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Sample records for juris lavendelis gints

  1. Lavender and the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Koulivand, Peir Hossein; Khaleghi Ghadiri, Maryam; Gorji, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Lavender is traditionally alleged to have a variety of therapeutic and curative properties, ranging from inducing relaxation to treating parasitic infections, burns, insect bites, and spasm. There is growing evidence suggesting that lavender oil may be an effective medicament in treatment of several neurological disorders. Several animal and human investigations suggest anxiolytic, mood stabilizer, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties for lavender. These studies raised the possibility of revival of lavender therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders. In this paper, a survey on current experimental and clinical state of knowledge about the effect of lavender on the nervous system is given. PMID:23573142

  2. Meet the Jury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the profiles of the jury of this year's Educational Interiors Showcase competition. David Magida has served as Chief Administrator at Norwich University for 15 years. Frank Sever is currently serving as the supervisor of buildings, grounds & equipment department of the Mayfield City School District. Charles A. Wilson III, a…

  3. Legal Reasoning and Jury Deliberations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hurlbert, Mike J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the relationship of legal reasoning abilities and dominance in jury deliberations. Explains that the study considered both reasoning scores and verbal behavior during deliberations. Concludes that jury deliberations reflect the talking and opinions of members holding the most advanced legal reasoning possible.…

  4. Public Participation Guide: Citizen Juries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Citizen juries involve creating a “jury” a representative sample of citizens (usually selected in a random or stratified manner) who are briefed in detail on the background and current thinking relating to a particular issue or project.

  5. Lavandula angustifolia Miller: English lavender.

    PubMed

    Denner, Sallie Stoltz

    2009-01-01

    Folk and traditional therapeutic use of the essential oil of English lavender for pain, infection, relaxation, and sedation dates back centuries. Current research focusing on the inherent synergism of Lavandula angustifolia Miller demonstrates great potential for future applications. Today's investigations may provide the key to eradicating degenerative inflammatory disease, infectious disease, and carcinogenesis.

  6. Four genes essential for recombination define GInts, a new type of mobile genomic island widespread in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bardaji, Leire; Echeverría, Myriam; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Martínez-García, Pedro M.; Murillo, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Integrases are a family of tyrosine recombinases that are highly abundant in bacterial genomes, actively disseminating adaptive characters such as pathogenicity determinants and antibiotics resistance. Using comparative genomics and functional assays, we identified a novel type of mobile genetic element, the GInt, in many diverse bacterial groups but not in archaea. Integrated as genomic islands, GInts show a tripartite structure consisting of the ginABCD operon, a cargo DNA region from 2.5 to at least 70 kb, and a short AT-rich 3′ end. The gin operon is characteristic of GInts and codes for three putative integrases and a small putative helix-loop-helix protein, all of which are essential for integration and excision of the element. Genes in the cargo DNA are acquired mostly from phylogenetically related bacteria and often code for traits that might increase fitness, such as resistance to antimicrobials or virulence. GInts also tend to capture clusters of genes involved in complex processes, such as the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin by Pseudomonas syringae. GInts integrate site-specifically, generating two flanking direct imperfect repeats, and excise forming circular molecules. The excision process generates sequence variants at the element attachment site, which can increase frequency of integration and drive target specificity. PMID:28393892

  7. Four genes essential for recombination define GInts, a new type of mobile genomic island widespread in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bardaji, Leire; Echeverría, Myriam; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Murillo, Jesús

    2017-04-10

    Integrases are a family of tyrosine recombinases that are highly abundant in bacterial genomes, actively disseminating adaptive characters such as pathogenicity determinants and antibiotics resistance. Using comparative genomics and functional assays, we identified a novel type of mobile genetic element, the GInt, in many diverse bacterial groups but not in archaea. Integrated as genomic islands, GInts show a tripartite structure consisting of the ginABCD operon, a cargo DNA region from 2.5 to at least 70 kb, and a short AT-rich 3' end. The gin operon is characteristic of GInts and codes for three putative integrases and a small putative helix-loop-helix protein, all of which are essential for integration and excision of the element. Genes in the cargo DNA are acquired mostly from phylogenetically related bacteria and often code for traits that might increase fitness, such as resistance to antimicrobials or virulence. GInts also tend to capture clusters of genes involved in complex processes, such as the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin by Pseudomonas syringae. GInts integrate site-specifically, generating two flanking direct imperfect repeats, and excise forming circular molecules. The excision process generates sequence variants at the element attachment site, which can increase frequency of integration and drive target specificity.

  8. GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Silvia; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ellerbeck, Matthias; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Boller, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur; Brachmann, Andreas; Wipf, Daniel; Ferrol, Nuria; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply. PMID:27252708

  9. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  10. The expression of GintPT, the phosphate transporter of Rhizophagus irregularis, depends on the symbiotic status and phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Valentina; Lanfranco, Luisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2013-05-01

    The development of mutualistic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most important adaptation of terrestrial plants to face mineral nutrition requirements. As an essential plant nutrient, phosphorus uptake is acknowledged as a major benefit of the AM symbiosis, but the molecular mechanisms of its transport as inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil to root cells via AM fungi remain poorly known. Here we monitored the expression profile of the high-affinity phosphate transporter (PT) gene (GintPT) of Rhizophagus irregularis (DAOM 197198) in fungal structures (spores, extraradical mycelium and arbuscules), under different Pi availability, and in respect to plant connection. GintPT resulted constitutively expressed along the major steps of the fungal life cycle and the connection with the host plant was crucial to warrant GintPT high expression levels in the extraradical mycelium. The influence of Pi availability on gene expression of the fungal GintPT and the Medicago truncatula symbiosis-specific Pi transporter (MtPT4) was examined by qRT-PCR assay on microdissected arbusculated cells. The expression profiles of both genes revealed that these transporters are sensitive to changing Pi conditions: we observed that MtPT4 mRNA abundance is higher at 320 than at 32 μM suggesting that the flow towards the plant requires high concentrations. Taken on the whole, the findings highlight novel traits for the functioning of the GintPT gene and offer a molecular scenario to the models describing nutrient transfers as a cooperation between the mycorrhizal partners.

  11. 27 CFR 21.130 - Spike lavender oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spike lavender oil, natural. 21.130 Section 21.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Denaturants § 21.130 Spike lavender oil, natural. (a) Alcohol content (as borneol). Not less than 30...

  12. 27 CFR 21.130 - Spike lavender oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spike lavender oil, natural. 21.130 Section 21.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Denaturants § 21.130 Spike lavender oil, natural. (a) Alcohol content (as borneol). Not less than 30...

  13. 27 CFR 21.130 - Spike lavender oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spike lavender oil, natural. 21.130 Section 21.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Denaturants § 21.130 Spike lavender oil, natural. (a) Alcohol content (as borneol). Not less than 30...

  14. 27 CFR 21.130 - Spike lavender oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spike lavender oil, natural. 21.130 Section 21.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Denaturants § 21.130 Spike lavender oil, natural. (a) Alcohol content (as borneol). Not less than 30...

  15. 27 CFR 21.130 - Spike lavender oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spike lavender oil, natural. 21.130 Section 21.130 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Denaturants § 21.130 Spike lavender oil, natural. (a) Alcohol content (as borneol). Not less than 30...

  16. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which the... prosecutor informs the court that no sentence of incarceration will be sought, the court may not impose a sentence of incarceration for the offense. (c) A jury must consist of not less than six residents of...

  17. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which the... prosecutor informs the court that no sentence of incarceration will be sought, the court may not impose a sentence of incarceration for the offense. (c) A jury must consist of not less than six residents of...

  18. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which the... prosecutor informs the court that no sentence of incarceration will be sought, the court may not impose a sentence of incarceration for the offense. (c) A jury must consist of not less than six residents of...

  19. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which the... prosecutor informs the court that no sentence of incarceration will be sought, the court may not impose a sentence of incarceration for the offense. (c) A jury must consist of not less than six residents of...

  20. 25 CFR 11.314 - Jury trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... criminal case: (1) That is punishable by a maximum sentence of one year incarceration; or (2) In which the... prosecutor informs the court that no sentence of incarceration will be sought, the court may not impose a sentence of incarceration for the offense. (c) A jury must consist of not less than six residents of...

  1. Anticholinergic syndrome and supraventricular tachycardia caused by lavender tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    Acikalin, Ayca; Gulen, Muge; Kara, Banu; Icme, Ferhat; Cagliyan, Caglar Emre; Satar, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Lavender plants have been used for their cosmetic and biologic benefits for many centries. Extracts from Lavandula plants have been found to cause antimuscarinic effects by blocking sodium and calcium ion channels in in vitro and in vivo studies. We present a case of poisoning by ingestion of tea made from Lavender stoechas ( grass). The patient was admitted to our emergency department with supraventricular tachycardia due to anticholinergic syndrome triggered by drinking lavender tea. On electrocardiography, a narrow QRS complex tachycardia was evident. After carotid sinus massage, the patient immediately returned to sinus rhythm. There are no reported data about the toxicity of Lavender stoechas plants with respect to supraventricular tachycardia, anticholinergic syndrome or sympathetic nerve activity.

  2. Lavender Islands: the New Zealand study.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Mark; Neville, Stephen; Jordan, Claire; Donaghey, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and sexuality, families of choice, immigration and internal migration, wellbeing, politics, income and spending, education, careers and leisure, community connections, challenges, and spirituality. A four-axis model of sexual identity was also tested; 2,269 responses were received. Of these 83% were from the website; 45% of responses were from women and 54% from men. Responses identified a robust, highly educated, relatively high-income, politically active LGB community. Male and female respondents experienced same-sex relationships and identity in significantly different ways.

  3. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  4. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  5. How Juries Assess Universal Design in Norwegian Architectural School Competitions.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how architectural school competition juries assess Universal Design. The method used is a case study of 18 recent architectural school competitions in Norway. The results show that most competition briefs ask for Universal Designed buildings. In 8 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is mentioned as an assessment criterion. In 11 of the 18 cases, Universal Design is commented on by the juries in the jury reports, but only in 3 of the cases, do the juries assess this aspect consistently on every competition project. The overall impression is that some amount of uncertainty looms concerning how Universal Design should be assessed in the competition stage. Based on the findings, future juries should concentrate on orientation and overview prior to technicalities and details.

  6. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    PubMed

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  7. Trial by Jury: A New Evaluation Method. I. The Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    The judicial evaluation approach adapts and modifies certain concepts from both jury trials and administrative hearings in the field of law and relies on the law's acceptance of human testimony to clarify and, subsequently, to judge complex events. (Author)

  8. Volatile fraction of lavender and bitter fennel infusion extracts.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2010-09-01

    The relative proportions of chemical classes (hydrocarbons, oxides, alcohols/ethers, aldehydes/ketones, acids/esters/lactones) in the essential oil of lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., family Lamiaceae) and bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare var. vulgare (Mill.) Thellung, family Apiaceae) and in the volatile fraction of infusion extracts were examined and showed remarkable differences. The volatile compounds of infusions were isolated by hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE). Their qualitative and semiquantitative compositions were compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation directly from the plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, quantification of the major constituents of lavender oil and of the volatile fraction obtained by hydrodistillation of the infusion was performed. Comparison of the total essential oil yield quantified by hydrodistillation of the lavender infusion (0.7% v/w, corresponding to plant material) with the essential oil yield of the blossoms (5.1% v/w) revealed that only 13.9% of the initial oil could be extracted by infusion. The main constituents of the volatile fraction of the lavender infusion were (hydrodistillation/SPE): linalool (39.3%/28.2%), 1,8 cineole (24.8%/18.9%), cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) (5.8%/8.0%), trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) (4.1%/7.1%), camphor (5.3%/4.0%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%/3.0%). The major constituents of lavender essential oil were linalool (28.8%), 1,8-cineole (18.05%), linalyl acetate (13.9%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%). Most intriguing, in the volatile fraction of lavender infusion a significant proportional decrease of linalyl acetate and an increase of linalool oxides was recognized. The essential oil yield of fennel fruits was 12.5% v/w, whereas 1.8% v/w volatile fraction (corresponding to plant material) was obtained by hydrodistillation of the fennel infusion, which is equivalent to 14.5% of the initial fennel essential oil. The main

  9. Basic repository source term and data sheet report: Lavender Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report is one of a series describing studies undertaken in support of the US Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. This study contains the derivation of values for environmental source terms and resources consumed for a CRWM repository. Estimates include heavy construction equipment; support equipment; shaft-sinking equipment; transportation equipment; and consumption of fuel, water, electricity, and natural gas. Data are presented for construction and operation at an assumed site in Lavender Canyon, Utah. 3 refs; 6 tabs.

  10. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-12-12

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment.

  11. Expert evidence, the adversary system, and the jury.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions have been made about the competence of juries in dealing with expert evidence. I review the types of expert evidence that jurors hear and the impact of adversary legal procedure on the form and manner in which evidence is presented. Empirical research indicates that jurors understand the adversary process, that they do not automatically defer to the opinions of experts, and that their verdicts appear to be generally consistent with external criteria of performance. Conflicts between the American adversary system and changes in trial procedures that might assist the jury in its task are also considered here.

  12. When Justice Is Up to You. Celebrating America's Guarantee of Trial by Jury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Featuring a mock trial tested in the District of Columbia, the objective of this manual is to help students learn more about the constitutional guarantee of trial by jury. Prepared as five separate lessons, the manual examines one alternative to the jury system--trial by ordeal; traces the development of the guarantee of trial by jury; explores…

  13. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  14. The Origin of a Jury in Ancient Greece and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumanov, Dmitriy Yu.; Sakhapov, Rinat R.; Faizrahmanov, Damir I.; Safin, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the implementation of the democratic principles in the court and judicial process in the trial by jury by the example of the history and development of this institution in Russia. The authors used different methods and approaches, in particular, historical, systemic and Aristotelian method, concrete…

  15. Draft environmental assessment: Lavender Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Lavender Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Lavender Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites h

  16. Volatile profile in the accurate labelling of monofloral honey. The case of lavender and thyme honey.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Sobrino-Gregorio, Lara; Conchado, Andrea; Juan-Borrás, Marisol

    2017-07-01

    The proliferation of hybrid plant varieties without pollen, such as lavender, has complicated the classification of specific types of honey. This study evaluated the correlation between the proclaimed type of monofloral honey (lavender or thyme) as appears on the label with the actual percentage of pollen. In addition, physicochemical parameters, colour, olfacto-gustatory profile, and volatile compounds were tested. All of the samples labelled as lavender were wrongly classified according to the usual commercial criteria (minimum 10% of pollen Lavandula spp.). In the case of lavender honey, there was significant agreement between commercial labelling and classification through organoleptic perception (81.8%), and above all between the commercial labelling and the volatile compounds (90.9%). For thyme honey, agreement for both parameters was 90.0%. These results offer compelling evidence that the volatile compounds are useful for the classification of lavender honey with low levels of pollen since this technique agrees well with the organoleptic analysis.

  17. Effects of lavender aroma on sleep quality in healthy Japanese students.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Nishimoto, Takashi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo

    2012-02-01

    This single-blind randomized study investigated the effectiveness of lavender aroma on quality of sleep in healthy Japanese students. The data of seven participants (2 men, 5 women) in the intervention group and eight participants (3 men, 5 women) in the control group were analyzed (M age = 19.0 yr., SD = 0.9). The total procedure comprised 3 days for pre-intervention assessment, 5 days for the intervention, and 3 days for post-intervention assessment. Lavender exposure was compared with the absence of lavender (control). Information regarding the relaxing effect of aromas was provided to examine expectancy effects. Results showed that lavender aroma improved sleepiness at awakening after the intervention. Sex differences and daily variation in quality of sleep during the intervention period were not observed. The findings suggest that nighttime exposure to lavender aroma relieves sleepiness at awakening.

