be explained by existing solid body tidal heating models. However, identification of a global magma ocean within Io raises the intriguing possibility that a fluid tidal response—analogous to the heating of icy satellites by fluid tidal dissipation in their liquid oceans—may modify Io's thermal budget and locations of enhanced volcanism. The population density of volcanoes is greatest near the equator, which also

  12. ESA radiation and micro-meteoroid models applied to Space Weathering of atmosphere-less bodies: icy moons and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Cornet, Thomas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Navarro, Sara; Erd, Christian; Witasse, Olivier; Rodmann, Jens; Mints, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    The Galilean moons reveal large albedo variations on their surfaces, in particular between their leading and trailing hemispheres. The differences observed are likely the results of a balance between various weathering processes of the surface, determined by the moons' local environment. Chemical and physical alterations occur at the surface, triggered by multiple exogenic energy deposit processes (radiolysis, plasma sputtering, micro-meteoroids impacts, …).The observed variations are probably due to anisotropy in the energy fluxes received on each hemisphere and due to to a different relative contribution of the weathering agents (plasma, dust…) as function of the distance to Jupiter. We will be testing this hypothesis by estimating quantitatively the kinetic energy flux impacting different part of the surfaces of the Galilean moons. This work is essential in the context of the future missions to the Jovian moons, such as the JUICE ESA mission, as a proper understanding of the moons' surface history can be achieved only if one is able to constrain the balance between exogenic and endogenic alteration processes.Impacts of dust particles coming from the Galilean moons and evolving dynamically in the Jovian system will be simulated using the Jovian Micrometeoroid Environment Model (JMEM) [1]. Direct interplanetary dust impacts are simulated using the prediction of the Interplanetary Micrometeoroid Environment Model (IMEM) [2] computed at Jupiter's Hill radius, taking into account gravitational focusing by the planet. Finally, electron and ion fluxes interacting with different parts of the moons' surfaces can be estimated using the Jovian Specification Environment model (JOSE) [3].In parallel, signature of surface weathering will be assessed using reflectance maps based on the Galileo imaging data.Those models will also be applied, for comparison, to other atmosphere-less bodies of the solar system such as the asteroids Ceres, Vesta and Pallas.References[1] Liu et

  13. Gravity field of Jupiter's moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.

    Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). Within this routine the shape information of Amalthea can be included as well. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO, compared it to existing Doppler data and made predictions for future spacecraft flybys. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the gravity field models of Amalthea show the possible interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system. In order to get valuable information about the gravity field of this tiny rocky moon, a much closer flyby than that of GALILEO should be anticipated. The above stated model approach can be used for any planetary body.

  14. Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, Fran; Dowling, Timothy E.; McKinnon, William B.

    2007-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction F. Bagenal, T. E. Dowling and W. B. McKinnon; 2. The origin of Jupiter J. I. Lunine, A. Corandini, D. Gautier, T. C. Owen and G. Wuchterl; 3. The interior of Jupiter T. Guillot, D. J. Stevenson, W. B. Hubbard and D. Saumon; 4. The composition of the atmosphere of Jupiter F. W. Taylor, S. K. Atreya, Th. Encrenaz, D. M. Hunten, P. G. J. Irwin and T. C. Owen; 5. Jovian clouds and haze R. A. West, K. H. Baines, A. J. Friedson, D. Banfield, B. Ragent and F. W. Taylor; 6. Dynamics of Jupiter's atmosphere A. P. Ingersoll, T. E. Dowling, P. J. Gierasch, G. S. Orton, P. L. Read, A. Sánchez-Lavega, A. P. Showman, A. A. Simon-Miller and A. R. Vasavada; 7. The stratosphere of Jupiter J. I. Moses, T. Fouchet, R. V. Yelle, A. J. Friedson, G. S. Orton, B. Bézard, P. Drossart, G. R. Gladstone, T. Kostiuk and T. A. Livengood; 8. Lessons from Shoemaker-Levy 9 about Jupiter and planetary impacts J. Harrington, I. de Pater, S. H. Brecht, D. Deming, V. Meadows, K. Zahnle and P. D. Nicholson; 9. Jupiter's thermosphere and ionosphere R. V. Yelle and S. Miller; 10. Jovian dust: streams, clouds and rings H. Krüger, M. Horányi, A. V. Krivov and A. L. Graps; 11. Jupiter's ring-moon system J. A. Burns, D. P. Simonelli, M. R. Showalter, D. P. Hamilton, C. C. Porco, H. Throop and L. W. Esposito; 12. Jupiter's outer satellites and trojans D. C. Jewitt, S. Sheppard and C. Porco; 13. Interior composition, structure and dynamics of the Galilean satellites G. Schubert, J. D. Anderson, T. Spohn and W. B. McKinnon; 14. The lithosphere and surface of Io A. S. McEwen, L. P. Keszthelyi, R. Lopes, P. M. Schenk and J. R. Spencer; 15. Geology of Europa R. Greeley, C. F. Chyba, J. W. Head III, T. B. McCord, W. B. McKinnon, R. T. Pappalardo and P. Figueredo; 16. Geology of Ganymede R. T. Pappalardo, G. C. Collins, J. W. Head III, P. Helfenstein, T. B. McCord, J. M. Moore, L. M. Procktor, P. M. Shenk and J. R. Spencer; 17. Callisto J. M. Moore, C. R. Chapman. E. B. Bierhaus, R

  15. High-powered Radar Sounders for the Investigation of Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Edelstein, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    This talk will address the main drivers in the design of a radar sounder for the JIMO mission and provide a potential solution that will optimize the chances of success in the detection of ice/water interface and sub-surface stratigraphy.

  16. Experimental investigation of the radiation shielding efficiency of a MCP detector in the radiation environment near Jupiter's moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Piazza, D.; Desorgher, L.; Reggiani, D.; Hajdas, W.; Karlsson, S.; Kalla, L.; Wurz, P.

    2016-09-01

    Neutral Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) is one of the instruments in the Particle Environmental Package (PEP) designed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system. NIM, equipped with a sensitive MCP ion detector, will conduct detailed measurements of the chemical composition of Jovian icy moons exospheres. To achieve high sensitivity of the instrument, radiation effects due to the high radiation background (high-energy electrons and protons) around Jupiter have to be minimised. We investigate the performance of an Al-Ta-Al composite stack as a potential shielding against high-energy electrons. Experiments were performed at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The facility delivers a particle beam containing e-, μ- and π- with momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c (Hajdas et al., 2014). The measurements of the radiation environment generated during the interaction of primary particles with the Al-Ta-Al material were conducted with dedicated beam diagnostic methods and with the NIM MCP detector. In parallel, modelling studies using GEANT4 and GRAS suites were performed to identify products of the interaction and predict ultimate fluxes and particle rates at the MCP detector. Combination of experiment and modelling studies yields detailed characterisation of the radiation fields produced by the interaction of the incident e- with the shielding material in the range of the beam momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c. We derived the effective MCP detection efficiency to primary and secondary radiation and effective shielding transmission coefficients to incident high-energy electron beam in the range of applied beam momenta. This study shows that the applied shielding attenuates efficiently high-energy electrons. Nevertheless, owing to nearly linear increase of the bremsstrahlung production rate with incident beam energy, above 130 MeV their detection rates measured by the MCP

  17. Observations of the Galilean moons of Jupiter in 2013-2015 at Pulkovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narizhnaya, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Observational results are presented for Jupiter and its Galilean moons from the Normal Astrograph at Pulkovo Observatory in 2013-2015. The following data are obtained: 154 positions of the Galilean satellites and 47 calculated positions of Jupiter in the system of the UCAC4 (ICRS, J2000.0) catalogue; the differential coordinates of the satellites relative to one another are determined. The mean errors of the satellites' normal places in right ascension and declination over the entire observational period are, respectively: ɛα = 0.0065″ and ɛδ = 0.0068″, and their standard deviations are σα = 0.0804″ and σδ = 0.0845″. The equatorial coordinates are compared with planetary and satellite motion theories. The average (O-C) residuals in the two coordinates relative to the motion theories are 0.05″ or less. The best agreement with the observations is achieved by a combination of the EPM2011m and V. Lainey-V.2.0|V1.1 motion theories; the average (O-C) residuals are 0.03″ or less. The (O-C) residuals for the features of the positions of Io and Ganymede are comparable with measurement errors. Jupiter's positions calculated from the observations of the satellites and their theoretical jovicentric coordinates are in good agreement with the motion theories. The (O-C) residuals for Jupiter's coordinates are, on average, 0.027″ and-0.025″ in the two coordinates.

  18. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal gradients within conductive layers of icy satellite and asteroids depend partly on heat flow, which is related to the secular decay of radioactive isotopes, to heat released by chemical phase changes, by conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat during differentiation, tidal energy dissipation, and to release of heat stored from prior periods. Thermal gradients are also dependent on the thermal conductivity of materials, which in turn depends on their composition, crystallinity, porosity, crystal fabric anisotropy, and details of their mixture with other materials. Small impurities can produce lattice defects and changes in polymerization, and thereby have a huge influence on thermal conductivity, as can cage-inclusion (clathrate) compounds. Heat flow and thermal gradients can be affected by fluid phase advection of mass and heat (in oceans or sublimating upper crusts), by refraction related to heterogeneities of thermal conductivity due to lateral variations and composition or porosity. Thermal profiles depend also on the surface temperature controlled by albedo and climate, surface relief, and latitude, orbital obliquity and surface insolation, solid state greenhouses, and endogenic heating of the surface. The thermal state of icy moon interiors and thermal gradients can be limited at depth by fluid phase advection of heat (e.g., percolating meteoric methane or gas emission), by the latent heat of phase transitions (melting, solid-state transitions, and sublimation), by solid-state convective or diapiric heat transfer, and by foundering. Rapid burial of thick volatile deposits can also affect thermal gradients. For geologically inactive or simple icy objects, most of these controls on heat flow and thermal gradients are irrelevant, but for many other icy objects they can be important, in some cases causing large lateral and depth variations in thermal gradients, large variations in heat flow, and dynamically evolving thermal states. Many of

  19. Two-phase convection in the high-pressure ice layer of the large icy moons: geodynamical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousova, K.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Grasset, O.

    2015-12-01

    The H2O layers of large icy satellites such as Ganymede, Callisto, or Titan probably include a liquid water ocean sandwiched between the deep high-pressure ice layer and the outer ice I shell [1]. It has been recently suggested that the high-pressure ice layer could be decoupled from the silicate core by a salty liquid water layer [2]. However, it is not clear whether accumulation of liquids at the bottom of the high-pressure layer is possible due to positive buoyancy of water with respect to high-pressure ice. Numerical simulation of this two-phase (i.e. ice and water) problem is challenging, which explains why very few studies have self-consistently handled the presence and transport of liquids within the solid ice [e.g. 3]. While using a simplified description of water production and transport, it was recently showed in [4] that (i) a significant fraction of the high-pressure layer reaches the melting point and (ii) the melt generation and its extraction to the overlying ocean significantly influence the global thermal evolution and interior structure of the large icy moons.Here, we treat the high-pressure ice layer as a compressible mixture of solid ice and liquid water [5]. Several aspects are investigated: (i) the effect of the water formation on the vigor of solid-state convection and its influence on the amount of heat that is transferred from the silicate mantle to the ocean; (ii) the fate of liquids within the upper thermal boundary layer - whether they freeze or reach the ocean; and (iii) the effect of salts and volatile compounds (potentially released from the rocky core) on the melting/freezing processes. Investigation of these aspects will allow us to address the thermo-chemical evolution of the internal ocean which is crucial to evaluate the astrobiological potential of large icy moons. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Hussmann et al. (2007), Treatise of

  20. On the onset of convection and differentiation in the hydrated cores of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, C.; Reynard, B.

    2012-09-01

    We will present new simulations of the thermal evolution, dehydration process, differentiation, and onset of convection in the hydrated cores of large icy satellites. The motivation is to investigate whether convection can start before dehydration starts in the cores. Such a process would prevent differentiation. The viscosity of antigorite, the hydrated silicate supposed to compose the hydrated cores, is strongly non-Newtonian and weakly temperature-dependent. The cores are volumetrically heated by natural radioactivity. We have adapted the theory developed by Solomatov (1995) [1] for non-Newtonian fluids heated from below to the case of volumetrically heated fluids. A recent review [2] of the physical parameters relevant to the thermal evolution of hydrated cores made of antigorite provides values quite different from those used in previous studies [3,4], which seriously modifies the results of previous simulations including the predicted present interior structure of the large icy satellites. One key parameter is the amount of potassium present in the hydrated silicates. This study investigates ratios of K/U that span a broad range from earthlike to solar. It is shown that convection can start but is limited to the outer layer of the hydrated core. In the center, temperatures are large enough for dehydration to start.

  1. A multifluid magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between Jupiter's magnetosphere and its moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M.; Jia, X.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is believed to contain a subsurface water ocean whose finite electrical conductance imposes clear induction signatures on the magnetic field in its surroundings. The evidence rests heavily on measurements performed by the magnetometer on board the Galileo spacecraft during multiple flybys of the moon. Europa's interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere has become a major target of research in planetary science, partly because of the potential of a salty ocean to harbor life outside our own planet. Thus it is of considerable interest to develop numerical simulations of the Europa-Jupiter interaction that can be compared with data in order to refine our knowledge of Europa's subsurface structure. In this presentation we show aspects of Europa's interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere extracted from a multifluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code BATS-R-US recently developed at the University of Michigan. The model dynamically separates magnetospheric and pick-up ions and is capable of capturing some of the physics previously accessible only to kinetic approaches. The model utilizes an adaptive grid to maintain the high spatial resolution on the surface required to resolve the portion of Europa's neutral atmosphere with a scale height of a few tens of kilometers that is in thermal equilibrium. The model also derives the electron temperature, which is crucial to obtain the local electron impact ionization rates and hence the plasma mass loading in Europa's atmosphere. We compare our results with observations made by the plasma particles and fields instruments on the Galileo spacecraft to validate our model. We will show that multifluid MHD is able to reproduce the basic features of the plasma moments and magnetic field observations obtained during the Galileo E4 and E26 flybys at Europa.

  2. Roemer Redux: A Virtual Observational Exercise on Jupiter's Moons and the Speed of Light from Project CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Jan Paul; Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    Project CLEA announces a new laboratory exercise which allows students to determine the speed of light by timing eclipses of Jupiter's moon Io. The experiment is similar to Ole Roemer's classic 17th Century work which established, for the first time, that light did not travel through space instantaneously. Students view a simulated telescopic view of Jupiter and its satellites, similar to that used in the CLEA exercise, The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter. After identifying Io, they record the precise time when the moon enters Jupiter's shadow at a date about two months after conjunction. Using the recorded time of this eclipse and the known period of Io, students predict the time of an eclipse near opposition and then record the observed time of that eclipse. The discrepancy between the predicted and observed times, along with the difference in the distance between Earth and Jupiter at the two eclipses yields a value of the speed of light accurate to about 10%. Software provided with the exercise enables students to calculate predicted times and Earth/Jupiter distances, as well as to analyze the time discrepancy and to visualize the logic of the analysis. A student manual, including historical and scientific background of the exercise is provided. Our poster will present examples of the screens and manuals for the exercise and will discuss the limits of accuracy of the method and sources of error. For further information on CLEA exercises, please visit http://www.gettysburg.edu/ marschal/clea/CLEAhome.html This research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Gettysburg College.

  3. Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes.

  4. Bacterial Motility As a Biosignature: Tests at Icy Moon Analogue Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, J. L.; Lindensmith, C.; Deming, J. W.; Stocker, R.; Graff, E.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.

    2014-12-01

    Extraterrestrial life in our Solar System, if present, is almost certain to be microbial. Methods and technologies for unambiguous detection of living or extinct microorganisms are needed for life-detection missions to the Jovian and Saturnian moons, where liquid water is known to exist. Our research focuses specifically on microbial meaningful motion as a biosignature—"waving crowds" at the micron scale. Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) is an excellent tool for unambiguous identification of bacterial and protozoal swimming, even in the presence of turbidity, drift, and currents. The design of a holographic instrument with bacteria scale resolution was described in the previous talk. In this presentation, we will illustrate the design challenges for construction of a field instrument for extreme environments and space, and present plans for scientific investigations at analogue sites for the coming season. The challenges of creating a field instrument involve performance trade-offs, the ability to operate at extreme temperatures, and handling large volumes of data. A fully autonomous instrument without external cables or power is also desirable, and this is something that previous holographic instruments have not achieved. The primary issues for space exploration are identification of a laser and drive electronics that are qualified for the expected radiation environments of the moons around gas giant planets. Tests in Earth analogue environments will establish performance parameters as well as answer scientific questions that traditional microscopic techniques cannot. Specifically, we will visit a Greenland field site to determine whether or not microorganisms are motile within the brine-filled interior network of sea ice, and if they can be autonomously tracked using the instrument. Motility within the liquid phase of a frozen matrix has been hypothesized to explain how bacteria contribute to the biogeochemical signatures detected in ice, but observational

  5. Earth-based and Cassini-spacecraft Observations of Irregular Moons of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.; Roatsch, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Neukum, G.

    2010-10-01

    We observed irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn with the ISS camera of the Cassini spacecraft [1] and with the 1.23-m telescope of the Calar Alto observatory in Spain [2]. Scientific goals are the determination of rotation periods, rotation-axis orientations, spin directions, size parameters, color properties, phase curves, and searches for binaries. Himalia (J6), the largest of the irregular jovian moons, has been imaged by Cassini on 18 Dec 2000; a body size of 120±5 km x 150±10 km and an albedo of 0.05±0.01 have been measured [3,4]. Earth-based observations revealed that Himalia's rotation period is probably 9.3 h, which is in agreement with the 9.2 to 9.8 h suggested by [5], although periods of 7.8 or 11.7 h cannot be ruled out yet. In the saturnian system, 10 irregular moons were scheduled for Cassini ISS observations over time spans >9 hrs until end-of-August, 2010. Observation distances vary between 5.6 and 22 million km, corresponding to ISS pixel scales of 34 to 130 km. For the objects measured so far, the rotation periods vary significantly. For instance, Siarnaq (S/2000 S3; size 40 km) and Ymir (S/2000 S1; 18 km) exhibit rotation periods of 6.7 h and 7.3 h, respectively, while Kiviuq (S/2000 S5; 16 km) might take about 22 h for one rotation. First results from the observation campaigns will be presented at the meeting. References: [1] Porco, C.C., et al. (2004), Space Sci. Rev. 115, 363; [2] http://www.caha.es/CAHA/Telescopes/1.2m.html; [3] Denk, T. et al. (2001), Conference on Jupiter (Planet, Satellites & Magnetosphere), Boulder, CO, 25-30 June 2001, abstracts book p. 30-31; [4] Porco, C.C., et al. (2003), Science 299, 1541; [5] Degewij, J., et al. (1980), Icarus 44, 520. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Space Agency (DLR) Bonn through grant no. 50 OH 0305.

  6. Analysis of Cassini UVIS Far Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra to Constrain the Non-Ice Material in Saturn’s Rings and Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eric Todd; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    The FUV spectra of Saturn’s icy ring particles and moons show the presence of an absorbing constituent that presumably is delivered to the system via micrometeoroid bombardment. Understanding the properties of the non-icy material plays into broader questions regarding the age and evolution of the rings. The FUV spectrum contains a water ice absorption edge at 165 nm. The reflectance shortward of the water ice absorption edge is determined by the composition and abundance of the non-icy material whereas the reflectance longward of the absorption edge is determined by both water ice and non-icy material. We have taken two approaches to constrain the properties of the non-ice component of the rings using FUV spectra taken by the Cassini UVIS. In one approach we compare the ring particle Bond albedo, A0, to spectral models with varying abundances and compositions of non-ice components. We first determine A0, across the water ice absorption edge using the classical Chandrasekhar radiative transfer model for the C Ring and Cassini Division with the scattering function replaced by a self-gravity wake model for the A and B rings. We then compare the retrieved values of A0, to spectral models of intimate mixtures where the free parameters are the fractional abundances of the ice and non-ice constituents, grain size, and grain asymmetry parameter for scattering. In the second approach we compare FUV color ratios (180/155 nm) across Saturn’s rings, as well as to icy moons, in order to investigate relative variations in water ice abundance in these objects. We find that A0, longward of the absorption edge peaks in the outer B ring and reaches a minimum in the C Ring and Cassini Division, consistent with the purest water ice being found in the B Ring and the most polluted in the C Ring and Cassini Division.

  7. Electric Properties of Water Ice doped with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2): Implications for Icy Moons such as Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C.; Freund, F. T.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Large floats of ice on Jupiter's moon Europa drift and collide. The float boundaries are marked by brownish-reddish colors. The origin of these colors is poorly understood. Maybe upwelling of water along the active float boundaries brings finely divided suspended matter or organic compounds from the ocean below to the surface, where the intense, high energy environment in Jupiter's radiation belt would lead to photochemical oxidation. At the same time it has been suggested that Europa's ice contains traces of H2O2, presumably due to micro-meteorite impacts and other processes. We measured the electric currents generated in pure and H2O2-doped water ice when we subjected one end of ice blocks to uniaxial stress. Ice samples with 0%, 0.3% and 0.03% H2O2 were formed in polyethylene troughs, 4.1 x 13.5 x 3.8 cm, with Cu contacts at both ends, at 263K (-10°C), 190K (-78°C, dry ice) and 77K (-196°C,liquid N2). At 77K the ice samples detached themselves from at least one of the Cu contacts, due to thermal contraction. At 190K, when stressing one end, essentially no currents were produced in the pure water ice. By contrast, H2O2-doped ices produced several hundred picoamperes (pA) of positive currents, indicating defect electrons (holes) flowing down the stress gradient. At 263K the results are ambiguous. These (as yet preliminary) results indicate that stresses might break the peroxy bonds of imbedded H2O2 molecules, releasing the same type of positive hole charge carriers as observed during stress experiments with silicate rocks. Since positive holes are defect electrons associated with O 2sp levels at the upper edge of the valence band, they seem to have the capability to spread through the ices. Chemically positive holes are equivalent to highly oxidizing oxygen radicals. They may be responsible for oxidation reactions along the boundaries of active ice floats on Europa.

  8. Engineering a Solution to Jupiter Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Karla; Magner, Thomas; Lisano, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) explore Europa to investigate its habitability, (2) characterize Ganymede as a planetary object including its potential habitability and (3) explore the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with conceptual orbiters developed by NASA and ESA. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating simultaneously in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most importantly, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM baseline architecture would provide opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and stand

  9. Gravity is the Key Experiment to Address the Habitability of the Ocean in Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessa, A. M.; Dombard, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Life requires three constituents: a liquid solvent (i.e., water), a chemical system that can form large molecules to record genetic information (e.g., carbon based) as well as chemical nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and a chemical disequilibrium system that can provide metabolic energy. While it is believed that there is a saline water layer located between the rock and ice layers in Jupiter's moon Europa, which would satisfy the first requirement, it is unknown if the other conditions are currently met. The likelihood that Europa is a haven for life in our Solar System skyrockets, however, if there is currently active volcanism at the rock-water interface, much the same that volcanic processes enable the chemosynthetic life that forms the basis of deep sea-vent communities at the bottom of Earth's oceans. Exploring the volcanic activity on this interface is challenging, as direct observation via a submersible or high-resolution indirect observations via a dense global seismic network on the surface is at present technically (and fiscally!) untenable. Thus, gravity studies are the best way to explore currently the structure of this all-important interface. Though mostly a silicate body with only a relatively thin (~100 km) layer of water, Europa is different from the terrestrial planets in that this rock-water interface, and not the surface, represents the largest density contrast across the moon's near-surface layers, and thus topography on this interface could conceivably dominate the gravity. Here, we calculate the potential anomalies that arise from topography on the surface, the water-ice interface (at 20 km depth), and the rock-water interface, finding that the latter dominates the free-air gravity at the longest wavelengths (spherical harmonic degrees < 10) and the Bouguer gravity at intermediate wavelengths (degrees ~10-50), and only for the shortest wavelengths (degrees > 50) does the water-ice interface (and presumably mass-density anomalies

  10. Spectral detectability of CH4-N2 clathrates for in-situ and remote observation of Titan and other icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nna-Mvondo, D.; Tobie, G.; Le Menn, E.; Grasset, O.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent clathrates may be present at the surface of several icy moons, although they have not been detected yet, possibly due to the absence of reliable spectral data. In this work, w e present infrared (IR) and Raman spectral studies of CH4-N2 clathrates at low temperature and pressure, in order to identify discriminating criteria for their possible detection. These clathrates are particularly interesting for Titan and Pluto. Our experimental results indicate that identification of mixed clathrate from remote sensing is very challenging, and that only in- situ Raman spectroscopy may provide a clear identification of clathrate and co nstraints on their composition.

  11. Infrared Spectra of Hydrated Magnesium Salts and their Role in the Search for Possible Life Conditions on Jupiter Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina; Huo, Winifred M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent observations from the Galileo satellite indicate that three of the Jupiter moons, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, may have subsurface oceans. Possible existence of such ocean and the nature of its composition are of great interest to astrobiologists. Data from Galileo's NIMS spectrometer indicate the possibility of hydrated salts on Europa's surface. To aid in the design of future missions, we investigated infrared spectra of MgSO4-nH20, n=1-3 using ab initio calculations. Geometry, energetics, dipole moments, vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of pure and hydrated MgSO4 salts were determined. Significant differences are found between vibrational spectra of water molecules in complexes with MgSO4 and pure water. Some of the O-H stretching frequencies in the complexes are shifted to the red by up to 1,500 - 2,000 per cm. In addition, the SO2 stretching vibrations are found at lower frequency regions than the water vibrations. The calculated bands of water and SO2 fragments can serve as markers for the existence of the salt-water complexes on the surface of Jupiter's moon.

  12. Ganymede and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The solar system's largest moon, Ganymede, is captured here alongside the planet Jupiter in a color picture taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Dec. 3, 2000.

    Ganymede is larger than the planets Mercury and Pluto and Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Both Ganymede and Titan have greater surface area than the entire Eurasian continent on our planet. Cassini was 26.5 million kilometers (16.5 million miles) from Ganymede when this image was taken. The smallest visible features are about 160 kilometers (about 100 miles) across.

    The bright area near the south (bottom) of Ganymede is Osiris, a large, relatively new crater surrounded by bright icy material ejected by the impact, which created it. Elsewhere, Ganymede displays dark terrains that NASA's Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have shown to be old and heavily cratered. The brighter terrains are younger and laced by grooves. Various kinds of grooved terrains have been seen on many icy moons in the solar system. These are believed to be the surface expressions of warm, pristine, water-rich materials that moved to the surface and froze.

    Ganymede has proven to be a fascinating world, the only moon known to have a magnetosphere, or magnetic environment, produced by a convecting metal core. The interaction of Ganymede's and Jupiter's magnetospheres may produce dazzling variations in the auroral glows in Ganymede's tenuous atmosphere of oxygen.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  13. Geology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The geology of the major icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed in terms of the four major processes that shape icy satellite surfaces: impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and interactions with planetary magnetospheres and solar radiation. The role of these processes in creating the differences that exist among the satellites, in particular the orderly progression of geological properties in the Jovian satellites, is emphasized. Important questions left open after the Voyager missions are summarized.

  14. Phase diagram and density of fluids in the water-methanol system: experiments and implications for the crystallization and dynamics of subsurface oceans in icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Mantegazzi, D.; Deschamps, F.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Methanol, CH3OH, has been recently observed in several comets and at the surface of Saturn's icy moon Enceladus, [Hodyss et al., 2009]. Its plausible presence in the subsurface ocean could significantly affect the thermal and structural evolution of the satellite [Deschamps et al., 2010]. Methanol lowers the melting temperature of water ice [Vuillard & Sanchez, 1961; Miller & Carpenter, 1964], hence decreasing the efficiency of convective heat transfer through the outer ice Ih shell, and affects the subsurface ocean density and thermo-chemical evolution. However, the phase diagram and the fluid density of the H2O - CH3OH system remains largely unknown at the high pressures and low temperature conditions relevant for the icy moon interiors. In this study, we determined experimentally the liquidus temperature of Ice Ih and Ice VI and the fluid density in the binary water-methanol system (5, 10 and 20 w% CH3OH) from sound velocity measurments by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy over the P-T range 230 - 300 K and 10-4 - 1.2 GPa. The experiments were conducted using a membrane-type diamond anvil cell (mDAC) and an in-house designed Peltier cooling system to achieve the low temperatures of interest. Melting and crystallization in the system was visually monitored and confirmed from changes in the Brillouin spectra and in the pressure dependence of the measured sound velocities. The density of fluids ρ(P, T,x) in the binary system weas determined from the inversion of sound velocities measured in the fluids as a function of pressure along isotherms from 230 to 300 K. The results are used to propose a thermodynamic model for the CH3OH-H2O system over the investigated P-T range and further used to examine the effect of the methanol on the crystallization and thermo-chemical evolution of the subsurface ocean. The implications of these results for the thermal and structural evolution of icy moons, with particular applications to Titan, will be further discussed. References

  15. The H2O and O2 exospheres of Ganymede: The result of a complex interaction between the jovian magnetospheric ions and the icy moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Milillo, Anna; Massetti, Stefano; Mura, Alessandro; Jia, Xianzhe; Orsini, Stefano; Mangano, Valeria; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Rispoli, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The H2O and O2 exospheres of Jupiter's moon Ganymede are simulated through the application of a 3D Monte Carlo modeling technique that takes into consideration the combined effect on the exosphere generation of the main surface release processes (i.e. sputtering, sublimation and radiolysis) and the surface precipitation of the energetic ions of Jupiter's magnetosphere. In order to model the magnetospheric ion precipitation to Ganymede's surface, we used as an input the electric and magnetic fields from the global MHD model of Ganymede's magnetosphere (Jia, X., Walker, R.J., Kivelson, M.G., Khurana, K.K., Linker, J.A. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114, A09209). The exospheric model described in this paper is based on EGEON, a single-particle Monte Carlo model already applied for a Galilean satellite (Plainaki, C., Milillo, A., Mura, A., Orsini, S., Cassidy, T. [2010]. Icarus 210, 385-395; Plainaki, C., Milillo, A., Mura, A., Orsini, S., Massetti, S., Cassidy, T. [2012]. Icarus 218 (2), 956-966; Plainaki, C., Milillo, A., Mura, A., Orsini, S., Saur [2013]. Planet. Space Sci. 88, 42-52); nevertheless, significant modifications have been implemented in the current work in order to include the effect on the exosphere generation of the ion precipitation geometry determined strongly by Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field (Kivelson, M.G. et al. [1996]. Nature 384, 537-541). The current simulation refers to a specific configuration between Jupiter, Ganymede and the Sun in which the Galilean moon is located close to the center of Jupiter's Plasma Sheet (JPS) with its leading hemisphere illuminated. Our results are summarized as follows: (a) at small altitudes above the moon's subsolar point the main contribution to the neutral environment comes from sublimated H2O; (b) plasma precipitation occurs in a region related to the open-closed magnetic field lines boundary and its extent depends on the assumption used to mimic the plasma mirroring in Jupiter's magnetosphere; (c) the

  16. Cassini CAPS and INMS Detection of Water Group Pick-Up Ions Near the Orbits of Saturn's Icy Moons Enceladus, Dione and Rhea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Bagenal, F.; Crary, F. J.; Omidi, N.; Paty, C. S.; Perry, M. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Waite, J. H.; Wilson, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study water group pick up ions near the orbits of Saturn's moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea are studied for all Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data since orbit insertion with comparisons made to Cassini ion and neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) observations in ion mode. In addition, in-situ CAPS pick-up ion phase space measurements during Cassini's Enceladus close encounters are compared with hybrid and multi-fluid simulations. The icy surfaces of Enceladus, Dione and Rhea, along with Enceladus' south polar plumes (~90% water vapor with a smaller admixture of CO2, CO, N2, and CH4), are sources of neutral H2O vapor. In the case of Enceladus, due to the plumes, the region of dense vapor is large whereas in the case of Dione and Rhea only a smaller exosphere near the surfaces exists. The dense bulk plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (electrons, protons, water group ions) nearly co-rotates with Saturn near the orbits of these moons with speeds ~40 to 60 km/s while the neutral gas, both near the moons and in extended tori, moves at the slower gravitational orbital speeds. This relative speed leads to a characteristic 'pick-up' velocity space signature for these ions near their source region (before assimilation into the core ion population) and since arriving at Saturn CAPS has detected O+, OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ with these fresh 'pick-up' signatures. In addition, previous studies have shown that the Cassini INMS detected H3O+ near Enceladus with similar phase space density and simultaneous with the CAPS observations. These studies are extended, using the full CAPS/INMS data sets and the highest fidelity simulations.

  17. Jupiter's and Saturn's ice moons: geophysical aspects and opportunities of geophysical survey of the planetary geoelectrical markers and oreols of the subsurface liquid ocean on the surface ice moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozorovich, Yuri; Linkin, Vacheslav; Kosov, Alexandr; Fournier-Sicre, Alain; Klimov, Stanislav; Novikov, Denis; Ivanov, Anton; Skulachev, Dmitriy; Menshenin, Yaroslav

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a new conceptual and methodological approach for geophysical survey of the planetary geoelectrical markers and oreols of the subsurface liquid ocean on the surface ice moons on the base "conceptual design phase" of the future space missions on the ice moons. At the design stage of such projects is considered the use of various space instruments and tools for the full the complex geophysical studies of the manifestations and planetary processes of the subsurface liquid ocean on the surface ice moons. The existence of various forms of the cryolithozone on terrestrial planets and their moons: advanced Martian permafrost zone in the form of existing of the frozen polar caps, subsurface frozen horizons, geological markers and oreols of the martian ancient (relict) ocean, subsurface oceans of Jupiter's and Saturn's moons-Europe and Enceladus, with the advanced form of permafrost freezes planetary caps, it allows to develop a common methodological basis and operational geophysical instruments (tools) for the future space program and planning space missions on these unique objects of the solar system, specialized for specific scientific problems of planetary missions. Geophysical practices and methodological principles, used in 1985-2015 by aurthors [ 1-5 ], respectively, as an example of the comprehensive geophysical experiment MARSES to study of the Martian permafrost zone and the martian ancient (relict) ocean, creating the preconditions for complex experimental setting and geo-physical monitoring of operational satellites of Jupiter and Saturn- Europe and Enceladus. This range of different planetary (like) planets with its geological history and prehistory of the common planetology formation processes of the planets formation and to define the role of a liquid ocean under the ice as a climate indicator of such planets, which is extremely important for the future construction of the geological and climatic history of the Earth. Main publications: [1

  18. Ground-based near infrared spectroscopy of Jupiter's ring and moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Showalter, Mark R.; Roe, Henry G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Verbanac, Giuli

    2006-12-01

    The backscattered reflectivity of Jupiter's ring has been previously measured over distinct visible and near infrared wavelength bands by a number of ground-based and spaceborne instruments. We present spectra of Jupiter's main ring from 2.21-2.46 μm taken with the NIRSPEC spectrometer at the W.M. Keck observatory. At these wavelengths, scattered light from Jupiter is minimal due to the strong absorption of methane in the planet's atmosphere. We find an overall flat spectral slope over this wavelength interval, except for a possible red slope shortward of 2.25 μm. We extended the spectral coverage of the ring to shorter wavelengths by adding a narrow-band image at 1.64 μm, and show results from 2.27-μm images over phase angles of 1.2°-11.0°. Our images at 1.64 and 2.27 μm reveal that the halo contribution is stronger at the shorter wavelength, possibly due to the redder spectrum of the ring parent bodies as compared with the halo dust component. We find no variation in main ring reflectivity over the 1.2°-11.0° phase angle range at 2.27 μm. We use adaptive optics imaging at the longer wavelength L' band (3.4-4.1 μm) to determine a 2- σ upper limit of 22 m of vertically-integrated I/F. Our observing campaign also produced an L' image of Callisto, showing a darker leading hemisphere, and a spectrum of Amalthea over the 2.2-2.5 and 2.85-3.03 μm ranges, showing deep 3-μm absorption.