  18. Judge upholds jury award over employer's HIV disclosure.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    A Federal judge has refused to overturn or reduce a jury's $125,000 award to a Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) employee who said his privacy was invaded when his superiors learned he was taking an AIDS medication. The employee, known as John Doe, charged that Judith Pierce, the chief administrative officer of SEPTA, looked at the records of the agency's prescription drug plan to confirm her suspicions that he had HIV. Pierce, who claimed drug report review was part of her job in controlling costs, contended that she wanted to make sure the plan's new administrator, Rite-Aid Corp., was charging the right prices for prescriptions. The judge agreed with the jury that Pierce went far beyond her role as auditor of the drug plan when she asked Rite-Aid to link individuals' names to specific prescriptions and then informed Doe's supervisor, associate, and another employee about Doe's AIDS medication.

  19. Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica

    2012-04-15

    Lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of two different lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) and Lavandula hybrida Rev. (Lamiaceae) on neurological capacity of male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine (0.7mg/kg)-induced dementia rat model. Chronic exposures to lavender essential oils (daily, for 7 continuous days) significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior and inhibited depression in elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, suggesting anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Also, spatial memory performance in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks was improved, suggesting positive effects on memory formation. Taken together, multiple exposures to lavender essential oils could effectively reverse spatial memory deficits induced by dysfunction of the cholinergic system in the rat brain and might provide an opportunity for management neurological abnormalities in dementia conditions.

  20. In vitro culture of lavenders (Lavandula spp.) and the production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sandra; Romano, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Lavenders (Lavandula spp., Lamiaceae) are aromatic ornamental plants that are used widely in the food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The large-scale production of lavenders requires efficient in vitro propagation techniques to avoid the overexploitation of natural populations and to allow the application of biotechnology-based approaches for plant improvement and the production of valuable secondary metabolites. In this review we discuss micropropagation methods that have been developed in several lavender species, mainly based on meristem proliferation and organogenesis. Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation (establishment, shoot multiplication, root induction and acclimatization) and requisites for plant regeneration trough organogenesis, as an important step for the implementation of plant improvement programs, were revised. We also discuss different methods for the in vitro production of valuable secondary metabolites, focusing on the prospects for highly scalable cultures to meet the market demand for lavender-derived products.

  1. Lavender Oil-Potent Anxiolytic Properties via Modulating Voltage Dependent Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schuwald, Anita M.; Nöldner, Michael; Wilmes, Thomas; Klugbauer, Norbert; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological experiments were investigated in physiological concentrations in the nanomolar range, which correlate to a single dosage of 80 mg/d in humans that was used in clinical trials. We show for the first time that lavender oil bears some similarities with the established anxiolytic pregabalin. Lavender oil inhibits VOCCs in synaptosomes, primary hippocampal neurons and stably overexpressing cell lines in the same range such as pregabalin. Interestingly, Silexan does not primarily bind to P/Q type calcium channels such as pregabalin and does not interact with the binding site of pregabalin, the α2δ subunit of VOCCs. Lavender oil reduces non-selectively the calcium influx through several different types of VOCCs such as the N-type, P/Q-type and T-type VOCCs. In the hippocampus, one brain region important for anxiety disorders, we show that inhibition by lavender oil is mainly mediated via N-type and P/Q-type VOCCs. Taken together, we provide a pharmacological and molecular rationale for the clinical use of the oral application of lavender oil in patients suffering from anxiety. PMID:23637742

  2. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p < 0.001). Topical aromatherapy using lavender-thymol was highly effective, suitable and safe for episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.

  3. [Discriminant Analysis of Lavender Essential Oil by Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Wang, Qing; Tong, Hong; Liao, Xiang; Zhang, Zheng-fang

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to use attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the lavender essential oil by establishing a Lavender variety and quality analysis model. So, 96 samples were tested. For all samples, the raw spectra were pretreated as second derivative, and to determine the 1 750-900 cm(-1) wavelengths for pattern recognition analysis on the basis of the variance calculation. The results showed that principal component analysis (PCA) can basically discriminate lavender oil cultivar and the first three principal components mainly represent the ester, alcohol and terpenoid substances. When the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, the 68 samples were used for the calibration set. Determination coefficients of OPLS-DA regression curve were 0.959 2, 0.976 4, and 0.958 8 respectively for three varieties of lavender essential oil. Three varieties of essential oil's the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in validation set were 0.142 9, 0.127 3, and 0.124 9, respectively. The discriminant rate of calibration set and the prediction rate of validation set had reached 100%. The model has the very good recognition capability to detect the variety and quality of lavender essential oil. The result indicated that a model which provides a quick, intuitive and feasible method had been built to discriminate lavender oils.

  4. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

    2005-09-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare.

  5. Jury rejects plea that AIDS dementia prompted murder plot.

    PubMed

    1998-06-12

    [Name removed], a defendant with AIDS-related dementia, was found legally sane by a Contra Costa County jury when he plotted to have his ex-lover killed for $860,000 in insurance money. No testimony was presented showing that the defendant was insane at the time he plotted the murder. A videotape showed the defendant giving $2,500 to an undercover police officer to hire the officer for the murder. The defendant was convicted and sentenced to 25 years to life in prison. He is currently refusing all AIDS medications, and is not expected to live longer than 18 months.

  6. Judge cuts jury award against former AIDS director.

    PubMed

    1997-10-31

    [Name removed], former director of Philadelphia's AIDS Activities Coordinating Office, was sued by eight African American employees who claimed they were discriminated against in favor of white employees. [Name removed] maintained innocence and in December 1996 several claims against him were dismissed. In April 1997 a jury found in favor of four of the employees and awarded them $5,000 each for emotional distress. [Name removed] appealed to the court to set aside the verdict and both sides sought attorney's fees from the other. The judged denied most of [name removed]'s motion and repudiated [name removed]'s and the city's requests for the plaintiffs to pay their attorney's fees.

  7. DNA evidence in jury trials: the "CSI effect".

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ; Skellern, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    In Murdoch v The Queen (2007) 167 A Crim R 329, Hillier v The Queen (2007) 228 CLR 618 and Forbes v The Queen (2009) 167ACTR 1, Australian appellate courts considered the interpretation of DNA evidence and the possibility of secondary transfer of DNA samples and questions about the statistical calculations used to produce probabilities of DNA matches. Following the 2010 Victorian case of Farrah Jama, whose conviction for rape was quashed 16 months into his prison sentence after it was discovered that the incriminating DNA sample was contaminated, Mr FRH Vincent QC, in his report to the Victorian Attorney-General, was scathing of the conduct of the case and made a number of recommendations, all of which were immediately adopted by the Victorian Government. Following the release of the Vincent Report, Australia's Attorneys-General have established a working party to examine national standards for the use and collection of DNA evidence. The use and interpretation of DNA evidence in jury trials is considered and factors that improve jury understanding of DNA evidence are discussed.

  8. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. Objectives In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. Materials and Methods In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hospital for cesarean section, were divided randomly into two groups. After cesarean, the Lavender group inhaled about 3 drops of 10% Lavender oil essence and the placebo group inhaled 3 drops of placebo after the start of postoperative pain, four, eight and 12 hours later, for 5 minutes from the 10 cm distance. Patient's pain was measured by the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) score before and after each intervention, and vital sign, complications and level of satisfaction of every patient were recorded before and after aromatherapy. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in age, height, weight, and time to the first analgesic requirement. Patients in the Lavender group had less postoperative pain in four (P = 0.008), eight (P = 0.024) and 12 (P = 0.011) hours after first medication than the placebo group. The decreased heart rate and patients' level of satisfaction with analgesia were significantly higher in the Lavender group (P = 0.001). In the placebo group, the use of diclofenac suppositories for complete analgesia was also significantly higher than the Lavender group (P = 0.008). Conclusions The inhaled Lavender essence may be used as a part of the multidisciplinary treatment of pain after cesarean section, but it is not recommended as the sole pain management. PMID:24223363

  9. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vakilian, Katayon; Atarha, Mahtab; Bekhradi, Reza; Chaman, Reza

    2011-02-01

    Episiotomy is the most common perineal incision in obstetric and midwifery. Nowadays alternative and complementary methods such as Aromatherapy using essential oils are established as an alternative therapy. This research was carried out to assess the effect of lavender oil in wound healing. This randomized control trial was conducted on 120 primiparous women with singleton pregnancy, without any acute and chronic disease and allergy who had undergone normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and episiotomy. They were randomly allocated in case and control groups. Case group received lavender oil and controls received povidone-iodine. Incision sites were assessed on the 10th day postpartum. 25 out of 60 women in lavender group and 17 mothers in control group had no pain (p = 0.06). There was no significant difference between two groups in surgery site complications. However, redness in lavender group was significantly less than controls (p < 0.001). This study suggests application of lavender essential oil instead of povidone-iodine for episiotomy wound care.

  10. Impact of the lavender rhizosphere on the mercury uptake in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M J; Rodríguez-Alonso, J; Millán, R

    2012-11-01

    Lavender plants as well as their rhizosphere and bulk soil were sampled on a wide range of soils with different land use within the Almadén mercury mining district. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of the rhizosphere on mercury behavior in soil-lavender plant system including chemometric analysis. The edaphic parameters that significantly differed between lavender rhizosphere and bulk soil were: total Hg; easily available Hg; electrical conductivity; organic matter; cation exchange capacity; soluble ions (Cl(-); SO(4)(2-); PO(4)(3-); NO(3)(-); Al(+); Mn(2+); Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). The most important variable in the differentiation is electrical conductivity. Furthermore, both organic matter and Mn(2+) in rhizosphere soil seem to block Hg availability to plant. However, the presence of sulfates seems to favor it. Regarding other relationships, Hg seems to block Pb uptake by lavender plants and, on the other hand, the presence of Mn(2+) seems to favor it. Furthermore, Hg root uptake by lavender and its distribution throughout the plant have been studied. The more available Hg in rhizosphere soil, the more Hg is translocated to aerial part and less Hg is retained by root. In all cases, the Hg concentration in the root was higher than in the aerial part.

  11. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Lavender Canyon site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Lavender Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.51 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPP, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 51 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of lavender varieties from Poland.

    PubMed

    Adaszyńska, M; Swarcewicz, M; Dzięcioł, M; Dobrowolska, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was comparing the chemical composition of the essential oils from five varieties of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.), and its biological activity against two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the comparison we included the following varieties: 'Munstead', 'Munstead Strain', 'Lavender Lady', 'Ellegance Purple' and 'Blue River'. Selected varieties of lavender (L. angustifolia) are characterised by exactly the same main compounds with only variations in the percentage of content. The primary components of the essential oils were: linalool (23.9-15.8%), linalyl anthranilate (12.3-1.6%), 1-terpinen-4-ol (9.7-5.5%), p-menth-1-en-8-ol (7.9-4.0%) and linalool oxide (4.7-1.1%). From the essential oils that were tested, the 'Blue River' and 'Munstead' varieties have the greatest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  13. [Main Components of Xinjiang Lavender Essential Oil Determined by Partial Least Squares and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Fu, Ji-hong; Tang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work was undertaken to establish a quantitative analysis model which can rapid determinate the content of linalool, linalyl acetate of Xinjiang lavender essential oil. Totally 165 lavender essential oil samples were measured by using near infrared absorption spectrum (NIR), after analyzing the near infrared spectral absorption peaks of all samples, lavender essential oil have abundant chemical information and the interference of random noise may be relatively low on the spectral intervals of 7100~4500 cm(-1). Thus, the PLS models was constructed by using this interval for further analysis. 8 abnormal samples were eliminated. Through the clustering method, 157 lavender essential oil samples were divided into 105 calibration set samples and 52 validation set samples. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a tool to determine the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender essential oil. Then the matrix was established with the GC-MS raw data of two compounds in combination with the original NIR data. In order to optimize the model, different pretreatment methods were used to preprocess the raw NIR spectral to contrast the spectral filtering effect, after analysizing the quantitative model results of linalool and linalyl acetate, the root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of orthogonal signal transformation (OSC) was 0.226, 0.558, spectrally, it was the optimum pretreatment method. In addition, forward interval partial least squares (FiPLS) method was used to exclude the wavelength points which has nothing to do with determination composition or present nonlinear correlation, finally 8 spectral intervals totally 160 wavelength points were obtained as the dataset. Combining the data sets which have optimized by OSC-FiPLS with partial least squares (PLS) to establish a rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in Xinjiang lavender essential oil, numbers of hidden variables of two

  14. Jury Still Out on Whether to Screen All Adults for Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Jury Still Out on Whether to Screen All Adults for Sleep Apnea Not enough data to ... Jan. 24, 2017 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are written and provided ...

  15. Neuroprotective effects of inhaled lavender oil on scopolamine-induced dementia via anti-oxidative activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hancianu, Monica; Cioanca, Oana; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2013-03-15

    Lavender is used in traditional medicines in Asia, Europe, ancient Greece and Rome, and was mentioned in the Bible and in ancient Jewish texts. Also, lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and headache. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. and Lavandula hybrida Rev. using superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) specific activities, total content of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) level (lipid peroxidation) and DNA fragmentation assays in male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine-induced dementia rat model. In scopolamine-treated rats, lavender essential oils showed potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Subacute exposures (daily, for 7 continuous days) to lavender oils significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT), total content of reduced GSH and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in rat temporal lobe homogenates, suggesting antioxidant potential. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the lavender groups, suggesting antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the lavender essential oils are the major mechanisms for their potent neuroprotective effects against scopolamine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain.

  16. Effects of Inhalation of Lavender Essential Oil on Open-heart Surgery Pain

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Armaiti; Mashouf, Soheyla; Sahbaei, Faezeh; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of inhalation of lavender essential oil on the pain of open-heart surgery. The main complaint of patients after open-heart surgery is chest pain. Due to the side effects of opioids, it is important to use a non-invasive way to effectively relieve pain including aromatherapy with analgesics. This study was a clinical single-blind trial and was conducted on 40 patients who had open-heart surgery in the cardiac ICU of 2 Hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012. Criteria included: full consciousness, spontaneous breathing ability and not using synthetic opioids within 2 hours before extubation. After extubation, the patients were asked to mark the intensity of their pain using the visual analogue scale. Then, a cotton swab which was impregnated with 2 drops of lavender essential oil 2% was placed in their oxygen mask, and they got breath for 10 minutes. 30 minutes after aromatherapy, they were asked to re-mark their pain intensity. The level of patient’s pain before and after aroma therapy were compared. The pain mean level before and after inhaling lavender essential oil was 5.60 (SD = 2.262) and 4.98 (SD = 2.293), respectively (p-value>0.05). Therefore, there is no significant difference and the result of study proves that lavender essential oil inhalation has no effect on reducing the pain of open-heart surgery. PMID:25587315

  17. 76 FR 48897 - Sheryl Lavender, D.O. Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... its Motion for Summary Judgment as authority for revoking Respondent's registration. See Order to Show...(f) and 824(a), as well as 21 CFR 0.100(b) and 0.104, I order that DEA Certificate of Registration... application of Sheryl Lavender, D.O., to renew or modify her registration, be, and it hereby is, denied....

  18. Lavender Graduation: Acknowledging the Lives and Achievement of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Ronni

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins and practices of Lavender Graduations, events in which the lives and achievements of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender college students are celebrated. Examines results of an evaluation survey, reviews implications for practice, and provides suggestions for future research. (Contains 19 references.) (GCP)

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).

    PubMed

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Festner, Maria; Dregus, Márta; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-09-15

    The essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Using a homology-based PCR strategy, two monoterpene synthases (LaLIMS and LaLINS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (LaBERS) were cloned from lavender leaves and flowers. LaLIMS catalyzed the formation of (R)-(+)-limonene, terpinolene, (1R,5S)-(+)-camphene, (1R,5R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene and traces of alpha-phellandrene. The proportions of these products changed significantly when Mn(2+) was supplied as the cofactor instead of Mg(2+). The second enzyme LaLINS produced exclusively (R)-(-)-linalool, the main component of lavender essential oil. LaBERS transformed farnesyl diphosphate and represents the first reported trans-alpha-bergamotene synthase. It accepted geranyl diphosphate with higher affinity than farnesyl diphosphate and also produced monoterpenes, albeit at low rates. LaBERS is probably derived from a parental monoterpene synthase by the loss of the plastidial signal peptide and by broadening its substrate acceptance spectrum. The identification and description of the first terpene synthases from L. angustifolia forms the basis for the biotechnological modification of essential oil composition in lavender.