  19. Sounding of Icy Galilean Satellites by Surface Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, K. K.; Banerdt, W. B.; Johnson, T. V.; Russell, C. T.; Kivelson, M. G.; Davis, P. M.; Vidale, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Several independent geological and geophysical investigations suggest that Europa and Ganymede contain subsurface oceans. Using Jupiter's rotating magnetic field as a primary signal, the magnetometer experiment onboard Galileo has measured secondary induction signals emanating from Europa, Ganymede, and surprisingly Callisto. The strong electromagnetic induction from these moons suggests that large global electrical conductors are located just below their icy crusts. A detailed analysis reveals that global salty oceans with salinity similar to the Earth's ocean and thicknesses in the range of approx. 6-100 kms can explain the induction observed by the Galileo magnetometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. On the state of water ice on saturn's moon Titan and implications to icy bodies in the outer solar system.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weijun; Jewitt, David; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2009-10-22

    The crystalline state of water ice in the Solar System depends on the temperature history of the ice and the influence of energetic particles to which it has been exposed. We measured the infrared absorption spectra of amorphous and crystalline water ice in the 10-50 K and 10-140 K temperature ranges, respectively, and conducted a systematic experimental study to investigate the amorphization of crystalline water ice via ionizing radiation irradiation at doses of up to 160 +/- 30 eV per molecule. We found that crystalline water ice can be converted only partially to amorphous ice by electron irradiation. The experiments showed that a fraction of the 1.65 microm band, which is characteristic for crystalline water ice, survived the irradiation, to a degree that strongly depends on the temperature. Quantitative kinetic fits of the temporal evolution of the 1.65 mum band clearly demonstrate that there is a balance between thermal recrystallization and irradiation-induced amorphization, with thermal recrystallizaton dominant at higher temperatures. Our experiments show the amorphization at 40 K was incomplete, in contradiction to Mastrapa and Brown's conclusion (Icarus 2006, 183, 207.). At 50 K, the recrystallization due to thermal effects is strong, and most of the crystalline ice survived. Temperatures of most icy objects in the Solar System, including Jovian satellites, Saturnian satellites (including Titan), and Kuiper Belt Objects, are equal to or above 50 K; this explains why water ice detected on those objects is mostly crystalline. PMID:19827849

  1. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  2. Large impacts and tectonism: the relative ages of the basin Odysseus and Ithaca Chasma on Saturn's icy moon Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Stephan, Katrin; Schmedemann, Nico; Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Neukum, Gerhard; Denk, Tilmann; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2014-05-01

    Large impact events forming craters of basin size (> 200 - 300 km in diameter) on planets, asteroids or planetary satellites can cause intense tectonic deformation on their surfaces, indicated by concentric and/or radial troughs or ridges [e.g., 1]. Recently, sets of parallel grooves on asteroid (4) Vesta have been discussed to be the result of impact-related deformation in connection with basin-forming events on Vesta's south polar area [2]. On Saturn's mid-sized icy satellites Tethys, 1072 km in diameter, major landforms are the 445 km large impact basin Odysseus and the huge graben system of Ithaca Chasma which were first imaged during the Voyager encounters in 1980 and 1981 [3][4]. Ithaca Chasma is a ~100 km wide terraced trough. It has been discussed that Ithaca Chasma could be the result of structural deformation caused by the impact event that created Odysseus [4][5]. Preliminary mapping and crater counts using Cassini ISS imaging data on Odysseus and Ithaca Chasma, however, infer that this has not been the case [6]. Cassini VIMS spectral data show that Ithaca Chasma has less ice compared to Odysseus which supports this finding that it is older than the basin [7]. Major problems to exactly define the stratigraphic position of Ithaca Chasma with respect to the basin Odysseus are (1) that only those craters are allowed to be used for crater counts which clearly superimpose the tectonic structures (e.g., the terraced scarps) across the chasm, and (2) further geologic processes that affected the chasm interior caused obliteration of craters which results in lower crater frequencies. Our preliminary crater counts [6] were carried out on lower-resolution Cassini imaging data. During Cassini's orbital tour since July 2004, the ISS cameras have provided almost complete global image coverage of Tethys at resolutions of 100 - 300 m/pxl. In this work we present results from our ongoing studies on Tethys' geology, based on these new imaging data, primarily focused on

  3. Moon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of several of Terra's instruments. Over a 16-minute interval, the ... Shown here are "raw" red-band data, with no adjustments for radiometric calibration. Because the pitch rate of the spacecraft resulted in ...

  4. Volatile Cycles and Glaciation: Earth and Mars (Now and Near a Red Giant Sun), and Moons of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fegley, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    Glaciers are classically defined as perennial masses of ice showing geomorphic evidence of flow. This definition is expanded to include any flowing mass of solid volatiles condensed on planetary surfaces. Glacier-forming volatiles in this solar system may include water ice on Earth and Mars, carbon dioxide on Mars, sulfur on Io, and, in the future red giant phase of solar evolution, may encompass silicon monoxide or metallic magnesium and sodium glaciers on Earth and Mars. Comparable glaciers may occur on large rocky moons of hot Jupiters and comparably close-in "terrestrial" type planets. We have modeled the temperature distribution across the surfaces of red-giant phase Earth and Mars, without considering radiative effects of the gases and clouds, to illustrate these points. We have assumed alternate conditions of asynchronous and synchronous rotation and calculated the temperatures during the run-up along the red giant evolutionary branch. Near red giant solar maximum, Earth's subsolar temperature will exceed 2400 K for about a million years. A magma ocean will exist but will not be continuous across the globe; for a tidally locked Earth, solid continents will consist largely of atmospheric condensates of the more volatile metals and metal oxides, with shorelines and some buoyant 'bergs' composed of refractory Ca-Al-oxide residues, whereas some residues and condensates will sink to the core. Atmospheric partial pressures of Mg, MgO, SiO, SiO2, Fe, and FeO will total nearly 0.3 mbars. O and O2 partial pressures will sum to 1 mbar, and alkalis would initially be over 3 mbars. Condensation will occur by fractional chemical distillation. A chemical sequence of deposits will occur toward the pole and terminator. Some condensate deposits will flow glacier-like into the magma ocean, where they will redissolve, closing the cycle in a quasi-steady state familiar to glaciologists.

  5. Jupiter Exploration: High Risk and High Rewards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin S.

    2004-12-01

    Jupiter exploration is big science, and only the United States can afford self-contained missions to the gas giant and its four planet-sized moons. The Galileo spacecraft, which was recently flown into Jupiter to prevent it from contaminating Europa's ocean, cost $1.6 billion. Despite the failure of its High Gain Antenna (HGA), Galileo discovered briny, subsurface oceans on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto; globally mapped all four Galilean moons; monitored Io's volcanic activity; carried out a 7-year study of the Jovian magnetosphere; and dropped an atmospheric probe into Jupiter's upper cloud layer. Of these achievements, the most significant is the indirect detection of a deep subsurface liquid-water layer on Europa [Pappalardo et al., 1999; Kivelson et al., 2000]. The case for a Europan ecosystem can be made [e.g., Marion et al., 2004], although it is important to remember the energetic and biogeochemical limits on putative Europan life [e.g., Soare et al., 2002]. Europa's low moment of inertia (0.346 +/- 0.005 MR2) suggests a silicate mantle below the ocean, permitting chemical exchanges between ocean and silicates, as occurs on Earth. Europa's surface is geologically young, likely emplaced 20-180 million years ago. Any recycling of surficial icy crust into the ocean could add oxygen, sulfur, and organic compounds, either impact-delivered or generated in situ by UV irradiation and the implantation of ionized particles from Jupiter's radiation belts.

  6. Laboratory permittivity measurements of icy planetary analogs in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, in relation with JUICE mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Jacob, K.; Murk, A.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft is planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030. It will observe the planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. One instrument on the JUICE spacecraft is the Sub-millimeter Wave Instrument (SWI), which will measure brightness temperatures from Jupiter's stratosphere and troposphere, and from subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons. In the baseline configuration SWI consists of two tunable sub-millimeter wave receivers operating from 530 to 625 GHz. As an alternative one of the receivers could cover the range of 1080 and 1275 GHz. Inversion models are strongly dependent on the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of the target material to retrieve the physical properties of the subsurface (e.g. [1][2]). We set up a laboratory experiment allowing us to perform reproducible measurements of the complex scattering parameters S11 and S21 in the ranges of 70 to 110 GHz, of 100 to 160 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz and of 510 to 715 GHz. These scattering parameters can be used to retrieve the permittivity of icy analogs of the surfaces and subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons in order to prepare the data interpretation of SWI [3]. The measurements are performed under laboratory conditions with a quasi-optical bench (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). The icy analogs that we prepare in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy, Physics Institute, University of Bern), include two different porous water ice samples composed of fine-grained ice particles with a size range of 4 to 6 microns and ice particles with a size range of 50 to 100 microns [4][5]; and possibly CO2 ice. We will present the general experimental set-up and the first results in the context to prepare the data interpretation of SWI. [1] Ulaby, F. T., Long, D. G., 2014. Microwave radar and radiometric remote

  7. Jupiter's Moon Ganymede

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a video clip of what Ganymede looks like, based on images from NASA's Galileo orbiter. The US Geological Survey has classified the surface of Ganymede into the types of terrain. The brown r...

  8. Europa's Icy Shell: A Bridge Between Its Surface and Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul; Mimmo, Francis; Prockter, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Europa, a Moon-sized, ice-covered satellite of Jupiter, is second only to Mars in its astrobiological potential. Beneath the icy surface, an ocean up to 150 km deep is thought to exist, providing a potential habitat for life,and a tempting target for future space missions. The Galileo mission to the Jovian system recently ended, but there are already long-range plans to send much more capable spacecraft,such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), to take a closer look at Europa and her siblings, Ganymede and Callisto, some time in the next two decades. Europak outer icy shell is the only interface between this putative ocean and the surface, but many aspects of this shell are presently poorly understood; in particular, its composition, thickness, deformational history, and mechanical properties. To discuss the ice shell and our current understanding of it, 78 scientists from the terrestrial and planetary science communities in the United States and Europe gathered for a 3-day workshop hosted by the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston in February. A key goal was to bring researchers from disparate disciplines together to discuss the importance and limitations of available data on Europa with a post-Galileo perspective. The workshop featured 2 days of reviews and contributed talks on the composition, physical properties, stratigraphy, tectonics, and future exploration of the ice shell and underlying ocean. The final morning included an extended discussion period, moderated by a panel of noted experts, highlighting outstanding questions and areas requiring future research.

  9. Shepherd Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Shepherd Moons

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter in February 2007. This sequence of pictures from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) shows the well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings; labels point out how these narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons (Metis and Adrastea).

  10. Jupiter Atmospheric Science with JIMO: Linking Science Objectives and Measurement Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanover, N. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Although the primary focus of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission will be the characterization and study of Jupiter's icy moons, there will be opportunities throughout the mission for unprecendented observations of Jupiter. With an adaptable suite of payload instruments, the atmospheric data collected by JIMO can help to answer fundamental questions about the largest planet in our solar system that remain after (or were generated by) previous spacecraft reconnaissance (e.g. Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini). Near-IR (0.7-4 micron) spectral imaging will most likely be used to identify mineralogies and ices on the Jovian satellites by virtue of their spectral signatures. This same capability is very well tailored for studies of Jovian atmospheric dynamics and structure. Near-IR methane absorption bands allow 2-D mapping of the horizontal wind field at size scales to tens of kms, as well as the height dependence of this field above the ammonia cloud deck (700 to a few mbar), constraining current models of atmospheric vertical structure. Likewise, atmospheric ice aerosols with unique spectroscopic signatures (ammonia ice near 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 microns and water ice between 3.0 - 3.5 microns) can be detected and mapped using spectral difference imaging or spectrally inclusive principal-component methods. Spectral imaging of the Jovian aurora via (3)H(+) emission lines between 3 - 4 microns can be used to spatially map the interplay between the satellites) Jupiter's magnetosphere, and Jupiter's atmosphere. Each of these measurements addresses one or more fundamental questions related to the energy balance in Jupiter's atmosphere. All of these tunable imaging objectives can be achieved using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF's), which have been used for years in ground-based observing instruments and which have been proposed for numerous planetary missions. The application of this technology to the science objectives of both the icy satellites and Jovian

  11. Coupling of the Matched Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields of the Sun with Jupiter and its Moons Together in Nearest Portion of Jupiter's Orbit to the Sun as the Main Cause of the Peak of Approximately 11 Yearly Solar Cycles and Hazards from Solar Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Kazem; Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    On March 13, 1989 the entire province of Quebec Blackout by solar storm during solar cycle 22. The solar storm of 1859, also known as the Carrington event, was a powerful geomagnetic solar storm during solar cycle 10. The solar storm of 2012 during solar cycle 24 was of similar magnitude, but it passed Earth's orbit without striking the plane. All of these solar storms occurred in the peak of 11 yearly solar cycles. In this way, the White House in its project which is focusing on hazards from solar system, in a new strategy and action plan to increase protection from damaging solar emissions, should focus on coupling of the matched Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields)GEFs) of the Sun with Jupiter and its moons together. On the other hand, in solar system, the Jupiter's gravity has largest effect to the Sun's core and its dislocation, because the gravity force between the Jupiter and the Sun is 11.834 times, In addition overlapping of the solar cycles with the Jupiter's orbit period is 11.856 years. These observable factors lead us to the effect of the Jupiter and Sun gravity fields coupling as the main cause of the approximately 11 years duration for solar cycles. Its peak in each cycle is when the Jupiter is in nearest portion to the Sun in its orbit. In this way, the other planets in their coupling with Sun help to the variations and strengthening solar cycles. [Gholibeigian, 7/24/2015http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGU]. In other words, the both matched GEFs are generating by the large scale forced convection system inside the stars and planets [Gholibeigian et. al, AGU Fall Meeting 2015]. These two fields are couple and strengthening each other. The Jupiter with its 67 moons generate the largest coupled and matched GEFs in its core and consequently strongest effect on the Sun's core. Generation and coupling of the Jupiter's GEFs with its moons like Europa, Io and Ganymede make this planet of thousands of times brighter and many times bigger than Earth as the

  12. PHOTO ILLUSTRATION OF COMET P/SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 and PLANET JUPITER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a composite photo, assembled from separate images of Jupiter and comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9, as imaged by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC-2), aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Jupiter was imaged on May 18, 1994, when the giant planet was at a distance of 420 million miles (670 million km) from Earth. This 'true-color' picture was assembled from separate HST exposures in red, blue, and green light. Jupiter's rotation between exposures creates the blue and red fringe on either side of the disk. HST can resolve details in Jupiter's magnificent cloud belts and zones as small as 200 miles (320 km) across (wide field mode). This detailed view is only surpassed by images from spacecraft that have traveled to Jupiter. The dark spot on the disk of Jupiter is the shadow of the inner moon Io. This volcanic moon appears as an orange and yellow disk just to the upper right of the shadow. Though Io is approximately the size of Earth's Moon (but 2,000 times farther away), HST can resolve surface details. When the comet was observed on May 17, its train of 21 icy fragments stretched across 710 thousand miles (1.1 million km) of space, or 3 times the distance between Earth and the Moon. This required six WFPC exposures along the comet train to include all the nuclei. The image was taken in red light. The apparent angular size of Jupiter relative to the comet, and its angular separation from the comet when the images were taken, have been modified for illustration purposes. Credit: H.A. Weaver, T.E. Smith (Space Telescope Science Institute) and J.T. Trauger, R.W. Evans (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and NASA

  13. Experimental determination of salt partition coefficients between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII: implication for the composition of the deep ocean and the geodynamics of large icy moons and water rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Cardon, Hervé; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The potential habitability of extraterrestrial large aqueous reservoir in icy moons and exoplanets requires an input of nutrients and chemicals that may come from the rocky part of planetary body. Because of the presence of high pressure (HP) water ices (VI, VII, etc.) between the liquid ocean and the silicates, such interactions are considered to be limited in large icy moons, like Ganymede and Titan, and water rich exoplanets. In the case of salty-rich oceans, recent experimental and modeling works have shown that aqueous fluids can be stable at higher pressures [1, 2]. This can ultimately allow direct interaction with the rocky core of icy moons. This effect is nevertheless limited and for larger bodies such as water rich exoplanets with much higher pressures in their hydrosphere, HP ice should be present between the rocky core and a putative ocean. Salts are highly incompatible with low pressure ice Ih, but recent experimental work has shown that alkali metal and halogen salts are moderately incompatible with ice VII, that can incorporate up to several mol/kg of salts [3, 4, 5]. As far as we know, no similar study has been done on ice VI, a HP ice phase expected inside large icy moons. We present here the first experimental data on the partition coefficient of RbI salt between aqueous fluids, ice VI and ice VII using in-situ synchrotron X-Ray single crystal diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence mapping (ESRF - ID-27 beam line [6]). Our experiment enable us to observe a density inversion between ice VI and the salty fluid, and to measure the values of salt partition coefficients between the aqueous fluid and ice VI (strongly incompatible) and ice VII (moderately incompatible). Using the volumes determined with X-Ray diffraction, we were able to measure the density of salty ice VI and ice VII and determine that salty ice VI is lighter than pure H2O ice VI. These results are very relevant for the study of water rich planetary bodies interior because the partition

  14. Japanese mission plan for Jupiter system: The Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Trojan asteroid explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Yano, H.; Takashima, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Kimura, J.; Funase, R.; Mori, O.; Tsuda, Y.; Campagnola, S.; Kawakatsu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    In the future Jupiter system study, Coordinated observation of Jovian magnetosphere is one of the important targets of the mission in addition to icy satellites, atmosphere, and interior of Jupiter. JAXA will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner JMO (Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter), in addition to JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) by ESA and JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) by NASA. We will combine JMO with a proposed solar sail mission of JAXA for Jupiter and one of Trojan asteroids. Since Trojan asteroids could be representing raw solid materials of Jupiter or at least outer solar system bodies, involvement of Trojan observation should enhance the quality of Jupiter system exploration.

  15. Scientists Revise Thinking on Comets, Planet Jupiter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses scientific information obtained from Pioneer 10's Jupiter flyby and the comet Kohoutek's first trip around the sun, including the high hydrogen emission of Jupiter's principal moon, Io. (CC)

  16. New Horizons at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    2007-12-01

    New Horizons is NASA's reconnaissance mission to explore the Pluto system and small Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). I will describe the mission's history, current status, and instrument suite. I will then describe the Jupiter gravity assist flyby New Horizons conducted in early-mid 2007. This flyby involved over 700 observations in the Jupiter system, and represents the only spacecraft encounter with Jupiter planned to occur between the demise of Galileo in 2003 and the arrival of Juno in 2016. I will focus on results obtained, including the first-ever exploration of a giant planet magnetotail, new compositional observations of icy Galilean satellites, exploration of Jupiter's tenuous ring system, the first high-resolution spacecraft imagery of Jupiter's newly-generated little red spot, and the first-ever time-lapse imagery of an Ionian volcano eruption.

  17. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  18. Measuring the speed of light using Jupiter's moons: a global citizen science project for International Year of Light 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Martin A.; Hammond, Giles; Simmons, Mike

    2015-08-01

    2015 represents both the centenary of General Relativity and International Year of Light - the latter marking the 150th anniversary of James Clerk Maxwell's ground-breaking paper on "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field". These landmark dates provide an exciting opportunity to set up a global citizen science project that re-enacts the seminal 1675 experiment of Ole Romer: to measure the speed of light by observing the time eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter. This project - which has been set up by astronomers at the University of Glasgow, UK in partnership with Astronomers without Borders - is an ideal platform for engaging the amateur astronomy community, schools and the wider public across the globe. It requires only simple observations, with a small spotting scope or telescope, and can be carried out straightforwardly in both cities and dark-sky locations. It highlights a fascinating chapter in astronomical history, as well as the ongoing importance of accurate astrometry, orbital motion, the concept of longitude and knowing one's position on the Earth. In the context of the GR centenary, it also links strongly to the science behind GPS satellites and a range of important topics in the high school curriculum - from the electromagnetic spectrum to the more general principles of the scientific method.In this presentation we present an overview of our global citizen science project for IYL2015: its scope and motivation, the total number and global distribution of its participants to date and how astronomers around the world can get involved. We also describe the intended legacy of the project: a extensive database of observations that can provide future astronomy educators with an accessible and historically important context in which to explore key principles for analysing large astronomical datasets.

  19. The icy Jovian satellites after the Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The icy satellites of Jupiter, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Amalthea have diverse and remarkable characteristics. Their initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-Jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circumsolar nebula. The satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, especially the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces and from theoretical modeling of the processes that connect these lines of evidence. The three large icy satellites probably contain significant liquid water: Europa has a deep liquid water ocean under a thin surface layer of ice; Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces. Models of formation are challenged by the surprising properties of the outermost and innermost of the group: Callisto is partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior; and tiny Amalthea also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of the four moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  20. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image, taken by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa. It shows an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs can be resolved down to blocks the size of a house. A fracture that runs horizontally across and just below the center of the Europa image is about the width of a freeway.

    North is to the top right of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The image covers an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  1. Ion processing of ices and the origin of SO2 and O3 on the icy surfaces of the icy jovian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Ding, J. J.; Domaracka, A.; Kaňuchová, Z.; Palumbo, M. E.; Rothard, H.; Strazzulla, G.

    2016-10-01

    We present new experimental results relative to 144 keV S9+ or Ar9+ ion implantation in targets made of oxygen rich frozen gases (O2, CO2) and mixtures with water ice. Spectra in the UV (200-400 nm) range have been obtained before and after implantation. The targets have been selected because they can be representative of the parent molecules from which SO2 and O3, observed to be present on the surfaces of Jupiter's icy Moons, could be formed due to radiolysis induced by the abundant magnetospheric ions. The results indicate that sulfur dioxide is not detectable after sulfur implantation in oxygen bearing species. Ozone is formed after argon and sulfur ion implantation. Sulfur implantation in O2 and CO2 targets also induces the formation of a band centered at about 255 nm (that we tentatively attribute to SO3- radicals). In the mixtures with water the band appears initially at the same wavelength and shifts to about 247 nm at higher ion fluences possibly indicating the formation of sulfite (HSO3-) ions. An absorption band observed on Ganymede is well fitted by using three components: ozone, sulfite ions and a not identified component having an absorption band centered at 298 nm. In all of the studied cases ion implantation produces a spectral reddening over the investigated spectral range (200-400 nm) that well mimics the observed spectral slopes of Jupiter's icy satellites.

  2. Jupiter Torus Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of Jupiter's space environment shows magnetically trapped radiation ions (in red), the neutral gas torus of the volcanic moon Io (green) and the newly discovered neutral gas torus of the moon Europa (blue). The white lines represent magnetic field lines.

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) are emitted from the Europa torus regions because of the interaction between the trapped ions and the neutral gases. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on NASA's Cassini spacecraft imaged those energetic neutral atoms in early 2001 during Cassini's flyby of Jupiter. Energetic neutral atoms also come from Jupiter when radiation ions impinge onto Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  3. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  4. Relative astrobiological potential of irradiated icy bodies in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    A common factor uniting icy moons with either putative subsurface oceans or evident cryo-volcanic activity is that these reside in the magnetospheres of the giant planets. Interestingly, the two known active moons, Enceladus and Triton, are not in the giant planet magnetosphere with the most extreme radiation, that of Jupiter. Either such radiation has little connection to activity, or else it might have an inhibiting effect at extreme levels such as at Europa. The astrobiological potential of Europa is generally thought to be the highest of the three Galilean icy moons, mainly since the putative global ocean would be closest to the surface, and yet there is little evidence for any significant abundance of organics at the surface. In contrast, ac-tive Enceladus clearly does have easily detectable abundances of simple hydrocarbons and may also have subsurface liquid water. The relatively shorter lifetimes with respect to radilolytic destruction might explain absence of surface organics on Europa, but the lack of gas-driven activity there also suggests absence of redox chemistry important to life as we know it. In the context of a model for gas produced by oxidation processes from radiolytic oxidants, Cooper et al. (Plan. Sp. Sci., 2009) earlier suggested that Europa, enveloped in a surface-bound oxygen atmosphere not detectably present at Enceladus, could be in an extreme state of oxidation to the limit that organics could not survive anywhere in the outer ice crust or underlying ocean. Could that mean that astrobiological potential is higher on Enceladus and even on Triton than on Europa? It is also noted that bright large Kuiper Belt Objects such as Eris may have icy surfaces continually replenished by cryovolcanism and hence might also have potentially significant astrobiological potential.

  5. A Day on Jupiter (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This 'movie' strings 11 images of Jupiter captured by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on January 9, 2007, when the spacecraft was about 80 million kilometers (49.6 million miles) from the giant planet. The sequence covers a full 10-hour rotation of Jupiter, during which the moons Ganymede and Io -- as well as the shadows they cast on Jupiter -- move across the camera's field of view.

  6. Rubble around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has announced that Amalthea, a 270-km-long, potato-shaped inner moon of Jupiter, "apparently is a loosely packed pile of rubble," with empty space where the rubble does not fit well together.This is among the new findings about the moon announced by JPL astronomer John Anderson and his colleagues on 9 December at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco.

  7. Rubble around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has announced that Amalthea, a 270-km-long, potato-shaped inner moon of Jupiter, “apparently is a loosely packed pile of rubble,” with empty space where the rubble does not fit well together.This is among the new findings about the moon announced by JPL astronomer John Anderson and his colleagues on 9 December at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco.

  8. The Jupiter System Observer: Exploring the Origins of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, C.; Kivelson, M.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) is one of four studies commissioned by NASA's Science Mission Directorate to examine the potential science return from a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system. JSO is a long-duration mission that will study the entire Jupiter system, focusing on both its individual components, including Jupiter's atmosphere, rocky and icy moons, rings, and magnetospheric phenomena, and the interactions between them. The wealth of data to be returned by JSO will enable a fuller understanding of a variety of magnetospheric, atmospheric, and geological processes, and will illuminate the question of how planetary systems form and evolve. The science team has outlined a number of significant science goals that can be accomplished by a spacecraft that tours the Jovian system for several years before ultimately ending up in Ganymede orbit. Ganymede was selected as the final destination for JSO because of its unique place in the Jovian system and the solar system - it is only the third body known to have its own dynamo-generated magnetic field. Ganymede is thought to contain a subsurface ocean and exhibits a surface with a variety of older and younger terrains, making it an excellent target for understanding the formation and evolution of icy satellites. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's atmosphere and rings, Io's volcanism and torus, and high-resolution flyby imaging of Europa, Callisto and Io will enable an unprecedented study of the Jovian system as a solar system analog, and enables cross-cutting scientific objectives in the fields of atmospheres, geology, magnetospheres, and geophysics.

  9. Jupiter - First stop on Voyager's grand tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1989-01-01

    The findings concerning Jupiter that were made by the Voyager missions are briefly reviewed. The ring and three new moons around Jupiter, the live volcanoes on Io, and atmospheric phenomena on Jupiter which were observed by Voyager 1 are described. The discoveries regarding Callisto and Europa made by Voyager 2 are briefly summarized.

  10. Thickness Constraints on the Icy Shells of the Galilean Satellites from a Comparison of Crater Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    A thin outer ice shell on Jupiter's large moon Europa would imply easy exchange between the surface and any organic or biotic material in its putative subsurface ocean. The thickness of the outer ice shell is poorly constrained, however, with model-dependent estimates ranging from a few kilometers of depths of impact craters on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto that reveal two anomalous transitions in crater shape with diameter. The first transition is probably related to temperature-dependent ductility of the crust at shallow depths (7-8 km on Europa). The second transition is attributed to the influence of subsurface oceans on all three satellites, which constrains Europa's icy shell to be at least 19 km thick. The icy lithospheres of Ganymede and Callisto are equally ice-rich, but Europa's icy shell has a thermal structure about 0.25-0.5 times the thickness of Ganymede's or Callisto's shells, depending on epoch. The appearances of the craters on Europa are inconsistent with thin-ice-shell models and indicate that exchange of oceanic and surface material could be difficult.

  11. A New Year for Jupiter and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Galilean satellite Io floats above the cloudtops of Jupiter in this image captured on the dawn of the new millennium, January 1, 2001 10:00 UTC (spacecraft time), two days after Cassini's closest approach. The image is deceiving: there are 350,000 kilometers -- roughly 2.5 Jupiters -- between Io and Jupiter's clouds. Io is the size of our Moon, and Jupiter is very big.

  12. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; McCafferty, Julian; McKay, Chris; Sears, Derek; Soulage, Michael; Swenson, Jason; Weston, Sasha; Yang Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  13. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  14. Potential Biospheres of the icy world in our solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Baqué, Mickael

    2016-04-01

    The challenge in astrobiology and planetary research in the near future is to realize space missions to study the habitability of Mars and the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. Mars is an interesting object to search for habitable environments and for fossilized (and potentially present) life because of its past water driven wet history. On the other hand the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturnian moon Enceladus are promising candidates, where liquid water oceans beneath the surface are expected. These oceans can be habitable environments and the next challenge is to search there for present life. Some examples on potential biospheres and their biosignatures in Mars-like environments and in environmental conditions with reference to the icy moons will be given, which might exist in such kind of icy environments.

  15. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2016-07-01

    biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. Titan has further been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In one of our geophysical studies [4], we have showed that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. If the silicate mantles of Europa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical energy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Such habitability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. Other future mission concepts are being studied for exploring the moons around Saturn. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth

  16. X-ray Probes of Magnetospheric Interactions with Jupiter's Auroral zones, the Galilean Satellites, and the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from these moons is certainly due to bombardment of their surfaces of highly energetic protons, oxygen and sulfur ions from the region near the Torus exciting atoms in their surfaces and leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed fiom Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping (down to 40 m spatial resolution) of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission fiom the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties, as well as energetic ion flux models or measurements, required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We discuss the proposed scenarios leading to possible surface compositions. For Europa, the two most extreme are (1) a patina produced by exogenic processes such as meteoroid bombardment and ion implantation, and (2) upwelling of material fiom the subsurface ocean. We also describe the characteristics of X - m , an imaging x-ray spectrometer under going a feasibility study for the JIM0 mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  17. A Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer for Remote Surface Composition Analysis of the Galilean Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, H.; Srama, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Henkel, H.; vonHoerner, H.; Koch, A.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Kissel, J.; Krueger, F.

    2003-01-01

    Galileo in-situ dust measurements have shown that the Galilean moons are surrounded by tenuous dust clouds formed by collisional ejecta from their icy surfaces, kicked up by impacts of interplanetary micrometeoroids. The majority of the ejecta dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five between 0.5 and 1 micron, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution decreasing towards bigger particles. their parent bodies. They carry information about the properties of the surface from which they have been kicked up. In particular, these grains may carry organic compounds and other chemicals of biological relevance if they exist on the icy Galilean moons. In-situ analysis of the grain composition with a sophisticated dust analyzer instrument flying on a Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter can provide important information about geochemical and geophysical processes during the evolutionary histories of these moons which are not accessible with other techniques from an orbiter spacecraft. Thus, spacecraft-based in-situ dust measurements can be used as a diagnostic tool for the analysis of the surface composition of the moons. This way, the in-situ measurements turn into a remote sensing technique by using the dust instrument like a telescope for surface investigation. An instrument capable of very high resolution composition analysis of dust particles is the Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA). The instrument was originally developed for the Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission and has now been built for ESA'S comet orbiter Rosetta. Dust particles are collected on a target and are later located by an optical microscope camera. A pulsed primary indium ion gun partially ionizes the dust grains. The generated secondary ions are accelerated in an electric field and travel through a reflectron-type time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer.

  18. Building Small Icy Bodies: the Process of Icy Grain Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen Jane; Hill, Catherine Rachel; Blum, Jurgen; Heisselmann, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The material remaining in proto-planetary disks provides the ingredients from which planetessimals, and eventually comets, asteroids and planets (including their ring and moon systems) evolve. Aggregation processes are thought to proceed much more rapidly beyond snow-lines in such disks, aided by icy mantles on dust grains, but we do not know nano- and micron-scale dust combines to kilometer-sizes. Recent ALMA observations have proven the existence of snow lines in other proto-planetary systems (Qi et al Science (2013)), so it is by studying icy collisions in the laboratory that we can begin to understand the assembly of the icy bodies in our Solar System.Icy particles (between 4.7 and 10.8 mm in diameter) were collided at relative collision velocities of 0.27 - 0.51 m s-1, at 131 - 160 K, under microgravity conditions using a purpose-built experiment (Salter et al Rev Sci Inst (2010)). Bouncing was observed in the majority of collisions, across a full range of normalized impact parameters (b/R = 0.0-1.0). Coefficients of restitution were evenly spread between 0.08 and 0.65 with an average value of 0.36, leading to a minimum of 58% of translational energy being lost in the collision. The range of coefficients of restitution was attributed to the surface roughness of the particles. Analysis of particle rotation showed that up to 17% of the energy of the particles before the collision was converted into rotational energy. Temperature did not affect the coefficients of restitution over the range studied (Hill et all A&A (2015a)). The effects of chemical composition on the collisional outcomes were also studied, at relative particle impact velocities between 0.01 and 0.19 ms-1, temperatures between 131 and 160 K and a pressure of around 10-5 mbar. Overall the collisional properties of the icy particles were unchanged (Hill et al A&A (2015b)).The implications of these experimental results will be discussed in terms of our understanding of the formation and evolution of

  19. Origin of Saturn's rings and inner moons by mass removal from a lost Titan-sized satellite.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2010-12-16

    The origin of Saturn's rings has not been adequately explained. The current rings are more than 90 to 95 per cent water ice, which implies that initially they were almost pure ice because they are continually polluted by rocky meteoroids. In contrast, a half-rock, half-ice mixture (similar to the composition of many of the satellites in the outer Solar System) would generally be expected. Previous ring origin theories invoke the collisional disruption of a small moon, or the tidal disruption of a comet during a close passage by Saturn. These models are improbable and/or struggle to account for basic properties of the rings, including their icy composition. Saturn has only one large satellite, Titan, whereas Jupiter has four large satellites; additional large satellites probably existed originally but were lost as they spiralled into Saturn. Here I report numerical simulations of the tidal removal of mass from a differentiated, Titan-sized satellite as it migrates inward towards Saturn. Planetary tidal forces preferentially strip material from the satellite's outer icy layers, while its rocky core remains intact and is lost to collision with the planet. The result is a pure ice ring much more massive than Saturn's current rings. As the ring evolves, its mass decreases and icy moons are spawned from its outer edge with estimated masses consistent with Saturn's ice-rich moons interior to and including Tethys.

  20. Origin of Saturn's rings and inner moons by mass removal from a lost Titan-sized satellite.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M

    2010-12-16

    The origin of Saturn's rings has not been adequately explained. The current rings are more than 90 to 95 per cent water ice, which implies that initially they were almost pure ice because they are continually polluted by rocky meteoroids. In contrast, a half-rock, half-ice mixture (similar to the composition of many of the satellites in the outer Solar System) would generally be expected. Previous ring origin theories invoke the collisional disruption of a small moon, or the tidal disruption of a comet during a close passage by Saturn. These models are improbable and/or struggle to account for basic properties of the rings, including their icy composition. Saturn has only one large satellite, Titan, whereas Jupiter has four large satellites; additional large satellites probably existed originally but were lost as they spiralled into Saturn. Here I report numerical simulations of the tidal removal of mass from a differentiated, Titan-sized satellite as it migrates inward towards Saturn. Planetary tidal forces preferentially strip material from the satellite's outer icy layers, while its rocky core remains intact and is lost to collision with the planet. The result is a pure ice ring much more massive than Saturn's current rings. As the ring evolves, its mass decreases and icy moons are spawned from its outer edge with estimated masses consistent with Saturn's ice-rich moons interior to and including Tethys. PMID:21151108

  1. OASIS: Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M.; Zheng, Y.; Balvin, M.; Southard, A. E.; Ferrance, J.; Malespin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a well established laboratory technique for detecting and analyzing organic molecules. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and establishing chirol ratios [1 -3]. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for future in situ landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid ana1ytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through electrospray ionization (ESI) and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of this design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.

  2. Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

  3. Sharpening Up Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    New image-correction technique delivers sharpest whole-planet ground-based picture ever A record two-hour observation of Jupiter using a superior technique to remove atmospheric blur has produced the sharpest whole-planet picture ever taken from the ground. The series of 265 snapshots obtained with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) prototype instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) reveal changes in Jupiter's smog-like haze, probably in response to a planet-wide upheaval more than a year ago. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 33/08 Sharpening Up Jupiter Being able to correct wide field images for atmospheric distortions has been the dream of scientists and engineers for decades. The new images of Jupiter prove the value of the advanced technology used by MAD, which uses two or more guide stars instead of one as references to remove the blur caused by atmospheric turbulence over a field of view thirty times larger than existing techniques [1]. "This type of adaptive optics has a big advantage for looking at large objects, such as planets, star clusters or nebulae," says lead researcher Franck Marchis, from UC Berkeley and the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, USA. "While regular adaptive optics provides excellent correction in a small field of view, MAD provides good correction over a larger area of sky. And in fact, were it not for MAD, we would not have been able to perform these amazing observations." MAD allowed the researchers to observe Jupiter for almost two hours on 16 and 17 August 2008, a record duration, according to the observing team. Conventional adaptive optics systems using a single Jupiter moon as reference cannot monitor Jupiter for so long because the moon moves too far from the planet. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Jupiter continuously for more than about 50 minutes, because its view is regularly blocked by the Earth during Hubble's 96-minute orbit. Using MAD, ESO astronomer Paola Amico

  4. Making Space Travel to Jupiter Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Samuel P.

    2004-01-01

    From man landing on the moon to a simple satellite being launched into orbit, many incredible space accomplishments have been witnessed by us all. However, what goes un-noticed to the common man is the extensive research and testing that lasts months, years, and even decades. Much of this required research just so happens to take place in the corridors of the Glen Research Center building number 49. In the Advanced Materials division of G.R.C., a number of researchers have the responsibility of discovering which metal, ceramic, or polymer is best for a specific application. Under the guidance of mentor extraordinaire Frank Ritzert, I am involved in many critical projects dealing with refractory metals, two of which I will mention in this report. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project actually was under full swing back in the 50's and early 60's. To enable the 14 year trek to the icy moons of Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede, nuclear propulsion methods were selected. Due to the extreme temperature of the reactor and the extended time period, a refractory metal would need to be implemented. After years of research and progress, the program was suddenly canceled. About a decade ago, the JIMO project was re-instated and now has a goal for departure around 2014. However, a few obstacles lie in our way concerning the use of refractory metals. In certain areas of the orbiter a joint is required between the refractories and other less dense metals. Two of these joints are with nickel based super alloys. Being an intern for Frank Ritzert, the refractory metals expert, I have the opportunity to develop the best method to braze refractory metals to Nickel 201. This involves the actual brazing, electron microscopy and reporting the results. My second project involves a certain part of the orbiter where Niobium 1Zirconium, a refractory metal, is joined with Hastelloy-X a Ni based metal. Small quantities of oxygen, helium and other impurities in the Ni alloy could diffuse

  5. Jupiter and the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblom, L.; Spall, Henry

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, the United States launched two unmanned Voyager spacecraft that were to take part in an extensive reconnaissance of the outer planets over a 12-year period visiting the environs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their first encounter was with the complex Jupiter planetary system 400 million miles away. Sweeping by Jupiter and its five moons in 1979, the two spacecraft have sent back to Earth an enormous amount of data that will prove to be vital in understanding our solar system. Voyager 1 is scheduled to fly past Saturn on November 13 of this year; Voyager 2, in August of the following year. 

  6. Jupiter's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Kronberg, E. A.; Jackman, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a highly dynamic environment. Hundreds of reconnection events have been identified in Jupiter's magnetotail through analysis of magnetic field and particle measurements collected by the Galileo spacecraft. Quasi-periodic behavior, suggestive of reconnection, has been intermittently observed on a ~2-3 day time scale in several data sets, including magnetic field dipolarizations, flow bursts, auroral polar dawn spots, and the hectometric radio emission. In this paper we review the present state of knowledge of Jovian magnetospheric dynamics. Throughout the discussion, we highlight similarities and differences to Saturn's magnetosphere. For example, recent analysis of plasmoid signatures at both Jupiter and Saturn has established the role of tail reconnection in the overall mass and flux transport in the outer planet magnetospheres. The results for both Jupiter and Saturn suggest that the observed mass loss rate due to tail reconnection and plasmoid release is insufficient to account for the mass input rate from the moons Io and Enceladus, respectively. We also present new analysis in which we use the Michigan mSWiM propagated solar wind MHD model to estimate the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter. This information allows us to determine whether reconnection events occur preferentially during certain solar wind conditions, or whether there is evidence that the solar wind modulates the quasi-periodicity seen in the field dipolarizations and flow bursts.

  7. A permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon.

    PubMed

    Horányi, M; Szalay, J R; Kempf, S; Schmidt, J; Grün, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

    2015-06-18

    Interplanetary dust particles hit the surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System, generating charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds that form dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, but have hitherto not been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces. High-altitude Apollo 15 and 17 observations of a 'horizon glow' indicated a putative population of high-density small dust particles near the lunar terminators, although later orbital observations yielded upper limits on the abundance of such particles that were a factor of about 10(4) lower than that necessary to produce the Apollo results. Here we report observations of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds. The density of the lunar ejecta cloud increases during the annual meteor showers, especially the Geminids, because the lunar surface is exposed to the same stream of interplanetary dust particles. We expect all airless planetary objects to be immersed in similar tenuous clouds of dust. PMID:26085272

  8. A permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon.

    PubMed

    Horányi, M; Szalay, J R; Kempf, S; Schmidt, J; Grün, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

    2015-06-18

    Interplanetary dust particles hit the surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System, generating charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds that form dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, but have hitherto not been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces. High-altitude Apollo 15 and 17 observations of a 'horizon glow' indicated a putative population of high-density small dust particles near the lunar terminators, although later orbital observations yielded upper limits on the abundance of such particles that were a factor of about 10(4) lower than that necessary to produce the Apollo results. Here we report observations of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds. The density of the lunar ejecta cloud increases during the annual meteor showers, especially the Geminids, because the lunar surface is exposed to the same stream of interplanetary dust particles. We expect all airless planetary objects to be immersed in similar tenuous clouds of dust.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  10. Virtual observatory tools and amateur radio observations supporting scientific analysis of Jupiter radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Hess, Sebastien; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Savalle, Renaud; Stéphane, Erard; Coffre, Andrée; Thétas, Emmanuel; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Thieman, Jim; Typinski, Dave; Sky, Jim; Higgins, Chuck; Imai, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of the preparation of the NASA/JUNO and ESA/JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) missions, and the development of a planetary sciences virtual observatory (VO), we are proposing a new set of tools directed to data providers as well as users, in order to ease data sharing and discovery. We will focus on ground based planetary radio observations (thus mainly Jupiter radio emissions), trying for instance to enhance the temporal coverage of jovian decametric emission. The data service we will be using is EPN-TAP, a planetary science data access protocol developed by Europlanet-VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access). This protocol is derived from IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) standards. The Jupiter Routine Observations from the Nancay Decameter Array are already shared on the planetary science VO using this protocol, as well as data from the Iitate Low Frquency Radio Antenna, in Japan. Amateur radio data from the RadioJOVE project is also available. The attached figure shows data from those three providers. We will first introduce the VO tools and concepts of interest for the planetary radioastronomy community. We will then present the various data formats now used for such data services, as well as their associated metadata. We will finally show various prototypical tools that make use of this shared datasets.

  11. Virtual Observatory tools and Amateur Radio Observations Supporting Scientific Analysis of Jupiter Radio Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Hess, S. L. G.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Erard, S.; Coffre, A.; Thétas, E.; André, N.; Génot, V.; Thieman, J.; Typinski, D.; Sky, J.; Higgins, C.

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the preparation of the NASA/JUNO and ESA/JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) missions, and the development of a planetary sciences virtual observatory (VO), we are proposing a new set of tools directed to data providers as well as users, in order to ease data sharing and discovery. We will focus on ground based planetary radio observations (thus mainly Jupiter radio emissions), trying for instance to enhance the temporal coverage of jovian decametric emission. The data service we will be using is EPN-TAP, a planetary science data access protocol developed by Europlanet-VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access). This protocol is derived from IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) standards. The Jupiter Routine Observations from the Nancay Decameter Array are already shared on the planetary science VO using this protocol. Amateur radio data from the RadioJOVE project is also available. We will first introduce the VO tools and concepts of interest for the planetary radioastronomy community. We will then present the various data formats now used for such data services, as well as their associated metadata. We will finally show various prototypical tools that make use of this shared datasets. A preliminary study based on January-February 2014 data will also be presented

  12. Galileo Science Update: Observing Changes on Europa and in Jupiter's System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents a news briefing from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) featuring video presentations by Dr. Alfred McEwen (Univ. of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Lab.), Dr. Ronald Greeley (Arizona St. Univ.), Dr. Andrew Ingersoll (California Inst. of Tech.,), and Dr. Diana Blaney (Jet Propulsion Lab.). Discussions center on the atmospheric and surface features of Jupiter and two of its moons, Europa and Io. Possible energy mechanisms that create atmospheric features of Jupiter, such as the Great Red Spot, as well as possible thunderstorm and lightning activity associated with these features are included. Discussions of the craters and fractures on the icy surface of Europa, surface features of Io, two of which are named Loki and Pele, believed to be of volcanic origin, as well infrared observations of volcanism on Io are presented. The individual presentations are followed by a question and answer period with questions posed by scientific journalists from JPL and other NASA centers. The video ends with computer animations, as well as actual footage, of features on Jupiter and its satellites taken from the Galileo spacecraft. Some of these images were seen previously in the individual presentations.

  13. Morphology and Scaling of Ejecta Deposits on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Ridolfi, Francis J.; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Continuous ejecta deposits on Ganymede consist of two major units, or facies: a thick inner hummocky pedestal facies, and a relatively thin outer radially scoured facies defined also by the inner limit of the secondary crater field. Both ejecta facies have a well-defined power-law relationship to crater diameter for craters ranging from 15 to approx. 600 km across. This relationship can be used to estimate the nominal crater diameter for impact features on icy satellites (such as palimpsests and multiring basins) for which the crater rim is no longer recognizable. Ejecta deposits have also been mapped on 4 other icy satellites. Although morphologically similar to eject deposits on the Moon, ejecta deposits for smaller craters are generally significantly broader in extent on the icy satellites, in apparent defiance of predictions of self-similarity. A greater degree of rim collapse and enlargement on the Moon may explain the observed difference.

  14. The Saturn System's Icy Satellites: New Results from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly M.; Buratti, Bonnie; Hendrix, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens is a multidisciplinary, international planetary mission consisting of an orbiting spacecraft and a probe. The Huygens probe successfully landed on Titan's surface on January 14, 2005, while the orbiter has performed observations of Saturn, its rings, satellites, and magnetosphere since it entered orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004. The Cassini mission has been prolific in its scientific discoveries about the Saturn system. In this special section, we present new mission results with a focus on the 'icy satellites,' which we define as all Saturn's moons with the exception of Titan. The results included in this section have come out of the Cassini SOST--Satellites Orbiter Science Team--a multi-instrument and multidiscipline group that works together to better understand the icy satellites and their interactions with Saturn and its rings. Other papers included in this issue present ground-based observations and interior modeling of these icy moons.

  15. Virtual Jupiter - Real Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.; Laffey, J.

    2010-01-01

    How many earthlings went to visit Jupiter? None. How many students visited virtual Jupiter to fulfill their introductory astronomy courses’ requirements? Within next six months over 100 students from University of Missouri will get a chance to explore the planet and its Galilean Moons using a 3D virtual environment created especially for them to learn Kepler's and Newton's laws, eclipses, parallax, and other concepts in astronomy. The virtual world of Jupiter system is a unique 3D environment that allows students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The virtual learning environment let students to work individually or collaborate with their teammates. The 3D world is also a great opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of 3D environment is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3-dimensional environment.

  16. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  17. Spatial distribution of water in the stratosphere of Jupiter from observations with the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Lellouch, E.; de Val-Borro, M.; Jarchow, C.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Orton, G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Billebaud, F.; Dobrijevic, M.; Lara, L. M.; Gonzalez, A.; Sagawa, H.

    2013-09-01

    distributions of water in Jupiter's stratosphere, we rule out interplanetary dust particles as its main source. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Jupiter's stratospheric water was delivered by the SL9 comet and that more than 95% of the observed water comes from the comet according to our models. On the longer term, this study can be regarded as a preparation of the observations to be performed by the SubmillimetreWave Instrument (SWI) [12]. SWI is an instrument proposed for the payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE). This instrument will observe water and the other SL9-derived species in Jupiter with a higher spatiotemporal resolution than Herschel to constrain its 3D stratospheric circulation.

  18. Jupiter Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This visible-light image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope taken on May 11, 2007. It shows the turbulent pattern generated by the two plumes on the upper left part of Jupiter.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vi gorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  19. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  20. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B

    1992-09-11

    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains.

  1. Ultraviolet Photometric Parameters of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; King, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    The Galilean satellites are each phase-locked with Jupiter, so that one hemisphere (the Jovian hemisphere centered on 0 deg longitude) is always facing Jupiter. The leading hemisphere is centered on 90 deg W longitude, while the central longitude of the trailing hemisphere is 270 deg W. Because Jupiter's magnetosphere corotates at a rate faster than the orbital speed of the moons, the satellites' trailing hemispheres are affected by magnetospheric particle bombardment. Some effects are implantation of magnetospheric ions, sputtering, erosion and grain size alteration. The leading hemispheres of these moons are more dominantly affected by micrometeorite bombardment, while the Jovian hemispheres may be affected by dust and/or neutral wind particles streaming out radially from Io and its torus.

  2. Jupiter, Tether, and Lenz's Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Jupiter has a large, complex, and intense magnetic field that is thought to arise from electrical currents in the rapidly spinning metallic hydrogen interior. The strong magnetic field can induce currents when the conductive tether is directed toward or away from Jupiter. The currents can be stored and used for both propulsion and power generation. Therefore, our spacecraft might be able to visit several Jovian moons or maintain in the orbit around Jupiter. In our future space traveling, we also can use this technical skill to travel to other planets without any fuel. First-year physics textbooks describe Lenz's Law in which current is induced in a conductor moving through a stationary magnetic field. A demonstration of induced current in a stationary conductor and moving magnetic field is described, which may have space-tether application.

  3. Alice Views Jupiter and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This graphic illustrates the pointing and shows the data from one of many observations made by the New Horizons Alice ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instrument during the Pluto-bound spacecraft's recent encounter with Jupiter. The red lines in the graphic show the scale, orientation, and position of the combined 'box and slot' field of view of the Alice UVS during this observation.

    The positions of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, the torus of ionized gas from Io, and Jupiter are shown relative to the Alice field of view. Like a prism, the spectrometer separates light from these targets into its constituent wavelengths.

    Io's volcanoes produce an extremely tenuous atmosphere made up primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, which, in the harsh plasma environment at Io, breaks down into its component sulfur and oxygen atoms. Alice observed the auroral glow from these atoms in Io's atmosphere and their ionized counterparts in the Io torus.

    Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

  4. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  5. Jupiter-Io Montage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a montage of New Horizons images of Jupiter and its volcanic moon Io, taken during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby in early 2007. The Jupiter image is an infrared color composite taken by the spacecraft's near-infrared imaging spectrometer, the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) at 1:40 UT on Feb. 28, 2007. The infrared wavelengths used (red: 1.59 um, green: 1.94 um, blue: 1.85 um) highlight variations in the altitude of the Jovian cloud tops, with blue denoting high-altitude clouds and hazes, and red indicating deeper clouds. The prominent bluish-white oval is the Great Red Spot. The observation was made at a solar phase angle of 75 degrees but has been projected onto a crescent to remove distortion caused by Jupiter's rotation during the scan. The Io image, taken at 00:25 UT on March 1st 2007, is an approximately true-color composite taken by the panchromatic Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), with color information provided by the 0.5 um ('blue') and 0.9 um ('methane') channels of the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The image shows a major eruption in progress on Io's night side, at the northern volcano Tvashtar. Incandescent lava glows red beneath a 330-kilometer high volcanic plume, whose uppermost portions are illuminated by sunlight. The plume appears blue due to scattering of light by small particles in the plume

    This montage appears on the cover of the Oct. 12, 2007, issue of Science magazine.

  6. Overview of the Project Prometheus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdick, G. M.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the Project Prometheus Program (PPP, formerly the Nuclear Systems Initiative, NSI) and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project (a component of PPP), a mission to the three icy Galilean moons of Jupiter.

  7. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.

    The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.

    The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.

    The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.

    The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.

    This image and

  8. Current Status of the 2008 Europa-Jupiter Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Stankov, Anamarija; Greeley, Ronald; Blanc, Michel; Clark, Karla; Grunthaner, Paula; Falkner, Peter

    NASA and the ESA have embarked on a joint study of a mission to Europa and the Jupiter system. The Jupiter Joint Science Definition (JJSDT) team is providing science input to a Europa Orbiter mission study (run by NASA) and to the Jupiter Orbiter mission study (run by ESA). The JJSDT is defining the science content of the missions and working closely with the engineering team to define a mission concept that optimizes science, cost, and risk. Unique among the Jovian satellites, Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy crust and its silicate mantle, one where the main conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability, with a warm, salty, water ocean with plausible chemical energy sources. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and particles and fields environments. The Europa Orbiter mission would investigate the habitability of this enigmatic satellite using gravity and remote sensing. To understand in a more generic way the habitability conditions around giant planets, we need to go beyond Europa itself and address two more general questions at the scale of the Jupiter system: to what extent is its possible habitability related to the initial conditions and formation scenario of the Jovian satellites? To what extent is it due to the way the Jupiter system works? ESA is investigating the possibility of a Jupiter Planetary Orbiter/Ganymede Orbiter, which would focus on the Jupiter system. Moreover, the NASA Europa Orbiter would orbit Jupiter for nearly 2 years using gravity assists of the icy Galilean satellites to lower its energy, providing the opportunity for significant Jupiter system science. This multi-platform and multi-target architecture, combined with its broadly multidisciplinary scientific dimension

  9. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  10. On Approach: Jupiter and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io

    This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter.

    Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot.

    The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.

  11. Focus: Reaching for the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Chadha, Kulvinder Singh

    2008-05-01

    The man in the moon. Blue moon. Heavy bombardment era. Black moon. Mechanics of the moon. Perigee/apogee. Blood moon. Harvest moon. Destination moon. Wet moon. Moon Britannia. Moon rocks come down to Earth. Fairy moon.

  12. Ion pick-up near the icy Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volwerk, M.; Khurana, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    The ion pick-up near the icy Galilean satellites is studied using ion cyclotron waves. Using Galileo magnetometer data, we show evidence for the existence of ion cyclotron waves, which are generated by pick-up of freshly ionized particles. Near Europa, in the wake various kinds of ions are detected, which were already predicted to be present on the moon. Upstream of the moon there is evidence for water ion pick-up, which could facilitate the slow down of the plasma flow. Ganymede shows evidence for either water or oxygen pick up on the flanks of the magnetosphere. Callisto shows indication of hydrogen pick-up from its atmosphere.

  13. The Formation Environment of Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Lee, Man Hoi; Sano, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Do circumjovian disk models have conductivities consistent with the assumed accretion stresses? Broadly, YES, for both minimum-mass and gas-starved models: magnetic stresses are weak in the MM models, as needed to keep the material in place. Stresses are stronger in the gas-starved models, as assumed in deriving the flow to the planet. However, future minimum-mass modeling may need to consider the loss of dust-depleted gas from the surface layers to the planet. The gas-starved models should have stress varying in radius. Dust evolution is a key process for further study, since the recombination occurs on the grains.

  14. Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Moon: Populations, physics, applications, and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

    the effective protection of the surface from the solar wind proton. Recently, we also developed a new method to obtain the electrostatic surface potential inside the anomaly from ENA observations. Improved ENA sensor will fly to Mercury by a Europe-Japan joint Mercury exploration, BepiColombo, as a part of Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment on board Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. The ENA experiment will image precipitating plasma at the surface of Mercury. Field-aligned potential in the precipitating regions is also to be derived. European Jupiter mission, JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), will also equip an ENA sensor. ENA environment of the icy moons will be addressed as well.

  15. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2016-07-01

    biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. Titan has further been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In one of our geophysical studies [4], we have showed that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. If the silicate mantles of Europa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical energy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Such habitability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. Other future mission concepts are being studied for exploring the moons around Saturn. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth

  16. Jupiter's ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    First evidence of a ring around the planet Jupiter is seen in this photograph taken by Voyager 1 on March 4, 1979. The multiple exposure of the extremely thin faint ring appears as a broad light band crossing the center of the picture. The edge of the ring is 1,212,000 km from the spacecraft and 57,000 km from the visible cloud deck of Jupiter. The background stars look like broken hair pins because of spacecraft motion during the 11 minute 12 second exposure. The wavy motion of the star trails is due to the ultra-slow natural oscillation of the spacecraft (with a period of 78 seconds). The black dots are geometric calibration points in the camera. The ring thickness is estimated to be 30 km or less. The photograph was part of a sequence planned to search for such rings in Jupiter's equatorial plane. The ring has been invisible from Earth because of its thinness and its transparency when viewed at any angle except straight on. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  17. Icy Tendrils from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, C. J.; Porco, C.; Weiss, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    We extend our previous work (Mitchell et al., 2015) in simulating thelarge-scale, sinuous structures, dubbed 'tendrils', observed inCassini ISS images of the E ring near Enceladus. We follow thetrajectories of particles launched from the geyser sources locatedacross the moon's south polar terrain (Porco et al., 2014), assumingthe velocity distribution of Ingersoll and Ewald, (2011), andincluding forces due to the gravity of Saturn and Enceladus, as wellas Saturn's magnetic and electric fields. Charging currents arisingfrom interactions with magnetospheric plasma and Solar UV radiationare also included. The simulations are used to produce syntheticimages which we compare to Cassini ISS tendril images taken in 2006and 2013. We found that specific subsets of geysers appear to be thesources of identifiable tendril features present in the images.However, there remained features not captured by our initialsimulations: a shift in longitude for the brightest part of thetendrils and two features which only appear in some images.In this initial work, we neglected Enceladus' orbital eccentricity aswell as the periodicity and phase of the variability in geyseringactivity recently discovered and attributed to a ~5-hour delay in thediurnally variable tidal stresses at the surface (Nimmo et al. 2014).And we made no attempt to do a photometric determination of the masslost from the moon into orbit around Saturn.We will report on our progress in rectifying these inadequacies. Wewill present the result of including Enceladus's orbital eccentricity,as well as a diurnally variable particle flux out of each geyser, inaccord with the observed plume variability. Eventually, we will usethe absolute brightness of the tendrils, together with a photometricmodel and information on the particle size distribution from our work,and the work of other Cassini teams on E ring particles, to arrive atthe amount of mass leaving the moon and entering Saturn orbit.Mitchell et al., 2015, AJ, 149, 156

  18. Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.

    Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.

    Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  19. Jupiter's Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is one of the highest resolution images ever recorded of Jupiter's temperature field. It was obtained by NASA's Galileo mission, with its Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) experiment, during the sixth of its 10 orbits around Jupiter to date. This map, shown in the lower panel, indicates the forces powering Jovian winds, and differentiates between areas of strongest upwelling and downwelling winds in the upper part of the atmosphere where winds are strong. The map is based on measurements from the PPR's 27-micron wavelength channel. A ground-based image from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii, showing thermal emission from holes in clouds at 4.85 microns, is shown in the middle panel for reference, with the outline of the area covered by the PPR. The upper panel shows the area covered by the Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) also during the sixth orbit.

    Galileo's observations of the atmosphere targeted specific Jovian features, including the Great Red Spot and similar, but smaller, 'storms

  20. Seeding life on the moons of the outer planets via lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Worth, R J; Sigurdsson, Steinn; House, Christopher H

    2013-12-01

    Material from the surface of a planet can be ejected into space by a large impact and could carry primitive life-forms with it. We performed n-body simulations of such ejecta to determine where in the Solar System rock from Earth and Mars may end up. We found that, in addition to frequent transfer of material among the terrestrial planets, transfer of material from Earth and Mars to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn is also possible, but rare. We expect that such transfers were most likely to occur during the Late Heavy Bombardment or during the ensuing 1-2 billion years. At this time, the icy moons were warmer and likely had little or no ice shell to prevent meteorites from reaching their liquid interiors. We also note significant rates of re-impact in the first million years after ejection. This could re-seed life on a planet after partial or complete sterilization by a large impact, which would aid the survival of early life during the Late Heavy Bombardment. PMID:24341459

  1. Seeding Life on the Moons of the Outer Planets via Lithopanspermia

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; House, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Material from the surface of a planet can be ejected into space by a large impact and could carry primitive life-forms with it. We performed n-body simulations of such ejecta to determine where in the Solar System rock from Earth and Mars may end up. We found that, in addition to frequent transfer of material among the terrestrial planets, transfer of material from Earth and Mars to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn is also possible, but rare. We expect that such transfers were most likely to occur during the Late Heavy Bombardment or during the ensuing 1–2 billion years. At this time, the icy moons were warmer and likely had little or no ice shell to prevent meteorites from reaching their liquid interiors. We also note significant rates of re-impact in the first million years after ejection. This could re-seed life on a planet after partial or complete sterilization by a large impact, which would aid the survival of early life during the Late Heavy Bombardment. Key Words: Panspermia—Impact—Meteorites—Titan—Europa. Astrobiology 13, 1155–1165. PMID:24341459

  2. Seeding life on the moons of the outer planets via lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Worth, R J; Sigurdsson, Steinn; House, Christopher H

    2013-12-01

    Material from the surface of a planet can be ejected into space by a large impact and could carry primitive life-forms with it. We performed n-body simulations of such ejecta to determine where in the Solar System rock from Earth and Mars may end up. We found that, in addition to frequent transfer of material among the terrestrial planets, transfer of material from Earth and Mars to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn is also possible, but rare. We expect that such transfers were most likely to occur during the Late Heavy Bombardment or during the ensuing 1-2 billion years. At this time, the icy moons were warmer and likely had little or no ice shell to prevent meteorites from reaching their liquid interiors. We also note significant rates of re-impact in the first million years after ejection. This could re-seed life on a planet after partial or complete sterilization by a large impact, which would aid the survival of early life during the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  3. Radiation belts of jupiter: a second look.

    PubMed

    Fillius, R W; McIlwain, C E; Mogro-Campero, A

    1975-05-01

    The outbound leg of the Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby explored a region farther from the equator than that traversed by Pioneer 10, and the new data require modification or augmentation of the magnetodisk model based on the Pioneer 10 flyby. The inner moons of Jupiter are sinks of energetic particles and sometimes sources. A large spike of particles was found near lo. Multiple peaks occurred in the particle fluxes near closest approach to the planet; this structure may be accounted for by a complex magnetic field configuration. The decrease in proton flux observed near minimum altitude on the Pioneer 10 flyby appears attributable to particle absorption by Amalthea.

  4. Io in Front of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's four largest satellites, including Io, the golden ornament in front of Jupiter in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, have fascinated Earthlings ever since Galileo Galilei discovered them in 1610 in one of his first astronomical uses of the telescope.

    Images from Cassini that will be released over the next several days capture each of the four Galilean satellites in their orbits around the giant planet.

    This true-color composite frame, made from narrow angle images taken on Dec. 12, 2000, captures Io and its shadow in transit against the disk of Jupiter. The distance of the spacecraft from Jupiter was 19.5 million kilometers (12.1 million miles). The image scale is 117 kilometers (73 miles) per pixel.

    The entire body of Io, about the size of Earth's Moon, is periodically flexed as it speeds around Jupiter and feels, as a result of its non-circular orbit, the periodically changing gravitational pull of the planet. The heat arising in Io's interior from this continual flexure makes it the most volcanically active body in the solar system, with more than 100 active volcanoes. The white and reddish colors on its surface are due to the presence of different sulfurous materials. The black areas are silicate rocks.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. Magnetospheres: Jupiter, Satellite Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Most of the satellites of Jupiter, notably the large Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (see JUPITER: SATELLITES), orbit deep inside the magnetosphere of Jupiter (see JUPITER: MAGNETOSPHERE) and are therefore immersed in the flow of magnetospheric plasma (made of a mixture of electrons and ions) and subjected to an interaction with the strong Jovian magnetic field. These intera...

  6. Habitability Potential of Icy Moons: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Encrenaz, Th.; Sohl, F.; Hussmann, H.; Bampasidis, G.; Wagner, F. W.; Raulin, F.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2014-02-01

    This research focuses on the environments of the outer solar system satellites such as Titan, Enceladus, Europa and Ganymede that seem to satisfy many of the “classical” criteria for habitability with promising conditions for the development of life.

  7. Icy Satellite Science Today and in Cassini's Final Three Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Cassini Mission has turned our view of Saturn's icy moons from scientific sketches to fully realized worlds. Among the major discoveries are: Activity on Enceladus and associated plumes that originate in small hot spots on its south pole and that appear to be modulated by tidal forces; a liquid subsurface water ocean on Enceladus that is a habitable environment; several new moons; debris rings associated with moons; a unique equatorial ridge on Iapetus; the identity of new constituents on the moons including carbon dioxide ice on most of them and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)on Iapetus; differentiated or partially differentiated interiors; nano-iron on the surfaces of the moons and in the rings; volatile segregation on Iapetus and Hyperion; and a bewildering array of geologic processes on the small moons. But our new view of these icy worlds has spawned new questions. Among these unanswered questions are: How variable are the plumes? Have any other moons had activity similar to that on Enceladus and did it continue up to the recent past? How much dust do the moons contribute to the region around Saturn? What caused the ridge on Iapetus? What are the interiors of the moons like? How differentiated and compensated are they? Five additional targeted flybys, two of Dione and three of Enceladus, have been designed to answer these questions and will be implemented during the remainder of the Solstice Mission. The Dione flybys both include gravity passes to determine its state of differentiation. One of the flybys is optimized to measure the fields and particle environment around Dione. One of the two remote-sensing flybys of Enceladus will scrutinize the south polar region to further understand the size, temperature, and variability of the emitting areas, while the other will observe the north pole to determine why it is so different from the south. The third Enceladus flyby involves an unprecedented pass less than 50 km above the surface into the midst of

  8. Jovian Moon Sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.; Gamber, R. T.; Sutter, B. M.; Faulconer, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a lot of interest has been focused on Europa and Ganymede due the evidence of subsurface water oceans. Unique methods of exploring the Jovian moons have been developed that allow sampling of the lunar surfaces. These methods include low cost concepts to collect a surface sampled return it to Earth using concepts similar to the Stardust Discovery mission. The spacecraft can be placed on a ballistic trajectory that will carry it close to the surface of the moons of Jupiter. High resolution imaging of the surface can be collected during the approach phase. Small projectiles can be released and used to kick up a plume of surface material. Unique collectors can capture material from this plume as the spacecraft flies over the surface and through the plume of small particles. The spacecraft is protected from damage by shields. This material can then be retracted into a small Sample Return Capsule, SRC, similar to the Stardust capsule. Aerogel and other absorbant materials are used as the collecting medium. A ballistic return to Earth allows for tracking and capture of the capsule at Earth and return to the Utah Test and Training range. Small hard-landing capsules can be dropped to the surface of the moons during the low flyby by using a retrorocket to slow the capsules. These small landers can also collect critical data on the surface composition and relay it to the flyby spacecraft.

  9. Re-Analysis of the Solar Phase Curves of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Verbiscer, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Re-analysis of the solar phase curves of the icy Galilean satellites demonstrates that the quantitative results are dependent on the single particle scattering function incorporated into the photometric model; however, the qualitative properties are independent. The results presented here show that the general physical characteristics predicted by a Hapke model (B. Hapke, 1986, Icarus 67, 264-280) incorporating a two parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function are similar to the predictions given by the same model incorporating a three parameter double Henyey-Greenstein scattering function as long as the data set being modeled has adequate coverage in phase angle. Conflicting results occur when the large phase angle coverage is inadequate. Analysis of the role of isotropic versus anisotropic multiple scattering shows that for surfaces as bright as Europa the two models predict very similar results over phase angles covered by the data. Differences arise only at those phase angles for which there are no data. The single particle scattering behavior between the leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa and Ganymede is commensurate with magnetospheric alterations of their surfaces. Ion bombardment will produce more forward scattering single scattering functions due to annealing of potential scattering centers within regolith particles (N. J. Sack et al., 1992, Icarus 100, 534-540). Both leading and trailing hemispheres of Europa are consistent with a high porosity model and commensurate with a frost surface. There are no strong differences in predicted porosity between the two hemispheres of Callisto, both are consistent with model porosities midway between that deduced for Europa and the Moon. Surface roughness model estimates predict that surface roughness increases with satellite distance from Jupiter, with lunar surface roughness values falling midway between those measured for Ganymede and Callisto. There is no obvious variation in predicted surface

  10. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa and Similar Scales on Earth (Providence, RI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The top image is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa, showing an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs. The bottom image is an aerial photograph of downtown Providence, Rhode Island at the same scale. The bright white circular feature in the top center of the Providence image is an indoor hockey rink, and one can find many craters in the Europa image about the same size. Blocks of debris which have fallen from the cliffs on the Europa image are about the same size as houses seen in the Providence image, and the largest blocks are almost as large as the Rhode Island state capitol building (large white building in upper left of Providence image). A fracture that runs horizontally across the center of the Europa image is about the same width as the freeway which runs along the bottom of the Providence image.