  20. Genetic differences in temperament determine whether lavender oil alleviates or exacerbates anxiety in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hawken, P A R; Fiol, C; Blache, D

    2012-03-20

    Growing concerns about the risk of addiction to benzodiazepines have led to increasing interest in alternative therapies to treat anxiety and depression. Lavender oil (Lavendula augustifolia) is reportedly anxiolytic in a number of species but little is known about how it affects individuals that are more or less anxious when faced with a stressor. In this study, we used changes in locomotor activity and the plasma concentrations of cortisol to test whether lavender oil would reduce behavioral and endocrine correlates of anxiety in calm and nervous sheep exposed to an isolation stressor. During the non-breeding season, 'calm' or 'nervous' female sheep from the UWA temperament flock were exposed to a mask containing either 1 mL of 10% lavender oil (calm: n=8; nervous: n=8) or peanut oil (calm: n=8; nervous: n=8). After 30 min, each sheep was isolated for 5 min and then returned to the group. Blood was sampled prior to the mask, prior to isolation, 1 min and 30 min after isolation to profile changes in the plasma concentrations of cortisol. Agitation score, locomotor activity and vocalizations were recorded as correlates of anxiety associated with the isolation stressor. Irrespective of whether they were exposed to lavender oil, calm sheep had a lower agitation score (P<0.001), crossed the central lines of the isolation box less frequently (P<0.001), expressed fewer vocalizations (P<0.001) and had lower plasma concentrations of cortisol immediately after isolation (P<0.001) than nervous sheep. Exposure of calm sheep to lavender oil decreased the agitation score (P<0.001), frequency of vocalizations (P<0.05), decreased the number of crosses of the central lines of the isolation box (P<0.05), and the plasma concentrations of cortisol prior to isolation (P<0.05) (after mask application) compared to calm control sheep. Exposure of nervous sheep to lavender oil increased the frequency of vocalizations (P<0.05), the number of sheep attempting to escape (P<0.05) and the

  1. Argumentation in Science Teacher Education: The simulated jury as a resource for teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; da Rocha Bernardo, José Roberto; Evagorou, Maria; Florentino de Melo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we focus on the contributions that a simulated jury-based activity might have for pre-service teachers, especially for their active participation and learning in teacher education. We observed a teacher educator using a series of simulated juries as teaching resources to help pre-service teachers develop their pedagogical knowledge and their argumentation abilities in a physics teacher methods course. For the purposes of this article, we have selected one simulated jury-based activity, comprising two opposed groups of pre-service teachers that presented aspects that hinder the teachers' development of professional knowledge (against group) and aspects that allow this development (favor group). After the groups' presentations, a group of judges was formed to evaluate the discussion. We applied a multi-level method for discourse analysis and the results showed that (1) the simulated jury afforded the pre-service teachers to position themselves as active knowledge producers; (2) the teacher acted as 'animator' of the pre-service teachers' actions, showing responsiveness to the emergence of circumstantial teaching and learning opportunities and (3) the simulated jury culminated in the judges' identification of the pattern 'concrete/obstacles-ideological/possibilities' in the groups' responses, which was elaborated by the teacher for the whole class. Implications from this study include using simulated juries for teaching and learning and for the development of the pre-service teachers' argumentative abilities. The potential of simulated juries to improve teaching and learning needs to be further explored in order to inform the uses and reflections of this resource in science education.

  2. Social Justice and Environmental Awareness Developed through a Citizens' Jury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.

    2014-12-01

    A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten—well documented, well written, and fascinating to read—describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers—Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others—working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as

  4. Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-02-22

    Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P<0.001). Lavender oil (200 mg/kg) also reduced the content of malondialdehyde and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001). Although lavender oil enhanced VEGF expression (P=0.026), it could not decrease the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio (pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins) in the rat brain (P>0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway.

  5. From passive subject to active agent: the potential of Citizens' Juries for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus

    2007-10-01

    The nursing profession needs to have a greater appreciation of how techniques such as Citizens' Juries can be used in nursing research. This paper explains the concept of Citizens' Juries and how it is being used as a form of social research, that can simultaneously increase public participation in policy making. Participation has become a key component of the discourse in policy making, and public participation initiatives can be one way of bridging the democratic deficit. For nursing, Citizens' Juries offer a way of discovering lay people's considered judgment on key policy issues, while also providing a potentially powerful platform for citizens to express their concerns and priorities, thereby influencing the services they receive. A Citizens' Jury brings together a small group of people over a period of time and presents them with a policy question. The jurors listen to expert witnesses, examine the evidence, deliberate on the issues and arrive at a policy decision or set of recommendations. In this paper we argue that any ordinary person given the opportunity, enough time and the necessary resources can make decisions about complex policy matters. Key findings from two Citizens' Juries on genetics in Wales are offered as case studies.

  6. Antifungal Effect of Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and Clotrimazole on Candida albicans: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Pasha, Hajar; Sefidgar, Ali Asghar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Adib Rad, Hajar; Shirkhani, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Background. The treatment of candidiasis infections is an important problem in the health care system. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of lavender essential oil and clotrimazole on isolated C. albicans from vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, C. albicans isolated from the vaginal discharge samples was obtained. Results. The pairwise comparison showed that lavender and clotrimazole had a significant difference; this difference in the lavender group was lower than clotrimazole. But, after 48 hours, there was no difference seen between groups. There was a significant difference between clotrimazole and DMSO groups. Comparing the changes between groups based on the same dilution, at 24 h and 48 h in clotrimazole group, showed a significant difference two times in the fungal cell count that its average during 48 h was less than 24 h. A significant difference was observed between the two periods in lavender group, only at the dilutions of 1/20 and 1/80. The average fungal cell count after 48 h was also lower in lavender group. Conclusions. Given that the lavender has antifungal activity, this can be used as an antifungal agent. However, more clinical studies are necessary to validate its use in candida infection. PMID:26550521

  7. Antifungal Effect of Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and Clotrimazole on Candida albicans: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Pasha, Hajar; Sefidgar, Ali Asghar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Adib Rad, Hajar; Shirkhani, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Background. The treatment of candidiasis infections is an important problem in the health care system. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of lavender essential oil and clotrimazole on isolated C. albicans from vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, C. albicans isolated from the vaginal discharge samples was obtained. Results. The pairwise comparison showed that lavender and clotrimazole had a significant difference; this difference in the lavender group was lower than clotrimazole. But, after 48 hours, there was no difference seen between groups. There was a significant difference between clotrimazole and DMSO groups. Comparing the changes between groups based on the same dilution, at 24 h and 48 h in clotrimazole group, showed a significant difference two times in the fungal cell count that its average during 48 h was less than 24 h. A significant difference was observed between the two periods in lavender group, only at the dilutions of 1/20 and 1/80. The average fungal cell count after 48 h was also lower in lavender group. Conclusions. Given that the lavender has antifungal activity, this can be used as an antifungal agent. However, more clinical studies are necessary to validate its use in candida infection.

  8. Does lavender aromatherapy alleviate premenstrual emotional symptoms?: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A majority of reproductive-age women experience a constellation of various symptoms in the premenstrual phase, commonly known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Despite its prevalence, however, no single treatment is universally recognized as effective, and many women turn to alternative approaches, including aromatherapy, a holistic mind and body treatment. The present study investigated the soothing effects of aromatherapy on premenstrual symptoms using lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), a relaxing essential oil, from the perspective of autonomic nervous system function. Methods Seventeen women (20.6 ± 0.2 years) with mild to moderate subjective premenstrual symptoms participated in a randomized crossover study. Subjects were examined on two separate occasions (aroma and control trials) in the late-luteal phases. Two kinds of aromatic stimulation (lavender and water as a control) were used. This experiment measured heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting autonomic nerve activity and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Results Only a 10-min inhalation of the lavender scent significantly increased the high frequency (HF) power reflecting parasympathetic nervous system activity in comparison with water (aroma effect: F = 4.50, p = 0.050; time effect: F = 5.59, p = 0.017; aroma x time effect: F = 3.17, p = 0.047). The rate of increase in HF power was greater at 10–15 min (p = 0.051) and 20–25 min (p = 0.023) in the lavender trial than in the control trial with water. In addition, POMS tests revealed that inhalation of the aromatic lavender oil significantly decreased two POMS subscales—depression–dejection (p = 0.045) and confusion (p = 0.049)—common premenstrual symptoms, in the late-luteal phase, as long as 35 min after the aroma stimulation. Conclusions The present study indicated that lavender aromatherapy as a potential therapeutic

  9. Metabolic cross-talk between pathways of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Kutzner, Erika; Huber, Claudia; Segura, Juan; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Arrillaga, Isabel

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic cross-talk between the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in developing spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med) was analyzed using specific inhibitors and on the basis of (13)C-labeling experiments. The presence of mevinolin (MEV), an inhibitor of the MVA pathway, at concentrations higher than 0.5 μM significantly reduced plant development, but not the synthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids. On the other hand, fosmidomycin (FSM), an inhibitor of the MEP pathway, at concentrations higher than 20 μM blocked the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoids and essential oils, and significantly reduced stem development. Notably, 1.2 mM MVA could recover the phenotype of MEV-treated plants, including the normal growth and development of roots, and could partially restore the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and, to a lesser extent, of the essential oils in plantlets treated with FSM. Spike lavender shoot apices were also used in (13)C-labeling experiments, where the plantlets were grown in the presence of [U-(13)C6]glucose. GC-MS-analysis of 1,8-cineole and camphor indicated that the C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of both monoterpenes are predominantly biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, on the basis of the isotopologue profiles, a minor contribution of the MVA pathway was evident that was increased in transgenic spike lavender plants overexpressing the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), the first enzyme of the MVA pathway. Together, these findings provide evidence for a transport of MVA-derived precursors from the cytosol to the plastids in leaves of spike lavender.

  10. Goffman on the jury: real jurors' attention to the "offstage" of trials.

    PubMed

    Rose, Mary R; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Baker, Kimberly M

    2010-08-01

    Social psychologist Erving Goffman, in his classic work The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, provides a framework that explains why jurors may turn their attention at the courthouse to information not formally presented from the witness stand. We dub this "offstage observation," a type of juror behavior that has not been systematically examined empirically. Analyzing a unique data source of 50 actual jury deliberations in civil trials, we find that jurors do look to the offstage in evaluating the claims of the parties. However, in contrast to predictions, these observations played a surprisingly minor role in the jury deliberation process.

  11. Antifungal effect of lavender honey against Candida albicans , Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Maria Leticia; Afonso, Sílvia Esteves; Feás, Xesús

    2011-10-01

    Monofloral lavender honey samples (n = 30), were analyzed to test antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The specific growth rates (μ) showed that all the yeast growths were reduced in the presence of honey. The honey concentration (% w/v) that inhibited 10% of the yeasts growth (X min) ranged from 31.0% (C. albicans), 16.8% (C. krusei) and 23.0% (C. neoformans). A synthetic honey solution was also tested to determine antifungal activity attributable to sugars. The presence of synthetic honey in the C. krusei culture medium at concentrations above 58.0% (w/v) was established as X min, while C. albicans and C. neoformans were more resistant, since X min values were not reached over the ranged tested (10-60%, w/v). What the data suggests is that the component in the lavender honey responsible for the observed antifungal in vitro properties is not sugar based. Honey might be tapped as a natural resource to look for new medicines for the treatment of mycotic infections. This could be very useful, onsidering the increasing resistance of antifungals. It should be noticed that this is the first study concerning the effect of lavender honey on the growth of pathogenic yeasts.

  12. Neuroprotective activity of lavender oil on transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Yuan, Xuan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Liangliang; Hu, Yanli; Wang, Zhenhua; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2012-08-15

    The air-dried aerial parts of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, a traditional Uygur herbal drug, is used as resuscitation-inducing therapy to treat neurodisfunctions, such as stroke. This study was designed to assess the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the intraluminal occlusion method with a nylon string. The neurodysfuntion was evaluated by neurological deficit and the infarct area was showed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The levels of mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) in brain tissue were measured to estimate the oxidative stress state. Neurological deficit, infarct size, histopathology changes and oxidative stress markers were evaluated after 22 h of reperfusion. In comparison with the model group, treatment with lavender oil significantly decreased neurological deficit scores, infarct size, the levels of MDA, carbonyl and ROS, and attenuated neuronal damage, upregulated SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and GSH/GSSG ratio. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of lavender oil against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury may be attributed to its antioxidant effects.

  13. Vegetative communities, Davis and Lavender Canyons, Paradox Basin, Utah: ecosystem studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The major vegetative communities of Davis and Lavender canyons located in southeastern Utah are characterized. The report identifies potential secondary impacts and appropriate mitigation options. The Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon Study Area contains nine major vegetative communities: galleta-shadscale, juniper-blackbrush, juniper-shadscale-ephedra, shadscale-ephedra, grayia-shadscale, juniper, drywash, greasewood, and riparian. The natural recovery times of these communities are exceedingly long. Natural reinvasion of various species would take from 15 to 100 years. No threatened or endangered plant species were identified in the study area. Davis and Lavender canyons have been subject to off-road vehicle activity and extensive grazing. The plant communities may be subject to additional impacts as a result of increased human activity and off-highway activities such as camping, hiking, and hunting could result in changes in cover, composition, and frequency of plant species. Mitigation options for potential impacts include shuttle-busing workers to the site from the highway and fencing site access roads to prevent vehicles from leaving the roads.

  14. Whistle-blower Walks: Jury Acquits Nurse Who Reported Physician to TMB.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2010-05-01

    A West Texas jury acquitted a nurse on trial for misuse of official information. She and another nurse had reported a physician to the Texas Medical Board for improperly prescribing herbal medicines that he sold on the side and for performing unauthorized surgical procedures.

  15. Mock juror sampling issues in jury simulation research: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Brian H; Golding, Jonathan M; Neuschatz, Jeffrey; Kimbrough, Christopher; Reed, Krystia; Magyarics, Casey; Luecht, Katherine

    2017-02-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of jury simulation research have often been debated in the literature. Critics chiefly argue that jury simulations lack verisimilitude, particularly through their use of student mock jurors, and that this limits the generalizabilty of the findings. In the present article, the question of sample differences (student v. nonstudent) in jury research was meta-analyzed for 6 dependent variables: 3 criminal (guilty verdicts, culpability, and sentencing) and 3 civil (liability verdicts, continuous liability, and damages). In total, 53 studies (N = 17,716) were included in the analysis (40 criminal and 13 civil). The results revealed that guilty verdicts, culpability ratings, and damage awards did not vary with sample. Furthermore, the variables that revealed significant or marginally significant differences, sentencing and liability judgments, had small or contradictory effect sizes (e.g., effects on dichotomous and continuous liability judgments were in opposite directions). In addition, with the exception of trial presentation medium, moderator effects were small and inconsistent. These results may help to alleviate concerns regarding the use of student samples in jury simulation research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. "Ain't Misbehavin'": Bench Conduct and Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in Criminal Jury Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne

    The possibility that judges' expectancy effects may adversely affect the results of jury trials is a problem that needs careful theoretical analysis and innovative methods of resolution. Traditional efforts by the legal community to counteract the threat of verbal/nonverbal bias by judges include the "Code of Judicial Conduct," curative…

  17. (Almost) Everything I Need to Know about Multiculturalism I Learned on Jury Duty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shaunna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that during her experience on jury duty--spent with a melting pot of socially-conscious citizens--she reflected upon the implications for education and her own teaching practice. Three major themes centering around her understanding of multiculturalism surfaced: (1) Defining multiculturalism; (2) The cult of…

  18. Race and Jury Selection: Psychological Perspectives on the Peremptory Challenge Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Samuel R.; Norton, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    The legal system is a domain of potential relevance for psychologists, whether in the capacity of expert witness or citizen juror. In this article, the authors apply a psychological framework to legal debate surrounding the impact of race on the process of jury selection. More specifically, the authors consider race and the peremptory challenge,…

  19. The verdict on jury trials for juveniles: the effects of defendant's age on trial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Warling, Diane; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2003-01-01

    With the progression to more adult-like policies and procedures for youth in the justice system, the right to a jury trial has been extended to young offenders. These youth would not be tried by a jury of their peers, however, but by a jury of adults. The concern is that adult jurors may hold negative attitudes about youth that might influence their decision making in a case involving a young defendant. Two studies examined whether and under what conditions defendant's age affects jurors' decisions about the guilt and sentencing of an accused. In study 1, data were gathered from two samples of jury eligible adults: one university sample and one public sample. Mock jurors read written transcripts of a trial involving a defendant who was presented as either 13, 17, or 25 years of age. Results indicated that the defendant's age had no effect on mock jurors' verdict or their ratings of defendant guilt. However, younger defendants were granted shorter sentences than the adult defendants. In study 2, mock jurors read the same trial presented in study 1 but were asked to deliberate about the case and render group verdicts. These group verdicts did not differ significantly by defendant's age. Age-related themes that emerged from group deliberations were identified, and results indicated that age tended to be used as a mitigating factor in favor of youth rather than against them. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for youth justice policy and practice.