    North is to the top right of the Europa image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The Europa image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The images each cover an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. The Europa image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by the solid state imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  11. What do the compositions of the regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosqueira, I.; Podolak, M.

    2012-12-01

    Models for the formation of the regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are hampered by our lack of understanding of the turbulent state of the subnebula and the gas-inflow rate [1]. Fortunately, it is possible to construct regular satellite formation models that are not dependent on specific choices for these parameters [2,3]. These two approaches treat planetesimal dynamics explicitly (which is a model requirement [1]), and also account for the angular momentum budget of the regular satellites. The inner satellites of Jupiter, Io and Europa, are depleted of volatiles either due to the temperature gradient in the subnebula [4,5], collisional processes involving differentiated objects [6], and/or the Laplace resonance. The observed densities of the Saturnian regular satellites are not compatible with solar compositions [7]. The inner satellites of Saturn (inside of Titan) include a stochastic compositional component (e.g., Tethys vs. Enceladus) due to collisional processes deep in the kronian gravitational-potential well; however, such an argument can not be applied to faraway and isolated Iapetus. ([8] consider a collisional scattering origin for Iapetus, but we favor the model we present here.) The bulk compositional and size similarities between Ganymede, Callisto and Titan argue strongly in favor of non-stochastic processes for these satellites. Therefore, the non-stochastic masses and densities of the large, outer regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn (Ganymede, Callisto, Titan and Iapetus) provide the most directly useful constraints for satellite formation models. Observations indicate that Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) are of different composition than the regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. The simplest explanation of the observations is that the subnebulae of these giant planets are enriched in water-ice compared to the outer solar nebula [7]. The contrast between icy Iapetus and rocky Phoebe reinforces the interpretation of Phoebe as a moon

  12. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  13. Moon Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  14. After Apollo - Fission origin of the moon. [from planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The present work maintains that the Apollo moon data substantiate the fission theory of the origin of the moon. It has been objected to this theory that prior to fission, the total mass and angular momentum of the earth-moon system would have to be greater than the present total of the earth and the moon, which would imply that angular momentum must have been lost since the fission. The present work states that this loss of momentum can be accounted for by the subsequent boiling off of a large amount of the original lunar mass. This would also mean that the moon ought to be greatly impoverished in volatiles, which it, indeed, is according to Apollo data. It is suggested that at one time the solar system was a binary star, namely, the sun and Jupiter. Successive fissions of Jupiter would have created other planets, which themselves could undergo fission, producing satellites.

  15. Jupiter in Color, by Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This color image of Jupiter was taken by the camera onboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft when it was 81.3 million kilometers (50.5 million miles) from the planet. It is composed of images taken in the blue, green, and red regions of the spectrum and is therefore close to the true color of Jupiter that one would see through an Earth-based telescope.

    The image is remarkably similar to images taken by NASA's Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft more than 21 years ago, illustrating the stability of Jupiter's weather patterns. The parallel dark and bright bands and many other large-scale features are quasi-permanent structures that survive despite the intense small-scale activity ongoing in the atmosphere. The longevity of the large-scale features is an intrinsic property of the atmospheric flows on a gaseous planet such as Jupiter, with no solid surface. Smaller features, such as those in the dark bands north and south of the equator, are observed to form and disappear in a few days.

    Everything visible on the planet is a cloud. Unlike Earth, where only water condenses to form clouds, Jupiter has several cloud-forming substances in its atmosphere. The updrafts and downdrafts bring different mixtures of these substances up from below, leading to clouds of different colors. The bluish features just north of the equator are regions of reduced cloud cover, similar to the place where the Galileo atmospheric probe entered in 1995. They are called 'hot spots' because the reduced cloud cover allows heat to escape from warmer, deeper levels in the atmosphere.

    Jupiter's moon Europa is seen at the right, casting a shadow on the planet. Scientists believe Europa holds promise of a liquid ocean beneath its surface.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  16. Satellite Footprints Seen in Jupiter Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is a spectacular NASA Hubble Space Telescope close-up view of an electric-blue aurora that is eerily glowing one half billion miles away on the giant planet Jupiter. Auroras are curtains of light resulting from high-energy electrons racing along the planet's magnetic field into the upper atmosphere. The electrons excite atmospheric gases, causing them to glow. The image shows the main oval of the aurora, which is centered on the magnetic north pole, plus more diffuse emissions inside the polar cap.

    Though the aurora resembles the same phenomenon that crowns Earth's polar regions, the Hubble image shows unique emissions from the magnetic 'footprints' of three of Jupiter's largest moons. (These points are reached by following Jupiter's magnetic field from each satellite down to the planet).

    Auroral footprints can be seen in this image from Io (along the lefthand limb), Ganymede (near the center), and Europa (just below and to the right of Ganymede's auroral footprint). These emissions, produced by electric currents generated by the satellites, flow along Jupiter's magnetic field, bouncing in and out of the upper atmosphere. They are unlike anything seen on Earth.

    This ultraviolet image of Jupiter was taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on November 26, 1998. In this ultraviolet view, the aurora stands out clearly, but Jupiter's cloud structure is masked by haze.

    December 14, 2000 inaugurates an intensive two weeks of joint observation of Jupiter's aurora by Hubble and the Cassini spacecraft. Cassini will make its closest approach to Jupiter enroute to a July 2004 rendezvous with Saturn. A second campaign in January 2001 will consist of Hubble images of Jupiter's day-side aurora and Cassini images of Jupiter's night-side aurora, obtained just after Cassini has flown past Jupiter. The team will develop computer models that predict how the aurora operates, and this will yield new insights into the effects of the solar wind

  17. Focus on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

  18. Low Force Icy Regolith Penetration Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, P. T.; Galloway, G. M.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, K.; Zacny, Kris; Craft, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Recent data from the Moon, including LCROSS data, indicate large quantities of water ice and other volatiles frozen into the soil in the permanently shadowed craters near the poles. If verified and exploited, these volatiles will revolutionize spaceflight as an inexpensive source of propellants and other consumables outside Earth's gravity well. This report discusses a preliminary investigation of a method to insert a sensor through such a soiVice mixture to verify the presence, nature, and concentration of the ice. It uses percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the frozen mixture, breaking up the ice and decompacting the soil so that only low reaction forces are required from a rover or spacecraft to push the sensor downward. The tests demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in lunar gravity. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy soil, and there is some risk ofthe sensor becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted, so further work is needed. A companion project (ISDS for Water Detection on the Lunar Surface) has performed preliminary investigation of a dielectric/thermal sensor for use with this system.

  19. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  20. Jupiter's Gossamer Rings Explained.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past several years, Galileo measurements and groundbased imaging have drastically improved our knowledge of Jupiter's faint ring system. We now recognize that the ring consists of four components: a main ring 7000km wide, whose inner edge blossoms into a vertically-extended halo, and a pair of more tenuous Gossamer rings, one associated with each of the small moons Thebe and Amalthea. When viewed edge on, the Gossamer rings appear as diaphanous disks whose thicknesses agree with the vertical excursions of the inclined satellites from the equatorial plane. In addition, the brightness of each Gossamer ring drops off sharply outside the satellite orbits. These correlations allowed Burns etal (1999, Science, 284, 1146) to argue convincingly that the satellites act as sources of the dusty ring material. In addition, since most material is seen inside the orbits of the source satellites, an inwardly-acting dissipative force such as Poynting-Robertson drag is implicated. The most serious problem with this simple and elegant picture is that it is unable to explain the existence of a faint swath of material that extends half a jovian radius outward from Thebe. A key constraint is that this material has the same thickness as the rest of the Thebe ring. In this work, we identify the mechanism responsible for the outward extension: it is a shadow resonance, first investigated by Horanyi and Burns (1991, JGR, 96, 19283). When a dust grain enters Jupiter's shadow, photoelectric processes shut down and the grain's electric charge becomes more negative. The electromagnetic forces associated with the varying charge cause periodic oscillations in the orbital eccentricity and semimajor axis as the orbital pericenter precesses. This results in a ring which spreads both inward and outward of its source satellite while preserving its vertical thickness - just as is observed for the Thebe ring. Predictions of the model are: i) gaps of micron-sized material interior to Thebe and

  1. Jupiter Hot Spot Makes Trouble For Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    A pulsating hot spot of X-rays has been discovered in the polar regions of Jupiter's upper atmosphere by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Previous theories cannot explain either the pulsations or the location of the hot spot, prompting scientists to search for a new process to produce Jupiter's X-rays. "The location of the X-ray hot spot effectively retires the existing explanation for Jupiter's X-ray emission, leaving us very unsure of its origin," said Randy Gladstone, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio and lead author of a paper on the results in the Feb.28, 2002 issue of the journal Nature. "The source of ions that produce the X-rays must be a lot farther away from Jupiter than previously believed." Chandra observed Jupiter for 10 hours on Dec. 18, 2000, when NASA's Cassini spacecraft was flying by Jupiter on its way to Saturn. The X-ray observations revealed that most of the auroral X-rays come from a pulsating hot spot that appears at a fixed location near the north magnetic pole of Jupiter. Bright infrared and ultraviolet emissions have also been detected from this region in the past. The X-rays were observed to pulsate with a period of 45 minutes, similar to the period of high-latitude radio pulsations detected by NASA's Galileo and Cassini spacecraft. Jupiter X-ray/UV/Optical Composite Credit: X-ray: NASA/SWRI/R.Gladstone et al. UV: NASA/HST/J.Clarke et al. Optical: NASA/HST/R.Beebe et al. An aurora of X-ray light near Jupiter's polar regions had been detected by previous satellites. However, scientists were unable to determine the exact location of the X-rays. The accepted theory held that the X-rays were produced by energetic oxygen and sulfur ions that became excited as they ran into hydrogen and helium in Jupiter's atmosphere. Oxygen and sulfur ions (originally from Jupiter's moon Io) are energized while circulating around Jupiter's enormous magnetosphere. And, some - the purported X-ray producers - get dumped into Jupiter's atmosphere

  2. Europa's Interaction with the Magnetosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Jia, Xianzhe; Paranicas, Chris; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Hansen, Kenneth C.

    2013-04-01

    Galileo's observations of magnetic field in the vicinity of Europa have shown that Europa does not possess an appreciable internal magnetic field. However, Europa strongly modifies its plasma and magnetic field environment by directly interacting with the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma interactions cause the absorption of Jovian plasma by the moon, pick-up of newly formed ions from the exospheres of the moon, plasma diversion by electrodynamic (Alfvén wing) interaction and the formation of a long wake in the downstream region. In addition to the electrodynamic interactions, Europa also displays electromagnetic induction response to the rotating field of Jupiter presumably from the conducting presence of global salty liquid oceans inside the moon. Galileo successfully encountered Europa 10 times during its mission. We are developing quantitative 3-D MHD models of plasma interactions of Europa with Jupiter's magnetosphere. In these models we include the effects of plasma pick-up and plasma interaction with a realistic exosphere as well as the contribution of the electromagnetic induction. We will present results of these quantitative models and show that the plasma interaction is strongest when Europa is located at the center of Jupiter's current sheet. We find that plasma mass loading rates are extremely variable over time. We will investigate various mechanisms by which such variability in mass-loading could be produced including episodically enhanced sputtering from trapped gaseous molecules in ice and enhanced plasma interaction with a vent(s) generated dense exosphere. The new model will aid researchers in planning observations from future missions such as JUICE and Europa flagship mission.

  3. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  4. Technologies for Icy Bodies Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Anderson, F. S.; French, L. C.; Green, J. R.; Jones, J. A.; Lane, A. L.; Leger, P. C.; Zimmerman, W. F.

    2001-01-01

    Recent events in planetary exploration have profoundly changed the way both space scientists and the public regard the solar system and our place in it. These events include the Galileo data suggesting subsurface oceans in the Jovian system, ever stronger suggestions of near-surface water on Mars, as well as the complex structure observed for the Mars polar caps. And, of course, interest in icy cometary bodies is as old as humankind. Finally, the Mars north polar cap may conceivably cover and protect an ancient ocean floor, an obvious candidate ancient or extant habitat. In short, our interest in searching for life embraced early on the search for liquid water, and that has led us to an additional appreciation for water ice as both a commonplace partner with liquid water and as an issue to be addressed in the exploration of a host of interesting sites. In general, the spectrum of specialized technology for space exploration has not yet been broadened to include the requirements brought about by exploration of icy sites. We argue that technologies for access, operations, and science in icy solar system sites must be examined and their prioritized development initiated in order to successfully plan missions to these compelling sites over the next two decades. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations.

    PubMed

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2009-06-18

    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  6. Chemical Composition of Icy Satellite Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Stephan, K.; McCord, T. B.; Coustenis, A.; Carlson, R. W.; Coradini, A.

    2010-06-01

    Much of our knowledge of planetary surface composition is derived from remote sensing over the ultraviolet through infrared wavelength ranges. Telescopic observations and, in the past few decades, spacecraft mission observations have led to the discovery of many surface materials, from rock-forming minerals to water ice to exotic volatiles and organic compounds. Identifying surface materials and mapping their distributions allows us to constrain interior processes such as cryovolcanism and aqueous geochemistry. The recent progress in understanding of icy satellite surface composition has been aided by the evolving capabilities of spacecraft missions, advances in detector technology, and laboratory studies of candidate surface compounds. Pioneers 10 and 11, Voyagers I and II, Galileo, Cassini and the New Horizons mission have all made significant contributions. Dalton (Space Sci. Rev., 2010, this issue) summarizes the major constituents found or inferred to exist on the surfaces of the icy satellites (cf. Table 1 from Dalton, Space Sci. Rev., 2010, this issue), and the spectral coverage and resolution of many of the spacecraft instruments that have revolutionized our understanding (cf. Table 2 from Dalton, Space Sci. Rev., 2010, this issue). While much has been gained from these missions, telescopic observations also continue to provide important constraints on surface compositions, especially for those bodies that have not yet been visited by spacecraft, such as Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), Centaurs, the classical planet Pluto and its moon, Charon. In this chapter, we will discuss the major satellites of the outer solar system, the materials believed to make up their surfaces, and the history of some of these discoveries. Formation scenarios and subsequent evolution will be described, with particular attention to the processes that drive surface chemistry and exchange with interiors. Major similarities and differences between the

  7. Compositional Mapping of Planetary moons by Mass Spectrometry of Dust Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Trieloff, M.

    2011-12-01

    Classical methods to analyze the surface composition of planetary objects from a space craft are IR and gamma ray spectroscopy and neutron backscatter measurements. We present a complementary method to analyze rocky or icy dust particles as samples of planetary objects from where they were ejected. Such particles, generated by the ambient meteoroid bombardment that erodes the surface, are naturally present on all atmosphereless moons and planets - they are enshrouded in clouds of ballistic dust particles. In situ mass spectroscopic analysis of these grains impacting on to a detector on a spacecraft reveals their composition as characteristic samples of planetary surfaces at flybys or from an orbiter. The well established approach of dust detection by impact ionization has recently shown its capabilities by analyzing ice particles expelled by subsurface salt water on Saturn's moon Enceladus. Applying the method on micro-meteoroid ejecta of less active moons would allow for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of a huge number of samples from various surface areas, thus combining the advantages of remote sensing and a lander. Utilizing the heritage of the dust detectors onboard Ghiotto, Ulysses, Galileo, and Cassini a variety of improved, low-mass lab-models have been build and tested. They allow the chemical characterization of ice and dust particles encountered at speeds as low as 1 km/s and an accurate reconstruction of their trajectories. Depending on the sampling altitude, a dust trajectory sensor can trace back the origin of each analyzed grain with about 10 km accuracy at the surface. Since achievable detection rates are on the order of thousand per orbit, an orbiter can create a compositional map of samples taken from a greater part of the surface. Flybies allow an investigation of certain surface areas of interest. Dust impact velocities are in general sufficiently high for impact ionization at orbiters about planetary objects with a radius of at least

  8. Jupiter: Atmospheric Sounding and Sensing of the Interior (JASSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Owen, T.; Gautier, D.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M.; Atreya, S.; Guillot, T.; Anderson, J.; Allison, M.; Lunine, J.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of the giant planets is one of the most fundamental questions in solar system exploration. Understanding the process that led to the creation of Jupiter is essential to understanding the nature of the primordial solar nebula, and the formation of our solar system and others currently being discovered. Data from Galileo combined with HST and Ulysses results validated our basic understanding of Jupiter as a giant planet whose gaseous envelope consists of solar nebula gas enriched in elements heavier than He by in falling icy planetesimals. However, the current Galileo Probe data set does not itself allow firm conclusions about the original planetesimal composition or the process of giant planet formation - we crucially need the O and N abundances that Galileo could not determine. We propose a new and simple concept capable of determining these abundance in Jupiter plus substantial gravity science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Jupiter - Solid or Gaseous? Ask Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. A., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Data from Cassini, Galileo, S-L 9 and Ulysses suggest Jupiter and Saturn are solid, frozen, Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planets. The bulk of these giants formed slow and cold by the natural accretion of snowflakes at their current orbital radii in the presence of methane, forming rigid incompressible bodies. MGH, (CH4)8(H2O)46 (d=0.9), is consistent with the abundances of the elements comprising the Earth (H>O>C). Their combined MGH comprises >250 earth-masses of H2O. Jupiter (d=1.33) incorporated most of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system, exemplified by an enormously enhanced D/H. The temperature excess of Jupiter's atmosphere is the result of an impact ~6,000 years BP, triggering an incredibly energetic fusion explosion which ejected the masses of the proto-Galilean moons. It also initiated a continuing fusion furnace in the crater producing a jet of hot gases extending >2x106 km, beyond Callisto. The jet has slowly diminished over 6,000 years, resulting in the differences in the four Galilean Moons. The mass ejection (ang. mom.) slowed Jupiter's rotation until ~1930, currently interpreted as a drift of the Great Red Spot. A diminishing fusion reaction (D + p → 3He + γ) continues to this day, producing Jupiter's atmospheric 'temperature excess'. Jupiter's rapid rotation deflects the rising vortex of hot gases from the fusion reaction horizontally, driving multiple zonal vortices, constrained by the frozen MGH surface <1000 km below the cloud tops. It appears as the tilted Great Red Spot (GRS), ~30,000 km to the west of the crater at 22 o S Lat., which has remained unchanged in the last 350 years - impossible due to the enormous Coliolis effect. Streams of 3He produced in the fusion reaction exiting Jupiter through the center of the GRS have been detected by the Galileo probe and orbiter, Ulysses, and Cassini. The fusion releases methane, also heavy elements which oxidize as they rise, producing the cloud-top colors. The MGH hypothesis explains the

  10. Polar Lightning on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Images taken by the New Horizons Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) of Jupiter's night side showed lightning strikes. Each 'strike' is probably the cumulative brightness of multiple strikes. This is the first lightning seen at high latitudes on Jupiter; it demonstrates that convection is not confined to lower latitudes, implying an internal driving heat source. Their power is consistent with previous lightning measurements at Jupiter's lower latitudes, equivalent to extremely bright terrestrial 'super bolts.'

  11. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  12. Jupiter System Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

  13. Electron irradiation effects in icy regoliths: The PacMan anomalies at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.; Zhigilei, Leo

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous regions identified on the leading hemispheres of the icy Saturnian moons, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' features, were found to have larger thermal inertia than the surrounding regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. Here we consider the mechanisms by which electron radiation can produce changes in the thermal conductivity of an icy regolith and compare estimates obtained from theoretical and experimental results with the measured thermal inertia and grain impact resurfacing rates on the icy moons.Electron interactions with the grains can both create and anneal defects in the crystalline lattice, and deposited energy drives molecular diffusion. Mobilized molecules accumulate in the contact region between grains due to the surface energy minimum, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Previously developed sintering rate equations and measured electron energy distributions near the icy moons were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to produce the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of electron interactions in water ice were carried out to determine the number and diffusion length of excited molecules. Water molecules were artificially excited both in a water ice bulk and near a grain surface, and several ice polymorphs relevant to ice grain formation in outer solar system conditions were considered. Comparing the estimated sintering timescales to micrometeorite resurfacing rates indicates that grains must be small (~5um) and/or irregularly shaped with a high defect density in the contact regions. Since there is some disagreement in these grains sizes and

  14. Failure strength of icy lithospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    Lithospheric strengths derived from friction on pre-existing fractures and ductile flow laws show that the tensile strength of intact ice under applicable conditions is actually an order of magnitude stronger than widely assumed. It is demonstrated that this strength is everywhere greater than that required to initiate frictional sliding on pre-existing fractures and faults. Because the tensile strength of intact ice increases markedly with confining pressure, it actually exceeds the frictional strength at all depths. Thus, icy lithospheres will fail by frictional slip along pre-existing fractures at yeild stresses greater than previously assumed rather than opening tensile cracks in intact ice.

  15. The Impact History Of The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    The bombardment history of the Earth-Moon system has been debated since the first recognition that the circular features on the Moon may be impact craters. Because the lunar impact record is the only planetary impact record to be calibrated with absolute ages, it underpins our understanding of geologic ages on every other terrestrial planet. One of the more remarkable results to come out of lunar sample analyses is the hypothesis that a large number of impact events occurred on the Moon during a narrow window in time approximately 3.8 to 4.1 billion years ago (the lunar cataclysm ). Subsequent work on the lunar and martian meteorite suites; remote sensing of the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and icy satellites; improved dynamical modeling; and investigation of terrestrial zircons extend the cataclysm hypothesis to the Earth, other terrestrial planets, and possibly the entire solar system. Renewed US and international interest in exploring the Moon offers new potential to constrain the Earth-Moon bombardment history. This paper will review the lunar bombardment record, timing and mechanisms for cataclysmic bombardment, and questions that may be answered in a new age of exploration.

  16. The tectonics of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.

    The formation of tectonic structures on icy satellites may have resulted from one or more of several geologic processes: global volume change due to internal temperature change, H2O-ice phase changes, or ice-silicate differentiation; mantle convection driven by thermal or compositional heterogeneities; tidal deformation; and impact-related processes including formation of fracture systems, seismic disruption of areas antipodal to impact sites, basin collapse, and global reorientation. Observed tectonic structures and their associated volcanic deposits are classified herein into six basic assemblages: (1) pervasive troughs and scarps occurring at globally coherent orientations; (2) throughgoing troughs and bands of troughs, generally associated with volcanic materials; (3) linear to curvilinear ridges; (4) volcanically modified systems of concentric and radial scarps and furrows; (5) regional volcanic and tectonic centers; and (6) grooved terrain intimately associated with light-colored volcanic deposits. Comparison of these assemblages with predicted manifestations of different geologic processes may lead to some understanding of the relationship of volcanic and tectonic features to the endogenic and exogenic processes that have affected icy satellites.

  17. ICI optical data storage tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Robert A.; Duffy, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    Optical data storage tape is now a commercial reality. The world's first successful development of a digital optical tape system is complete. This is based on the Creo 1003 optical tape recorder with ICI 1012 write-once optical tape media. Several other optical tape drive development programs are underway, including one using the IBM 3480 style cartridge at LaserTape Systems. In order to understand the significance and potential of this step change in recording technology, it is useful to review the historical progress of optical storage. This has been slow to encroach on magnetic storage, and has not made any serious dent on the world's mountains of paper and microfilm. Some of the reasons for this are the long time needed for applications developers, systems integrators, and end users to take advantage of the potential storage capacity; access time and data transfer rate have traditionally been too slow for high-performance applications; and optical disk media has been expensive compared with magnetic tape. ICI's strategy in response to these concerns was to concentrate its efforts on flexible optical media; in particular optical tape. The manufacturing achievements, media characteristics, and media lifetime of optical media are discussed.

  18. New techniques in astrodynamics for moon systems exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagnola, Stefano

    ESA and NASA scientific missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems will answer fundamental questions on the habitability of icy worlds. The missions include unprecedented challenges, as the spacecraft will be placed in closed, stable orbits near the surface of the moons. This thesis presents methods to design trajectories that tour the moons and ultimately insert the spacecraft into orbits around them, while mitigating the mission costs and/or risks. A first technique is the endgame, a sequence of moon flyby preceding the orbit insertion. Historically, the endgame is designed with two approaches with different results: the vinfinity-leveraging transfer (VILT) approach leads to high-Deltav (hundreds of m/s), short time-of-flight (months) endgames, while the multi-body approach leads to low-Deltav (tens of m/s), long time-of-flight (years) endgames. This work analyzes and develops both approaches. We introduce a fast design method to automatically compute VILT endgames, which were previously designed in an ad-hoc manner. We also derive an important simple quadrature formula for the minimum Deltav attainable with this approach. This formula is the first important result of this work, as it provides a lower bound for assessment studies. We explain and develop the complex multi-body approach introducing the Tisserand-Poincare (T-P) graph, which is the second important result of this work. It provides a link between the two approaches, and shows the intersections between low-energy trajectories around different moons. With the T-P graph we design a five-month transfer between low-altitude orbits at Europa and Ganymede, using almost half the Deltav of the Hohmann transfer. We then focus on missions to low-mass moons, like Enceladus. We show that nontangent VILT (an extension of the traditional VILT) significantly reduce the Deltav while maintaining a satisfactory transfer time (< 4 years in the Saturn system). With a new design method we compute a 52 gravity

  19. Experimental constraints on the chemical evolution of icy satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H P; Williams, Q; Ryerson, F J

    2000-01-18

    The inferred internal structure of large icy satellites hinges on the degree to which their rock component has been hydrated: this is due to the low density of hydrated silicates relative to anhydrous silicates. Accordingly, interior models of icy satellites have varied greatly in their estimates of ice thickness due to uncertainties in the density of the underlying rock. Furthermore, as both H{sub 2}O (potentially liquid) and organic materials are likely to be present, icy moons have been postulated to be possible hosts for extraterrestrial life; therefore, the stability of organic material under relevant hydrothermal conditions is an important issue. For example, Ganymede, Titan, and Triton are similar in that high pressure hydrothermal processing of silicates has likely been important in their chemical evolution. With mean densities between 1.8 and 2.1 g/cm{sup 3}, compositional models of these bodies incorporate approximately 50--80% silicate minerals by weight, with ices constituting the remaining mass. Moment of inertia constraints on the internal structure of Ganymede demonstrate that differentiation between rock and ice has occurred: such differentiation has also likely occurred in Titan and Triton. During accretion and differentiation (which could be ongoing), the silicate fraction of their interiors would have interacted with aqueous fluids at moderate to high temperatures and pressures. Indeed, a strong magnetic field appears to be generated by Ganymede implying that interior temperatures are high enough (in excess of 1,000 K) to maintain a liquid iron alloy in this satellite. High temperature/pressure hydrothermal processing at rock-water interfaces would profoundly influence the bulk mineralogy and internal structure of these bodies: the degree of hydration of the rocky fraction of these bodies has been a source of ongoing uncertainty. Surprisingly few phase equilibria data exist for compositions of relevance to hydrothermal interactions on icy

  20. A 'Moving' Jupiter Global Map (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    condenses to form the plume tails, and with falling air in the dark areas just to the east of each plume.

    The maps of Jupiter shown here do not include the polar regions, because those regions are not well seen by LORRI from its vantage point high above Jupiter's equatorial region. Shadows of Jupiter's moons (first of Io, then of Ganymede) appear in two of the maps. Name Dates Range from Jupiter [million km]

    Image resolution element [km] JobsATM1 Jan 8-9, 2007 81.2 402 JobsATM2 Jan 9-10, 2007 79.9 396 JobsATM3 Jan 14-15, 2007 71.9 356 JobsATM4 Jan 15, 2007 70.5 349 JobsATM5 Jan 20-21, 2007 61.8 306 JobsATM6 Jan 21-22, 2007 60.5 300

  1. Is Amalthea a Captured Trojan Asteroid of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Andrew J. R.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 the Galileo spacecraft discovered that the small irregular Jovian moon Amalthea is a porous assemblage of rock and ice. Its bulk density is ~1 g/cc. This is much less than the value ~3.8 g/cc expected of the mixture of rock and metal that would condense at its distance from Jupiter had Amalthea formed from a gas ring shed by the proto-Jovian cloud (Prentice 2001 Earth Moon Planets 87 11). Thus rather than being a native moon of Jupiter (and especially because of its small size relative to the Galilean satellites) Amalthea is probably a captured asteroid. Prentice and ter Haar (1979 Nature 280 300) had predicted Amalthea to be a C-type asteroid. Galileo has found Amalthea to be even less dense than the porous main-belt C-asteroid Mathilde so suggesting the presence of some ice. Most likely therefore Amalthea originally condensed as a planetesimal from the gas ring shed by the proto-Solar cloud at the orbit of Jupiter. The predicted bulk chemical composition by mass is asteroidal rock (65%) graphite (1%) and water ice (34%) [see Prentice 2001 in URL: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/mercury01]. The zero-porosity density is 1.8 g/cc. Amalthea is simply a first cousin of the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter.

  2. Is Amalthea a Captured Trojan Asteroid of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Andrew J.

    In 2002 the Galileo spacecraft discovered that the small irregular Jovian moon Amalthea is a porous assemblage of rock and ice. Its bulk density is ~1 g/cc. This is much less than the value ~3.8 g/cc expected of the mixture of rock and metal that would condense at its distance from Jupiter had Amalthea formed from a gas ring shed by the proto-Jovian cloud (Prentice 2001 Earth Moon Planets 87 11). Thus rather than being a native moon of Jupiter (and especially because of its small size relative to the Galilean satellites) Amalthea is probably a captured asteroid. Prentice and ter Haar (1979 Nature 280 300) had predicted Amalthea to be a C-type asteroid. Galileo has found Amalthea to be even less dense than the porous main-belt C-asteroid Mathilde so suggesting the presence of some ice. Most likely therefore Amalthea originally condensed as a planetesimal from the gas ring shed by the proto-Solar cloud at the orbit of Jupiter. The predicted bulk chemical composition by mass is asteroidal rock (65%) graphite (1%) and water ice (34%) [see Prentice 2001 in URL: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/mercury01]. The zero-porosity density is 1.8 g/cc. Amalthea is simply a first cousin of the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter.

  3. Is Amalthea a Captured Trojan Asteroid of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Andrew J.

    In 2002 the Galileo spacecraft discovered that the small irregular Jovian moon Amalthea is a porous assemblage of rock and ice. Its bulk density is ~1 g/cc. This is much less than the value ~3.8 g/cc expected of the mixture of rock and metal that would condense at its distance from Jupiter had Amalthea formed from a gas ring shed by the proto-Jovian cloud (Prentice 2001 Earth Moon Planets 87 11). Thus rather than being a native moon of Jupiter (and especially because of its small size relative to the Galilean satellites) Amalthea is probably a captured asteroid. Prentice and ter Haar (1979 Nature 280 300) had predicted Amalthea to be a C-type asteroid. Galileo has found Amalthea to be even less dense than the porous main-belt C-asteroid Mathilde so suggesting the presence of some ice. Most likely therefore Amalthea originally condensed as a planetesimal from the gas ring shed by the proto-Solar cloud at the orbit of Jupiter. The predicted bulk chemical composition by mass is asteroidal rock (65%) graphite (1%) and water ice (34%) [see Prentice 2001 in URL: www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/mercury01]. The zero-porosity density is 1.8 g/cc. Amalthea is simply a first cousin of the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter

  4. The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The

  5. Jupiter System Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, Dave; Prockter, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the scientific philosophy that is guiding the planning behind the Jupiter System Observer (JSO). The JSO would be a long-term platform for studying Jupiter and the complete Jovian system. The goal is to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes of planetary systems, their formation and evolution.

  6. Voyage to Jupiter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4) "Science and Scientsts" (listing 11…

  7. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-10-01

    Preface; 1. The importance of the Moon; 2. First steps; 3. Moon/Mars; 4. An international flotilla; 5. Moon rise from the ashes; 6. Moons past; 7. The pull of the far side; 8. False seas, real seas; 9. Inconstant Moon; 10. Moonlighting; 11. Lunar living room; 12. Lunar power; 13. Stepping stone; 14. Return to Earth; Index.

  8. Medicean Moons Sailing Through Plasma Seas: Challenges in Establishing Magnetic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, Margaret G.; Jia, Xianzhe; Khurana, Krishan K.

    2010-01-01

    Jupiter's moons, embedded in the magnetized, flowing plasma of Jupiter's magnetosphere, the plasma seas of the title, are fluids whose highly non-linear interactions imply complex behavior. In a plasma, magnetic fields couple widely separated regions; consequently plasma interactions are exceptionally sensitive to boundary conditions (often ill-specified). Perturbation fields arising from plasma currents greatly limit our ability to establish more than the dominant internal magnetic field of a moon. With a focus on Ganymede and a nod to Io, this paper discusses the complexity of plasma-moon interactions, explains how computer simulations have helped characterize the system and presents improved fits to Ganymede's internal field.

  9. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  10. Origin and evolution of the earth-moon system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1972-01-01

    The general problem of formation of secondary bodies around a central body is studied, and comparison is made with other satellite systems (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus). The normal satellite systems of Neptune and the earth are reconstructed. The capture theory, the tidal evolution of the lunar orbit, destruction of a normal satellite system, asteroids and the earth-moon system, and accretion and heat structure of the moon are discussed. It is concluded that the moon originated as a planet accreted in a jet stream near the orbit of the earth, and was probably captured in a retrograde orbit.

  11. Recent Simulations of the Late Stages Growth of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Hubickyj, Olenka

    2012-01-01

    Presented by Lissauer et al. (2009, Icarus 199, 338) are used to test the model of capture of Jupiter's irregular satellites within proto-Jupiter's distended and thermally-supported envelope. We find such capture highly unlikely, since the envelope shrinks too slowly for a large number of moons to be retained, and many of those that would be retained would orbit closer to the planet than do the observed Jovian irregulars. Our calculations do not address (and therefore do not exclude) the possibility that the irregular satellites were captured as a result of gas drag within a circumjovian disk. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Chemical Processes in the Icy Plumes of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, D. C.; Goldstein, R.

    2012-12-01

    The icy plumes from Saturn's moon Enceladus are unusual phenomena that have raised several challenging questions about the relationship of this small satellite to its surrounding environment. In addition, they offer a unique window to probe the interior structure and composition of this icy satellite. Measurements of the neutral and ion composition of the plumes by instruments aboard Cassini reveal the presence of water group species, nitrogen-bearing molecules, and other species that are the major volatiles in cometary ices. Our cometary coma model with chemistry (SUISEI) has been adapted to study this problem. SUISEI produces abundances of the gas species; velocities of the bulk gas, light atomic and molecular hydrogen with escape, and electrons; gas and electron temperatures; column densities to facilitate comparison with observations; energy budget quantities; attenuation of the solar irradiance; and other quantities that can be related readily to the in situ measurements. Likely ion-molecule chemistry and other issues are discussed to gain a perspective on our current understanding of Enceladus. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge funding and support from the SwRI Internal Research and Development Program, the NASA Cassini (CAPS) Mission, and the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program.

  13. Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Learn about how the moon evolved from its earl...

  14. A HOT GAP AROUND JUPITER'S ORBIT IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Choukroun, M.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Bryden, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sun was an order of magnitude more luminous during the first few hundred thousand years of its existence, due in part to the gravitational energy released by material accreting from the solar nebula. If Jupiter was already near its present mass, the planet's tides opened an optically thin gap in the nebula. Using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that sunlight absorbed by the nebula and re-radiated into the gap raised temperatures well above the sublimation threshold for water ice, with potentially drastic consequences for the icy bodies in Jupiter's feeding zone. Bodies up to a meter in size were vaporized within a single orbit if the planet was near its present location during this early epoch. Dust particles lost their ice mantles, and planetesimals were partially to fully devolatilized, depending on their size. Scenarios in which Jupiter formed promptly, such as those involving a gravitational instability of the massive early nebula, must cope with the high temperatures. Enriching Jupiter in the noble gases through delivery trapped in clathrate hydrates will be more difficult, but might be achieved by either forming the planet much farther from the star or capturing planetesimals at later epochs. The hot gap resulting from an early origin for Jupiter also would affect the surface compositions of any primordial Trojan asteroids.

  15. Jupiter Environment Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  16. Juno: Launching to Jupiter

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Juno spacecraft will look deep beneath Jupiter's swirling curtains of clouds to decipher the planet's structure and history during a mission that will begin with a 5-year flight through deep sp...

  17. Color photography of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Fountain, J. W.; Mintor, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Selected color photographs of Jupiter taken with the 154-cm Catalina reflector from October 1965 to September 1973 are presented. Eight oppositions are covered showing the developments in cloud belt structure and color distribution of the Jovian atmosphere.

  18. Emergence of Habitable Environments in Icy World Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life [1]. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. Hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are icy moons and dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core [2]. By improving an icy world evolution code [3] to include the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, I show that several icy moons and dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction [4,5]. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces [6,7]. I simulated the alteration of chondritic rock [8] by pure water or fluid of cometary composition [9] to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the distribution of radionuclides, whose decay is a chief heat source on dwarf planets [10]. Hydrothermal circulation also efficiently transports heat from the core into the ocean, thereby increasing ocean persistence [4]. Thus, these coupled geophysical-geochemical models provide a comprehensive picture of icy world evolution and the emergence of liquid environments in chemical disequilibrium with underlying rock in their interiors. Habitable settings also require a suitable supply of bioessential elements; but what constitutes "suitable"? I sought to quantify the bulk elemental composition of hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. This was achieved using a

  19. New Horizons Imaging of Jupiter's Main Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark Robert; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, Harold A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine B.; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    New Horizons took roughly 520 visible-light images of Jupiter's ring system during its 2007 flyby, using the spacecraft's Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). These observations were taken over nine days surrounding Jupiter close-approach. They span a range in distance of 30 - 100 RJ, and a phase angle range of 20 - 174 degrees. The highest resolution images -- more than 200 frames -- were taken at a resolution approaching 20 km/pix.We will present an analysis of this dataset, much of which has not been studied in detail before. Our results include New Horizons' first quantitative measurements of the ring's intrinsic brightness and variability. We will also present results on the ring's azimuthal and radial structure. Our measurements of the ring's phase curve will be used to infer properties of the ring's dust grains.Our results build on the only previous analysis of the New Horizons Jupiter ring data set, presented in Showalter et al (2007, Science 318, 232-234), which detected ring clumps and placed a lower limit on the population of undetected ring-moons.This work was supported by NASA's OPR program.

  20. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  1. Observing the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. 'Magnificent desolation'; 2. The moon through the looking glass; 3. Telescopes and drawing boards; 4. The Moon in camera; 5. Stacking up the Moon; 6. The physical Moon; 7. Lunarware; 8. 'A to Z' of selected lunar landscapes; 9. TLP or not TLP?; Appendix 1. Telescope collimation; Appendix 2. Field-testing a telescope's optics; Appendix 3. Polar alignment; Index.

  2. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Saturn is the first giant planet to be visited by an orbiting spacecraft that can transmit large amounts of data to Earth. Crater counts on satellites from Phoebe inward to the regular satellites and ring moons are providing unprecedented insights into the origin and time histories of the impacting populations. Many Voyager-era scientists concluded that the satellites had been struck by at least two populations of impactors. In this view, the Population I impactors, which were generally judged to be comets orbiting the Sun, formed most of the larger and older craters, while Population II impactors, interpreted as Saturn-orbiting ejecta from impacts on satellites, produced most of the smaller and younger craters. Voyager data also implied that all of the ring moons, and probably some of the midsized classical moons, had been catastrophically disrupted and reaccreted since they formed. We examine models of the primary impactor populations in the Saturn system. At the present time, ecliptic comets, which likely originate in the Kuiper belt/scattered disk, are predicted to dominate impacts on the regular satellites and ring moons, but the models require extrapolations in size (from the observed Kuiper belt objects to the much smaller bodies that produce the craters) or in distance (from the known active Jupiter family comets to 9.5 AU). Phoebe, Iapetus, and perhaps even moons closer to Saturn have been struck by irregular satellites as well. We describe the Nice model, which provides a plausible mechanism by which the entire Solar System might have experienced an era of heavy bombardment long after the planets formed. We then discuss the three cratering chronologies, including one based upon the Nice model, that have been used to infer surface ages from crater densities on the saturnian satellites. After reviewing scaling relations between the properties of impactors and the craters they produce, we provide model estimates of the present-day rate at which comets impact

  3. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter--the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.

  4. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies

  5. Comparison of magnetospheres and radio emissions of Jupiter with earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, L. M.; Libby, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetosphere and radio emission of Jupiter is compared with those of the earth. It was predicted that Jupiter would have a Van Allen belt at a radius such that its magnetic field strength would be about equal to that in earth's Van Allen belt and that Jupiter's moon Io travels in the Van Allen belt. Because of Io's low conductivity, plasma sweeping past hits Io, producing a turbulent plasma proboscis which forms hydrodynamic shocks. These shocks travel down the magnetic field lines to the Jovian magnetosphere where they stimulate electron cyclotron emission and free radical spin-flip emission. The free radicals likely to exist abundantly and the richness of the likely decametric frequencies resulting from the many g values of the free radicals are discussed.

  6. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    the type that is referred to by astronomers as 'irregular' , as they revolve around the giant planet in somewhat unstable, changing (i.e., 'irregular') orbits. They are quite far from the planet and were most probably captured into their present orbits (long) after the planet was formed. In contrast, the `regular' moons of the giant planets - of which most have nearly circular orbits close to the planet and near its equatorial plane - are thought to have formed out of a disk of dust and gas that surrounded the planet as it formed. Saturn's only previously-known irregular satellite is Phoebe that was discovered in 1899 by the American astronomer William H. Pickering on photographic plates obtained at the Harvard University's observing station in Peru. In contrast, Jupiter has nine known irregular satellites, one of which was discovered last year, cf. ESO PR Photos 19a-b/00. Neptune has two and Uranus has five (also discovered by the present team, in 1997 and 1999). Saturn's total count of 22 moons now surpasses that of Uranus (with 21). The new moons of Saturn have diameters ranging from 10 - 50 kilometres, in line with the sizes of other irregular moons. They are almost certainly "captured" minor planets. Possibly more moons The team has found several other satellite candidates that are now being followed by various telescopes. When sufficient accurate positions have been measured, it will also become possible to compute the orbits of those objects. It certainly looks as if there is a rich system of small distant moons swarming around Saturn, the beautiful `ringed planet' of our solar system. More information Press releases about the new Saturnian satellites are also being issued by other organisations and institutes: * Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur : http://www.obs-nice.fr/saturn * McMaster University : http://pinks.physics.mcmaster.ca/Saturn * Cornell University : http://astrosun.tn.cornell.edu/index.shtml * Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics : http

  7. ICI/BASF PP for acrylics swap

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    ICI (London) and BASF (Ludwigshafen) have announced their long-awaited polypropylene (PP) for acrylics swap deal. ICI is buying BASF's European acrylic resin business, and the German firm will acquire ICI's European PP operations. The deal is due for completion by mid-1993, subject to regulatory approvals. BASF, hitherto a small-scale PP producer, doubles capacity to 600,000 m.t./year and moves up the European PP league to number three, behind Himont and Shell. BASF, whose process is used in the plants, secures a foothold in the UK PP market, where Shell - planning a merger with Himont - is the only other producer, with 170,000 m.t./year. ICI's purchase involves BASF's Resart GmbH and Critesa SA subsidiaries, located at Mainz, Germany and near Barcelona, Spain, respectively. The business - which will add about [Brit pounds]60 million ($93 million) to ICI Acrylics [Brit pounds]300-million revenues - employs 400 people, who will transfer to ICI.

  8. Study of the gravitational capture of a spacecraft by Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasil, P. I. O.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Deienno, R.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    An extensive analysis of the gravitational capture of a spacecraft by Jupiter is performed for the main regions of interest around this planet. Four different dynamical models are used to study the problem. Our methodology is analogous to the one used to study the gravitational capture maneuvers in the Earth-Moon system. However, here the motion of the spacecraft is free to occupy the three-dimensional space rather than been limited to the orbital plane of the primaries, that is the most usual approach available in the literature. Similarly to what was done in the Earth-Moon system, the two-body energy Jupiter-spacecraft is monitored all the time and an impulsive maneuver should be applied to complete the capture when the spacecraft reaches the periapsis of the close approach trajectory. Our results show that the presence of the oblateness of Jupiter in the dynamical model is essential to obtain lower values for the two-body energy in times that are not too long for practical missions. The Galilean satellites are also very important, and despite their contribution in the gravitational capture maneuver itself, they can be used as a source of swing-bys that decrease the two-body energy Jupiter-spacecraft.

  9. Impact on comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Takata, Toshiko; O'Keefe, John D.; Orton, Glenn S.

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the impact of Comet Shoemaker - Levy 9 on Jupiter and the resulting vapor plume expansion were conducted using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. An icy body with a diameter of 2 km can penetrate to an altitude of -350 km (0 km = 1 bar) and most of the incident kinetic energy is transferred to the atmosphere between -100 km to -250 km. This energy is converted to potential energy of the resulting gas plume. The unconfined plume expands vertically and has a peak radiative power approximately equal to the total radiation from Jupiter's disk. The plume rises a few tens of atmospheric scale heights in approximately 10(exp 2) seconds. The rising plume reaches the altitude of approximately 3000 km, but no atmospheric gas is accelerated to the escape velocity (approximately 60 km/s).

  10. Impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takata, Toshiko; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Okeefe, John D.; Orton, Glenn S.

    1994-01-01

    We have employed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) on Jupiter and the resulting vapor plume expansion using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. An icy body with a diameter of 2 km can penetrate to an altitude of -350 km (0 km = 1 bar) and most of the incident kinetic energy is transferred to the atmosphere between -100 to -250 km. This energy is converted to potential energy of the resulting gas plume. The unconfined plume expands vertically and has a peak radiative power approximately equal to the total radiation from Jupiter's disc. The plume rises a few tens of atmospheric scale heights in approximately 10(exp 2) seconds. The rising plume reaches the altitude of approximately 3000 km; however, no atmospheric gas is accelerated to the escape velocity (approximately 60 km/s).

  11. Three spacecraft observe Jupiter's glowing polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-09-01

    The aurorae on Jupiter are like the Aurorae Borealis and Australis on the Earth, although visible only by ultraviolet light. They flicker in a similar way in response to variations in the solar wind of charged particles blowing from the Sun. While Galileo monitored the changing environment of particles and magnetism in Jupiter's vicinity, IUE recorded surprisingly large and rapid variations in the overall strength of the auroral activity. IUE's main 45-centimetre telescope did not supply images,but broke up the ultraviolet rays into spectra, like invisible rainbows, from which astrophysicists could deduce chemical compositions, motions and temperatures in the cosmic objects under examination. In the case of Jupiter's aurorae, the strongest emission came from activated hydrogen atoms at a wavelength of 1216 angstroms. The Hubble Space Telescope's contributions to the International Jupiter Watch included images showing variations in the form of the aurorae, and "close-up" spectra of parts of the auroral ovals. Astronomers will compare the flickering aurorae on Jupiter with concurrent monitoring of the Sun and the solar wind by the ESA-NASA SOHO spacecraft and several satellites of the Interagency Solar-Terrestrial Programme. It is notable that changes in auroral intensity by a factor of two or three occurred during the 1996 observational period, even though the Sun was in an exceptionally quiet phase, with very few sunspots. In principle, a watch on Jupiter's aurorae could become a valuable means of checking the long-range effects of solar activity, which also has important consequences for the Earth. The situation at Jupiter is quite different from the Earth's, with the moons strongly influencing the planet's space environment. But with Hubble busy with other work, any such Jupiter-monitoring programme will have to await a new ultraviolet space observatory. IUE observed Jupiter intensively in 1979-80 in conjunction with the visits of NASA's Voyager spacecraft, and

  12. Cryovolcanism on the icy satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of past cryovolcanism is widespread and extremely varied on the icy satellites. Some cryovolcanic landscapes, notably on Triton, are similar to many silicate volcanic terrains, including what appear to be volcanic rifts, calderas and solidified lava lakes, flow fields, breached cinder cones or stratovolcanoes, viscous lava domes, and sinuous rilles. Most other satellites have terrains that are different in the important respect that no obvious volcanoes are present. The preserved record of cryovolcanism generally is believed to have formed by eruptions of aqueous solutions and slurries. Even Triton's volcanic crust, which is covered by nitrogen-rich frost, is probably dominated by water ice. Nonpolar and weakly polar molecular liquids (mainly N2, CH4, CO, CO2, and Ar), may originate by decomposition of gas-clathrate hydrates and may have been erupted on some icy satellites, but without water these substances do not form rigid solids that are stable against sublimation or melting over geologic time. Triton's plumes, active at the time of Voyager 2's flyby, may consist of multicomponent nonpolar gas mixtures. The plumes may be volcanogenic fumaroles or geyserlike emissions powered by deep internal heating, and, thus, the plumes may be indicating an interior that is still cryomagmatically active; or Triton's plumes may be powered by solar heating of translucent ices very near the surface. The Uranian and Neptunian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Triton have flow deposits that are hundreds to thousands of meters thick (implying highly viscous lavas); by contrast, the Jovian and Saturnian satellites generally have plains-forming deposits composed of relatively thin flows whose thicknesses have not been resolved in Voyager images (thus implying relatively low-viscosity lavas). One possible explanation for this inferred rheological distinction involves a difference in volatile composition of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites on one hand and of the Jovian and

  13. Cryovolcanism on the icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of past cryovolcanism is widespread and extremely varied on the icy satellites. Some cryovolcanic landscapes, notably on Triton, are similar to many silicate volcanic terrains, including what appear to be volcanic rifts, calderas and solidified lava lakes, flow fields, breached cinder cones or stratovolcanoes, viscous lava domes, and sinuous rilles. Most other satellites have terrains that are different in the important respect that no obvious volcanoes are present. The preserved record of cryovolcanism generally is believed to have formed by eruptions of aqueous solutions and slurries. Even Triton's volcanic crust, which is covered by nitrogen-rich frost, is probably dominated by water ice. Nonpolar and weakly polar molecular liquids (mainly N2, CH4, CO, CO2, and Ar), may originate by decomposition of gas-clathrate hydrates and may have been erupted on some icy satellites, but without water these substances do not form rigid solids that are stable against sublimation or melting over geologic time. Triton's plumes, active at the time of Voyager 2's flyby, may consist of multicomponent nonpolar gas mixtures. The plumes may be volcanogenic fumaroles or geyserlike emissions powered by deep internal heating, and, thus, the plumes may be indicating an interior that is still cryomagmatically active; or Triton's plumes may be powered by solar heating of translucent ices very near the surface. The Uranian and Neptunian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Triton have flow deposits that are hundreds to thousands of meters thick (implying highly viscous lavas); by contrast, the Jovian and Saturnian satellites generally have plains-forming deposits composed of relatively thin flows whose thicknesses have not been resolved in Voyager images (thus implying relatively low-viscosity lavas). One possible explanation for this inferred rheological distinction involves a difference in volatile composition of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites on one hand and of the Jovian and

  14. Using Simple Harmonic Motion to Follow the Galilean Moons--Testing Kepler's Third Law on a Small System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moraes, I. G.; Pereira, J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The motion of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter is studied in this work. The moons had their positions with respect to the centre of the planet measured during one week of observation by means of telescopic charge coupled device images. It is shown that their movement can be well described as a simple harmonic motion. The revolution period and…

  15. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  16. Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces: A liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer for future in situ small body missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Martin, Mildred; Zheng, Yun; Balvin, Manuel; Southard, Adrian E.; Feng, Steven; Ferrance, Jerome; Kotecki, Carl; Malespin, Charles; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is an important laboratory technique for the detection and analysis of organic molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and measuring amino acid enantiomeric ratios in extraterrestrial materials. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for in situ analysis on future landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid analytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through spray ionization and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of our design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.

  17. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise Conference 2008, Barrow, Alaska: IHY-IPY Outreach on Exploration of Polar and Icy Worlds in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Sheehan, Glenn W.; Smith, Roger W.; Sandahl, Ingrid; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chernouss, Sergey; Thompson, Barbara J.; Peticolas, Laura; Moore, Marla H.; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lewis, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this circumpolar video conference hosted January 23-29, 2808 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. This conference was planned as an IHY-IPY event science outreach event bringing together scientists and educational specialists for the first week of sunrise at subzero Arctic temperatures in Barrow. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Kuiper Belt. On-site participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa and Titan by being in the Barrow tundra and sea ice environment and by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice environment and to Point Barrow, closest geographic point in the U.S. to the North Pole. Many science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The Sun- Earth Day team from Goddard, and a videographer from the Passport to Knowledge project, carried out extensive educational interviews with many participants and native Inupiaq Eskimo residents of Barrow. Video and podcast recordings of selected interviews are available at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2008/multimedidpodcasts.php. Excerpts from these and other interviews will be included in a new high definition video documentary called "From the Sun to the Stars: The New Science of Heliophysics" from Passport to Knowledge that will later broadcast on NASA TV and other educational networks. Full conference

  18. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  19. Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Bands of eastward and westward winds on Jupiter appear as concentric rotating circles in this movie composed of Cassini spacecraft images that have been re-projected as if the viewer were looking down at Jupiter's north pole and the planet were flattened.

    The sequence covers 70 days, from October 1 to December 9, 2000. Cassini's narrow-angle camera captured the images of Jupiter's atmosphere in the near-infrared region of the spectrum.

    What is surprising in this view is the coherent nature of the high-latitude flows, despite the very chaotic, mottled and non-banded appearance of the planet's polar regions. This is the first extended movie sequence to show the coherence and longevity of winds near the pole and the features blown around the planet by them.

    There are thousands of spots, each an active storm similar to the size to the largest of storms on Earth. Large terrestrial storms usually last only a week before they dissolve and are replaced by other storms. But many of the Jovian storms seen here, while occasionally changing latitude or merging with each other, persist for the entire 70 days. Until now, the lifetime of the high-latitude features was unknown. Their longevity is a mystery of Jovian weather.

    Cassini collected images of Jupiter for months before and after it passed the planet on December 30, 2000. Six or more images of the planet in each of several spectral filters were taken at evenly spaced intervals over the course of Jupiter's 10-hour rotation period. The entire sequence was repeated generally every other Jupiter rotation, yielding views of every sector of the planet at least once every 20 hours.

    The images used for the movie shown here were taken every 20 hours through a filter centered at a wavelength of 756 nanometers, where there are almost no absorptions in the planet's atmosphere. The images covering each rotation were mosaiced together to form a cylindrical map extending from 75 degrees north to 75 degrees south in

  20. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    Pitman, 2012). We will report on recent results, including spectra of sulfate hydrates, simple organic molecules, and volatile ices measured at PICL in support of past, present and planned missions. We gratefully acknowledge the support of JPL's Research and Technology Development and Strategic Hire Programs, and of the NASA Outer Planets Research and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs. Dalton, III, J.B., Spectroscopy of icy moon surface materials, Space Sci. Rev. 153:219-247, 2010. Dalton, III, J.B., and Pitman, K.M., Low temperature optical constants of some hydrated sulfates relevant to planetary surfaces, J. Geophys. Res. 117:E09001, doi:10.1029/2011JE004036, 2012. Hapke, B.W., Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy I. Theory, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3039-3054, 1981. Shkuratov, Y., L. Starukhina, H. Hoffmann, and G. Arnold, A model of spectral albedo of particulate surfaces: Implications for optical properties of the Moon, Icarus 137, 235-246, 1999.

  1. Voyager 1 examines Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus is presented. Scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft are described as well as methods used for their calibration and evaluation during the cruise phase of the mission. Experiments to be performed cover the following areas: imaging science, radio science, cosmic rays, ultraviolet spectroscopy, photopolarimetry, planetary radio astronomy, magnetic fields, low-energy charged particles, plasma science, and infrared radiometry and spectroscopy. A list of the satellites of Jupiter and their diameters, distances, and periods is included.

  2. Exobiology, Jupiter and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    Recent experiments in an environmental chamber have shown that not even hardy terrestrial bacteria can survive on the Martian surface. The planet Jupiter is now considered by many to be the most likely place to find nonterrestrial life. Atmospheric simulation experiments for Jupiter that have been performed involve spark or semicorona discharges in mixtures of methane and ammonia at room temperature and a pressure lower than atmospheric. Terrestrial microorganisms have been shown capable of surviving 24 hr under a range of possible Jovian atmospheric conditions. The final mode of approach to the question of Jovian life concerns theoretical studies on the sort of chemical systems from which life could be generated.

  3. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  4. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W

    1999-02-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  5. "Sniffing" Jupiter's moon Europa through ground-based IR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganini, Lucas; Mumma, Michael J.; Hurford, Terry; Roth, Lorenz; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis

    2016-10-01

    The ability to sample possible plumes from the subsurface ocean in Europa represents a major step in our search for extraterrestrial life. If plumes exist, sampling the effluent material would provide insights into their chemistry and relevant information about the prospect that life could exist, or now exists, within the ocean. Most of the difficulties in detecting plumes come from the less frequent observational coverage of Europa, which contrasts strongly with the frequent Cassini flybys of Enceladus (Spencer & Nimmo 2013). Recent observations have been taken with HST/STIS in 2014/2015, but results have shown no evident confirmation of the 2012 plume detection (Roth et al. 2014, 2015). Future in situ observations (Europa Mission) will provide definitive insights, but not before the spacecraft's arrival in ~2025, thus an interim approach is needed to inform such space mission planning and to complement existing observations at other wavelengths.In 2015, we initiated a strong campaign to build a comprehensive survey of possible plumes on Europa through high-resolution IR spectroscopy with Keck/NIRSPEC. We were awarded 10 nights out of 15 total nights available for Key Strategic Mission Support projects for the 2016A, 2016B, 2017A, and 2017B semesters under NASA time with the Keck Observatory. In 2016A, we observed Europa during 10 half-nights and will continue to do so for another 10 half-nights in 2017A. We target a serendipitous search of gaseous activity from Europa to confirm and constrain the chemical composition of possible Europan plumes that can aid the investigation of physical processes underlying (or on) its surface. Ultimately, we seek to: (1) provide information that can inform planning for NASA's Europa mission, (2) further our current understanding of Europa's gas environment, and (3) complement studies that are currently underway with other facilities (like the Hubble Space Telescope). In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results, challenges, and future plans of our observing campaign.* This work was supported by a NASA Keck PI Data Award (PI LP), administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, and by the NASA Astrobiology Institute under proposal 13-13NAI7-0032 (PI MJM).

  6. High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.R.; Schubert, G.; Matson, D.L.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Head, J.W.; Geissler, P.; Fagents, S.; Davies, A.G.; Carr, M.H.; Breneman, H.H.; Belton, M.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at last 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on Earth today. In at least one case, the eruption near Pillan Patea, two independent instruments on Galileo show that the lava temperature must have exceeded 1700 kelvin and may have reached 2000 kelvin. The most likely explanation is that these lavas are ultramafic (magnesium-rich) silicates, and this idea is supported by the tentative identification of magnesium-rich orthopyroxene in lava flows associated with thse high-temperature hot spots.

  7. From the Moons of Jupiter to the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1993-01-01

    In this report we will describe the successes and problems encountered in carrying out the above project. Due to funding delays, we were unable to begin the project until February, 1993. The telescopes were ordered in September, 1992. We arranged with the principals of the participating schools, Fruitvale Elementary and Allendale year-Round, to conduct the building and lecture phases of the project during the second and third weeks of February. The principals chose to employ totally different methods of selecting children to participate.

  8. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  9. UV-IR Spectra of the Icy Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Filacchione, G.; Schenk, P.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Noll, K. S.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini's multi-instrument suite allows simultaneous observations of the icy satellites of Saturn over a wide range of wavelengths. We present composite UV-IR spectra (0.1-5 microns) of the leading and trailing hemispheres of the icy moons using data from Cassini supplemented with spectra from Hubble Space Telescope (STIS). We use data of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea from the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS), the Imaging Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual-Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) taken during simultaneous measurements, or using similar observational geometries. The well-studied phase curve behaviors of the satellites are utilized to readily combine Earth-based STIS data with the Cassini datasets to create composite spectra. Focusing primarily on the UV-visible region so far, we find that the spectra of all satellites are bright and spectrally relatively flat at visible wavelengths longer than 500-600 nm; shortward of 500-600 nm the surfaces become absorbing with wavelength, resulting in reddish spectra. The satellites exhibit flattish-to-bowl-shaped spectra in the ~200-350 nm range and demonstrate the 165 nm water ice absorption edge, in varying strengths. These composite spectra are used to study the system-wide surface compositions of the satellites to understand large-scale exogenic effects (e.g., E-ring grain bombardment and radiolytic processing) at a variety of regolith sensing depths, and in particular to study implications for the presence and distribution of organics, ammonia, and other non-H2O-ice species in the system.

  10. Pluto's Spinning Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this animation shows that certainly isn’t the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning ...

  11. The Fatigue of Water Ice: Insight into the Tectonic Resurfacing of Tidally Deformed Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, N. P.; Barr, A. C.; Hirth, G.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Fatigue is a process that causes materials to weaken during cyclic loading and experience brittle failure at much lower applied stresses. We perform laboratory experiments to study the fatigue behavior of water ice at conditions relevant to the surfaces of icy satellites, to test the hypothesis that the lithospheres of some icy satellites are weakened by fatigue. Many icy moons of the outer solar system, such as Europa and Enceladus, experience cyclic stresses driven by tidal forces from their parent planet. Stresses generated by tides and other physical processes, such as solid-state convection of the ice shell, are weak compared to laboratory derived yield stress values of ice. The surface geology on many icy moons, however, suggests that these processes are capable of deforming the surface, suggesting that their surfaces may have been weakened. During fatigue, microcracks slowly grow under the action of cyclic loads. Cracks grow until the stress intensity reaches a critical value and the sample fractures. The rate of microcrack growth varies with material, temperature, and loading frequency, but under most conditions the growth rate can be characterized by Paris' Law. We use a servo-hydraulic loading machine to perform cyclic 4-point bending tests on polycrystalline ice samples to measure the rate of fatigue crack growth. Ice samples are formed using the standard ice method in a sample mold with dimensions of 10x4x2 cm with an average grain size of 1.2 mm. An initial flaw is cut into the sample and loaded such that the flaw experiences the maximum tensile stress in the sample. Our initial experiments were performed at T=223 K, loading frequencies of 0.5 Hz, and stress intensities ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 of the plane-strain fracture toughness. Sample compliance is used to estimate crack length according to analytical solutions [1]. Experiments show an increase in compliance with time, consistent with substantial subcritical crack growth. Future experiments will

  12. The Global Contribution of Secondary Craters on the Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Johnson, K. E.; Schenk, P.

    2014-12-01

    At present, surface ages of bodies in the Outer Solar System are determined only from crater size-frequency distributions (a method dependent on an understanding of the projectile populations responsible for impact craters in these planetary systems). To derive accurate ages using impact craters, the impactor population must be understood. Impact craters in the Outer Solar System can be primary, secondary or sesquinary. The contribution of secondary craters to the overall population has recently become a "topic of interest." Our objective is to better understand the contribution of dispersed secondary craters to the small crater populations, and ultimately that of small comets to the projectile flux on icy satellites in general. We measure the diameters of obvious secondary craters (determined by e.g. irregular crater shape, small size, clustering) formed by all primary craters on Ganymede for which we have sufficiently high resolution data to map secondary craters. Primary craters mapped range from approximately 40 km to 210 km. Image resolution ranges from 45 to 440 m/pixel. Bright terrain on Ganymede is our primary focus. These resurfaced terrains have relatively low crater densities and serve as a basis for characterizing secondary populations as a function of primary size on an icy body for the first time. Although focusing on Ganymede, we also investigate secondary crater size, frequency, distribution, and formation, as well as secondary crater chain formation on icy satellites throughout the Saturnian and Jovian systems principally Rhea. We compare our results to similar studies of secondary cratering on the Moon and Mercury. Using Galileo and Voyager data, we have identified approximately 3,400 secondary craters on Ganymede. In some cases, we measured crater density as a function of distance from a primary crater. Because of the limitations of the Galileo data, it is necessary to extrapolate from small data sets to the global population of secondary craters

  13. Jupiter Atmospheric Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Huge cyclonic storms, the Great Red Spot and the Little Red Spot, and wispy cloud patterns are seen in fascinating detail in this map of Jupiter's atmosphere obtained January 14-15, 2007, by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI).

    The map combines information from 11 different LORRI images that were taken every hour over a 10-hour period -- a full Jovian day -- from 17:42 UTC on January 14 to 03:42 UTC on January 15. The New Horizons spacecraft was approximately 72 million kilometers (45 million miles) from Jupiter at the time.

    The LORRI pixels on the 'globe' of Jupiter were projected onto a rectilinear grid, similar to the way flat maps of Earth are created. The LORRI pixel intensities were corrected so that every point on the map appears as if the sun were directly overhead; some image sharpening was also applied to enhance detail. The polar regions of Jupiter are not shown on the map because the LORRI images do not sample those latitudes very well and artifacts are produced during the map-projection process.

  14. Jupiter's Big Bang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim A.

    1994-01-01

    Collision of a comet with Jupiter beginning July 16, 1994 will be observed by astronomers worldwide, with computerized information relayed to a center at the University of Maryland, financed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Science Foundation. Geologists and paleontologists also hope to learn more about earth's…

  15. Multicolor photography of Jupiter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, J. W.; Larson, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Representative multicolor Jupiter photographs taken with wideband filters in 1965 and 1970 are discussed. Attention is given to the Red Spot and to the differences in methane absorption above the clouds. A table of observational data and white-and-black reproductions of representative photographs with interpretation are included.

  16. BRISSON Mid-IR Observations of the Moon and Galilean Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, C.; Cheng, A. F.; Heffernan, K.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Young, E. F.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA BRRISON mission is performing observations of the Moon, Io, Callisto, as well as Jupiter, several asteroids, and comet Encke in addition to its primary target of comet ISON (1). The BRRISON mission will observe these secondary targets with its multispectral mid-infrared camera that is equipped with an astronomical R-band filter and an additional 8 filters, ranging from 2.5 microns to 4.6 microns, selected to characterize the peak and continuua of the CO2 and water emission bands from comet ISON (and Encke). These bands are also well positioned to characterize the hydroxyl/water absorption band in sunlight reflected from the surfaces of the Moon (2,3,4) and other airless bodies, as well as provide a multiple component temperature measurement of the thermal emission from them. The OH-related absorption bands on the Moon have already been characterized and mapped over the equatorial and mid-latitudes of the Moon (2,5), but at higher latitudes the band shape changes, broadening and possibly shifting to longer wavelengths. The later would be indicative of H2O. The multispectral capability of the IR instrument enables the BRRISON mission to determine if the molecule responsible for the 3-micron absorption band on the Moon can be attributed to H2O or if it is consistently and only OH, including mapping the distribution, depths, and shapes of the 3-micron band(s) over a significant portion of the Moon's nearside surface. Additionally, a possible change in OH- abundance with illumination/temperature has been observed by at least one of the three discovery spacecraft (2), but has not be further characterized by additional measurements. Because the BRRISON mission is planning to image a significant portion of the lunar surface, the multispectral measurements will be able to address that question as well. Third, surface temperatures will be calculated for the same pixels to enable exploring correlations between surface temperature and the 3-micron band characteristics

  17. Our Battered Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Most people have probably heard the tale about the Moon being made out of Swiss cheese because, on Earth, the Moon looks like it is full of holes. Those holes are actually impact craters, circular depressions that formed when objects, such as rocks that orbit the Sun, smashed into the surface of the Moon. The activity described in this article,…

  18. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  19. Look to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gerald Wm.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategy that helps students visualize and comprehend moon phase changes through activities that use an Earth-centered point of view along with direct observations of the moon. Describes activities that parents can use at home to help children become familiar with observing moon phases. (JRH)

  20. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  1. Pluto's Intriguing Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    We talk a lot about Charon, Pluto's largest moon that's about half the size of its host planet. But what about Pluto’s other moons? They're strange, to say the least. Pluto’s four smaller moons —...

  2. Seeding Life on the Moons of the Outer Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    We performed N-body simulations which show that there could be material, and thus possibly life, from Earth or Mars on Europa and several other potentially habitable moons. Rock fragments from the surface of a planet can be ejected into space by a large impact. We simulated the trajectories of such ejecta to determine where in the Solar System rock from Earth and Mars may end up. It appears that transfer among the terrestrial planets is common, and transfer to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn is rare but possible.

  3. HUBBLE CLICKS IMAGES OF IO SWEEPING ACROSS JUPITER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io

  4. Hubble Clicks Images of Io Sweeping Across Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.'

    These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes.

    'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

    A Trip Around Jupiter

    The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days.

    The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut.

    These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye

  5. Time-o F-flight Measurements In Jupit Er's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. J.

    A most successful application of Berend Wilken's great talent for conceiving, designing, and building innovative space flight instrumentation has been the Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) flown onboard the NASA Galileo satellite. In orbit around Jupiter since December 7, 1995, the Galileo satellite has returned a harvest of new discoveries about Jupiter, ts moons, and its environment. In i particular the EPD has uncovered a host of new results and discoveries in Jupiter's magnetosphere and in the interacrion of its moons with the Jovian plasma. This talk will describe the Wilken time-of-flight instrumentation incorporated into the EPD and will present a sampling of the exciting and unique results that have been obtained with this instrumentation.