  20. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme.

  1. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  2. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)--their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Renata; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2016-01-01

    It was shown that the method for obtaining hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) influences the content of active compounds and the aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the hydrolates. The content of volatile organic compounds ranged from 9.12 to 97.23 mg/100 mL of hydrolate. Lavender hydrolate variants showed low antimicrobial activity (from 0% to 0.05%). The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was from 3.6 ± 0.5% to 3.8 ± 0.6% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) results were from 0 to 266 μM Trolox equivalent, depending on the hydrolate variant.

  3. Justins v The Queen: assisted suicide, juries and the discretion to prosecute.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-06-01

    Juries are often a crucial protection for citizens against unjust or highly controversial laws. The decision whether to proceed with a prosecution rests on the discretionary powers of prosecutors. In cases where the community is deeply divided over right and wrong, it appears that there is, at times, a transference from the public of thwarted law reform aspirations which can create difficult tensions and expectations. This case commentary considers an appeal by Shirley Justins following her conviction for manslaughter by gross criminal negligence as a result of her involvement in the mercy killing of her partner, Mr Graeme Wylie. The morally unsettled nature of the charges brought against her, her own initial plea, the directions given to the jury by the trial judge and even the basis of her appeal resulted in a convoluted and complicated legal case. Spigelman CJ and Johnson J ordered a new trial, Spigelman CJ stating that it was open for a new jury to consider (a) if Mr Wylie lacked capacity; and (b) whether there was criminal involvement by one person in another's death. Simpson J found that further prosecution on the count of manslaughter would amount to an abuse of process and that an acquittal should be entered. This case highlights how fundamentally unsettled are the publicly much debated and persistently contentious issues of euthanasia, assisted suicide, the right of a person to die a dignified death and the way their capacity in that respect should be assessed. It perhaps asks us to reconsider the role of juries and the exercise of discretion by Directors of Public Prosecutions in areas of law where the community and law-makers are deeply and intractably divided.

  4. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  5. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  6. Applying the Capital Jury Project Findings to Court-Martial Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    holdout juror then slowly and deliberately, through the use of reason, is able to change the minds of the other jurors until the jury reaches a...Marla Sandys, “Cross Overs--Capital Jurors Who Change Their Minds About the Punishment: A Litmus Test for Sentencing Guidelines,” Indiana Law...murder case, the defense counsel might introduce mental health evidence with two goals in mind . The first would be for a finding of not guilty by lack

  7. Functional characterization of terpene synthases and chemotypic variation in three lavender species of section Stoechas.

    PubMed

    Benabdelkader, Tarek; Guitton, Yann; Pasquier, Bernard; Magnard, Jean Louis; Jullien, Frédéric; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Legendre, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav. subsp. lusitanica, Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas and Lavandula viridis l'Hér. are three lavender taxa that belong to the botanical section Stoechas and are widely used as aromatherapy, culinary herb or folk medicine in many Mediterranean regions. The analysis of their bioactive volatile constituents revealed the presence of 124 substances, the most abundant being the bicyclic monoterpenes fenchone, camphor and 1,8-cineole that give these three species their respective chemotypes. Most noteworthy was fenchone which, with its reduced form fenchol, made 48% of the total volatile constituents of L. pedunculata while present at 2.9% in L. stoechas and undetectable in L. viridis. In order to provide a molecular explanation to the differences in volatile compounds of these three species, two monoterpene synthases (monoTPS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (sesquiTPS) were cloned in L. pedunculata and functionally characterized as fenchol synthase (LpFENS), α-pinene synthase (LpPINS) and germacrene A synthase (LpGEAS). The two other lavender species contained a single orthologous gene for each of these three classes of TPS with similar enzyme product specificities. Expression profiles of FENS and PINS genes matched the accumulation profile of the enzyme products unlike GEAS. This study provides one of the rare documented cases of chemotype modification during plant speciation via changes in the level of plant TPS gene expression, and not functionality.

  8. Composition and antipseudomonal effect of essential oils isolated from different lavender species.

    PubMed

    Végh, Anna; Bencsik, Tímea; Molnár, Péter; Böszörményi, Andrea; Lemberkovics, Eva; Kovács, Krisztina; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi

    2012-10-01

    The aims of our research include the phytochemical characterization of the essential oils extracted from different lavender species (Lavandula vera L., L. intermedia L., L. pyrenaica DC., and L. stoechas subsp. stoechas) that are important from therapeutic and economic aspects, as well as the optimization of the tube dilution method for microbiological investigation of the effect of essential oils on the selected Pseudomonas strain. The chemical and percentage compositions of the essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main component of the essential oils in the majority of lavender species was linalool, while L-fencone was identified in the largest amount in L. stoechas subsp. stoechas. Tube dilution is one of the most frequently used methods for microbiological investigation. Its advantages are that it is easy to perform and provides information about minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Because of the lipophilic character of essential oils, the tube dilution method should be optimized for the detection of antibacterial activity of these plant extracts, and, therefore, emulsions containing 0.2% polysorbate 80 were prepared from the samples. In each of the eight investigated essential oils an inhibitory effect was detected, and MBC values were in the range 12.5-50 microL/mL in seven cases.

  9. The effectiveness of lavender essence on strernotomy related pain intensity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Ashrastaghi, Om Golsum; Habibi, Valiollah; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ayasi, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the side effects of pharmacological methods, there has been a suggestion to use nonpharmacological methods such Aromatherapy following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of lavender 2% aromatherapy on sternotomy pain intensity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients who have undergone surgery. Materials and Methods: During this clinical trial, 50 patients who were candidates for CABG, were randomly divided into two equal groups, that is, the control group (n = 25) and the case group (n = 25). Following CABG, the case group received two drops of 2% lavender oil every 15 minutes with supplemental oxygen and the control group received only supplemental oxygen through a face mask. The data collection tools comprised of the demographic check list and visual analog scale (VAS) for evaluating the pain intensity. The pain intensity were assessed pre- and five, 30, and 60 minutes post aromatherapy. The final data were analyzed by the t-test and chi-squared test. Results: The findings showed that the pain perception intensity in the case group was lower than that in the control group at the 30- and 60-minute phases after intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The result indicated that aromatherapy can be used as a complementary method in postoperative pain reduction, as it reduced pain. The patients require two sedative drugs, and moreover, it avoids expenses of treatment. PMID:26261829

  10. Substrate promiscuity of a rosmarinic acid synthase from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Landmann, Christian; Hücherig, Stefanie; Fink, Barbara; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dittlein, Daniela; Coiner, Heather A; Schwab, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    One of the most common types of modification of secondary metabolites is the acylation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substrates to produce esters and amides, respectively. Among the known acyltransferases, the members of the plant BAHD family are capable of acylating a wide variety of substrates. Two full-length acyltransferase cDNAs (LaAT1 and 2) were isolated from lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia L.) by reverse transcriptase-PCR using degenerate primers based on BAHD sequences. Recombinant LaAT1 exhibited a broad substrate tolerance accepting (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors and not only tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and anthranilic acid but also shikimic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid as acceptors. Thus, LaLT1 forms esters and amides like its phylogenetic neighbors. In planta LaAT1 might be involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid, the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, a major constituent of lavender flowers. LaAT2 is one of three members of clade VI with unknown function.

  11. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  12. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients’ vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Conclusions: Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings. PMID:27563324

  13. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting.

    PubMed

    Nord, DeeAnn; Belew, John

    2009-10-01

    This randomized, controlled, blinded study examined the effectiveness of an aromatherapy intervention on the reduction of children's distress in a perianesthesia setting. The sample included children with and without developmental disabilities (n = 94). Subjects in the intervention group received an aromatherapy intervention of lavender and ginger essential oils. The control group received a placebo intervention of jojoba oil. Distress was measured at two times: before induction and in the PACU, using the Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale. The mean distress level was lower for the children in the essential oil group, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = .055). Parents' responses to survey questions about satisfaction with aromatherapy did not differ between groups, although open-ended comments indicated a more positive opinion of the benefits of the intervention in the aromatherapy group.

  14. The insanity defense for sex offenders: jury decisions after repeal of Wisconsin's Sex Crimes Law.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Stava, L J; Miller, R K

    1988-02-01

    After repeal of a Wisconsin statute permitting hospitalization of defendants convicted of sexual crimes, the authors noted an increase in the percentage of sex offenders among persons hospitalized after being found not guilty by reason of insanity. They also found that a greater proportion of hospitalized sex offenders than of other kinds of offenders were diagnosed as nonpsychotic. Illustrating with three case studies, the authors argue that despite trends away from the therapeutic model of corrections, juries continue to make decisions that provide treatment for defendants perceived to need it, even if the legal criteria for those decisions do not appear to be met.

  15. [Sensitivity assessment of thyme and lavender essential oils against clinical strains of Escherichia coli for their resistance].

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kalemba, Danuta; Wasiela, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Strong antiseptic activity of plant essential oils and extracts has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils were tested against 30 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the both oils, from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia were active against all of the clinical strains, but thyme oil demonstrated the highest activity. Thyme and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli genera. The results of experiments justify a study related to activity other essential oils against different genus of bacteria.

  16. [Effect of cinnamon and lavender oils on FtsZ gene expression in the Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of lavender and cinnamon oils on FtsZ gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The cinnamon and lavender oils at least partially results from the inhibition of FtsZ transcription and disruption of cell division process at the level of the septum synthesis, what is similar to mechanisms of drug action used in anti-staphylococcal therapies. The presented results could be an important background for the further detailed research, which is needed to clarify the effect of essential oils on FtsZ synthesis at the posttranscriptional level and other stages of cell division process of S. aureus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  17. In the aftermath of State v. Becker: a review of state and federal jury instructions on insanity acquittal disposition.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    An important topic related to the insanity defense is what jurors should be told about the disposition of a defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In the federal court system, jurors are not instructed about the consequences of an NGRI verdict. State courts, however, are divided on the question. The federal precedent, Shannon v. United States, and the most recent state case to rule on NGRI juror instructions, State v. Becker, are reviewed in detail. What follows is the author's critique of the principal arguments for and against a jury instruction on NGRI disposition. The author argues in favor of a jury instruction on the consequences of an NGRI verdict.

  18. Examining pretrial publicity in a shadow jury paradigm: issues of slant, quantity, persistence and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Penrod, Steven D; O'Connor, Maureen; Wallace, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pretrial publicity (PTP) on mock juror decision making. Specifically, we examined the influence of quantity and slant of the PTP (proprosecution vs. prodefense), the persistence of PTP effects over time, and whether the PTP effects demonstrated in research laboratories would also occur in more naturalistic settings (generalizability). Using a shadow jury paradigm we examined these effects using a real trial as stimulus. Mock jurors included 115 jury-eligible community members who were naturally exposed to PTP in the venue in which the actual case occurred and 156 who were experimentally exposed. We found mock jurors were significantly influenced by both the slant and quantity of the PTP to which they were exposed, such that those exposed to proprosecution or prodefense PTP tended to render decision in support of the party favored in the PTP, and those exposed to greater quantities of PTP tended to be more biased. Additionally, PTP effects persisted throughout the course of the trial and continued to influence judgments in face of trial evidence and arguments. A finding of no significant difference in the effect of exposure slant between the naturally exposed and experimentally exposed samples provides support for the external validity of laboratory studies examining PTP effects. This research helps address some of the concerns raised by courts with regard to the durability of PTP effects and the application of laboratory findings to real world settings.

  19. The effect of cold application and lavender oil inhalation in cardiac surgery patients undergoing chest tube removal

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Kashouk, Narges Mohammadi; Amini, Shahram; Asili, Javad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Vashani, Hamidreza Behnam; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Post-surgical chest tube removal (CTR) is associated with a significant pain and discomfort for patients. Current treatment strategies for reducing CTR-associated pain and anxiety are limited and partially efficacious. To determine the effects of cold application, inhalation of lavender essential oil, and their combination on pain and anxiety during CTR was investigated. This randomized controlled open-label trial was conducted with 80 patients in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit who had a chest tube for duration of at least 24 hours after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients were randomized (n=20 in each group) to receive cold application, aromatherapy with lavender oil, cold application in combination with lavender oil inhalation, or none of the above interventions (control group). The intensity and quality of pain and anxiety were evaluated using the visual analogue scale, short form and modified-McGill pain questionnaire (SFM-MPQ) and the Spielberger situational anxiety level inventory (STAII) scale, respectively. Patients in all treatment groups had significantly lower pain intensity and anxiety compared with the control group immediately, 5, 10 and 15 min after CTR. There was no statistically significant difference in the SFM-MPQ total scores between the intervention groups. With respect to anxiety score, there was a significantly reduced anxiety level immediately after CTR in the aromatherapy and cold-aromatherapy combination groups versus the cold application group. The present results suggested the efficacy of cold application and aromatherapy with lavender oil in reducing pain and anxiety associated with post-CABG CTR. PMID:27047319

  20. Effect of Lavender Cream with or without Foot-bath on Anxiety, Stress and Depression in Pregnancy: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Effati-Daryani, Fatemeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological disorders are associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Lavender cream with or without foot-bath on depression, anxiety and stress of pregnant women. Methods: In this trial, 141 women at 25 to 28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into three groups (47 at each group); receiving Lavender cream with foot-bath, only Lavender cream, or placebo, 2g every night for two months. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed at baseline, and 4th and 8th weeks after intervention, using DASS-21. General linear model was used to compare the groups. Results: There were three losses to follow-up at the 4th and one more at the 8th week. Scores of all three outcomes in both Lavender and foot-bath and only Lavender groups were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at the 8th week; adjusted difference of depression score -3.3, 95% confidence interval -4.6 to -1.9;-2.4, -3.7 to -1.0, respectively, anxiety score -1.4, -2.6 to -0.2; -1.7,-2.9 to -0.5 and stress score -3.1, -4.7 to -1.5; -2.7, -4.3 to -1.1. At the 4th week, only score of anxiety in the lavender group (-2.3, -3.9 to -0.8) and stress in the both groups (-2.3, -4.1 to -0.5; -1.9, -3.7 to -0.1) were significantly less than those in the placebo group. There were not statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups in terms of the outcomes. Conclusion: Lavender cream with foot-bath or alone can be used for pregnant women for reducing their stress, anxiety and depression PMID:25821760

  1. Teaching about Our Jury System. Unit 2. Our Right to an Impartial Jury of Our Peers, Our Role to Serve as an Impartial Factfinder When Called for Jury Service, Our Responsibility as Global Citizens to Understand the Judicial Systems of Other Countries. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Julie

    Designed for use in the high school curriculum, two lessons introduce students to contemporary issues surrounding the American jury system and to political, legal, and economic systems of other countries. Although intended for use with a filmstrip, cassette, computer software, and a computer instructional manual, activities in the teaching guide…

  2. A trap for the unwary: jury decision making in cases involving the entrapment defense.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher S; Lampinen, James Michael; Malesky, L Alvin

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the opinions of jury-eligible participants regarding entrapment-related issues in online sex offender sting operations. Participants provided lower guilt ratings when the undercover officer initiated the online sexual solicitation than when the defendant initiated the online sexual solicitation. This effect was mediated by the causal attributions (situational vs. dispositional) made by mock jurors for the defendant's actions. The results also suggested that the entrapment defense was less successful for participants with a crime control orientation than for participants with a due process orientation. Based on the results, it is implied that law enforcement should exercise caution when performing these types of sting operations. Furthermore, defense and prosecuting attorneys should take into account the originators of the sexual solicitation when deciding whether to plea bargain or take a case to trial.