  6. Photographer: Voyager 1 Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and Three of its four largest satellites are

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: Voyager 1 Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and Three of its four largest satellites are visible here. The spacecraft was 28.4 million kilometers (17.5 million miles) from the planet at this time. The inner-most large satellite, Io, can be seen against Jupiter's disk. Io is distinguished by its bright, brown-yellow surface. To the right of Jupiter is the satellite Europa, also very bright but with fainter surface markings. The darkest satellite, Callisto (still nearly twice as bright as Earth's Moon), is barely visible a the bottom left of the picture. Callisto shows a bright patch in its northern hemisphere. All three orbit Jupiter in the equatorial plane, and appear in their present position because Voyager is above the plane. All three satellites show the same face to Jupiter always -- just as Earth's Moon always shows us the same face. In this photo we see the sides of the satellites that always face away from the planet. Jupiters' colorfully banded atmosphere displays complex patterns highlighted by the Great Red Spot, a large, circulating atmospheric distrubance. This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter. (JPL ref: P-21083 1-22 B/W)

  7. Jupiter: As a planet. [its physical characteristics and radio waves emitted from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The planet Jupiter, its planetary mass and atmosphere, radio waves emitted from Jupiter, thermal radiation, internal structure of Jupiter, and the possibility of life on Jupiter are discussed. Educational study projects are included.

  8. Recent Hubble Observations of Jupiter's Ring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, M. R.; Burns, J. A.; de Pater, I.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.

    2003-05-01

    The period December 2002 through February 2003 provided a rare opportunity to watch Jupiter sweep through its full range of Earth-based phase angles while the rings remained nearly edge-on to Earth. We used this period for a series of Jovian ring observations using the High Resolution Channel (HRC) of Hubble's new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Phase angles span 0.17o--10o. Our images showed the main ring, Adrastea and Metis with very high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Amalthea's gossamer ring was detected (and vertically resolved) in a small set of specially targeted images. Somewhat surprisingly, we have not yet been able to detect the halo in any of our images, perhaps because it is obscured by the scattered light from Jupiter's disk, positioned just 4'' outside the HRC's field of view. Preliminary results from this data set are as follows. (1) The ring is substantially less red than the moons, suggesting that fine dust represents a significant fraction of its backscattering intensity. (2) Neither the rings nor the embedded moons Metis and Adrastea have significant opposition surges. We were hoping to use the surge, which is characteristic of most macroscopic bodies but not dust, as an indicator of where any embedded ring parent bodies might reside. (3) Because our data are so sensitive to Metis (radius ˜ 20 km) and Adrastea ( ˜ 8 km), we believe that bodies as small as 3--4 km in radius should have been detected in the data. In an initial search, no additional bodies have been detected. (4) The Amalthea ring shows an enhancement in brightness in its outermost 15,000 km. This is consistent with what was seen in Galileo images at very high phase angles. Support for this work was provided by NASA through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Icy Collisions - Planet Building beyond the snowline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Hill, Catherine; Heisselmann, Daniel; Blum, Juergen; Fraser, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Collisions of small icy and dust particles beyond the “snow-line” are a key step in planet formation. Whilst the physical forces that underpin the aggregation of the smallest grains (van der Waals) and the largest planetessimals (gravity) are well understood, the processes involving mm - cm sized particles remain a mystery.In a unique set of experiments, we investigated low velocity collisions of dust and icy particles in this size range under microgravity conditions - utilizing parabolic flight (e.g. Salter 2009, Hill 2015 (a) & (b)). Experiments were performed at cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K) for icy aggregates and ambient as well as cryogenic temperatures (80 - 220 K) for dust aggregates.The kinetic analysis of the observed collisions of different aggregate types in different shapes and sizes revealed astonishing results - as the collisional properties of all investigated particles differ strongly from the usual assumptions in models of planet formation.Here, we present a summary of the results on the collisions of icy particles as well as first results on the collisions of dust aggregates. Focus will be on the coefficient of restitution, which measures the loss of translational energy in bouncing collisions and is a key parameter in models of planet formation.

  10. Titan's Impact Cratering Record: Erosion of Ganymedean (and other) Craters on a Wet Icy Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J.; Howard, A.

    2012-04-01

    We examine the cratering record of Titan from the perspective of icy satellites undergoing persistent landscape erosion. First we evaluate whether Ganymede (and Callisto) or the smaller low-gravity neighboring icy satellites of Saturn are the proper reference standard for evaluating Titan’s impact crater morphologies, using topographic and morphometric measurements (Schenk, 2002; Schenk et al. (2004) and unpublished data). The special case of Titan’s largest crater, Minrva, is addressed through analysis of large impact basins such as Gilgamesh, Lofn, Odysseus and Turgis. Second, we employ a sophisticated landscape evolution and modification model developed for study of martian and other planetary landforms (e.g., Howard, 2007). This technique applies mass redistribution principles due to erosion by impact, fluvial and hydrological processes to a planetary landscape. The primary advantage of our technique is the possession of a limited but crucial body of areal digital elevation models (DEMs) of Ganymede (and Callisto) impact craters as well as global DEM mapping of Saturn’s midsize icy satellites, in combination with the ability to simulate rainfall and redeposition of granular material to determine whether Ganymede craters can be eroded to resemble Titan craters and the degree of erosion required. References: Howard, A. D., “Simulating the development of martian highland landscapes through the interaction of impact cratering, fluvial erosion, and variable hydrologic forcing”, Geomorphology, 91, 332-363, 2007. Schenk, P. "Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from impact crater shapes". Nature, 417, 419-421, 2002. Schenk, P.M., et al. "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004.

  11. Tidal Response of Preliminary Jupiter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William B.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2016-11-01

    In anticipation of improved observational data for Jupiter’s gravitational field, from the Juno spacecraft, we predict the static tidal response for a variety of Jupiter interior models based on ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures. We calculate hydrostatic-equilibrium gravity terms, using the non-perturbative concentric Maclaurin Spheroid method that eliminates lengthy expansions used in the theory of figures. Our method captures terms arising from the coupled tidal and rotational perturbations, which we find to be important for a rapidly rotating planet like Jupiter. Our predicted static tidal Love number, {k}2=0.5900, is ∼10% larger than previous estimates. The value is, as expected, highly correlated with the zonal harmonic coefficient J 2, and is thus nearly constant when plausible changes are made to the interior structure while holding J 2 fixed at the observed value. We note that the predicted static k 2 might change, due to Jupiter’s dynamical response to the Galilean moons, and find reasons to argue that the change may be detectable—although we do not present here a theory of dynamical tides for highly oblate Jovian planets. An accurate model of Jupiter’s tidal response will be essential for interpreting Juno observations and identifying tidal signals from effects of other interior dynamics of Jupiter’s gravitational field.

  12. Recent observations of Jupiter's ring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, M.; Burns, J.; de Pater, I.; Hamilton, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Jupiter's faint, dusty ring system has several distinct components: a thin main ring, an inner, vertically extended halo, and an outer, fainter pair of "gossamer" rings. This ring system illustrates the complex dynamics of dust after it is ejected from the local moons (Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea and Thebe) and/or embedded parent bodies, and then evolves orbitally under solar and electromagnetic perturbations. The ring system has been observed by four spacecraft (Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo and Cassini), as well as from the Earth by ground-based observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). While each individual data set has very limited coverage and content, a complete description of the system is now emerging. This paper will provide a systematic overview of the ring system, based on the latest available data and dynamical models. In particular, the period December 2002 through February 2003 is providing a rare opportunity to watch Jupiter sweep through its full range of Earth-based phase angles while remaining nearly edge-on to the Earth. We will discuss the initial results of an observing program using HST in the visual and the Keck Telescope in the infrared. As the rings pass through opposition, the parent bodies surge in brightness while the dust grains do not; this should provide a new means to distinguish the two populations, better revealing their numbers and locations. Variations in halo thickness with wavelength will provide new information about the sizes and dynamics of the dust grains scattered by Jupiter's strong, inner magnetic field. We will also seek out structures near the outer edge of Amalthea's gossamer ring, hinted at in previous data, which illustrate the dynamics of these dust grains immediately after their initial ejection into the ring.

  13. NEBULAR WATER DEPLETION AS THE CAUSE OF JUPITER'S LOW OXYGEN ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mousis, Olivier; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Johnson, Torrence V.

    2012-05-20

    Motivated by recent spectroscopic observations suggesting that atmospheres of some extrasolar giant planets are carbon-rich, i.e., carbon/oxygen ratio (C/O) {>=} 1, we find that the whole set of compositional data for Jupiter is consistent with the hypothesis that it should be a carbon-rich giant planet. We show that the formation of Jupiter in the cold outer part of an oxygen-depleted disk (C/O {approx} 1) reproduces the measured Jovian elemental abundances at least as well as the hitherto canonical model of Jupiter formed in a disk of solar composition (C/O 0.54). The resulting O abundance in Jupiter's envelope is then moderately enriched by a factor of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign solar (instead of {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign solar) and is found to be consistent with values predicted by thermochemical models of the atmosphere. That Jupiter formed in a disk with C/O {approx} 1 implies that water ice was heterogeneously distributed over several AU beyond the snow line in the primordial nebula and that the fraction of water contained in icy planetesimals was a strong function of their formation location and time. The Jovian oxygen abundance to be measured by NASA's Juno mission en route to Jupiter will provide a direct and strict test of our predictions.

  14. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Understanding Jupiter's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Soubiran, François; Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provided constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principles computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ˜10 Mbar and temperatures ˜10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility that helium rain, core erosion, and double diffusive convection have affected the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understanding of gas giant interiors better than ever before.

  16. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  17. Lunar magnetism, space weathering, and icy satellite interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Douglas

    An enduring mystery since Apollo is that, in spite of the Moon's lack of a global magnetic field, the surface is nevertheless dotted with regional magnetic fields strong enough to be detected from orbit. Did the Moon once have an intrinsic global field that magnetized parts of the crust but has since decayed away? This is a question of fundamental importance to understanding the formation and evolution of solid planetary bodies, and yet it remains unanswered due in part to limitations in our knowledge of these crustal magnetic anomalies. Adding to the puzzle, many of these magnetic anomalies are accompanied by enigmatic optical features, known as swirls, which may hold the key to understanding "space weathering"---a process by which airless bodies change color over time due to exposure to solar wind and micrometeoroids. Here we show both that swirl morphology provides information about the structure of the underlying magnetic sources, and that the color of the lunar surface varies systematically with latitude in a way that allows us to distinguish between the effects of solar wind ion and micrometeoroid bombardment, addressing a decades-old problem in remote sensing, and aiding in the interpretation of the spectra of airless bodies throughout the solar system. The remarkable diversity of the outer solar system's satellites provides important clues about the formation and evolution of the solar system. Many of the satellites have surprisingly young surfaces, owing in some cases to on-going geologic activity. Moreover, the existence of subsurface oceans within some of the satellites raises the intriguing possibility of extant habitable environments in the outer solar system. Determining the properties of their ice shells and the structures of their deep interiors places fundamental constraints on how the icy satellites formed and evolved, and on what governs their behavior today. Using gravity and topography data from Cassini, we develop analytical models showing

  18. Family Portrait of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and the Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This 'family portrait,' a composite of the Jovian system, includes the edge of Jupiter with its Great Red Spot, and Jupiter's four largest moons, known as the Galilean satellites. From top to bottom, the moons shown are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

    The Great Red Spot, a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere, is at least 300 years old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The storm is larger than one Earth diameter from north to south, and more than two Earth diameters from east to west. In this oblique view, the Great Red Spot appears longer in the north-south direction.

    Europa, the smallest of the four moons, is about the size of Earth's moon, while Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system. North is at the top of this composite picture in which the massive planet and its largest satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 15 kilometers (9 miles) per picture element.

    The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained the Jupiter, Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, while the Europa images were obtained in September 1996. Because Galileo focuses on high resolution imaging of regional areas on Callisto rather than global coverage, the portrait of Callisto is from the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  19. Family Portrait of the Small Inner Satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These images, taken by Galileo's solid state imaging system between November 1996 and June 1997, provide the first ever 'family portrait' of the four small, irregularly shaped moons that orbit Jupiter in the zone between the planet's ring and the larger Galilean satellites. The moons are shown in their correct relative sizes, with north approximately up in all cases. From left to right, arranged in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, are Metis (longest dimension is approximately 60 kilometers or 37 miles across), Adrastea (20 kilometers or 12 miles across), Amalthea (247 kilometers or 154 miles across), and Thebe (116 kilometers or 72 miles across). While Amalthea, the largest of these four tiny moons, was imaged by NASA's two Voyager spacecraft in 1979 with a resolution comparable to what is shown here, the new Galileo observations represent the first time that Metis, Adrastea, and Thebe have been seen as more than points of light.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  20. Observing the new Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Roy E.

    2003-04-01

    The first appearance of the new Moon has been used throughout history and is still used today to determine religious calendars. Many methods for predicting the Moon's appearance have been proposed throughout history and new models are still being developed. All these models have to be tested against observations to test their validity. To this end, ancient and modern astronomers have collected observations of new and old crescent Moons. Here we present the results of 539 observations of the Moon made over several years by many experienced observers in good weather conditions. In addition to determining whether or not the Moon was seen, the times of its first and last appearance were also carefully recorded. The addition of the appearance time means that even an easily visible Moon, recorded when it can barely be seen, may be compared with a visibility criterion. The observational data base greatly expands on previously published reports.

  1. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits.

  2. Rotating magnetospheres: transport compared at Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    The magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are dominated by the effects of rotation and the associated outward stress exerted by heavy ions picked up near the inner moons Fields and particle measurements in both systems show dramatic signatures of rotational periodicity At Jupiter the periodicity results principally from the effects of dipole tilt and the related displacements of the equatorial plasma sheet At Saturn there is little dipole tilt yet field and plasma properties vary periodically Efforts to understand how Saturn s rotational motion can be converted into what appears to be radial motion a conversion from rotation to rocking or reciprocating motion that is imposed in mechanical systems by a camshaft have recently focused on convective patterns with preferred sectors for transport see Southwood et al this session It is possible that similar effects are present at Jupiter and can account for plasma properties that have been described in terms of what has been referred to as the magnetic anomaly model Hill Goertz and Dessler 1983 This talk will use magnetometer data for the two systems to identify the possibly subtle signatures of the camshaft effect at Jupiter

  3. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. PMID:15881781

  4. Re-examination of Tidal Dissipation in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, H.

    1996-09-01

    The workings of tidal friction in the Earth-Moon system have been well understood for a century. The Moon raises a tidal bulge on the Earth which is delayed somewhat on average from the time when the Moon is overhead. The phase lag between Moon and bulge results in a tidal torque that accelerates the Moon in its orbit, causing it to spiral outward from the Earth. Of necessity, such orbital evolution can only take place if some of the Earth's rotational energy is dissipated (a process which is thought to take place primarily in shallow seas). A similar interaction between planet and moon is the most likely explanation of many phenomena (like the Laplace resonances) in the giant planet satellite systems. However, a satisfactory source of the required energy dissipation in these largely fluid bodies has not been identified. There are currently three proposed explanations (all with shortcomings) for the tidal dissipation in Jupiter and the other giant planets. One, due to Dermott (Icarus 37, 310, 1979), depends on terrestrial planet-like dissipation in the core (which is however of unknown composition and rheology). The strength of this explanation is that all the giant planets are thought to have similar cores; the weakness is our relative ignorance of the physical properties of those cores. The other two explanations both depend on regions of static stability in the planetary envelopes. Stevenson (J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2445, 1983) would have this stable layer in the region of metallic hydrogen-helium immiscibility (which, depending on Jupiter's atmospheric helium abundance, may only apply to the planet Saturn). Ioannou & Lindzen (Ap. J. 406, 266, 1993) predicted a stable outer envelope for Jupiter. The early report that the Galileo probe entered a region of static stability added interest to the latter prediction and raises the need for further discussion of the tidal dissipation problem. A recalculation of the tidal flow in giant fluid planets is presented. The self

  5. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  6. Distinct Aqueous and Hydrocarbon Cryovolcanism on Titan and Other Icy Satellites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.; Candelaria, P.

    2010-12-01

    Almost as soon as low-temperature solar nebula condensation sequences were first computed, it was realized that icy satellites have an internal heat source in long-lived radioactivities and could undergo differentiation; furthermore, freezing-point depressants, such as ammonia, and apolar gases, such as methane, could enable icy satellites to undergo aqueous cryovolcanism. The subsequent recognition of tidal and gravitational potential energy sources increased expectations for cryovolcanism. Voyager imaging and discovery of apparent cryovolcanic landforms—best exhibited by Triton, more ambiguous elsewhere-- motivated studies of the phase relations, phase densities and other thermodynamic properties, solid- and liquid-state rheologies, and possible cryovolcanic eruptive behaviors and landform characteristics. Ironically, the closer we examined Jovian icy moons with Galileo, the rarer cryovolcanic landforms appeared to be, with only a few compelling and very well characterized cases found mainly on Europa. Compelling examples of effusive cryovolcanism mainly occupied local topographic lows, whereas cases not in low spots tended to exhibit signs of explosive emplacement. Spectacular evidence of explosive cryovolcanism or geyser-like behavior was found by Cassini on Enceladus, but most other icy Saturnian moons did not reveal any compelling indicators of eruptions. Titan has so far been a mixed case, where some indicators of cryovolcanism have been reported, but there is scant compelling evidence for the process. We think that the sparseness of compelling effusive cryovolcanic features on icy satellites is because free, unreacted ammonia is less common than previously thought, and the main aqueous liquids are salt-water solutions denser than ice I; hence, they tend not to erupt, or they erupt only if driven by gas exsolution; even then, a thin ice shell and high heat flow is needed to allow aqueous liquids near enough to the surface to erupt. On satellites with thick

  7. Atmospheric/Exospheric Characteristics of Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Retherford, K. D.; Schubert, G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheres/exospheres of icy satellites greatly vary from one to the next in terms of density, composition, structure or steadiness. Titan is the only icy satellite with a dense atmosphere comparable in many ways to that of the Earth’s atmosphere. Titan’s atmosphere prevents the surface from direct interaction with the plasma environment, but gives rise to Earth-like exchanges of energy, matter and momentum. The atmospheres of other satellites are tenuous. Enceladus’ atmosphere manifests itself in a large water vapor plume emanating from surface cracks near the south pole. Io’s SO2 atmosphere originates from volcanoes. Europa’s tenuous O2 atmosphere is produced by intense radiation bombardment. This chapter reviews the characteristics of the atmospheres of Titan, Enceladus, Io and Europa based on observations.

  8. Ion Acceleration at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter and its Global Impact on Magnetospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2016-07-01

    -midnight sector that seem to be related to centrifugal interchange. We will show how the plasma pressure resulting from the large-scale injections perturb the magnetic field and give rise the periodic oscillations as measured by Cassini. At Jupiter, quasi-periodic, large-scale injections also occur in the post-midnight sector, but at much larger distances. Analysis of Galileo measurements have shown that there are also features with similarities to the effects of planetward moving dipolarization fronts, and that the protons, O+ and S+ have different spectral signatures. Although the magnetodisc structure is partly a result of centrifugal forces exerted by the cold plasma, the anisotropies of the hot plasma have been found to account for a very significant part of the force-balance responsible for the disc structure. We will briefly also discuss our science planning and development of the plasma, energetic particle and ENA instrumentation on board the ESA Jupiter Icy moon Explorer and how we plan to address these intriguing science topics.

  9. Space Environmental Erosion of Polar Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.; Killen, R. M.; Vondrak, R. R.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    While regions at the floors of permanently shadowed polar craters are isolated from direct sunlight, these regions are still exposed to the harsh space environment, including the interplanetary Lyman-a background, meteoric impacts, and obstacle-affected solar wind. We demonstrate that each of these processes can act to erode the polar icy regolith located at or near the surface along the crater floor. The Lyman-a background can remove/erode the icy-regolith via photon stimulated desorption [1], meteoric impacts can vaporize the regolith [2], and redirected solar wind ions can sputter the ice-regolith mix [3]. As an example we shall examine in detail the inflow of solar wind ions and electrons into polar craters, One might expect such ions to flow horizontally over the crater top (see Figure). However, we find that plasma ambipolar processes act to deflect passing ions into the craters [3]. We examine this plasma process and determine the ion flux as a function of position across a notional crater floor. We demonstrate that inflowing solar wind ions can indeed create sputtering along the crater floor, effectively eroding the surface. Erosion time scales rrom sputtering will be presented. We shall also consider the effect of impact vaporization on buried icy-regolith regions. There will also be a discussion of solar wind electrons that enter into the PSR, demonstrating that these also have the ability rree surface-bound atoms via electron stimulated desorption processes [l].

  10. Fine Details of the Icy Surface of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dramatic view of fine details in ice hills and valleys in an unnamed region on Jupiter's moon Ganymede. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are only 11 meters across (similar to the size of an average house) some 2000 times better than previous images of this region. The bright areas in the left hand version are the sides of hills facing the sun; the dark areas are shadows. In the right hand version the processing has been changed to bring out details in the shadowed regions that are illuminated by the bright hillsides. The brightness of some of the hillsides is so high that the picture elements 'spill over' down the columns of the picture. The image was taken on June 28, 1996 from a distance of about 1000 kilometers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.; Wade, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere.

  12. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F; Wade, R A

    1997-01-16

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere.

  13. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F; Wade, R A

    1997-01-16

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere. PMID:9000072

  14. Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto's small moons.

    PubMed

    Showalter, M R; Hamilton, D P

    2015-06-01

    Four small moons--Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra--follow near-circular, near-equatorial orbits around the central 'binary planet' comprising Pluto and its large moon, Charon. New observational details of the system have emerged following the discoveries of Kerberos and Styx. Here we report that Styx, Nix and Hydra are tied together by a three-body resonance, which is reminiscent of the Laplace resonance linking Jupiter's moons Io, Europa and Ganymede. Perturbations by the other bodies, however, inject chaos into this otherwise stable configuration. Nix and Hydra have bright surfaces similar to that of Charon. Kerberos may be much darker, raising questions about how a heterogeneous satellite system might have formed. Nix and Hydra rotate chaotically, driven by the large torques of the Pluto-Charon binary.

  15. Resonant interactions and chaotic rotation of Pluto's small moons.

    PubMed

    Showalter, M R; Hamilton, D P

    2015-06-01

    Four small moons--Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra--follow near-circular, near-equatorial orbits around the central 'binary planet' comprising Pluto and its large moon, Charon. New observational details of the system have emerged following the discoveries of Kerberos and Styx. Here we report that Styx, Nix and Hydra are tied together by a three-body resonance, which is reminiscent of the Laplace resonance linking Jupiter's moons Io, Europa and Ganymede. Perturbations by the other bodies, however, inject chaos into this otherwise stable configuration. Nix and Hydra have bright surfaces similar to that of Charon. Kerberos may be much darker, raising questions about how a heterogeneous satellite system might have formed. Nix and Hydra rotate chaotically, driven by the large torques of the Pluto-Charon binary. PMID:26040889

  16. Shock vaporization and the accretion of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The role of impact vaporization acting during the formation of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites is examined in an attempt to explain the observed density in terms of composition of these rock and ice objects. A hypothesis is examined which states that the smaller satellites of Saturn having mean densities in the 1.1 to 1.4 Mg/cu m range represent primordial accreted planetesimal condensates formed in the proto-Jovian and Saturnian accretionary planetary discs. These densities are in the range expected for water-ice/silicate mixtures constrained in the solar values of O/Si and O/Mg atomic ratios. It is demonstrated that if the large satellites accreted from the same group of planetesimals which formed the small Saturnian satellites impact vaporization of water upon accretion in a porous regolith, at low H2O partial pressure, can account for the increase in mean planetesimal density from 1.6 Mg/cu m (43% H2O + 57% silicate) to a mean planetary density of 1.9 Mg/cu m for Ganymedean-sized water silicate objects. If impact volatilization of initially porous planetesimals is assumed, it can be demonstrated starting with planetesimals composed of 54% H2O and 40% silicate partial devolatilization upon accretion will yield a Ganymede-sized planet, having a radius of 2600 km and a density of 1.85 kg/cu m, similar to that of Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan.

  17. Heliospheric Electrons from Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Herrero, R.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; del Peral, L.; Sequeiros, J.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Kunow, H.

    2001-08-01

    The electron spectrum in the energy range 250 keV to 10 MeV measured by EPHIN sensor onboard SOHO observatory during 1996 quiet time periods is presented. The results show that the dominant electron population is of Jovian origin. The spectral indexes obtained range from 1.5 to 1.8 in this work an estimation of the emission intensity of electrons from the Jovian magnetosphere is also obtained. Unexpected recurrence of Jovian electrons at the middle of 1996, during poor EarthJupiter magnetic connection has been observed.

  18. The Portrayal of the Medicean Moons in Early Astronomical Charts and Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Galileo’s talents in perspective and chiaroscuro drawing led to his images of the Moon being accepted as the portrayal of a truly natural physical place. The Moon was seen as a world—real but separate from Earth. In contrast to his resolved views of the Moon, Galileo saw the moons of Jupiter as only points of light, and thus in Sidereus Nuncius they appear as star-symbols. Within 50 years, in Cellarius’ Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonia Macrocosmica (1660), the Medicean moons continue to appear in multiple charts as star-shaped symbols—in most cases equidistant from Jupiter. They appear in the Cellarius charts as updates to the cosmological systems of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe, but not in the charts devoted to the Ptolemaic system. A quarter century later, Mallet did not include the moons of Jupiter in his Copernican chart in Description de l’Universe (1683). Around 1690, in Jaillot’s Four Systems of Cosmology, the Medicean moons appear as circular symbols in four distinct concentric orbits around Jupiter. Additional examples appear in a later edition of Mallet ((1690s), and in De Fer (1705), Dopplemayer (1720), and still later in Buy de Mornas (1761). As objects discussed in scientific book, symbolic representations of the Medicean moons appear in Marius (1614), Descartes (1644), Fontana (1646) and Hevelius (1647). A pictorial survey of antiquarian charts and books depicting the Medicean moons will be the focus of this presentation. As telescope sizes increased, the Galilean moons could be seen as extended objects, and thus the transition occurred from portraying the moons as points of light to disks with physically-meaningful details. Initially, these were done via drawings of glimpses of the disks of the four moons during moments of extremely good seeing (termed “lucky images” in the pre-adaptive optics period). This era of portraying surface characteristics of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto by hand-drawn images from naked-eye observations ended

  19. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  20. Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, William

    1984-01-01

    Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

  1. The origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruskol, Y. L.

    1977-01-01

    The fractionation of the chemical compositions of the moon and the earth and the thermal history of the moon for formation of the moon from an earth-orbiting swarm of bodies during the accumulation of the earth are discussed.

  2. Infrared Spectral Studies of the Thermally-Driven Chemistry Present on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of Jupiters icy satellites has revealed that even though their surfaces arc composed mostly of water ice, molecules such as SO2, CO2, H2O2. O2, and O3 also are present. On Europa, a high radiation flux is believed to play a role in the formation of many of the minor species detected, and numerous laboratory studies have been devoted to explore this hypothesis. In this presentation we will discuss some of our recent research on another alteration pathway, thermally-driven chemical reactions, which are also important for understanding the chemical evolution of Europa's surface and sub-surface ices. We will focus on the infrared spectra of and reactions between H2O, SO2 and H2O2, at 80 - 130 K.

  3. Chemical Schemes for Surface Modification of Icy Satellites: A Road Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delitsky, Mona L.; Lane, Arthur L.

    1997-01-01

    The icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter are subject to magnetospheric plasma ion bombardment, which induces chemical changes within the ice. The possible detection of CO2 on the surface of Ganymede by the Galileo spacecraft makes for a more complicated chemistry and increases the number of chemical compounds that may then be present. We outline chemical schemes for the irradiation of pure and mixed ices H2O/CO2 and suggest species which observers may detect on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, such as C3O2, H2CO3, H2O2, CO3, HO2, CO, H2CO, CH2CO, as well as K2O, KOH, and SO3, from plasma implantation. Column abundances of compounds in the ice are calculated using a specified energy input and G values (yield per 100 eV).

  4. China targets the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    China has already launched two spacecraft to the Moon and wants to send rovers and astronauts there as well - and to eventually build its own lunar base. Ziuyan Ouyang, chief scientist of China's lunarprogramme, talks about the country's ambitious Moon plans.

  5. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  6. The Giant Planet Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John H.

    2009-07-01

    Part I. Observing Jupiter: 1. Observations from Earth; 2. Observations from spacecraft; Part II. The Visible Structure of the Atmosphere: 3. Horizontal structure: belts, currents, spots and storms; 4. Vertical structure: colours and clouds; Part III. The Observational Record of the Atmosphere: 5. The Polar Region; 6. North North Temperate Regions (57°N to 35°N); 7. North Temperate Region (35°N to 23°N); 8. North Tropical Region (23°N to 9°N); 9. Equatorial Region (9°N to 9°S); 10. South Tropical Region (9°S to 27°S); 11. South Temperate Region (27°S to 37°S); 12. South South Temperate Region (37°S to 53°S); Part IV: The Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere: 13. Possible large-scale and long-term patterns; 14. The dynamics of individual spots; 15. Theoretical models of the atmosphere; 16. The composition of the planet; Part V. The Electrodynamic Environment of Jupiter: 17. Lights in the Jovian night; 18. The magnetosphere and radiation belts; Part VI. The Satellites: 19. The inner satellites and the ring; 20. The Galilean satellites; 21. Io; 22. Europa; 23. Ganymede; 24. Callisto; 25. The outer satellites; Appendices: 1. Measurement of longitude; 2. Measurement of latitude; 3. Lists of apparitions and published reports; 4. Bibliography (The planet); 5. Bibliography (The magnetosphere and satellites); Index.

  7. Jupiter G Impact Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This mosaic of WFPC-2 images shows the evolution of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G impact site on Jupiter. The images from lower left to upper right show: the impact plume at 07/18/94 07:38 UT (about 5 minutes after the impact); the fresh impact site at 07/18/94 at 09:19 UT (1.5 hours after impact); the impact site after evolution by the winds of Jupiter (left), along with the L impact (right), taken on 07/21/94 at 6:22 UT (3 days after the G impact and 1.3 days after the L impact); and further evolution of the G and L sites due to winds and an additional impact (S) in the G vicinity, taken on 07/23/94 at 08:08 UT (5 days after the G impact).

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  8. Orbit determination strategy and results for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, S. K.; Lubeley, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pioneer 10 is the first earth-based vehicle to encounter Jupiter and occult its moon, Io. In contributing to the success of the mission, the Orbit Determination Group evaluated the effects of the dominant error sources on the spacecraft's computed orbit and devised an encounter strategy minimizing the effects of these error sources. The encounter results indicated that: (1) errors in the satellite model played a very important role in the accuracy of the computed orbit, (2) encounter strategy was sound, (3) all mission objectives were met, and (4) Jupiter-Saturn mission for Pioneer 11 is within the navigation capability.

  9. The Soviet-American Conference on Cosmochemistry of the Moon and Planets, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomeroy, J. H. (Editor); Hubbard, N. J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The basic goal of the conference was consideration of the origin of the planets of the solar system, based on the physical and chemical data obtained by study of the material of the moon and planets. Papers at the conference were presented in the following sessions: (1) Differentiation of the material of the moon and planets; (2) The thermal history of the moon; (3) Lunar gravitation and magnetism; (4) Chronology of the moon, planets, and meteorites; (5) The role of exogenic factors in the formation of the lunar surface; (6) Cosmochemical hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and (7) New data about the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter.

  10. Ices on the Satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Roush, Ted L.

    1995-01-01

    Three satellites of Jupiter, seven satellites of Saturn, and five satellites of Uranus show spectroscopic evidence of H2O ice on their surfaces, although other details of their surfaces are highly diverse. The icy surfaces contain contaminants of unknown composition in varying degrees of concentration, resulting in coloration and large differences in albedo. In addition to H2O, Europa has frozen SO2, and Ganymede has O2 in the surface; in both of these cases external causes are implicated in the deposition or formation of these trace components. Variations in ice exposure across the surfaces of the satellites are measured from the spectroscopic signatures. While H2O ice occurs on the surfaces of many satellites, the range of bulk densities of these bodies shows that its contribution to their overall compositions is highly variable from one object to another.

  11. The interaction of the Galilean moons with their space environment: Lessons learnt from previous missions and prospects for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that aproximately corotates with Jupiter. The physical processes revealed in the regions of space surrounding them are remarkably diverse. The Galilean moons, with their exospheres, are conductive bodies. As they move through the Jovian magnetic field, they create a specific current system. This electrodynamical coupling is not stationary. Part of the electromagnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy of accelerated particles, with the formation of particular auroral features. Ganymede, the unique magnetized moon to date, possesses its own mini-magnetosphere that is coupled to Jupiter's giant magnetosphere. This interaction is powerful enough to create an intense auroral footpoint at Jupiter. The coupling with Europa is apparently much less powerful, even if it seems able to generate intense waves. By contrast, Callisto is the most quiet. The parameters that determine the strength of the coupling, the way magnetic fields are distorted and large-scale fluctuations are generated, are unknown, as are the details of the interaction itself. I will first review some of the multi-instrument observations obtained in the vicinity of the Galilean moons by the NASA/Galileo mission that contribute to our current understanding of the moon-magnetosphere interactions. I will then discuss how the ESA/JUICE mission to be launched in 2022 will provide a thorough investigation of these unique planetary bodies in all their complexity.

  12. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  13. TRANSIT MODEL OF PLANETS WITH MOON AND RING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Tusnski, Luis Ricardo M.; Valio, Adriana E-mail: avalio@craam.mackenzie.br

    2011-12-10

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, those most adequate for life to begin and evolve have been sought. Due to observational bias, however, most of the discovered planets so far are gas giants, precluding their habitability. However, if these hot Jupiters are located in the habitable zones of their host stars, and if rocky moons orbit them, then these moons may be habitable. In this work, we present a model for planetary transit simulation considering the presence of moons and planetary rings around a planet. The moon's orbit is considered to be circular and coplanar with the planetary orbit. The other physical and orbital parameters of the star, planet, moon, and rings can be adjusted in each simulation. It is possible to simulate as many successive transits as desired. Since the presence of spots on the surface of the star may produce a signal similar to that of the presence of a moon, our model also allows for the inclusion of starspots. The result of the simulation is a light curve with a planetary transit. White noise may also be added to the light curves to produce curves similar to those obtained by the CoRoT and Kepler space telescopes. The goal is to determine the criteria for detectability of moons and/or ring systems using photometry. The results show that it is possible to detect moons with radii as little as 1.3 R{sub Circled-Plus} with CoRoT and 0.3 R{sub Circled-Plus} with Kepler.

  14. Icy Schwedeneck field may provide reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Situated in an icy region of the Baltic Sea, Germany's first offshore field may provide the nation with the reference needed to encroach the arctic market. Production began last winter from one platform in the Schwedeneck-See field, located about three miles off the Baltic Coast. Total reserves have been estimated at more than 18 million bbl. Yearly production by the end of 1986 has been estimated at 294,000 bbl. The first two production platforms were installed in late 1983 in water depths ranging from 50 to 80 ft. Because of the ice hazards inherent in the Baltic, the platforms are concrete designed with steel decks.