  3. Probability of criminal acts of violence: a test of jury predictive accuracy.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Cunningham, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The ability of capital juries to accurately predict future prison violence at the sentencing phase of aggravated murder trials was examined through retrospective review of the disciplinary records of 115 male inmates sentenced to either life (n = 65) or death (n = 50) in Oregon from 1985 through 2008, with a mean post-conviction time at risk of 15.3 years. Violent prison behavior was completely unrelated to predictions made by capital jurors, with bidirectional accuracy simply reflecting the base rate of assaultive misconduct in the group. Rejection of the special issue predicting future violence enjoyed 90% accuracy. Conversely, predictions that future violence was probable had 90% error rates. More than 90% of the assaultive rule violations committed by these offenders resulted in no harm or only minor injuries.

  4. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms.

    PubMed

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon, antimicrobials in washing liquid and O/W soft body balm. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils in washing liquid (1% alone or in mixtures), in soft body balm (0.5% alone), as well as combined with the synthetic preservative DMDM hydantoin and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1 and 0.3%), was tested against S. aureus ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and A. niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia standards. The components of the system preserving soft body balm were supplemented with a solubilizer. Washing liquids containing only essential oils met Criterion A E.P. only for S. aureus, Candida sp. and A. niger. In soft body balm formulations, oils at a concentration of 0.5% did not reveal any preserving activity. The introduction of a solubilizer to a system containing 0.5% tea tree oil led to a substantial increase in the bacteriostatic activity of the formulation, but did not significantly affect its fungistatic properties. A combination of 0.5% tea tree oil, 5% solubilizer and 0.3% synthetic preservative ensured the microbiological stability of soft body balm in accordance with Criterion A E.P.

  5. Involving a Citizens’ Jury in Decisions on Individual Screening for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia; Satolli, Roberto; Carzaniga, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aims Most public health agencies and learned societies agree that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in asymptomatic men should not be recommended, on account of its potential for harm. Yet PSA is still widely used as a screening test and is not being abandoned. This remains a significant public health issue, and citizens’ engagement is needed. This study was designed to produce a deliberation on the PSA screening test by a citizens’ jury. Methods Fifteen citizens were selected and balanced for sex, age, and education. They received an information booklet and participated in a two-day meeting with experts to reach a deliberation on the question “Should the National Health Service discourage or recommend PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in men 55–69 years old?”. A facilitator ran the jurors’ discussion. Results All except three of the jurors decided that the National Health Service should discourage the use of PSA as an individual screening test for prostate cancer in 55–69 year-old men. The jury was particularly convinced by the uncertainty of the test outcomes, the utility of the test, and its cost/benefit ratio. Before the meeting 60% of jurors would have recommended the test to a relative, and all the male jurors would have done so. After the meeting these percentages fell to 15% and 12%. Conclusions This experience confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of delegating to a group of citizens the responsibility to decide on public health issues on behalf of the community. Public health authorities should invest in information campaigns aimed at the public and in educational initiatives for physicians. This also provided an opportunity to disseminate information on screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment. PMID:26751212

  6. The Effect of Massage With Lavender Oil on Restless Leg Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Sayyed Hossein; Hajbagheri, Ali; Aghajani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. It can reduce the quality of life and sleep disturbances. This disorder is usually treated pharmacologically. Recently, complementary medicine methods have been suggested because of chemical drugs adverse effects. There is not enough evidence about the effect of aromatherapy on RLS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of massage with lavender oil on RLS symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study included 70 hemodialysis patients with RLS that were randomly assigned into two groups in 2014. The experimental group received effleurage massage using lavender oil and control group received routine care for three weeks. Data was collected with RLS questionnaire and analyzed using independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean RLS scores were not significantly different in the two groups at the start of study (22.41 ± 7.67 vs. 22.90 ± 4.38, P = 0.76). At the end of study, the mean RLS score significantly decreased in the intervention group, while this score remained relatively un-changed in the control group (12.41 ± 5.49 vs. 23.23 ± 4.52, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Lavender oil massage was effective to improve RLS in hemodialysis patients. It has no adverse effects, is practical and cost-effective. It is suggested to be used along with routine treatment of RLS in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26835466

  7. Influencing health policy through public deliberation: Lessons learned from two decades of Citizens'/community juries.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Rychetnik, Lucie; Street, Jackie; Thomas, Rae; Carter, Stacy M

    2017-04-01

    Citizens'/community juries [CJs] engage members of the public in policy decision-making processes. CJs can be employed to develop policy responses to health problems that require the consideration of both community values and scientific evidence. Based on the principles of deliberative democracy, recent reviews indicate that findings from CJs have successfully been used to influence health policy decision-making. Despite this evidence of success, there appears to be a gap between the goals of health researchers who organize CJs and the needs of policy actors and decision makers. Drawing on our experiences working with CJs and recent research on CJ methods, we describe a synopsis of the current state of the art organized around four key questions, and informed by insights from deliberative theory and critical policy studies. Our intention is to stimulate further discussion as to the types of health policy questions that can be usefully addressed through public deliberation, and provide guidance on the methodological and political dimensions that need to be considered in deciding whether a CJ is an appropriate approach for informing a policy decision-making process.

  8. Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Coelho, José A; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M F; Barroso, José G

    2010-10-27

    The volatiles from Coriandrum sativum L., Satureja montana L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were isolated by hydrodistillation (essential oil) and supercritical fluid extraction (volatile oil). Their effect on seed germination and root and shoot growth of the surviving seedlings of four crops ( Zea mays L., Triticum durum L., Pisum sativum L., and Lactuca sativa L.) and two weeds ( Portulaca oleracea L. and Vicia sativa L.) was investigated and compared with those of two synthetic herbicides, Agrocide and Prowl. The volatile oils of thyme and cotton lavender seemed to be promising alternatives to the synthetic herbicides because they were the least injurious to the crop species. The essential oil of winter savory, on the other hand, affected both crop and weeds and can be appropriate for uncultivated fields.

  9. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  11. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald's Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  12. Use of a Classroom Jury Trial To Increase Student Perception of Science as Part of Their Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marjorie A.

    1997-05-01

    The concept of a jury trial in the classroom setting was used to present and discuss a current, controversial topic, the drug mifepristone (RU486). This drug is used as an abortion inducing agent although it has other clinical uses. The major goal was for students to see that science is a very important part of their lives. The class project involved discussions of the scientific, sociological, moral, ethical, religious, legal, as well as financial aspects of a real trial which involved a major science issue. Students were involved in role playing which included obtaining information and then participating in the mock trial. Student roles in this activity were as judges, defendant, jury, witnesses, lawyers, and court reporters. This four week project involved both verbal and written participation. Grades were based on both their oral and written on this project. The students found this a very interesting activity as evidenced by their enthusiasm. This class activity could be adapted to a variety of timely topics.

  13. Evaluating the effects of diffused lavender in an adult day care center for patients with dementia in an effort to decrease behavioral issues: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moorman Li, Robin; Gilbert, Brian; Orman, Anna; Aldridge, Petra; Leger-Krall, Sue; Anderson, Clare; Hincapie Castillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effects of diffused lavender on the frequency of behavioral issues [BIs], defined as a composite of restlessness/wandering [RW], agitation [AGT], anger [ANG], and anxiety [ANX] in an adult day care center. Secondary objectives evaluate systematic differences on the frequency of BIs between age cohorts, gender, and individual behaviors. Design: Pre-post quasi-experimental study. Setting: Private nonprofit adult day care center for patients with dementia. Participants: Elderly patients older than 65 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, who require daytime monitoring. Intervention: Lavender aromatherapy twice a day for 20 min during a two-month period during active clinic days. Measurements: Behavioral issues were recorded using the behavior/intervention monthly flow record during the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results: There was no significant difference on frequency of BIs between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (p = .06). There was a significant difference between pre-intervention and post-intervention total number of AGT occurrences (129 vs. 25; p value < .01). There was no significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of RW, ANG, and ANX issues. There was a significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of AGT (p value = .04) as the 70–85 age cohort showed less agitation compared to the 85–100 age cohort. Conclusion: The use of diffused lavender twice daily has shown to reduce the frequency of agitation in elderly patients with dementia, especially in the 70–85 age cohort. Though diffused lavender did not show statistical differences in the frequency of other behaviors (restlessness/wander, anger, anxiety), the study population may have been too small to find a difference. PMID:28265482

  14. Elimination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric problems in GC-MS analysis of Lavender essential oil by multivariate curve resolution techniques: Improving the peak purity assessment by variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Sereshti, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    In analysis of complex natural matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), many disturbing factors such as baseline drift, spectral background, homoscedastic and heteroscedastic noise, peak shape deformation (non-Gaussian peaks), low S/N ratio and co-elution (overlapped and/or embedded peaks) lead the researchers to handle them to serve time, money and experimental efforts. This study aimed to improve the GC-MS analysis of complex natural matrices utilizing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods. In addition, to assess the peak purity of the two-dimensional data, a method called variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis (VSMW-EFA) is introduced and examined. The proposed methodology was applied to the GC-MS analysis of Iranian Lavender essential oil, which resulted in extending the number of identified constituents from 56 to 143 components. It was found that the most abundant constituents of the Iranian Lavender essential oil are α-pinene (16.51%), camphor (10.20%), 1,8-cineole (9.50%), bornyl acetate (8.11%) and camphene (6.50%). This indicates that the Iranian type Lavender contains a relatively high percentage of α-pinene. Comparison of different types of Lavender essential oils showed the composition similarity between Iranian and Italian (Sardinia Island) Lavenders.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Irene; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Navarro, Casilda; Sendra, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils. PMID:28231113

  16. Enhanced levels of S-linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in spike lavender leaves.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Navarro, Alicia; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Transgenic Lavandula latifolia plants overexpressing the linalool synthase (LIS) gene from Clarkia breweri, encoding the LIS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of linalool were generated. Most of these plants increased significantly their linalool content as compared to controls, especially in the youngest leaves, where a linalool increase up to a 1000% was observed. The phenotype of increased linalool content observed in young leaves was maintained in those T1 progenies that inherit the LIS transgene, although this phenotype was less evident in the flower essential oil. Cross-pollination of transgenic spike lavender plants allowed the generation of double transgenic plants containing the DXS (1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P synthase), coding for the first enzyme of the methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway, and LIS genes. Both essential oil yield and linalool content in double DXS-LIS transgenic plants were lower than that of their parentals, which could be due to co-suppression effects linked to the structures of the constructs used.

  17. Stability and inoculation of risk comparisons' effects under conflict: replicating and extending the "asbestos jury" study by Slovic et al.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2002-08-01

    Promotion or criticism of risk comparisons in risk communication has far exceeded empirical tests of their effects. Slovic et al. (1990) experimented with a hypothetical jury trial in which an asbestos-installing firm was accused of subjecting school occupants to unreasonable risk. A risk comparison sharply reduced subjects' estimates of risk and judgments that the firm was guilty, but a critique of the risk comparison had risk estimates and guilt judgments rebounding to the original (without risk comparison) level. Slovic et al. concluded that risk comparisons' effects were highly unstable, at least in conflict-ridden situations such as a jury trial. The present study replicates and extends this important study, using the same stimuli and questions. The respective effects of the risk comparison and the critique recurred, although much less sharply than in Slovic et al. Moreover, judgments of guilt, risk, and other aspects of the case seemed shaped more by demographics and beliefs about risk generically (e.g., about the likelihood of cancer after exposure to a carcinogen) than by either risk comparison or critique. A variant design, in which the defense's expert witness dismissed potential criticisms of the risk comparison, appeared to "inoculate" people against shifting their views after seeing the critique. Overall, these results show that risk comparisons might change some beliefs about risks in conflict and that "inoculation" can reduce vulnerability to criticism. However, the results also show strong limits on effects of both comparisons and their critiques: they shifted only a minority of judgments and had small effects relative to people's social locations and prior risk beliefs.

  18. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Woelk, H; Schläfke, S

    2010-02-01

    Generalized and persistent anxiety, accompanied by nervousness and other symptoms (Generalised Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is frequent in the general population and leads to benzodiazepine usage. Unfortunately, these substances induce sedation and have a high potential for drug abuse, and there is thus a need for alternatives. As the anxiolytic properties of lavender have already been demonstrated in pharmacological studies and small-scale clinical trials, it was postulated that lavender has a positive effect in GAD. A controlled clinical study was then performed to evaluate the efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, versus a benzodiazepine. In this study, the efficacy of a 6-week-intake of silexan compared to lorazepam was investigated in adults with GAD. The primary target variable was the change in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A-total score) as an objective measurement of the severity of anxiety between baseline and week 6. The results suggest that silexan effectively ameliorates generalized anxiety comparable to a common benzodiazepine (lorazepam). The mean of the HAM-A-total score decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups (by 11.3+/-6.7 points (45%) in the silexan group and by 11.6+/-6.6 points (46%) in the lorazepam group, from 25+/-4 points at baseline in both groups). During the active treatment period, the two HAM-A subscores "somatic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore I) and "psychic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore II) also decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups. The changes in other subscores measured during the study, such as the SAS (Self-rating Anxiety Scale), PSWQ-PW (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), SF 36 Health survey Questionnaire and Clinical Global Impressions of severity of disorder (CGI item 1, CGI item 2, CGI item 3), and the results of the sleep diary demonstrated comparable positive effects of the two compounds. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that silexan is as effective as lorazepam

  19. The effect of lavender essential oil on anxiety level in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Zahra; Beikmoradi, Ali; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Poorolajal, Jalal; Araghchian, Malihe; Safiaryan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Open heart surgery can cause high levels of anxiety in patients. Nowadays, lavender essential oil is widely used in medical research. This study was conducted with an aim to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil to reduce the anxiety of patients after coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods: This research is double-blinded randomized controlled trial on 60 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery in a 2-day intervention targeting reduction of anxiety. This study was conducted in Ekbatan Therapeutic and Educational Center, Hamadan city, Iran, in 2013. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled two drops of 2% lavender essential oil and those in the control group inhaled two drops of distilled water as placebo for 20 min on the 2nd and 3rd days after surgery. The level of anxiety was evaluated by Spielberger's State Anxiety questionnaire before and after intervention and the vital signs were documented as well. Data were analyzed using Stata 11 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA) by independent t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: The mean score of anxiety in the aromatherapy group was 48.73 ± 5.08 and in the control group was 48 ± 6.98 before the intervention (P = 0.64), which reduced after the intervention to 42.6 ± 5.44 and 42.73 ± 7.30, respectively. On the 3rd day after surgery, the mean score of anxiety in the aromatherapy group was 46.76 ± 4.07 and in the control group was 46.53 ± 7.05 before the intervention, which reduced to 41.33 ± 3.65 and 41.56 ± 6.18, respectively, after the intervention. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores of anxiety between the aromatherapy and control groups. Conclusions: Lavender essential oil has no significant effect on anxiety in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery, although it decreased the level of anxiety in the patients. PMID:25558253

  20. Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  1. Whole-genome SNP association in the horse: identification of a deletion in myosin Va responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha A; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F

    2010-04-15

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals.