  15. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  16. Pluto's moons named

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    In the end, it did not matter that the name Vulcan came in first place by a landslide in a nonbinding public vote to suggest names for the fourth and fifth known moons of Pluto. Despite the independent vote conducted by the SETI Institute in Mountain View, Calif., on behalf of the team that discovered the moons, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) did not select the name for a Plutonian moon. The decision came much to the dismay of actor William Shatner (who played Captain Kirk in Star Trek). Shatner had pushed for the name Vulcan to honor the home planet of Star Trek character Dr. Spock.

  17. Why the Moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, President George W. Bush proposed a new set of goals for NASA which have since been formalized by Congress as the revised United States Space Policy. A major goal is to return humans to the moon by 2020. This prompted a world-wide discussion about what our goals in space ought to be. In 2006 NASA surveyed potential stakeholders asking the question, "Why the Moon?" Responses were received from over 1000 entities including business, industry, academia, and 13 other space agencies. This presentation reports the responses to that questionnaire, as well as current plans for how the return to the moon will be accomplished.

  18. Steps to the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Dale, Alvin E.

    1976-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, man walked on the surface of the Moon and began a new chapter of his studies that will eventually disclose the geologic nature of the Earth's nearest neighbor. Although he has finally reached the Moon and sampled its substance, much work and study remain before he will know the full scientific significance of the first landing. This booklet briefly summarizes the steps man has taken to understand the Moon and what he thinks he has learned to date as a result of his centuries-long speculations and studies.

  19. Survivability of bacteria ejected from icy surfaces after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Mark J; Galloway, James A; Bunch, Alan W; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2003-02-01

    Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein life migrates naturally through space. A possible mechanism would be that life, here taken as bacteria, could become frozen in the icy surface of one body. If a high-speed impact occurred on that surface, ejecta containing the bacteria could be thrown into space. It could then migrate around the local region of space until it arrived at a second icy body in another high-speed impact. In this paper we consider some of the necessary steps for such a process to occur, concentrating on the ejection of ice bearing bacteria in the initial impact, and on what happens when bacteria laden projectiles hit an icy surface. Laboratory experiments using high-speed impacts with a light gas gun show that obtaining icy ejecta with viable bacterial loads is straightforward. In addition to demonstrating the viability of the bacteria carried on the ejecta, we have also measured the angular and size distribution of the ejecta produced in hypervelocity impacts on ice. We have however been unsuccessful at transferring viable bacteria to icy surfaces from bacteria laden projectiles impacting at hypervelocities. PMID:12967273

  20. Survivability of bacteria ejected from icy surfaces after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Mark J; Galloway, James A; Bunch, Alan W; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2003-02-01

    Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein life migrates naturally through space. A possible mechanism would be that life, here taken as bacteria, could become frozen in the icy surface of one body. If a high-speed impact occurred on that surface, ejecta containing the bacteria could be thrown into space. It could then migrate around the local region of space until it arrived at a second icy body in another high-speed impact. In this paper we consider some of the necessary steps for such a process to occur, concentrating on the ejection of ice bearing bacteria in the initial impact, and on what happens when bacteria laden projectiles hit an icy surface. Laboratory experiments using high-speed impacts with a light gas gun show that obtaining icy ejecta with viable bacterial loads is straightforward. In addition to demonstrating the viability of the bacteria carried on the ejecta, we have also measured the angular and size distribution of the ejecta produced in hypervelocity impacts on ice. We have however been unsuccessful at transferring viable bacteria to icy surfaces from bacteria laden projectiles impacting at hypervelocities.

  1. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  2. Astrobiological Aspects of Radiation Chemistry in Europa's Icy Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely subsurface ocean and young, active surface, is a promising habitat for life. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both positive and negative aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for life that may be upwelled to the surface is rapidly altered by irradiation, complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We present an overview of laboratory work performed at JPL and elsewhere and observational results related to these two aspects. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen are known to exist on Europa and the radiolytic production of these species has been studied in the laboratory for both electron and ion irradiation. Laboratory- measured equilibrium concentrations of H2O2, where production and destruction rates are equal, are in general agreement with the observed 0.1% molar abundance on Europa. The shape of Europa's peroxide band is consistent with the line shapes observed in radiolysis and with H2O2 dispersed in water ice rather than occurring as H2O2 aggregates. Surprisingly, molecular oxygen may be even more abundant on Europa even though O2 is extremely volatile ande would be expected to escape from the ice surface. Radiolysis can produce molecular oxygen and appears to simultaneously alter the ice matrix, trapping the O2. Other species observed on Europa are CO2 and SO2, and laboratory radiolysis of these species in H2O ice produces carbonic and sulfuric acid, respectively. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane, which can escape the system and results in loss of carbon. In

  3. Flow and fracture of ices, with application to icy satellites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Pathare, A.; Golding, N.

    2013-12-01

    large icy moons; flow of very low melting temperature, weakly bonded solids such as N2, CH4, and CO2; and the behavior of ice-rich, large exoplanets. We will review recent results on the rheological behavior of water ice I in the regime of combined flow by grain size sensitive and grain size insensitive mechanisms of deformation, and in particular the possibility that grain size is not a free variable when ice I deforms over large strains for long periods of time, but rather is defined by stress and temperature. Existing rheological laws suggest that viscosity of an ice-I-rich outer layer on a large icy moon, including a moon as small as Enceladus, may be strongly grain size dependent. We will also review developments in two-phase flow, with implications for geysers on Enceladus and methane in Titan's atmosphere.

  4. What's New on the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and origin of the…

  5. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  6. Off to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loud, Gwyneth E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which simulates a trip to the moon. Explains the preparations, procedures, and tests involved in this culminating activity of an astronomy unit for the third grade student. Examples of student's assignments during the exercise are included. (ML)

  7. Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David

    2006-01-01

    Many ideas have been proposed for the origin of the Moon, but only one has stood the test of time: During the formation of Earth, about 4.5 billion years ago, our planet was hit by a projectile the size of Mars, leading to a close-in disk of molten material in earth orbit. From this material, our Moon formed in about a thousand years. I will explain how the properties of the Moon can be explained by this model and why the alternative ideas are either incorrect or highly improbable. I will also talk about some new developments in this area that come from a consideration of chemistry and isotopic measurements. Finally. I will talk about what we don't know and why the Moon is still an interesting place for further exploration.

  8. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  9. ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...

  10. The sculpting of Jupiter's gossamer rings by its shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Krüger, Harald

    2008-05-01

    Dust near Jupiter is produced when interplanetary impactors collide energetically with small inner moons, and is organized into a main ring, an inner halo, and two fainter and more distant gossamer rings. Most of these structures are constrained by the orbits of the moons Adrastea, Metis, Amalthea and Thebe, but a faint outward protrusion called the Thebe extension behaves differently and has eluded understanding. Here we report on dust impacts detected during the Galileo spacecraft's traversal of the outer ring region: we find a gap in the rings interior to Thebe's orbit, grains on highly inclined paths, and a strong excess of submicrometre-sized dust just inside Amalthea's orbit. We present detailed modelling that shows that the passage of ring particles through Jupiter's shadow creates the Thebe extension and fully accounts for these Galileo results. Dust grains alternately charge and discharge when traversing shadow boundaries, allowing the planet's powerful magnetic field to excite orbital eccentricities and, when conditions are right, inclinations as well.

  11. The sculpting of Jupiter's gossamer rings by its shadow.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Douglas P; Krüger, Harald

    2008-05-01

    Dust near Jupiter is produced when interplanetary impactors collide energetically with small inner moons, and is organized into a main ring, an inner halo, and two fainter and more distant gossamer rings. Most of these structures are constrained by the orbits of the moons Adrastea, Metis, Amalthea and Thebe, but a faint outward protrusion called the Thebe extension behaves differently and has eluded understanding. Here we report on dust impacts detected during the Galileo spacecraft's traversal of the outer ring region: we find a gap in the rings interior to Thebe's orbit, grains on highly inclined paths, and a strong excess of submicrometre-sized dust just inside Amalthea's orbit. We present detailed modelling that shows that the passage of ring particles through Jupiter's shadow creates the Thebe extension and fully accounts for these Galileo results. Dust grains alternately charge and discharge when traversing shadow boundaries, allowing the planet's powerful magnetic field to excite orbital eccentricities and, when conditions are right, inclinations as well.

  12. The moon and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome

    1992-04-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed focusing on the unique position of the earth-moon as double planet. The presence of moon is considered to have had profound effects on the evolution of the earth and life upon it. It is hypothesized that the nearest civilization may be tens of thousands of light years away from the Galaxy, and SETI may be more successful in contacting civilizations in nearby galaxies than in the Milky Way.

  13. Porosity and the ecology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    The case for a significant role for porosity in the structure and evolution of icy bodies in the Solar System has been difficult to establish. We present a relevant new data set and a series of structure models including a mechanical compression, not thermal creep, model for porosity that accounts satisfactorily for observed densities, moments of inertia, geologic activity, and sizes of tectonic features on icy satellites. Several types of observational data sets have been used to infer significant porosity, but until recently, alternative explanations have been preferred. Our first area of concern is the occurrence of cryovolcanism as a function of satellite radius; simple radiogenic heating models of icy satellites suggest minimum radii for melting and surface cryovolcanism to be 400 to 500 km, yet inferred melt deposits are seen on satellites half that size. One possible explanation is a deep, low conductivity regolith which lowers conductivity and raises internal temperatures, but other possibilities include tidal heating or crustal compositions of low conductivity. Our second area of concern is the occurrence and magnitude of tectonic strain; tectonic structures have been seen on icy satellites as small as Mimas and Proteus. The structures are almost exclusively extensional, with only a few possible compression Al features, and inferred global strains are on the order of 1 percent expansion. Expansions of this order in small bodies like Mimas and prevention of late compressional tectonics due to formation of ice mantles in larger bodies like Rhea are attained only in structure models including low-conductivity, and thus possibly high porosity, crusts. Thirdly, inferred moments of inertia less than 0.4 in Mimas and Tethys can be explained by high-porosity crusts, but also by differentiation of a high density core. Finally, the relatively low densities of smaller satellites like Mimas and Miranda relative to larger neighbors can be explained by deep porosity

  14. Europa and Callisto under the watchful gaze of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One moment in an ancient, orbital dance is caught in this color picture taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Dec. 7, 2000, just as two of Jupiter's four major moons, Europa and Callisto, were nearly perfectly aligned with each other and the center of the planet.

    The distances are deceiving. Europa, seen against Jupiter, is 600,000 kilometers (370,000 miles) above the planet's cloud tops. Callisto, at lower left, is nearly three times that distance from the cloud tops. Europa is a bit smaller than Earth's Moon and has one of the brightest surfaces in the solar system. Callisto is 50 percent bigger -- roughly the size of Saturn's largest satellite, Titan -- and three times darker than Europa. Its brightness had to be enhanced in this picture, relative Europa's and Jupiter's, in order for Callisto to be seen in this image.

    Europa and Callisto have had very different geologic histories but share some surprising similarities, such as surfaces rich in ice. Callisto has apparently not undergone major internal compositional stratification, but Europa's interior has differentiated into a rocky core and an outer layer of nearly pure ice. Callisto's ancient surface is completely covered by large impact craters: The brightest features seen on Callisto in this image were discovered by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979 to be bright craters, like those on our Moon. In contrast, Europa's young surface is covered by a wild tapestry of ridges, chaotic terrain and only a handful of large craters.

    Recent data from the magnetometer carried by the Galileo spacecraft, which has been in orbit around Jupiter since 1995, indicate the presence of conducting fluid, most likely salty water, inside both worlds.

    Scientists are eager to discover whether the surface of Saturn's Titan resembles that of Callisto or Europa, or whether it is entirely different when Cassini finally reaches its destination in 2004.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and

  15. The Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammier, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Origin: Determine O/H ratio (water abundance) and constrain core mass to decide among alternative theories of origin. Interior: Understand Jupiter's interior structure and dynamical properties by mapping its gravitational and magnetic fields Atmosphere: Map variations in atmospheric composition, temperature, cloud opacity and dynamics to depths greater than 100 bars at all latitudes. Magnetosphere: Characterize and explore the three-dimensional structure of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere and auroras.

  16. Jupiter Eruptions Captured in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This infrared image shows two bright plume eruptions obtained by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on April 5, 2007.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vigorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  17. Galileo and Cassini at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Hansen, C. H.; Matson, D. L.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Bolton, S. J.; Spilker, L. J.

    2000-12-01

    Galileo's 29th orbit of Jupiter coincides with the period of time that the Cassini spacecraft will be making Jupiter system observations during its flyby on the way to Saturn. Galileo science objectives for this period include coordinated studies of the system, specific targeted events, and Galileo's first detailed study of Ganymede in eclipse. Systematic study of the dusk region of the Jovian magnetosphere has already begun, as Galileo exited the magnetosphere after the Ganymede 28 encounter and entered the solar wind for the first time since 1996. It will re-enter the magnetosphere as Cassini approaches in the Fall of 2000 and be near periapsis with Jupiter at the time of Cassini closest approach. Combining information from both Galileo and Cassini will allow a detailed study of the effects of the solar wind on the magnetosphere for the first time. In addition, the changing geometry of the two spacecraft creates opportunities for coordinated observations of specific phenomena. One example is the measurement of Jupiter dust stream particles with the dust investigations on both spacecraft. Another is observation of an Io eclipse from two different viewpoints and with complementary wavelengths, time and spatial resolution. Finally, the Ganymede 29 encounter will be a unique one, since Ganymede is in Jupiter's shadow at the time of closest approach. Observations will include attempts to determine the geometry of auroral emissions and their relation to Ganymede's magnetosphere and its interaction with Jupiter's environment. This work was supported under NASA's contract with Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  18. Studies of Plasma Flow Past Jupiters Satellite Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite, with the Io plasma torus, and the interaction of Ganymede with the corotating Jovian plasma. With the successful insertion of the Galileo spacecraft into orbit around Jupiter, many new observations have been made of the Jovian magnetosphere. Some of the most exciting results thus far have been in regards to Jupiter's satellites, Io and Ganymede. In both cases the large perturbations to the background (Jovian) magnetic field have been consistent with the satellites' possession of an intrinsic magnetic field. The gravity measurements implying a differentiated core at both Io and Ganymede makes internal generation of a magnetic field by dynamo action in these satellites plausible, and, in the case of Ganymede, the identification of an intrinsic field is apparently unambiguous. For Io the situation is less clear, and further analysis is necessary to answer this important question. During the past year, we have used time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study these plasma-moon interactions. The results from these simulations have been used directly in the analysis of the Galileo magnetometer data. Our primary emphasis has been on the Io interaction, but we recently presented results on the Ganymede interaction as well. In this progress summary we describe our efforts on these problems to date.

  19. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons

  20. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons

  1. In-Situ Dust Measurements in Jupiter's Gossamer Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Gruen, E.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2003-04-01

    Jupiter's ring system -- the archetype of ethereal ring systems -- consists of at least three components: the main ring, the vertically extended halo and the gossamer ring(s). The small moonlets Thebe and Amalthea orbit Jupiter within the gossamer ring region and structure in the intensity obtained from imaging observations indicates that these moons are the dominant sources of the gossamer ring material. The current picture implies that particles ejected from a source moon evolve inward under the Poynting-Robertson drag. Beyond Thebe's orbit, a very faint outward extension of the gossamer ring has also been observed which is not yet explained. Typical grain radii derived from optical imaging are a few micrometers. In November 2002 the Galileo spacecraft traversed the gossamer ring for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. With the in-situ dust detector on board, dust measurements were collected throughout the gossamer ring and close to Amalthea. Several hundred impacts of dust grains were recorded and the data sets (impact charges, rise times, impact directions, etc.) of about 70 impacts were transmitted to Earth. In-situ dust measurements provide information about the physical properties of the dust environment not accessible with imaging techniques. They directly provide dust spatial densities along the spacecraft trajectory as well as grain sizes and impact speeds. This allows to test and refine current models of ring particle dynamics (see D. P. Hamilton et al., this conference). In particular, the direct measurement of grain sizes and dust spatial density in different regions of the gossamer ring allow to better constrain the forces dominating the grains' dynamics. The Galileo measurements in Jupiter's gossamer ring pave the way towards the in-situ dust measurements with Cassini in Saturn's E ring beginning in 2004.

  2. Galileo in-situ dust measurements in Jupiter's Gossamer Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Grün, E.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Jupiter's ring system -- the archetype of ethereal ring systems -- consists of at least three components: the main ring, the vertically extended halo and the gossamer ring(s). The small moonlets Thebe and Amalthea orbit Jupiter within the gossamer ring region and structure in the intensity obtained from imaging observations indicates that these moons are the dominant sources of the gossamer ring material. The current picture implies that particles ejected from a source moon evolve inward under the Poynting-Robertson drag. Beyond Thebe's orbit, a very faint outward extension of the gossamer ring has also been observed which is not yet explained. Typical grain radii derived from optical imaging are a few micrometers. In November 2002 the Galileo spacecraft traversed the gossamer ring for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. With the in-situ dust detector on board, dust measurements were collected throughout the gossamer ring and close to Amalthea. Several hundred impacts of dust grains were recorded and the data sets (impact charges, rise times, impact directions, etc.) of about 90 impacts were transmitted to Earth. In-situ dust measurements provide information about the physical properties of the dust environment not accessible with imaging techniques. They directly provide dust spatial densities along the spacecraft trajectory as well as grain sizes and impact speeds. This allows to test and refine current models of ring particle dynamics (see D. P. Hamilton et al., this conference). In particular, the direct measurement of grain sizes and dust spatial density in different regions of the gossamer ring allow to better constrain the forces dominating the grains' dynamics. The Galileo measurements in Jupiter's gossamer ring pave the way towards the in-situ dust measurements with Cassini in Saturn's E ring beginning in 2004.

  3. Encouragement from Jupiter for Europe's Titan Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    Huygens will transmit scientific information for 150 minutes, from the outer reaches of Titan's cold atmosphere and all the way down to its enigmatic surface. For comparison, the Jupiter Probe radioed scientific data for 58 minutes as it descended about 200 kilometres into the outer part of the atmosphere of the giant planet. The parachutes controlling various stages of Huygens' descent will rely upon a system for deployment designed and developed in Europe that is nevertheless similar to that used by the Jupiter Probe. The elaborate sequence of operations in Huygens worked perfectly during a dramatic drop test from a stratospheric balloon over Sweden in May 1995, which approximated as closely as possible to events on Titan. The performance of the American Probe at Jupiter renews the European engineers' confidence in their own descent control system, and also in the lithium sulphur-dioxide batteries which were chosen to power both Probes. "The systems work after long storage in space," comments Hamid Hassan, ESA's Project Manager for Huygens. "Huygens will spend seven years travelling to Saturn's vicinity aboard the Cassini Orbiter. The Jupiter Probe was a passenger in Galileo for six years before its release, so there is no reason to doubt that Huygens will work just as well." Huygens will enter the outer atmosphere of Titan at 20,000 kilometres per hour. A heat shield 2.7 metres in diameter will withstand the friction and slow the Probe to a speed at which parachutes can be deployed. The size of the parachute for the main phase of the descent is chosen to allow Huygens to reach the surface in about 2 hours. The batteries powering Huygens will last for about 21/2 hours. Prepared for surprises A different perspective on the Jupiter Probe comes from Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Project Scientist for Huygens. The results contradicted many preconceptions of the Galileo scientists, particularly about the abundance of water and the structure of cloud layers. Arguments

  4. Space Weathering Perspectives on Europa Amidst the Tempest of the Jupiter Magnetospheric System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Ip. W.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Europa resides within a "perfect storm" tempest of extreme external field, plasma, and energetic particle interactions with the magnetospheric system of Jupiter. Missions to Europa must survive, functionally operate, make useful measurements, and return critical science data, while also providing full context on this ocean moon's response to the extreme environment. Related general perspectives on space weathering in the solar system are applied to mission and instrument science requirements for Europa.

  5. New Galileo and VLA Observations of Jupiter's Radiation Belts near the vicinty of Amalthea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Thorne, R. M.; Levin, S.; Michael, K.

    2002-12-01

    In November, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft is scheduled to flyby Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (~2.4 RJ). We present VLA observations of Jupiter's synchrotron emission obtained simultaneously with Galileo's flyby of Amalthea. If available, in-situ measurements from Galileo's Energetic Particle Detector and Plasma Wave Subsystem will be compared with the synchrotron emission maps at 6 and 20 cm wavelengths. The total measurement set will provide constraints on the high energy electron distribution functions near Amalthea and the types of waves affecting the particle population in the vicinity of Amalthea. These observations represent the first opportunity for direct comparison of Jupiter's radiation belts by both in-situ and remote observations near Amalthea.

  6. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). November 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This ICIS bulletin replaces the formal Library Bulletin of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It represents the integration of a bibliographic information network. Entries in ICIS are classified according to the following nine categories: (0) General Reference; (1) IPPF; (2) Family Planning and Health Care; (3) Biomedical…

  7. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). May 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    The pooling of documentation service resources has resulted in the creation of an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) integrated bibliographic information system. Thus, the former Library Bulletin has become IPPF Cooperative Information Service (ICIS). This is the first such publication. Entries in ICIS are classified according to…

  8. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  9. Semi-brittle behavior of a multi-phase crust and its influence on the tectonics of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.

    2010-05-01

    -ductile transition by 55% and reduce the strength in both the plastic and the brittle regimes, thereby blunting the ends of a lithospheric strength envelope, effectively reducing the failure limit for contractional surface features from 10MPa to ~6MPa. Our study thus provides a potential explanation for zones of weakness, such as folds and buckling, observed in the crusts of icy satellites. We have derived a constitutive equation for the eutectic aggregates that includes eutectic-colony boundary sliding, intracolony flow and cavitation. The stress-strain relationships we have obtained will improve our understanding of tectonics and surface features on icy moons of the outer solar system.

  10. Space Radiation Effects and Reliability Consideration for the Proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.

  11. Dynamics of dust in Jupiter's gossamer rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D.; Burns, J.; Krueger, H.; Showalter, M.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Galileo spacecraft has drastically improved our knowledge of Jupiter's faint rings. We now know the system to be composed of a main ring 7000km wide whose inner edge blossoms into a vertically-extended halo, and a pair of gossamer rings, each one extending inward from a small moon. These moonlets, Thebe and Amalthea, have large orbital tilts and resulting vertical excursions of 1150km and 4300km, respectively. The vertical thicknesses of the two Gossamer rings accurately match these values, providing compelling evidence that the two small satellites act as the dominant sources of ring material. Ring Material is born during high speed impacts onto the moonlet surfaces, after which the material evolves inward under the action of a dissipative force, either Poynting-Robertson Drag or Resonant Charge Variations. The basic framework for the origin and evolution of the Gossamer Rings is well understood, but there are a few loose ends that are not so easily explained: i) an outward extension of the Thebe Ring, ii) the nature of the dissipative force. In this talk I will report my latest dynamical modeling of the Gossamer rings associated with Thebe and Amalthea, and will discuss how in-situ impact data collected by the Galileo dust detector during the first ever ring "fly-through" may help to resolve some of these and other outstanding issues.

  12. Voyager spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager imaging system is described, noting that it is made up of a narrow-angle and a wide-angle TV camera, each in turn consisting of optics, a filter wheel and shutter assembly, a vidicon tube, and an electronics subsystem. The narrow-angle camera has a focal length of 1500 mm; its field of view is 0.42 deg and its focal ratio is f/8.5. For the wide-angle camera, the focal length is 200 mm, the field of view 3.2 deg, and the focal ratio of f/3.5. Images are exposed by each camera through one of eight filters in the filter wheel on the photoconductive surface of a magnetically focused and deflected vidicon having a diameter of 25 mm. The vidicon storage surface (target) is a selenium-sulfur film having an active area of 11.14 x 11.14 mm; it holds a frame consisting of 800 lines with 800 picture elements per line. Pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons are presented, with short descriptions given of the area being viewed.

  13. Precision Navigation of Cassini Images Using Rings, Icy Satellites, and Fuzzy Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Robert S.; Showalter, Mark R.; Gordon, Mitchell K.

    2016-10-01

    Before images from the Cassini spacecraft can be analyzed, errors in the published pointing information (up to ~110 pixels for the Imaging Science Subsystem Narrow Angle Camera) must be corrected so that the line of sight vector for each pixel is known. This complicated and labor-intensive process involves matching the image contents with known features such as stars, rings, or moons. Metadata, such as lighting geometry or ring radius and longitude, must be computed for each pixel as well. Both steps require mastering the SPICE toolkit, a highly capable piece of software with a steep learning curve. Only after these steps are completed can the actual scientific investigation begin.We have embarked on a three-year project to perform these steps for all 400,000+ Cassini ISS images as well as images taken by the VIMS, UVIS, and CIRS instruments. The result will be a series of SPICE kernels that include accurate pointing information and a series of backplanes that include precomputed metadata for each pixel. All data will be made public through the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node (http://www.pds-rings.seti.org). We expect this project to dramatically decrease the time required for scientists to analyze Cassini data.In a previous poster (French et al. 2014, DPS #46, 422.01) we discussed our progress navigating images using stars, simple ring models, and well-defined icy bodies. In this poster we will report on our current progress including the use of more sophisticated ring models, navigation of "fuzzy" bodies such as Titan and Saturn, and use of crater matching on high-resolution images of the icy satellites.

  14. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  15. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  16. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  17. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  18. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  19. The Icy Cold Heart of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2015-11-01

    The locations of large deposits of frozen volatiles on planetary surfaces are largely coincident with areas receiving the minimum annual influx of solar energy; familiar examples include the polar caps of Earth and Mars. For planets tilted by more than 45 degrees, however, the poles actually receive more energy than some other latitudes. Pluto, with its current obliquity of 119 degrees, has minima in its average annual insolation at +/- 27 degrees latitude, with ~1.5% more energy flux going to the equator and ~15% more to the poles. Remarkably, the fraction of annual solar energy incident on different latitudes depends only on the obliquity of the planet and not on any of its orbital parameters.Over millions of years, Pluto's obliquity varies sinusoidally from 102-126 degrees, significantly affecting the latitudinal profile of solar energy deposition. Roughly 1Myr ago, the poles received 15% more energy that today while the equator received 13% less. The energy flux to latitudes between 25-35 degrees is far more stable, remaining low over the presumably billions of years since Pluto acquired its current spin properties. Like the poles at Earth, these mid latitudes on Pluto should be favored for the long-term deposition of volatile ices. This is, indeed, the location of the bright icy heart of Pluto, Sputnik Planum.Reflected light and emitted thermal radiation from Charon increases annual insolation to one side of Pluto by of order 0.02%. Although small, the bulk of the energy is delivered at night to Pluto's cold equatorial regions. Furthermore, Charon's thermal infrared radiation is easily absorbed by icy deposits on Pluto, slowing deposition and facilitating sublimation of volatiles. We argue that the slight but persistent preference for ices to form and survive in the anti-Charon Pluto's heart.

  20. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  1. The New Horizons Mission to Pluto and Flyby of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Alan; Weaver, Hal; Young, Leslie; Bagenal, Fran; Binzel, Richard; Buratti, Bonnie; Cheng, andy; Cruikshank, Dale; Gladstone, Randy; Grundy, Will; Hinson, David; Horanyi, Mihaly; Jennings, Don; Linscott, Ivan; McComas, Dave; McKinnon, William; McNutt, Ralph; Moore, Jeffrey; Murchie, Scott; Olkin, Cathy; Porco, Carolyn; Reitsema, Harold; Reuter, Dennis; Slater, Dave; Spencer, John

    2008-01-01

    New Horizons (NH) is NASA's mission to provide the first in situ reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons Charon, Nix, and Hydra. The NH spacecraft will reach Pluto in July 2015 and will then, if approved for an extended mission phase, continue on to a flyby encounter with one or more Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). NH was launched on 19 January 2006 and received a gravity assist during a flyby encounter with Jupiter (with closest approach at -32 RJ on 28 February 2007) that reduced its flight time to Pluto by 3 years. During the Jupiter flyby, NH collected a trove of multi-wavelength imaging and fields-and-particles measurements. Among the many science results at Jupiter were a detection of planet-wide mesoscale waves, eruptions of atmospheric ammonia clouds, unprecedented views of Io's volcanic plumes and Jupiter's tenuous ring system, a first close-up of the Little Red Spot (LRS), first sightings of polar lightning, and a trip down the tail of the magnetosphere. In 2015, NH will conduct a seven-month investigation of the Pluto system culminating in a closest approach some 12,500 km from Pluto's surface. Planning is presently underway for the Pluto encounter with special emphasis on longidentified science goals of studying the terrain, geology, and composition of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, examining the composition and structure of Pluto's atmosphere, searching for an atmosphere on Charon, and characterizing Pluto's ionosphere and solar wind interaction. Detailed inspections will also be performed of the newly discovered satellites Nix and Hydra. Additionally, NH will characterize energetic particles in Pluto's environment, refine the bulk properties of Pluto and Charon, and search for additional satellites and rings.

  2. Theia's Collision With The Early Earth - Dry Or Wet Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Loibnegger, B.; Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.

    2016-04-01

    Our study exist of three separated parts concerning the formation of the Moon due to a catastrophic collision of a Mars-sized body - often referred to as Theia - with the early Earth. The first one deals with planet-formation in the early Solar System, the second one with the dynamical evolution of the planets Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn and an additional planet (Theia) between Earth and Mars, and the third one with the proposed giant collision itself and its outcome concerning masses and water contents of the resulting bodies (or fragments), computed via Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations.

  3. Galileo In-Situ Dust Measurements in Jupiter's Gossamer Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Hamilton, D. P.; Gruen, E.

    Jupiter's ring system consists of at least three components: the inner main ring, the vertically extended halo and the gossamer ring(s) further out. The small moons Thebe and Amalthea orbit Jupiter within the gossamer ring and are believed to be the sources of gossamer ring material. A very faint ring extension has also been observed beyond Thebe's orbit. On 5 November 2002 the Galileo spacecraft traversed Jupiter's gossamer ring system for the first time. High-resolution dust data were obtained with the dust detector on board down to 2.33 R_J , i.e. well inside Amalthea's orbit. A second ring passage occurred on 21 September 2003, a few hours before Galileo impacted Jupiter. This time, dust data were successfully received down to Amalthea's orbit at 2.5 R_J , however, with much reduced time-resolution. Several thousand dust impacts were counted during both ring passages, and the full data sets (impact charges, rise times, impact directions, etc.) of about 90 dust impacts were transmitted to Earth. In-situ dust measurements provide information about the physical properties of the dust environment not accessible with imaging techniques. They directly measure dust spatial densities along the spacecraft trajectory as well as grain sizes and impact speeds. Our as yet preliminary analysis %of the gossamer ring data implies particle sizes in the sub-micron and micron range. The size distribution -- increasing towards smaller particles -- is similar in the Thebe ring and the ring's outer extension, whereas in the Amalthea ring it is steeper. Dust number densities are about 104 - 106 km-3 . Our dust data allow for the first time to compare in-situ measurements with the results optical obtained from the inversion of optical images. It appears that small sub-micron grains dominate the number density whereas larger particles with at least a few micron radii contribute most to the optical depth. The dust density shows previously unrecognised fine-structure in the ring between

  4. Santa and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-05-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearance of the Moon in Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of either knowledge concerning the physical origin of the Moon's phases, or interest in understanding them, is found to be widespread in the Netherlands, but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Certainly incomplete, but surely representative, lists that compile occurrences of both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift- wrapping paper and children's books are also presented.

  5. An auroral flare at Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Waite, J H; Gladstone, G R; Lewis, W S; Goldstein, R; McComas, D J; Riley, P; Walker, R J; Robertson, P; Desai, S; Clarke, J T; Young, D T

    2001-04-12

    Jupiter's aurora is the most powerful in the Solar System. It is powered largely by energy extracted from planetary rotation, although there seems also to be a contribution from the solar wind. This contrasts with Earth's aurora, which is generated through the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The major features of Jupiter's aurora (based on far-ultraviolet, near-infrared and visible-wavelength observations) include a main oval that generally corotates with the planet and a region of patchy, diffuse emission inside the oval on Jupiter's dusk side. Here we report the discovery of a rapidly evolving, very bright and localized emission poleward of the northern main oval, in a region connected magnetically to Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. The intensity of the emission increased by a factor of 30 within 70 s, and then decreased on a similar timescale, all captured during a single four-minute exposure. This type of flaring emission has not previously been reported for Jupiter (similar, but smaller, transient events have been observed at Earth), and it may be related directly to changes in the solar wind.

  6. Debris Field of the July 19, 2009, Impact in Jupiter and Its Long-term Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Wesley, A.; Mousis, O.; Fletcher, L. N.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Fisher, B.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Greene, Z. S.; de Pater, I.; Hammel, H. B.; Reshetnikov, N.; Otto, E.; Lai, S.; Rogers, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Golisch, W.; Griep, D.; Sears, P.; Lystrup, M. B.; Shara, M.; Young, L.; Grundy, W. M.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Rivkin, A. S.; Reddy, V.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D.; Ziffer, J.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-platform suite of imaging and spectroscopic observations of Jupiter's atmosphere tracked the evolution of the debris field of an unknown impactor on 2009 July 19. The initial debris field is similar to those of intermediate Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments, suggesting a body hundreds of meters in size, if icy, entering from the west and slightly north. The field is detectable in the visible as dark material and in the near-IR by high-altitude particulate reflectivity; it was quickly redistributed by different zonal flows across its latitudinal range. At first, the particulate field was highly correlated with areas of enhanced temperatures and enhanced ammonia and ethane emission, but this was no longer true by mid-August. As of Sept. 2, the debris field was undetectable in the thermal, detectable in the visible with good seeing, and still prominent near 2 microns wavelength. Visibly, the impact "scar" consists of two dark regions along the same latitude, ostensibly different from the central bright region associated with the near-IR debris pattern. Both morphologies show eastern and western extensions propagating away from the original impact site, which appear to be influenced by flows around vortices previously undetected in Jupiter atmosphere. These observations define the flow field just north of Jupiter's southern polar vortex at higher altitudes than tracked in Jupiter's main cloud deck.