  2. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Pischel, I; Lehnfeld, R

    2004-09-29

    Within a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial the electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using charge mode technology (Laplacian estimates) after exposure to a lozenge containing 4 different herbal preparations (lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat) or a matching placebo without any active ingredients. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males and 8 females) were tested within a crossover design. After baseline recording each subject sucked a lozenge and 2 hours later a second one. Recording was performed immediately after finishing the lozenge and in hourly intervals thereafter. Comparison to reference periods of 10 min eyes open and 5 min eyes closed, respectively, revealed increases in alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta 1 electrical power at the electrode positions Cz, P3, T3 and T5 which were even more pronounced after a second application two hours later. Since alpha 1 changes repeatedly have been attributed to attentional states, increases of this electrical activity must be seen as indicator of a relaxational psychophysiological state. Changes in the alpha2 frequencies have been related to working memory indicating that an increase can be seen as a correlate for attenuating this circuit. Increases of beta1 activity have been seen in the presence of anxiolytic drugs including major and minor tranquilizers. The changes as observed after the application of this herbal composition are therefore in line with the idea of having induced a state of relaxation and regeneration. This interpretation suggests that one could expect from the ingestion of this lozenge to better cope with psychological and emotional stress. The data are further proof that recording computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology.

  3. Analysis of the Criminal Jury Trial Scheduling System in Use at the Monterey Branch of the Monterey County, California Municipal Court.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    24 G . SU4ARY --------------------------------------------------- 27 III. MONTEREY BRANCH MUNICIPAL COURT OPERATIONAL aiARACTERISTICS...Albert G . Pickerell and Michel Lipman. The material on the Monterey County court system is taken from records maintained by the Monterey Branch...scheduled for jury trial at the pre-trial stage. G . SU4ARY The Monterey Branch of the Monterey County Municipal Court District operates at the foundation of

  4. Use of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction for characterization of volatile aromas of essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender.

    PubMed

    Won, Mi-Mi; Cha, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2009-01-05

    In this study, a new sampling method called headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-mu-SPE) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied for the analysis of volatile aromas of liquid essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender. The technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA) contained in a mulberry paper bag, minimal amount of organic solvent. Linearities for the six-points calibration curves were excellent. LOD values were in the rage from 0.38 ng mL(-1) to 0.77 ng mL(-1). Overall, precision and recovery were generally good. Phenethyl alcohol and citronellol were the main components in the essential oil from Bulgarian rose. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the most abundant components in the essential oils from true lavender or lavandin. Additionally, the relative extraction efficiencies of proposed method have been compared with HS-SPME. The overall extraction efficiency was evaluated by the relative concentration factors (CF) of the several characteristic components. CF values by HS-MPB-mu-SPE were lower than those by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The HS-MPB-mu-SPE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. In addition, this method allowed combining of extraction, enrichment, and clean-up in a single step. HS-MPB-mu-SPE and GC/MS is a promising technique for the characterization of volatile aroma compounds from liquid essential oils.

  5. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample.

  6. Development of fast enantioselective gas-chromatographic analysis using gas-chromatographic method-translation software in routine essential oil analysis (lavender essential oil).

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Blumberg, Leonid; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Liberto, Erica

    2010-02-26

    The study aimed to find the best trade-off between separation of the most critical peak pair and analysis time, in enantioselective GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of lavender essential oil, using the GC method-translation approach. Analysis conditions were first optimized for conventional 25 m x 0.25 mm inner diameter (dc) column coated with 6(I-VII)-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2(I-VII)-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral stationary phase (CSP) diluted at 30% in PS086 (polymethylphenylpolysiloxane, 15% phenyl), starting from routine analysis. The optimal multi-rate temperature program for a pre-set column pressure was determined and then used to find the pressures producing the efficiency-optimized flow (EOF) and speed-optimized flow (SOF). This method was transferred to a shorter narrow-bore (NB) column (11 m x 0.10 mm) using method-translation software, keeping peak elution order and separation. Optimization of the enantioselective GC method with the translation approach markedly reduced the analysis time of the lavender essential oil, from about 87 min with the routine method to 40 min with an optimal multi-rate temperature program and initial flow with a conventional inner diameter column, and to 15 min with FID as detector or 13.5 min with MS with a corresponding narrow-bore column, while keeping enantiomer separation and efficiency.

  7. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h, the vapor activity of the six essential oils was ranked in the following order: oregano > clove, perilla > geranium, lavender, tea tree. The vapors of oregano, perilla, tea tree, and lavender oils killed the mycelia by short exposure, for 3 h, but the vapors of clove and geranium oils were only active after overnight exposure. The vapor of oregano and other oils induced lysis of the mycelia. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the cell membrane and cell wall were damaged in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the action of oregano vapor, causing rupture and peeling of the cell wall, with small bulges coming from the cell membrane. The vapor activity increased after 24 h, but mycelial accumulation of the active oil constituents was maximized around 15 h, and then decreased in parallel with the decrease of vapor concentration. This suggested that the active constituent accumulated on the fungal cells around 15 h caused irreversible damage, which eventually led to cellular death.

  8. Chemical and biological characterization of cinnamic acid derivatives from cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) induced by stress and jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Astrid; Tokalov, Sergey V; Gutzeit, Herwig O; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2004-05-19

    Cell cultures of lavender (Lavandula officinalis) were analyzed for the metabolite profile under normal growth conditions and under stress as well as after jasmonic acid treatment. The main compound synthesized was rosmarinic acid, which was also secreted into the culture medium. Different solvent extraction methods at different pH values altered the profile slightly. Anoxic stress induced the synthesis of a cinnamic acid derivative, which was identified as caffeic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid was also induced after treatment of the cell cultures with jasmonic acid. Although the antioxidative activity of both compounds, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, was confirmed in an assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), it was demonstrated that both substances have a low cytotoxic potential in vitro using acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells. The potential of the system for finding new bioactive compounds is discussed.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2016-05-05

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G2/M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors.

  10. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  11. [Psychiatry and criminology in Criminal Justice: Jury Trial Courts and Appellate Courts in the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro, during the 1930s].

    PubMed

    Dias, Allister Andrew Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    As part of a research study on the 1930s and 1940s medical-criminological debate in Brazil, this research paper analyzes some of the uses and criticisms of arguments of a psychiatric and criminological nature, among certain jurists who carried out important work in the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 1930s. In this context, these magistrates, tended to have significant psychiatric and criminological knowledge, in spite of all the heterogeneity, plurality and differences in perspectives that existed among them. We selected two principal areas to conduct an analysis of the activities of these jurists: the Appellate Court of the Federal District of Rio de Janeiro and Jury Trial Courts.

  12. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  13. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah. [Faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector.

  14. He Called for His Pipe, and He Called for His Bowl, and He Called for His Members Three--Selection of Military Juries by the Sovereign: Impediment to Military Justice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    jury selection spawns the reality and appearance of unlawful command influence. "Court-stacking" and subjugation of juror independence infect or appear...to infect the Article 25 process. This thesis proposes to replace Article 25 with random selection from installation-wide venire pools, generated and...commanders (lieutenant colonels) are special court-martial convening authorities. In the Air Force, Group Commanders (Colonels) hold the position. All

  15. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases.

  16. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i) efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy); and (ii) efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy). Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice) were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil) and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO); a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO); or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs). Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs). Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31); the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31); and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects). The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD 16%) whereas the

  17. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB). Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice products were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions (the TTO/LO product and the "suffocation" product were applied three times at weekly intervals according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0, Day 7 and Day 14) and the P/PB product was applied twice according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7)). The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined. Results The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6%) and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6%) was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (10/40, 25.0%; adj. p < 0.0001). Conclusion The high efficacy of the TTO/LO product and the head lice "suffocation" product offers an alternative to the pyrethrins-based product. Trial Registration The study was entered into the Australian/New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000179033. PMID:20727129

  18. Olestra? The Jury's Still Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-04-01

    Although it has been more than a year since the FDA approved the use of olestra in certain foods, this fat substitute, a mixture of sucrose polyesters, is still controversial. It would seem that a fat substitute that is heat stable and has an acceptable flavor and texture would be welcomed enthusiastically in a country where increasing numbers of people, young and old, exceed their ideal body weight. Obesity and diets containing high levels of fat have been linked to numerous health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and adult-onset diabetes; they may also exacerbate some chronic problems such as arthritis in joints of the lower extremities. Nevertheless, some scientists and consumer groups question olestra's safety and usefulness.

  19. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, LAVENDER CLOSET ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    I ,'. ", 1 ,ose '.'~ l ac le ' ", ~T;I 'I~~prw 'H'\\ PARAnl~HlORfl8n;lr',i • 'f' " IIJ r [ r ., I r IT" ;" \\; r 'J r" n r i I ~ II I'" 'J' , ,I ~ ( , /) l' I! I " :, II ' i fl :; , " , 1 ...

  1. EO ALL PURPOSE SOAP-LAVENDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups should be applied full strength on heaviest contamination first, by pouring, spraying (when diluted 1:4), dispensing equipment, or by scrubbing machines.

  2. Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

  3. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out.

    PubMed

    Leal, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016) convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016). One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments.

  4. Zika mosquito vectors: the jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016) convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016). One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated. In particular, three independent groups from Canada, China, and Brazil presented and discussed laboratory and field data strongly suggesting that the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, also known as the common mosquito, is highly likely to be a vector in certain environments. PMID:27853521

  5. Is the jury still out on PFI contracts?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Last September Andrew Lansley claimed that some NHS Trusts occupying PFI healthcare facilities had been 'landed with deals they could not afford', seemingly attributing much of the blame for a scenario where the Department of Health said 22 Trusts in England alone could be at significant financial risk to Labour, which, in the 1990s, greatly expanded a public/private funding partnership originally introduced by the Tories a decade earlier. Two key factors critics claim have put such Trusts 'at risk' are the 'inflexibility' of some PFI contracts, which makes varying terms difficult mid-contract, and the fact that many of the earlier deals were inexpertly negotiated by the 'public sector side'. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie sought the views of Malcolm Austwick, a partner at top commercial law firm, DAC Beachcroft (see panel below), with extensive experience in the legal complexities of PFI, on whether or not the initiative's 'pros' do indeed outweigh the 'cons'.

  6. Trials by Juries: Suggested Practices for Database Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterbush, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Librarians frequently utilize product trials to assess the content and usability of a database prior to committing funds to a new subscription or purchase. At the 2012 Electronic Resources and Libraries Conference in Austin, Texas, three librarians presented a panel discussion on their institutions' policies and practices regarding database…

  7. Post-communist lavender menace: lesbians in mainstream East European film.

    PubMed

    Moss, Kevin; Simić, Mima

    2011-01-01

    The article examines four films-Károly Makk's Egymásra nézve (Another Way, Hungary, 1982), Maja Weiss's Varuh meje (Guardian of the Frontier, Slovenia 2002), Dalibor Matanić's Fine mrtve djevojke (Fine Dead Girls, Croatia, 2002), and Dragan Marinković's Diši duboko (Take a Deep Breath, Serbia, 2004)-as post-communist or dissident national allegories. In all of these films by straight directors the lesbians represent a metaphorical threat to the hetero/sexist national order, but they are unfortunately little more than simulacra. They can be emotionally real (and fun for the straight male audience to ogle), but that ultimately works against them, because instead of representing real lesbian communities, they still have to affirm the stereotype of tragic lesbian destiny straight audiences find comforting.

  8. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  9. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  10. Purple Is to Lavender: Womanism, Resistance, and the Politics of Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Dimpal; Turner, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We explore the politics of naming for non-White women faculty in higher education as it relates to womanist theory. A discussion of these faculty experiences in general, and women faculty in particular are provided to illuminate the many challenges we face in the academy. One such challenge is how we come to identify our scholarship and align…

  11. The Jury Is Still Out: Psychoemotional Support in Peer E-Mentoring for Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; Sanchez-Garcia, Marife

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how computer mediated communication (CMC) can sustain nourishing and emotionally enriching peer mentoring relations. A peer electronic mentoring program was implemented in an Irish university to facilitate freshmen's transition to college. A sample of 123 participants (42 mentors and 81 mentees) was evaluated with a…

  12. Beyond the 2008 Justice Reforms: Establishing a Legitimate Rule of Law in Mexico with Jury Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    System,” 202. 14 Elena Azaola and Marcelo Bergman, “The Mexican Prison System,” in Reforming the Administration of Justice in Mexico, 92. 15 Schatz, “The...Mexican Judicial System,” 204. 16 Azaola , “The Mexican Prison System,” 92. 6 While the organization of the justice system might seem similar to...153-74. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. Azaola , Elana and Marcelo Bergman. “The Mexican Prison System.” In Reforming the

  13. Attorney Questions Predict Jury-eligible Adult Assessments of Attorneys, Child Witnesses, and Defendant Guilt.

    PubMed

    Mugno, Allison P; Klemfuss, J Zoe; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Children are often the primary source of evidence in maltreatment cases, particularly cases of child sexual abuse, and may be asked to testify in court. Although best-practice protocols for interviewing children suggest that interviewers ask open-ended questions to elicit detailed responses from children, during in-court testimony, attorneys tend to rely on closed-ended questions that elicit simple (often "yes" or "no") responses (e.g., Andrews, Lamb, & Lyon, ; Klemfuss, Quas, & Lyon, ). How then are jurors making decisions about children's credibility and ultimately the case outcome? The present study examined the effect of two attorney-specific factors (e.g., temporal structure and questioning phase) on mock jurors' perceptions of attorney performance, child witness credibility, storyline clarity, and defendant guilt. Participants were randomly assigned to read a trial excerpt from one of eight conditions and were then asked to evaluate the attorney, child witness, and the case. Selected excerpts were from criminal court case transcripts and contained either high attorney temporal structure (e.g., use of temporal markers) or low temporal structure (e.g., frequent topic switching), involved direct or cross-examination, and represented cases resulting in a conviction or acquittal. Child responses were kept consistent across all excerpts. Results showed that participants perceived the attorney's performance and child's credibility more favorably and thought the storyline was clearer when attorneys provided high rather than low temporal structure and when the excerpt contained direct rather than cross-examination. Participants who read a direct rather than cross-examination excerpt were also more likely to think the defendant was guilty. The study highlights the impact of attorney questioning style on mock jurors' perceptions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed Central

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health. PMID:28326003

  15. Fostering Organizational Change through Deliberations: The Deliberative Jury in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Universities in Europe face a variety of reform initiatives, and university reform can be seen as a wicked problem that should be resolved through collaborative efforts. In Finland, there has been considerable resistance to proposed reforms, with university personnel complaining that they have not been heard. Students, on the other hand, seem…

  16. Visual Spatial Attention to Multiple Locations At Once: The Jury Is Still Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Bert; Peters, Judith C.; De Weerd, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although in traditional attention research the focus of visual spatial attention has been considered as indivisible, many studies in the last 15 years have claimed the contrary. These studies suggest that humans can direct their attention simultaneously to multiple noncontiguous regions of the visual field upon mere instruction. The notion that…

  17. Jury acquits seven prison guards in beating of HIV-positive inmate.

    PubMed

    1999-03-19

    Seven guards from the Charlotte Correctional Institution were acquitted of beating and harassing an HIV-positive inmate, [name removed] was transferred to that prison because he bit a guard in the face at another prison. He later attempted suicide and slowly bled to death while shackled to a bed. Prosecutor Doug Molloy said [name removed] was harassed from the moment he arrived, and slashed his own wrist after 3 days of abuse. The jurors found insufficient evidence to convict the seven with conspiring to deny [name removed] his civil rights. Three other corrections officers, who also faced charges, testified for the prosecution.