  7. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Dubrovolskis, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moonforming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean1,2. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000- 4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down. A 2nd initial condition is a substantial atmosphere, 100-1000 bars of H2O and CO2, supplemented by smaller amounts of CO, H2, N2, various sulfur-containing gases, and a suite of geochemical volatiles evaporated from the magma. Third, we start the Moon with its current mass at the relevant Roche limit. The 4th initial condition is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Canonical models hold this constant, whilst some recent models begin with considerably more angular momentum than is present today. Here we present a ruthlessly simplified model of Earth's cooling magmasphere based on a full-featured atmosphere and including tidal heating by the newborn Moon. Thermal blanketing by H2O-CO2 atmospheres slows cooling of a magma ocean. Geochemical volatiles - chiefly S, Na, and Cl - raise the opacity of the magma ocean's atmosphere and slow cooling still more. We assume a uniform mantle with a single internal (potential) temperature and a global viscosity. The important "freezing point" is the sharp rheological transition between a fluid carrying suspended crystals and a solid matrix through which fluids percolate. Most tidal heating takes place at this "freezing point" in a gel that is both pliable and viscous. Parameterized convection links the cooling rate to the temperature and heat generation inside the Earth. Tidal heating is a major effect. Tidal dissipation in the magma ocean is described by viscosity. The Moon is entwined with Earth by the negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate

  8. Gravitational energy sources in Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    1973-01-01

    Gravitational sources of the intrinsic luminosity of Jupiter are examined in the context of current hydrogen-helium models. When no gravitational separation of matter occurs, the amount of heat which can be released over the remaining lifetime of the planet is necessarily limited by the size of its existing reservoir of thermal energy. This conclusion rests only on the assumption that its interior is relatively cold and degenerate. If gravitational unmixing occurs, the size of the thermal reservoir does not necessarily limit the heat output. If core formation occurs, for example, then the size of the core formed will be a limiting factor. The energy released with the formation of a helium core is computed for Jupiter. A core growth rate, averaged over several billion years, of 20 trillionths of Jupiter's mass per year is required if gravitational separation is to play a significant role in the thermal evolution.

  9. Arsine in Saturn and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Geballe, T. R.; Knacke, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    New spectra of Saturn and Jupiter are reported that show a prominent, heretofore unidentified absorption near 2126/cm. The observation is interpreted as unambiguous evidence for the presence of arsine, AsH3. The abundance of AsH3 appears to be almost a factor of two higher in Saturn than in Jupiter. The observed enrichments are consistent with the core instability model for the formation of giant planets. Models of arsenic chemistry that predict strong depletions of AsH3 at temperatures below 370 K are not consistent with the observations, suggesting that vertical convection or perhaps some other mechanism inhibits depletion. Arsenic is the first new element identified in a planetary atmosphere since germanium was found in Jupiter a decade ago.

  10. Estimations on the Interior of Small Icy Bodies in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade small icy bodies have become more and more important for the search for potential habitats in the Solar System. This development was primarily attributable to the indications for Europa's subsurface ocean (e.g., Carr et al., 1998) and the detection of Enceladus' plume (Porco et al., 2006). These observations showed that liquid water can exist under certain circumstances even far beyond the classical habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Additionally, the subsurface water reservoirs may contain a significant amount of ammonia which causes the fluid to stay liquid even below 0°C. If liquid water is in contact with the rocky layer, erosion or similar interaction processes will take place and enrich the water with possible nutrients for potential life forms in this habitat. Therefore, especially the water/rock boundary zone seems highly interesting for astrobiological studies. We developed a three and four layer model for the interior of small icy bodies, i.e. icy moons, TNOs, and asteroids as small as 200 km in radius. The simulations are based on three different scenarios which consider the diverse interior structures of three selected prototype satellites (Io, Europa, and Titan). On average, the water layer represents approximately 20 % of the bodies' radii for the Europa- and Titan-like model. In contrast, for the Io-like scenario, in which we do not include a global subsurface ocean, just Io, the Moon, Vesta, and Hygiea fit into the model. This may indicate that water/ice-regions or even liquid water shells are far more common in the Solar System than previously assumed. Furthermore, we estimate the bodies' dimensionless moment of inertia and compare our results to observed values as far as they are available. Moreover, the physical conditions at the bottom of the bodies' potential subsurface ocean and the thickness of each layer will be estimated. This study will give us a good overview about the distribution of potential liquid water

  11. Tidally Heated ExoMoons (THEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, V.

    2014-04-01

    Astrophysical Journal 769, 98 Scharf, C. A. 2006 The Potential for Tidally Heated Icy and Temperate Moons around Exoplanets, The Astrophysical Journal 648, 1196 Schneider, J. 2014 The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, http://exoplanet.eu/

  12. Discovery of a new Jupiter satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Synnott, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    During detailed analysis of Voyager 2 pictures of the Jupiter ring, a starlike object was identified in the plane of the ring. The same object was subsequently found on a higher-resolution frame and proved to be a satellite of Jupiter. This satellite has a circular orbit whose radius is 1.8 Jupiter radii, a period of 7 hours and 8 minutes, and a diameter of less than 40 kilometers. It is located at the outer edge of the Jupiter ring.

  13. Laser 'Footprints' on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) circles the moon, a sophisticated instrument bounces laser light off the moon's surface 28 times per second. An array of five sensors arranged in an X-shap...

  14. 2017 Eclipse and the Moon's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar eclipses can only occur at New Moon, when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun. But not every New Moon produces an eclipse. The Moon's orbit is slightly tilted, and as seen in this anima...

  15. Spin scan imaging at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    The general feasibility of spin scan imaging from spinning platforms in outer planet orbiters was investigated. The study was limited to consideration of a typical orbiter mission to Jupiter with an orbit designed to provide repetitive close approaches to the Galilean satellites. Discussed are: (1) data requirements for imaging experiments at Jupiter and its satellites; (2) spin scan camera and baseline camera selection; and (3) operational considerations bearing on imager performance. A physical camera model including relationships identifying the supporting requirements was developed and used to determine the characteristics of the baseline camera.

  16. New theoretical aspects of potential radio wave emission from Jupiter like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christof; Rucker, Helmut; Vocks, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio Telescope 2nd generation), LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) or the upgrade of LOFAR in Nancay (the NENUFAR project) are promising facilities with sensitivities sufficiently low to be able to detect radio emission from exoplanets, especially from so-called Hot Jupiters. These are Jovian like planets very close to their host star (about 0.045 AU) and their radio emission is expected to be up to 10E5 times higher than the emission from Jupiter in our solar system. Also recent investigations of the possibility of moons around a Jovian exoplanet (an analog of the Io-Jupiter system) are promising candidates amongst the exoplanets for a future detection of exoplanetary radio emission. As is well known Io triggers radio emission up to 40 MHz in the Jovian case, a frequency which lies well above the ionospheric cutoff of 10 MHz and thus can be measured with ground-based facilities on Earth. We present simulation results for wave growth rates at Jupiter-like exoplanets orbiting at distances smaller than 0.1 AU from their parent star. Under sophisticated assumptions for the plasma environment at these exoplanets we find that the cyclotron maser instability (CMI), the process which is very likely responsible for the generation of radio waves in our solar system, produces radio waves which can propagate away from the planet. Furthermore we check the influence of a magnetodisc at Hot Jupiters on the possible power of the emitted radio waves.

  17. New Galileo and VLA/DSN observations of Jupiter's radiation belts near the vicinity of Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Galileo; Vla/Dsn Team

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft trajectory provided a close flyby of Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (~2.4 RJ). During this pass, Galileo entered into a region rarely explored by spacecraft, the inner radiation belts of Jupiter. This region also contains the outer rings of Jupiter, known as the Gossamer rings. We present VLA/DSN observations of Jupiter's synchrotron emission obtained simultaneously with Galileo's flyby of Amalthea. We compare in-situ measurements from Galileo's Energetic Particle Detector, Plasma Wave Subsystem and Plasma Subsystem with model results based on the synchrotron emission maps at 6 and 20 cm wavelengths. We will also include data from the Galileo dust detector as an additional constraint for the model analysis. The total measurement set provides new constraints for the high-energy electron distribution functions near Amalthea and the role of plasma waves in maintaining the particle distribution in the vicinity of Amalthea. These observations represent the first opportunity for direct comparison of Jupiter's radiation belts by both in-situ and remote observations near Amalthea.

  18. Chandra Image Reveals Auroral X-rays at Poles of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This Chandra image of Jupiter shows concentrations of aurora x-rays near the north and south poles due to a single `hot spot' that pulsates with a period of 45 minutes, similar to high-latitude radio pulsation previously detected by NASA's Galileo and Cassini spacecraft. Previous x-ray detections of Jupiter have been made with other x-ray telescopes, but did not reveal that the sources of the x-rays, energetic oxygen and sulfur ions, would be located so near the poles. Previous theories held that ions were mostly coming from Jupiter's moon, lo. Chandra's ability to pinpoint the source of the x-rays discards this theory since ions coming from near lo's orbit carnot reach the observed high latitudes. One possibility is that particles flowing out from the Sun are captured in the outer regions of Jupiter's magnetic field, then accelerated and directed toward its magnetic pole. Once captured, the ions would bounce back and forth in the magnetic field from Jupiter's north pole to the south pole in an oscillating motion that could explain the pulsation.

  19. Water on the moon?

    PubMed

    Anders, E

    1970-09-25

    If the planets formed at falling temperatures with volatile substances accreting last, the low abundance of lead, bismuth, indium, and thallium in lunar rocks implies an initial water content of no more than 370 grams per square centimeter, and probably much less. The depletion of volatile substances might be expected a priori if the moon accreted as an original satellite of the earth.

  20. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  1. [The moon and delivery].

    PubMed

    Romero Martínez, Jorge; Guerrero Guijo, Inmaculada; Artura Serrano, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    In different cultures and mythologies, the moon is related with fertility, pregnancy and delivery. Professional obstetricians also notice an increase in care demands on the days when the moon is full. Many studies have been made which try to correlate delivery processes to the phases of the moon with contradictory results. The authors plan to try to find any basis in fact which support these popular beliefs and to discover if lunar phases bear an influence on the distribution of deliveries. They carried out a descriptive transversal study on a total of 1715 unassisted deliveries over the course of ten complete lunar cycles. The authors have carried out a descriptive and inferential analysis, a one way ANOVA and a Kruskal Wallis test on their three data bases which are general, primipara and multipara in which they contemplated the total number of deliveries per phase, the mean of each phase, as well as the central day in each phase of the lunar cycle. The differences found in the distribution of deliveries over the four lunar phases, along with the comparison of the means and the comparison of the number of deliveries on the central day in each phase are not statistically significant. The different phases in the lunar cycle and especially the full moon do not appear to have any influence over the distribution of deliveries in this study.

  2. Astrophysics from the moon.

    PubMed

    Burke, B F

    1990-12-01

    The surface of the moon would be an excellent location for astronomical telescopes, and, if a lunar base were to be established, the construction and maintenance of instruments would become feasible. The prospects are reviewed, with particular attention given to large optical aperturesynthesis instruments analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Typical parameters for a particular system are presented.

  3. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  4. The Chemist's Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

  5. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  6. Touching the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Progressive Tactile Timetable was developed to enable pupils with visual impairments and severe learning difficulties to progress from use of concrete symbols (objects of reference) to the abstract tactile Moon code (a simplified raised line version of the Roman print alphabet). A case study illustrates its application with an adolescent with…

  7. The tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Lupu, Roxana; Dobrovolskis, Anthony; Sleep, Norman H.

    2015-10-01

    We address the thermal history of the Earth after the Moon-forming impact, taking tidal heating and thermal blanketing by the atmosphere into account. The atmosphere sets an upper bound of ∼100 W/m2 on how quickly the Earth can cool. The liquid magma ocean cools over 2-10 Myr, with longer times corresponding to high angular-momentum events. Tidal heating is focused mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze. The atmosphere's control over cooling sets up a negative feedback between viscosity-dependent tidal heating and temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. While the feedback holds, evolution of the Moon's orbit is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere. Orbital evolution is orders of magnitude slower than in conventional constant Q models, which promotes capture by resonances. The evection resonance is encountered early, when the Earth is molten. Capture by the evection resonance appears certain but unlikely to generate much eccentricity because it is encountered early when the Earth is molten and Q⊕ ≫Q☾. Tidal dissipation in the Earth becomes more efficient (Q⊕ ≪Q☾) later when the Moon is between ∼ 20R⊕ and ∼ 40R⊕. If lunar eccentricity grew great, this was when it did so, perhaps setting the table for some other process to leave its mark on the inclination of the Moon.

  8. Biogeochemical fingerprints of life: earlier analogies with polar ecosystems suggest feasible instrumentation for probing the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Tuniz, C.

    2015-07-01

    We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim - Bosak - Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ~ -70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the

  9. Exploring medium gravity icy planetary bodies: an opportunity in the Inner System by landing at Ceres high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, O.; Martinot, V.; Tobie, G.

    2009-04-01

    With potentially up to 25% of its mass as H2O and current indications of a differentiated morphology, 950km-wide "dwarf planet" Ceres is holding the promise to be our closest significant icy planetary body. Ceres is within easier reach than the icy moons, allowing for the use of solar arrays and not lying inside the deep gravity well of a giant planet. As such, it would represent an ideal step stone for future in-situ exploration of other airless icy bodies of major interest such as Europa or Enceladus. But when NASA's Dawn orbits Ceres and maps it in 2015, will we be ready to undertake the next logical step: landing? Ceres' gravity at its poles, at about one fifth of the Moon's gravity, is too large for rendezvous-like asteroid landing techniques to apply. Instead, we are there fully in the application domain of soft precision landing techniques such as the ones being developed for ESA's MoonNext mission. These latter require a spacecraft architecture akin to robotic lunar Landers or NASA's Phoenix, and differing from missions to comets and asteroids. If Dawn confirms the icy nature of Ceres under its regolith-covered surface, the potential presence of some ice spots on the surface would call for specific attention. Such spots would indeed be highly interesting landing sites. They are more likely to lie close to the poles of Ceres where cold temperatures should prevent exposed ice from sublimating and/or may limit the thickness of the regolith layer. Also the science and instruments suite should be fitted to study a large body that has probably been or may still be geologically active: its non-negligible gravity field combined with its high volatile mass fraction would then bring Ceres closer in morphology and history to an "Enceladus" or a frozen or near-frozen "Europa" than to a rubble-pile-structured asteroid or a comet nucleus. Thales Alenia Space and the "Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique" of the University of Nantes have carried out a preliminary

  10. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, R.; Fegley, B.; Marley, M.; Sleep, N.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres, and by their moons. stop. It is well known that the atmosphere's thermal blanketing effect prevents a magma ocean from cooling rapidly. Several models have considered thick H2O-CO2 atmospheres over cooling magma oceans. These models address how the magma ocean freezes, how long it takes to freeze, and how, when, and what is degassed. stop. The atmosphere over a magmasphere is very hot and so contains the geochemical volatiles that can evaporate from a magma ocean, such as sulfur, alkalis and halogens, in addition to H2O and CO2. We compute 1-D non-gray radiative-convective atmospheric structure models that include all the molecular and atomic opacity sources that would be present in equilibrium over a magma ocean. We use these to compute cooling rates for hot post-giant-impact terrestrial planets. Our model is in excellent asymptotic agreement with two recent independent calculations of the runaway greenhouse limit for H2O-CO2 atmosphere. For cooling of the magma ocean itself, we use parameterizations recommended by Solomatov. stop. Tidal heating of the Earth by the Moon is important, because it is a big term, and because it occurs mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze, which frustrates freezing. The Moon is entwined with Earth by a negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate that the Moon's orbit evolves is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere, which in effect tethers the Moon to the Earth. Consequently the Moon's orbit evolves orders of magnitude more slowly

  11. Production of O2 on icy satellites by electronic excitation of low-temperature water ice.

    PubMed

    Sieger, M T; Simpson, W C; Orlando, T M

    1998-08-01

    The signature of condensed molecular oxygen has been reported in recent optical-reflectance measurements of the jovian moon Ganymede, and a tenuous oxygen atmosphere has been observed on Europa. The surfaces of these moons contain large amounts of water ice, and it is thought that O2 is formed by the sputtering of ice by energetic particles from the jovian magnetosphere. Understanding how O2 might be formed from low-temperature ice is crucial for theoretical and experimental simulations of the surfaces and atmospheres of icy bodies in the Solar System. Here we report laboratory measurements of the threshold energy, cross-section and temperature dependence of O2 production by electronic excitation of ice in vacuum, following electron-beam irradiation. Molecular oxygen is formed by direct excitation and dissociation of a stable precursor molecule, rather than (as has been previously thought) by diffusion and chemical recombination of precursor fragments. The large cross-section for O2 production suggests that electronic excitation plays an important part in the formation of O2 on Ganymede and Europa. PMID:9707116

  12. Origin of the terrestrial planets and the moon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S R

    1996-03-01

    Our ideas about the origin and evolution of the solar system have advanced significantly as a result of the past 25 years of space exploration. Metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning seems to have been present in the early dust components of the solar nebula, prior to chondrule formation. The inner solar nebula was depleted in volatile elements by early solar activity. The early formation of the gas giant, Jupiter, affected the subsequent development of inner solar system and is responsible for the existence of the asteroid belt, and the small size of Mars. The Earth and the other terrestrial planets accreted in a gas-free environment, mostly from volatile-depleted planetesimals which were already differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. The origin of the Moon by a single massive impact with a body larger than Mars explains the angular momentum, orbital characteristics and unique nature of the Earth-Moon system. The density and chemical differences between the Earth and Moon are accounted for by deriving the Moon from the mantle of the impactor. PMID:11541325

  13. Origin of the terrestrial planets and the moon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S R

    1996-03-01

    Our ideas about the origin and evolution of the solar system have advanced significantly as a result of the past 25 years of space exploration. Metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning seems to have been present in the early dust components of the solar nebula, prior to chondrule formation. The inner solar nebula was depleted in volatile elements by early solar activity. The early formation of the gas giant, Jupiter, affected the subsequent development of inner solar system and is responsible for the existence of the asteroid belt, and the small size of Mars. The Earth and the other terrestrial planets accreted in a gas-free environment, mostly from volatile-depleted planetesimals which were already differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. The origin of the Moon by a single massive impact with a body larger than Mars explains the angular momentum, orbital characteristics and unique nature of the Earth-Moon system. The density and chemical differences between the Earth and Moon are accounted for by deriving the Moon from the mantle of the impactor.

  14. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  15. Saturn's icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R.N.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P.D.; McCord, T.B.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R.M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper (Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/F continua at 0.55 ??m, 1.822 ??m and 3.547 ??m, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  16. The Other Chemistry of the Jovian Icy Satellites - Low Energy and Sulfurous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, M. J.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra of Jupiter's icy satellites reveal surfaces dominated by H2O-ice with minor amounts of SO2 and other materials. The co-existence of H2O and SO2 in surfaces exposed to jovian magnetospheric radiation suggests that sulfuric acid (H2SO4) also could be present. This was noted by Carlson et al. (1999), who supported this suggestion with assignments of near-IR bands in Europa spectra to hydrated H2SO4. Laboratory experiments since have demonstrated radiolytically-driven syntheses in S- and SO2-containing H2O-Ices (Carlson et al., 2002; Moore et al., 2006). In the Cosmic Ice Laboratory, we recently have investigated the thermal chemistry of SO2 trapped in H2O-ice. IR spectra of H2O + SO2 mixtures recorded at 10 to 230 K were used to follow low-temperature reactions in the absence of radiation effects. No SO2 reactions were found at 10 K, but warming to more-relevant Europa temperatures produced both HSO3(-) and S2O5(2-). Added NH3 shifted the product composition toward SO3(2-) and away from the other ions. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at and below the surfaces of the icy satellites in the jovian system.

  17. Mass Movement and Landform Degradation on the Icy Galilean Satellites: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Asphaug, Erik; Morrison, David; Spencer, John R.; Chapman, Clark R.; Bierhaus, Beau; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Klemaszewski, James E.; Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Weakening of surface materials coupled with mass movement reduces the topographic relief of landforms by moving surface materials down-slope. Throughout the Galileo orbiter nominal mission we have studied all known forms of mass movement and landform degradation of the icy galilean satellites, of which Callisto, by far, displays the most degraded surface. Callisto exhibits discrete mass movements that are larger and apparently more common than seen elsewhere. Most degradation on Ganymede appears consistent with sliding or slumping, impact erosion, and regolith evolution. Sliding or slumping is also observed at very small (100 m) scale on Europa. Sputter ablation, while probably playing some role in the evolution of Ganymede's and Callisto's debris layers, appears to be less important than other processes. Sputter ablation might play a significant role on Europa only if that satellite's surface is significantly older than 10(exp 8) years, far older than crater statistics indicate. Impact erosion and regolith formation on Europa are probably minimal, as implied by the low density of small craters there. Impact erosion and regolith formation may be important on the dark terrains of Ganymede, though some surfaces on this satellite may be modified by sublimation-degradation. While impact erosion and regolith formation are expected to operate with the same vigor on Callisto as on Ganymede, most of the areas examined at high resolution on Callisto have an appearance that implies that some additional process is at work, most likely sublimation-driven landform modification and mass wasting. The extent of surface degradation ascribed to sublimation on the outer two Galilean satellites implies that an ice more volatile than H2O is probably involved.

  18. A study of the icy tails of the distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Properties are studied of the icy grain model for the tails of comets Baade 1955 VI and Haro-Chavira 1956 I, which have large perihelion distances. The general profiles and orientations of the tails are compared with a set of synchrones, or theoretical trajectories of particles ejected from a cometary nucleus at given instants of time. Several features observed in these comets are shown to be explained by the icy grain model, including jet activity in the coma and no appreciable broadening of the tail with increasing distance from the nucleus. It is demonstrated that the transition region between 2 and 3 AU, where water snow begins to experience rapid evaporation, has a significant effect on the dynamics of icy tails. It is suggested that the icy grains constituting these cometary tails may carry fine particles of meteoric dust which are released when the grains begin to disintegrate by evaporation.

  19. Why Icy Cliffs are Stressed Out and Falling to Pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Sori, M. M.; Russell, P.; Pathare, A.; Becerra, P.; Molaro, J.; Sutton, S.; Mellon, M. T.; HiRISE Team

    2016-09-01

    Steep, icy, north polar cliffs are actively retreating through fracturing and blockfalls and additionally are scoured clean of dust by avalanches each spring. We explain this activity through modeling of thermoelastic stresses.

  20. Heavy ions in Jupiter's environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The extended atmosphere of the Jupiter system consists of atoms and ions of heavy elements. This material originates on the satellite Io. Energy is lost from the thermal plasma in collisionally excited optical and ultraviolet emission. The juxtaposition of Earth and spacecraft measurements provide insight concerning the underlying processes of particle transport and energy supply.

  1. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protoplanetary disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. The planetary conglomeration process, coupled with subsequent gravitational contraction and spin down of the host star, drives sweeping secular resonances through the system, increasing the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters. Accordingly, this formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional non-transiting planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  2. Origins of Hot Jupiters, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods less than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances (a > 2AU) in protostellar disks, only to subsequently experience large-scale inward migration to the small orbital radii at which they are observed. Here, we propose that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population forms in situ, with the Galactically prevalent short-period super-Earths acting as the source population. Our calculations suggest that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protostellar disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated for solid cores of 10-20 Earth masses, in line with the conventional picture of core-nucleated accretion. This formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional planets, reminiscent of those observed in large numbers by NASA’s Kepler Mission and Doppler velocity surveys. However, dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems' evolutionary lifetimes tend to increase the mutual inclinations of exterior, low-mass companions to hot Jupiters, making transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  3. Voyager to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Voyager mission to explore planets of the outer solar system is summarized. The mission schedule and profiles for encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly with Uranus and Pluto are included along with a description of the spacecraft and its trajectories. Scientific investigations to be made and the instruments carried are also discussed.

  4. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  5. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde.

    PubMed

    Grazier, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the "Jupiter as shield" concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the "Jupiter as shield" concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life. The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied "non-life threatening" orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that "kicked" outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to "fix" the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to

  6. Jupiter's High-Altitude Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) snapped this incredibly detailed picture of Jupiter's high-altitude clouds starting at 06:00 Universal Time on February 28, 2007, when the spacecraft was only 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) from the solar system's largest planet. Features as small as 50 kilometers (30 miles) are visible. The image was taken through a narrow filter centered on a methane absorption band near 890 nanometers, a considerably redder wavelength than what the eye can see. Images taken through this filter preferentially pick out clouds that are relatively high in the sky of this gas giant planet because sunlight at the wavelengths transmitted by the filter is completely absorbed by the methane gas that permeates Jupiter's atmosphere before it can reach the lower clouds.

    The image reveals a range of diverse features. The south pole is capped with a haze of small particles probably created by the precipitation of charged particles into the polar regions during auroral activity. Just north of the cap is a well-formed anticyclonic vortex with rising white thunderheads at its core. Slightly north of the vortex are the tendrils of some rather disorganized storms and more pinpoint-like thunderheads. The dark 'measles' that appear a bit farther north are actually cloud-free regions where light is completely absorbed by the methane gas and essentially disappears from view. The wind action considerably picks up in the equatorial regions where giant plumes are stretched into a long wave pattern. Proceeding north of the equator, cirrus-like clouds are shredded by winds reaching speeds of up to 400 miles per hour, and more pinpoint-like thunderheads are visible. Although some of the famous belt and zone structure of Jupiter's atmosphere is washed out when viewed at this wavelength, the relatively thin North Temperate Belt shows up quite nicely, as does a series of waves just north of the belt. The north polar region of

  7. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde.

    PubMed

    Grazier, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the "Jupiter as shield" concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the "Jupiter as shield" concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life. The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied "non-life threatening" orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that "kicked" outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to "fix" the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to

  8. Vaporization in comets - The icy grain halo of Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Cowan, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The variation with heliocentric distance of the production rates of various species in Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) is explained with a cometary model consisting of a CO2 dominated nucleus plus a halo of icy grains of H2O or clathrate hydrate. It is concluded that the parents of CN and C3 are released primarily from the nucleus but that the parent of C2 is released primarily from the halo of icy grains.

  9. Featured Image: Mapping Jupiter with Hubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Zonal wind profile for Jupiter, describing the speed and direction of its winds at each latitude. [Simon et al. 2015]This global map of Jupiters surface (click for the full view!) was generated by the Hubble Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, which aims to createnew yearly global maps for each of the outer planets. Presented in a study led by Amy Simon (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), the map above is the first generated for Jupiter in the first year of the OPAL campaign. It provides a detailed look at Jupiters atmospheric structure including the Great Red Spot and allowed the authors to measure the speed and direction of the wind across Jupiters latitudes, constructing an updated zonal wind profile for Jupiter.In contrast to this study, the Juno mission (which will be captured into Jupiters orbit today after a 5-year journey to Jupiter!) will be focusing more on the features below Jupiters surface, studying its deep atmosphere and winds. Some of Junos primary goals are to learn about Jupiters composition, gravitational field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. You can follow along with the NASATV livestream as Juno arrives at Jupiter tonight; orbit insertion coverage starts at 10:30 EDT.CitationAmy A. Simon et al 2015 ApJ 812 55. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/55

  10. Moons Around Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.

    The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.

    In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.

    The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.

    In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.

    The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.

    In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.

    The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on

  11. Water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    After years of thinking the Moon is dry, we now know there are three ways in which water appears on the Moon today:1) The hypothesized buried deposits of volatiles at the lunar poles were found at Cabeus crater. There are questions about the origin of such volatiles (i.e., in-falling comets & meteorites, migrating surficial OH/H2O, and accumulated release from the interior), but there is no doubt the water is there. This long suspected polar water was the most recent form to be confirmed on the Moon.2) Widespread, thinly- distributed, surficial OH (or H2O) is the most recently formed lunar water, and its discovery was completely unexpected. It occurs across all types of lunar terrain, but is more difficult to detect in the warmer equatorial terrain where thermal emission is strongest. The consensus is that this OH is indeed derived from solar wind H linked to O from the surface silicate rocks. Although pervasive, we don’t know how quickly it forms, nor how mobile it is.3) The amount of water present when the Moon formed is now documented in lunar materials from Apollo samples (preserved in the lunar mantle material found in volcanic glass beads). Sample analyses made during the Apollo days were not sufficiently precise to distinguish between indigenous lunar water and terrestrial contamination. Measurements with modern equipment are not only more precise (both elemental and isotopic), but can be made in a manner to constrain a host of processes (e.g. diffusion, thermal cycling) that have acted on these samples during their residence on the Moon. The mysteries associated with all these ‘water’ forms are being pursued by teams and scientists around the world. The paradigm-shifting work that reported these discoveries in recent years are from: the NASA LCROSS (lunar impact mission) team (2010), M3 team/ on the Indian Chandrayan Mission (2009), and lunar sample chemists (2008). NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL, ESA Smart-1, Japanese Kaguya, and other

  12. The formation of the Galilean moons and Titan in the Grand Tack scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, R.; Marleau, G.-D.; Pudritz, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    Context. In the Grand Tack (GT) scenario for the young solar system, Jupiter formed beyond 3.5 AU from the Sun and migrated as close as 1.5 AU until it encountered an orbital resonance with Saturn. Both planets then supposedly migrated outward for several 105 yr, with Jupiter ending up at ≈5 AU. The initial conditions of the GT and the timing between Jupiter's migration and the formation of the Galilean satellites remain unexplored. Aims: We study the formation of Ganymede and Callisto, both of which consist of ≈50% H2O and rock, in the GT scenario. We examine why they lack dense atmospheres, while Titan is surrounded by a thick N2 envelope. Methods: We model an axially symmetric circumplanetary disk (CPD) in hydrostatic equilibrium around Jupiter. The CPD is warmed by viscous heating, Jupiter's luminosity, accretional heating, and the Sun. The position of the H2O ice line in the CPD, which is crucial for the formation of massive moons, is computed at various solar distances. We assess the loss of Galilean atmospheres due to high-energy radiation from the young Sun. Results: Ganymede and Callisto cannot have accreted their H2O during Jupiter's supposed GT, because its CPD (if still active) was too warm to host ices and much smaller than Ganymede's contemporary orbit. From a thermal perspective, the Galilean moons might have had significant atmospheres, but these would probably have been eroded during the GT in <105 yr by solar XUV radiation. Conclusions: Jupiter and the Galilean moons formed beyond 4.5 ± 0.5 AU and prior to the proposed GT. Thereafter, Jupiter's CPD would have been dry, and delayed accretion of planetesimals should have created water-rich Io and Europa. While Galilean atmospheres would have been lost during the GT, Titan would have formed after Saturn's own tack, because Saturn still accreted substantially for ≈106 yr after its closest solar approach, ending up at about 7 AU.

  13. The moon in heiligenschein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of 25 photometric digital images of the moon has been carried out to obtain a single image in a new mapping parameter, the Heiligenschein exponent. The data necessarily represent a range of lunar phases, but all are within 10 hours of full moon. The new parameter characterizes the rate at which lunar features brighten as their local phase angles approach zero. Although considerable contrast is present in this parameter, there is only a small correlation with normal albedo. In particular, the large albedo difference between maria and highlands is not simply reflected in Heiligenschein differences, which are larger within each category of terrain than the difference between the Heiligenschein averages of each. A correlation with age may be present in both the maria and the highlands, but its determination will require separation into distinct geochemical provinces. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  14. Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The similarities in siderophile abundances strongly suggest that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had formed. The energy required to remove material from the Earth's mantle and place it into geocentric orbit can be supplied most readily by impact processes during accretion of the Earth. Impacts of late-accreting, high-velocity planetismals would evaporate many times their masses of mantle material. These gases would be accompanied by a massive spray of shock-melted silicate droplets. It is suggested that the gases produced from such near-equatorial impacts were rapidly spun out into equatorial geocentric orbit. The evaporated material was selectively recondensed, and, accompanied by the shock melted, devolatilized silicate droplets, accreted to form a sediment ring of Earth-orbiting planetismals. This sediment ring also captured a significant proportion of Earth-bound planetismals. The Moon was formed by accretion from planetismals comprising the sediment ring.

  15. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.; Lupu, R.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres and their moons. A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moon-forming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000-4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down.

  16. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  17. The Cold and Icy Heart of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The locations of large deposits of frozen volatiles on planetary surfaces are largely coincident with areas receiving the minimum annual influx of solar energy. Thus we have the familiar polar caps of Earth and Mars, but cold equatorial regions for planets with obliquities between 54 and 126 degrees. Furthermore, for tilts between 45-66 degrees and 114-135 degrees the minimum incident energy occurs neither at the pole nor the equator. We find that the annual average insolation is always symmetric about Pluto's equator and is fully independent of the relative locations of the planet's pericenter and equinoxes. Remarkably, this symmetry holds for arbitrary orbital eccentricities and obliquities, and so we provide a short proof in the margin of this abstract. The current obliquity of Pluto is 119 degrees, giving it minima in average annual insolation at +/- 27 degrees latitude, with ~1.5% more flux to the equator and ~15% more to the poles. But the obliquity of Pluto also varies sinusoidally from 102-126 degrees and so, over the past million years, Pluto's annual equatorial and polar fluxes have changed by +15% and -13%, respectively. Interestingly, the energy flux received by latitudes between 25-35 degrees remains nearly constant over the presumably billions of years since Pluto acquired its current orbit and spin properties. Thus these latitudes are continuously cold and should be favored for the long-term deposition of volatile ices; the bright heart of Pluto, Sputnik Planum, extends not coincidentally across these latitudes. Reflected light and emitted thermal radiation from Charon increases annual insolation to one side of Pluto by of order 0.02%. Although small, the bulk of the energy is delivered at night to Pluto's cold equatorial regions. Furthermore, Charon's thermal IR is delivered very efficiently to icy deposits. Over billions of years, ices have preferentially formed and survived in the anti-Charon hemisphere.

  18. Photochemistry of Methane in Model Atmospheres of Jupiter and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bersohn, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The two central findings were 1) hydrogen atoms and hydrogen molecules photodissociated from methane are relatively richer in H than in D in other words deuterium atoms have a greater probability of remaining attached to the carbon atom. Titan, a moon of Saturn has an atmosphere which is largely nitrogen but also contains about 3% methane as well as smaller amounts of C2 and C3 hydrocarbons. If all these hydrocarbons are of biological origin, the isotopic scrambling occurring in living organisms would result in equal D atom abundances. On the other hand, if the higher hydrocarbons are derived from methane by photodissociation of methane, they should be richer in D than methane. Precise values for the enrichment were derived from our photochemical data. 2) When methane is dissociated by vuv light, methylene is produced in a singlet state. This explains why the higher hydrocarbons are sparse on Jupiter but relatively rich on Titan.

  19. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  20. The Oldest Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.

    2004-04-01

    Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion years old. While 4.29 billion years sounds very ancient, a magma ocean ought to have solidified well within 100 million years of lunar origin about 4.55 billion years ago. One possibility is that the young ages reflect impact events, not the original time of igneous crystallization. My colleagues Lars Borg (University of New Mexico) and Larry Nyquist and Don Bogard (Johnson Space Center) and I studied an anorthosite (rock 67215) relatively rich in pyroxene, allowing us to determine a precise crystallization age of 4.40 billion years. But even that age might have been affected by the subsequent shock heating event that reset the low-temperature components in this rock about 500 million years after it formed. By examining data for all of the previously dated lunar anorthosites, we were able to show that plagioclase feldspar is more prone to shock damage than are the pyroxenes in these rocks, so we plotted only the pyroxene data for four different anorthosites on a samarium-neodymium isochron diagram. These data fall on a well-defined line indicating a crystallization age for the anorthosites of 4.46 billion years, consistent with very early, widespread melting of the Moon. Other data for 67215 show that it comes from a relatively shallow depth in the crust, giving us clues to the structure of the lunar crust. Studies like this one are filling in the picture of how the initial crust of the Moon formed, which in turn sheds light on the formation of the terrestrial planets.