  18. Rooting the tree of life: the phylogenetic jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Gouy, Richard; Baurain, Denis; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to shed light on difficulties in rooting the tree of life (ToL) and to explore the (sociological) reasons underlying the limited interest in accurately addressing this fundamental issue. First, we briefly review the difficulties plaguing phylogenetic inference and the ways to improve the modelling of the substitution process, which is highly heterogeneous, both across sites and over time. We further observe that enriched taxon samplings, better gene samplings and clever data removal strategies have led to numerous revisions of the ToL, and that these improved shallow phylogenies nearly always relocate simple organisms higher in the ToL provided that long-branch attraction artefacts are kept at bay. Then, we note that, despite the flood of genomic data available since 2000, there has been a surprisingly low interest in inferring the root of the ToL. Furthermore, the rare studies dealing with this question were almost always based on methods dating from the 1990s that have been shown to be inaccurate for much more shallow issues! This leads us to argue that the current consensus about a bacterial root for the ToL can be traced back to the prejudice of Aristotle's Great Chain of Beings, in which simple organisms are ancestors of more complex life forms. Finally, we demonstrate that even the best models cannot yet handle the complexity of the evolutionary process encountered both at shallow depth, when the outgroup is too distant, and at the level of the inter-domain relationships. Altogether, we conclude that the commonly accepted bacterial root is still unproven and that the root of the ToL should be revisited using phylogenomic supermatrices to ensure that new evidence for eukaryogenesis, such as the recently described Lokiarcheota, is interpreted in a sound phylogenetic framework. PMID:26323760

  19. Student Teaching Behaviors Identified by a National Jury as Indicators of Success in Sixteen Competency Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Sarah J.; Butefish, William L.

    This study identified specific student teacher behaviors which could indicate success in 16 teaching competency areas. Part 1 of the study, completed by student teaching supervisors, resulted in the identification of the student teaching behaviors considered to be indications of success in each of the 16 competency areas. Part 2 resulted in the…

  20. Determining Catch-Up Time of Demographic Subgroups in Jury, Educational, or Work Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Charles; Swanson, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Presents a formula for determining catch-up time in cases of alleged discrimination in education, work, and other situations. Defines "catch-up time" as the number of years that would be required for a specific subgroup in the general population to assume a desired proportion of the total composition of the targeted group. (KH)

  1. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  2. Change over Time in Obedience: The Jury's Still out, but It Might Be Decreasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    Jerry M. Burger's (see record 2008-19206-001) partial replication of Stanley Milgram's (1974) obedience study shows both the influence of culture and generations on behavior and the power of the situation. In Burger's data, disobedience has nearly doubled among male participants since the 1960s, a shift just as large as the increase in Americans'…

  3. Does knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis improve survival? The jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Devyani; Lu, Na; Felson, David; Choi, Hyon K; Seeger, John; Einhorn, Thomas; Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation of knee replacement (KR) surgery to all-cause mortality has not been well established owing to potential biases in previous studies. Thus, we aimed to examine the relation of KR to mortality risk among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) focusing on identifying biases that may threaten the validity of prior studies. Methods We included knee OA subjects (ages 50–89 years) from The Health Improvement Network, an electronic medical records database in the UK. Risk of mortality among KR subjects was compared with propensity score-matched non-KR subjects. To explore residual confounding bias, subgroup analyses stratified by age and propensity scores were performed. Results Subjects with KR had 28% lower risk of mortality than non-KR subjects (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78). However, when stratified by age, protective effect was noted only in older age groups (>63 years) but not in younger subjects (≤63 years). Further, the mortality rate among KR subjects decreased as candidacy (propensity score) for KR increased among subjects with KR, but no such consistent trend was noted among non-KR subjects. Conclusions While a protective effect of KR on mortality cannot be ruled out, findings of lower mortality among older KR subjects and those with higher propensity scores suggest that prognosis-based selection for KR may lead to intractable confounding by indication; hence, the protective effect of KR on all-cause mortality may be overestimated. PMID:27190096

  4. Intraspecific variation of flower colour and its distribution within a sea lavender, Limonium wrightii (Plumbaginaceae), in the northwestern Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shun-ichi; Yokoyama, Jun; Tateishi, Yoichi; Maki, Masayuki

    2006-11-01

    Differentiation of flower colour is thought to be one of the most important factors promoting plant speciation. We describe the intraspecific variation of flower colour and its distribution in Limonium wrightii. We conducted a survey on 36 islands in the northwestern Pacific and discriminated six morphs of flower colour variation. Two flower colour morphs, pink and yellow, were most frequently observed, and their geographical distributions were basically allopatric. These two morphs were in contact in a narrow zone on Okinoerabu Island, located in the middle region of the Ryukyu Archipelago. In addition, orange, white, and ivory flower morphs were also found in this zone. The geographical distribution of pink and yellow morphs showed a "leapfrog" pattern; the distribution of pink flowers was divided into two areas, intercalated by the distribution of the yellow flower morph. The orange morph may have resulted from hybridization between the pink and yellow flower morphs.

  5. Antifungal Screening of Lavender Essential oils and Essential Oil Constituents on three Post-harvest Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Erland, Lauren A E; Bitcon, Christopher R; Lemke, Ashley D; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that many synthetic pesticides have adverse effects on human, animal, and environmental health. As a result, plant-derived natural products are quickly gaining momentum as safer and less ecologically damaging alternatives due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good specificity. Essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula x intermedia cv Grosso, and Lavandida x intermedia cv Provence as well as various mono- and sesquiterpene essential oil constituents were tested in order to assess their antifungal potential on three important agricultural pathogens: Botrytis cinerea, Mucor piriformis, and Penicillium expansum. Fungal susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion assays. The majority of essential oil constituents tested did not have a significant effect; however, 3-carene, carvacrol, geraniol, nerol and perillyl alcohol demonstrated significant inhibition at concentrations as low as 1 µ/mL. In vivo testing using strawberry fruit as a model system supported in vitro results and revealed that perillyl alcohol, carvacrol and 3-carene were effective in limiting infection by postharvest pathogens.

  6. Preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data from boreholes and springs in the vicinity of Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Thackston, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    This information is presented in tabular form and includes station locations, potentiometric levels, permeabilities, transmissibilities, total dissolved solids, depths, locations, data sources, a fracture log of the Gibson Dome No. 1 (GD-1) borehole, and other useful information. Three different ranking scales were used to evaluate available drill-stem test (DST) data. A preliminary detailed hydrogeologic column was prepared using the DST data and GD-1 borehole information. A series of preliminary potentiometric maps was interpreted from these data for the different hydrogeologic units. Preliminary potentiometric surface maps for the Lower Paleozoic Aquifer, Pennsylvanian Aquitard, Permian Aquifer/Aquitard, and Mesozoic (Jurassic) Aquifer were constructed. These maps show a general southwest flow direction in the Lower Paleozoic Aquifer, extremely low permeabilities in the Pennsylvanian, northerly ground-water flow in the Permian, and westward flow direction in the Mesozoic unit. The few data points in the Pennsylvanian tend to indicate that ground water in the upper Paradox Formation may be flowing toward the west and southwest in the area southeast of Six-Shooter Peaks.

  7. Cracking the Lavender Ceiling: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Student Affairs Professionals and Their Personal Perspectives on Career Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James Capshaw

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, the people working in student affairs are as diverse as the students who are served by these professionals. Those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are often faced with challenges to moving up the career ladder. Many who seek senior-level administrative positions, such as director, dean of students, vice president or…

  8. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  9. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  10. A resolution to authorize testimony of Senate employees in a grand jury proceeding in the District of Columbia.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2010-07-29

    07/29/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6539; text as passed Senate: CR S6538-6539; text of measure as introduced: CR S6528) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Attenuation of airway inflammation by simvastatin and the implications for asthma treatment: is the jury still out?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Nan; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Lee, Seung-Ihm; Park, Hae-Sim; Shin, Yoo Seob

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have explained the immunomodulatory effects of statins, the exact mechanisms and the therapeutic significance of these molecules remain to be elucidated. This study not only evaluated the therapeutic potential and inhibitory mechanism of simvastatin in an ovalbumin (OVA)-specific asthma model in mice but also sought to clarify the future directions indicated by previous studies through a thorough review of the literature. BALB/c mice were sensitized to OVA and then administered three OVA challenges. On each challenge day, 40 mg kg−1 simvastatin was injected before the challenge. The airway responsiveness, inflammatory cell composition, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed after the final challenge, and the T cell composition and adhesion molecule expression in lung homogenates were determined. The administration of simvastatin decreased the airway responsiveness, the number of airway inflammatory cells, and the interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations in BAL fluid compared with vehicle-treated mice (P<0.05). Histologically, the number of inflammatory cells and mucus-containing goblet cells in lung tissues also decreased in the simvastatin-treated mice. Flow cytometry showed that simvastatin treatment significantly reduced the percentage of pulmonary CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio (P<0.05). Simvastatin treatment also decreased the expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 proteins, as measured in homogenized lung tissues (P<0.05) and human epithelial cells. The reduction in the T cell influx as a result of the decreased expression of cell adhesion molecules is one of the mechanisms by which simvastatin attenuates airway responsiveness and allergic inflammation. Rigorous review of the literature together with our findings suggested that simvastatin should be further developed as a potential therapeutic strategy for allergic asthma. PMID:25213768

  12. How justice can affect jury: training abstract words promotes generalisation to concrete words in patients with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Developing language treatments that not only improve trained items but also promote generalisation to untrained items is a major focus in aphasia research. This study is a replication and extension of previous work which found that training abstract words in a particular context-category promotes generalisation to concrete words but not vice versa (Kiran, Sandberg, & Abbott, 2009 ). Twelve persons with aphasia (five female) with varying types and degrees of severity participated in a generative naming treatment based on the Complexity Account of Treatment Efficacy (CATE; Thompson, Shapiro, Kiran, & Sobecks, 2003 ). All participants were trained to generate abstract words in a particular context-category by analysing the semantic features of the target words. Two other context-categories were used as controls. Ten of the twelve participants improved on the trained abstract words in the trained context-category. Eight of the ten participants who responded to treatment also generalised to concrete words in the same context-category. These results suggest that this treatment is both efficacious and efficient. We discuss possible mechanisms of training and generalisation effects.

  13. Chasing the reflected wave back into the heart: a new hypothesis while the jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Codreanu, Ion; Robson, Matthew D; Rider, Oliver J; Pegg, Tammy J; Jung, Bernd A; Dasanu, Constantin A; Clarke, Kieran; Holloway, Cameron J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness directly influences cardiac function and is independently associated with cardiovascular risk. However, the influence of the aortic reflected pulse pressure wave on left ventricular function has not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to obtain detailed information on regional ventricular wall motion patterns corresponding to the propagation of the reflected aortic wave on ventricular segments. Methods: Left ventricular wall motion was investigated in a group of healthy volunteers (n = 14, age 23 ± 3 years), using cardiac magnetic resonance navigator-gated tissue phase mapping. The left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and regional wall motion was studied in high temporal detail. Results: Corresponding to the expected timing of the reflected aortic wave reaching the left ventricle, a characteristic “notch” of regional myocardial motion was seen in all radial, circumferential, and longitudinal velocity graphs. This notch was particularly prominent in septal segments adjacent to the left ventricular outflow tract on radial velocity graphs and in anterior and posterior left ventricular segments on circumferential velocity graphs. Similarly, longitudinal velocity graphs demonstrated a brief deceleration in the upward recoil motion of the entire ventricle at the beginning of diastole. Conclusion: These results provide new insights into the possible influence of the reflected aortic waves on ventricular segments. Although the association with the reflected wave appears to us to be unambiguous, it represents a novel research concept, and further studies enabling the actual recording of the pulse wave are required. PMID:21731888

  14. An STE12 gene identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices restores infectivity of a hemibiotrophic plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Tollot, Marie; Wong Sak Hoi, Joanne; van Tuinen, Diederik; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Dumas, Bernard; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Seddas, Pascale M A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of root penetration by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are unknown and investigations are hampered by the lack of transformation systems for these unculturable obligate biotrophs. Early steps of host infection by hemibiotrophic fungal phytopathogens, sharing common features with those of AM fungal colonization, depend on the transcription factor STE12. Using degenerated primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full-length cDNA of an STE12-like gene, GintSTE, from Glomus intraradices and profiled GintSTE expression by real-time and in situ RT-PCR. GintSTE activity and function were investigated by heterologous complementation of a yeast ste12Delta mutant and a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum clste12Delta mutant. * Sequence data indicate that GintSTE is similar to STE12 from hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, especially Colletotrichum spp. Introduction of GintSTE into a noninvasive mutant of C. lindemuthianum restored fungal infectivity of plant tissues. GintSTE expression was specifically localized in extraradicular fungal structures and was up-regulated when G. intraradices penetrated roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula as compared with an incompatible mutant. Results suggest a possible role for GintSTE in early steps of root penetration by AM fungi, and that pathogenic and symbiotic fungi may share common regulatory mechanisms for invasion of plant tissues.

  15. Stratigraphic and structural configuration of the Navajo (Jurassic) through Ouray (Mississippian-Devonian) formations in the vicinity of Davis and Lavender Canyons, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, J.R.; Romie, J.E.

    1986-04-01

    This study developed a three-dimensional computer model of stratigraphic and structural relationships within a 3497-km/sup 2/ (1350-mi/sup 2/) study area centered on the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository in southeastern Utah. The model consists of a sequence of internally reconciled isopach and structure contour maps horizontally registered and stored in stratigraphic order. This model can be used to display cross sections, perspective block diagrams, or fence diagrams at any orientation; estimate depth of formation contacts and thicknesses for any new stratigraphic or hydrologic boreholes; facilitate ground-water modeling studies; and evaluate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the study area. This study also includes limited evaluations of aquifer continuity in the Elephant Canyon and Honaker Trail Formations, and of salt dissolution and flowage features as interpreted from geophysical logs. The study identified a long history of movement in the fault system in the north-central part of the study area and a major salt flowage feature in the northeastern part. It describes the Elephant Canyon Formation aquifer as laterally limited, the Honaker Trail Formation aquifer as fairly continuous over the area, and Beef Basin in the southern part of the area as a probable dissolution feature. It also concludes that the Shay-Bridger Jack-Salt Creek Graben system is apparently a vertically continuous feature between the basement and ground surface. No stratigraphic or structural discontinuities were detected in the vicinity of Davis Canyon that appear to be detrimental to the siting of a waste repository.

  16. Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective Effects of Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) Essential Oils Against Malathion-Induced Oxidative Stress in Young Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jallouli, Manel; Gharbi, Najoua; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed in the present study to investigate the hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against malathion-induced oxidative stress in young male mice as well as the possible mechanism implicated in such protection. Animals were divided into eight groups of 12 each: Control, malathion (200 mg/kg b.w.); Various doses of LSEO (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg b.w.), malathion+various doses of LSEO. Malathion and LSEO were daily per orally (p.o.) administered by intragastric gavage during 30 days. We initially found that malathion treatment induced body weight gain decrease as well as a clear nephro- and hepatotoxicity as assessed by significant relative liver and kidney weight increase and related hemodynamic parameters deregulation. Malathion exposure of mice also induced a considerable perturbation of metabolic parameters. On the other hand, we showed that malathion administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and Fe-SOD in the kidney and liver. More importantly, LSEO treatment abolished all malathion-induced body gain loss, liver and kidney relative weight increase, hemodynamic and metabolic disorders, as well as hepatic and renal oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggest that LSEO exerted potential hepato- and nephroprotective effects against malathion-induced oxidative stress in mice. The beneficial effect of LSEO might be related, in part, to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25835641

  17. Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective Effects of Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) Essential Oils Against Malathion-Induced Oxidative Stress in Young Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Slimen; Jallouli, Manel; Gharbi, Najoua; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-10-01

    We aimed in the present study to investigate the hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against malathion-induced oxidative stress in young male mice as well as the possible mechanism implicated in such protection. Animals were divided into eight groups of 12 each: Control, malathion (200 mg/kg b.w.); Various doses of LSEO (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg b.w.), malathion+various doses of LSEO. Malathion and LSEO were daily per orally (p.o.) administered by intragastric gavage during 30 days. We initially found that malathion treatment induced body weight gain decrease as well as a clear nephro- and hepatotoxicity as assessed by significant relative liver and kidney weight increase and related hemodynamic parameters deregulation. Malathion exposure of mice also induced a considerable perturbation of metabolic parameters. On the other hand, we showed that malathion administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and Fe-SOD in the kidney and liver. More importantly, LSEO treatment abolished all malathion-induced body gain loss, liver and kidney relative weight increase, hemodynamic and metabolic disorders, as well as hepatic and renal oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggest that LSEO exerted potential hepato- and nephroprotective effects against malathion-induced oxidative stress in mice. The beneficial effect of LSEO might be related, in part, to its antioxidant properties.

  18. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids.

  19. Managing the nation`s nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-31

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location.

  20. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has found very few side effects . Lavender and tea tree essential oils have been found to have ... aromatherapy, including those from Roman chamomile , geranium , lavender , tea tree , lemon , cedarwood , and bergamot . Each plant's essential ...

  1. The Use of Neuropeptide Y as a Measurement of the Effectiveness of Stress Inoculation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    site, researchers will require pre-chilled, lavender -topped Vacutainers. The lavender top indicates that these tubes contain EDTA, and anti-coagulant...prepare blood samples in the following manner. At least 3 mL of blood will be drawn from each Soldier’s arm and collected into pre-chilled, lavender

  2. China’s Special Operations Forces Modernization, Professionalization and Regional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    China’s Special Operations Forces Modernization, Professionalization and Regional Implications by Mr. Darryl J. Lavender ...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Darryl J. Lavender Defense Intelligence Agency 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...by Mr. Darryl J. Lavender Defense Intelligence Agency Colonel Timothy D. Brown Department of Military Strategy

  3. People Power in the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes seven activities for teaching secondary social studies students about court juries. Students observe and discuss the actual selection of a jury, play shadow-jury in an actual court case, interview jurors, research student courts, and survey and discuss student opinions on jury-related issues and court decisions. (AM)

  4. Bonding-induced thermal transport enhancement across a hard/soft material interface using molecular monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Huang, Mengyu; Cheng, Yanhua; Luo, Xiaobing

    2017-03-08

    Manipulating thermal transport across hard/soft material interfaces is important for composites which are critical for a wide range of applications, including electronic packaging, thermal storage, sensors and medicine. To increase the interfacial thermal conductance (Gint), a previous strategy has focused on using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to bridge the phonon spectra mismatch between the materials constituting the interface. Here, we introduce a general strategy aiming for interfaces which are incompatible with the previous strategy. Copper (Cu) and epoxy resin are chosen as representative materials constituting the interface. The proposed strategy relies on using a strongly bonding SAM to covalently connect Cu and epoxy. The thermal measurements show that Gint can be enhanced by as much as 11 fold. An interesting result is found that the Cu/epoxy interface, modified with the SAM used in the previous strategy, shows approximate 2-fold lower Gint. Through a series of experiments, including tensile strength and wettability tests, the formation and characters of bonds in different interface systems are explored and understood. The correlation between bonding characters and Gint is also elucidated. We demonstrate that when the structure of the soft material is complex, interfacial thermal transport should be tuned by covalent bonds rather than by phonon spectra match. Finally, the great potential of the proposed strategy in manipulating the thermal properties of nanocomposites is illustrated here with a theoretical prediction.

  5. Theory and process of production of heavy nonferrous metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paretskii, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The main principles of solving the problems of increasing the efficiency of processing of ore raw materials in nonferrous metallurgy due to close integration of beneficiation and metallurgy processes are described. Some combined technological schemes, which provide combined use of raw materials, solve the ecological problems of manufacture, and are designed in GINTsVETMET, are presented.

  6. Visualization of Decision Processes Using a Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Tactics (green), and outlaw Behaviors ( lavender ). Figure 2 also shows all the consequents and antecedents for each node. These labels are for exposition of...Intelligence nodes are blue, Tactics nodes are green, and outlaw Behavior nodes are lavender . Figure 4. A simple interactive exploration of the graph...constraint nodes (three green for Tactics, one lavender for Behaviors) are introduced to the world computed after the user changes a decision that was

  7. Transport of Nordic Seas Overflow Water into and Within the Irminger Sea: An Eddy-Resolving Simulation and Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-18

    Lavender et al., 2000, 2005; Faure and Speer, 2005]. The model results suggest recirculations may exist deep in the overflow water as well. 4. Temporal... Lavender , K. L., R. E. Davis, and W. B. Owens (2000), Mid‐depth recir- culation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger Seas by direct velocity...measurements, Nature, 407, 66–69. Lavender , K. L., W. B. Owens, and R. E. Davis (2005), The middepth recirculation of the subpolar North Atlantic

  8. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....

  9. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....

  10. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....

  11. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this formula may be met by adding 1 gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 66.5 pounds of U.S.P. quality soap... other biocides. (2) Miscellaneous uses: 812.Product development and pilot plant uses (own use only)....

  12. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas, Fiscal Year 1986, Other Training Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Artifact density is low, and observed artifacts include undecorated whiteware, stonewares, bottle glass, canning and cold cream jars, lavender glass...density is moderate, and observed artifacts include coarse earthenware, undecorated whitewares, stonewares, porcelain, brandy/whiskey bottles, cold cream jars...undecorated whitewares, stonewares, porcelain, bottle glass, canning and cold cream jars, lavender glass, a sickle, mule shoes, plow parts, tin cans

  13. Visualization of Decision Processes Using a Cognitive Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    for illustration of matches; this view is not shown to users. outlaw Behaviors ( lavender ). Figure 2 is only for exposition of the algorithm. It shows...considered facts), Tactics nodes are medium green, and outlaw Behavior nodes are dark lavender . This image also illustrates the “tool-tips” that a user

  14. Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung T; Wajda, Michael; Cuff, Germaine; Serota, David; Schlame, Michael; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Bekker, Alex Y

    2006-12-01

    This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy surgery. Twenty-five patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with two drops of 2% lavender oil postoperatively. The remainder of the patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with no lavender oil. Outcome variables included pain scores (a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10) at 5, 30, and 60 minutes postoperatively, narcotic requirements in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), patient satisfaction with pain control, as well as time to discharge from the PACU. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements and recovery room discharge times between the two groups. Postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy did not significantly affect pain scores. However, patients in the lavender group reported a higher satisfaction rate with pain control than patients in the control group (P = 0.0001).

  15. Fixed and pulsed gradient diffusion methods in low-field core analysis.

    PubMed

    Leu, Gabriela; Fordham, Edmund J; Hürlimann, Martin D; Frulla, Phil

    2005-02-01

    We review diffusion-weighted relaxation protocols for two-dimensional diffusion/relaxation time (D, T(2)) distributions and their application to fluid-saturated sedimentary rocks at low fields typical of oil-well logging tools (< or = 2 MHz for 1H). Fixed field gradient (FFG) protocols may be implemented in logging tools and in the laboratory; there, pulsed field gradient (PFG) protocols are also available. In either category, direct or stimulated echoes may be used for the diffusion evolution periods. We compare the results of several variant FFG and PFG protocols obtained on liquids and two contrasting sedimentary rocks. For liquids and rocks of negligible internal gradients (g(int)), results are comparable, as expected, for all the studied protocols. For rocks of strong g(int), protocol-dependent artifacts are seen in the joint (D, T2) distributions, consistent with the effects of the internal fields. For laboratory petrophysics, the PFG methods offer several advantages: (a) significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition times for repetitions over many samples; (b) freedom from heteronuclear contamination when fluorinated liquids are used in core holders; and (c) a palette of variants--one comparable with the FFG--for the study of rocks of significant g(int). Given suitable hardware, both PFG and FFG methods can be implemented in the same bench-top apparatus, providing a versatile test bed for application in a petrophysical laboratory.

  16. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils.

  17. 77 FR 61835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... is characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, a monthly mean temperature above 18 C (64.4 F) in... ] carolinianum, and Limonium carolinianum (sea lavender) (FNAI 2010d, p. 4). Temperature, salinity,...

  18. MSM-Metal Semiconductor Metal Photo-detector Using Black Silicon Germanium (SiGe) for Extended Wavelength Near Infrared Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    for Si1–xGex/Si MSM photodiodes. (a) 15% Ge with and without 5 mW light(red) and (b) 30% Ge MSM device with 5 (green) and 10 mW lights ( Lavender ...device with 5 (green) and 10 mW lights ( Lavender ). The clear dependence of the response on the optical power of the illumination source is evident

  19. Mercury uptake and distribution in Lavandula stoechas plants grown in soil from Almadén mining district (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

    2009-11-01

    This work studies mercury root uptake by Lavandula stoechas var. Kew Red (lavender) and the distribution of this metal through the plant under greenhouse conditions along three consecutive seasons. Mercury concentration in plant tissues and in the different products obtained from lavender plants (essential oil, toilet water and in lavender tea) was assessed in order to evaluate the possible cultivation of lavender as a profitable alternative land use to mercury mining in the Almadén area once the mine had been closed down. Mercury concentration in useful parts of the plant was low (0.03-0.55 mg kg(-1)). Likewise, the essential oil, toilet water and tea obtained from these plants presented very low mercury levels, below the detection limit of the used equipment (<0.5 microg kg(-1)). In the case of the obtained tea, according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, the maximum daily intake of it without intoxication risk would be 85.2l. So, although other sources of mercury intake should also be considered in order to elaborate a complete toxicological risk assessment. Lavender data, obtained under this greenhouse working conditions, shows that lavender cultivation could be an alternative crop in the Almadén area.

  20. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  1. Total Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2007

    2007-01-01

    For 25 years, "American School & University" has been publishing a special issue dedicated to the best in education design. Although design has changed dramatically over the years, one will find that the jury criteria for award-winning projects has remained consistent. The first jury was looking for technical innovation, and 1986's…

  2. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau"…

  3. Eckmann v. Board of Education of Hawthorn School District: Bad Management Makes Bad Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacken, Donal M.

    1988-01-01

    A school board's dismissal of a teacher who was an unwed mother resulted in the jury granting a large award. The judge grounded the legal justification for the jury's decision in the teacher's constitutionally protected decision to bear a child, irrespective of marriage. Criticizes court's constitutional intrepretation. (MLF)

  4. Perception of Rape Victims: The Impact of Evidentiary Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgida, Eugene; And Others

    A simulated jury deliberation with experienced and inexperienced jurors sampled from the jury population of Hennepin County, Minnesota, was investigated. The purpose was to assess the impact of recent reforms in evidentiary rules pertaining to the admissibility of prior sexual history evidence in rape trials. Specific questions included: (1)…

  5. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  6. 32 CFR 144.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.1 Purpose. This part implements 10 U.S.C. 982 to establish uniform DoD policies for jury service by members of the Armed Forces on active duty....

  7. To require the United States attorney to bring the matter of an individual's contempt of Congress before a grand jury not later than 30 days after receiving a certification from the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the President of the Senate that the individual is in contempt.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Jordan, Jim [R-OH-4

    2014-07-29

    09/26/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. From the shadows into the light: How pretrial publicity and deliberation affect mock jurors' decisions, impressions, and memory.

    PubMed

    Ruva, Christine L; Guenther, Christina C

    2015-06-01

    This 2-part study explored how exposure to negative pretrial publicity (Neg-PTP) influences the jury process, as well as possible mechanisms responsible for its biasing effects on decisions. Study Part A explored how PTP and jury deliberations affect juror/jury verdicts, memory, and impressions of the defendant and attorneys. One week before viewing a criminal trial mock-jurors (N = 320 university students) were exposed to Neg-PTP or unrelated crime stories (No-PTP). Two days later deliberating jurors came to a group decision, whereas nondeliberating jurors completed an unrelated task before making an individual decision. Neg-PTP jurors were more likely to vote guilty, make memory errors, and rate the defendant lower in credibility. Deliberation reduced Neg-PTP jurors' memory accuracy and No-PTP jurors' guilty verdicts (leniency bias). Jurors' memory and ratings of the defendant and prosecuting attorney significantly mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. Study Part B content analyzed 30 mock-jury deliberations and explored how PTP influenced deliberations and ultimately jury decisions. Neg-PTP juries were more likely than No-PTP juries to discuss ambiguous trial evidence in a proprosecution manner and less likely to discuss judicial instructions and lack of evidence. All Neg-PTP juries mentioned PTP, after instructed otherwise, and rarely corrected jury members who mentioned PTP. Discussion of ambiguous trial evidence in a proprosecution manner and lack of evidence significantly mediated the effect of PTP on jury-level guilt ratings. Together the findings suggest that judicial admonishments and deliberations may not be sufficient to reduce PTP bias, because of memory errors, biased impressions, and predecisional distortion.

  9. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  10. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    PubMed

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  11. Lavandula Reduces Heart Injury via Attenuating Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Oxidative Stress in A Rat Model of Infarct-Like Myocardial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Abedin; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Zahedi khorasani, Mahdi; Darabian, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Lavender is used in herbal medicine for different therapeutic purposes. Nonetheless, potential therapeutic effects of this plant in ischemic heart disease and its possible mechanisms remain to be investigated. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, lavender oil at doses of 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg was administered through gastric gavage for 14 days before infarct-like myocardial injury (MI). The carotid artery and left ventricle were cannulated to record arterial blood pressure (BP) and cardiac function. At the end of experiment, the heart was removed and histopathological alteration, oxidative stress biomarkers as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level were evaluated. Results Induction of M.I caused cardiac dysfunction, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, TNF-α and troponin I in heart tissue (P<0.001). Pretreatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced myocardial injury, troponin I and TNF-α. In addition, it improved cardiac function and antioxidant enzyme activity (P<0.01). Conclusion Our finding showed that lavender oil has cardioprotective effect through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway in the rat model with infarct-like MI. We suggest that lavender oil may be helpful in prevention or attenuation of heart injury in patients with high risk of myocardial infarction and/or ischemic heart disease. PMID:28367419

  12. Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B F; Starkey, N J; Brown, S L; Lea, R W

    2007-05-22

    Lavender is a popular treatment for stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae)) lavender odour inhalation over 2 weeks or 24 h periods, on gerbil behaviour in the elevated plus maze in mature male and female gerbils, and compared results with the effects of diazepam (1 mg/kg) i.p. after 30 min and 2-week administration. Traditional measures of open entries showed an increasing trend over the 2 weeks exposure, whereas ethological measures indicative of anxiety; stretch-attend frequency and percentage protected head-dips, were significantly lower. Exploratory behaviour, total head-dip frequency, increased after 24 h lavender and 2 weeks exposure. These results are comparable with diazepam administration. There were sex differences in protected head-dip an ethological indicator of anxiety: females showed a significant decrease in protected head-dips compared to both males and to female controls. In conclusion exposure to lavender odour may have an anxiolytic profile in gerbils similar to that of the anxiolytic diazepam. In addition, prolonged, 2-week lavender odour exposure increased exploratory behaviour in females indicating a further decrease in anxiety in this sex.

  13. Oily omen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A jury found that the Exxon Corp. was indeed reckless in allowing a captain with a track record of alcohol abuse to pilot the Valdez supertanker, which ran aground in March 1989, causing North America's worst oil spill ever. The Alaskan jury also found the captain negligent and reckless for drinking on the job the afternoon of the incident. The jury is yet to decide just how much Exxon should pay in liability in the civil suit, but the figure could easily come out in the billions.

  14. The mito-DAMP cardiolipin blocks IL-10 production causing persistent inflammation during bacterial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chen, Bill B.; Morse, Christina; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Khare, Anupriya; Oriss, Timothy B.; Huff, Rachael; Lee, Janet S.; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Failure to resolve inflammation after infection precipitates lung injury and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are common in pneumonia and increased levels of the mito-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) cardiolipin can be detected in the lungs. Here we show that mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae develop lung injury with accumulation of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin inhibits resolution of inflammation by suppressing production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by lung CD11b+Ly6GintLy6CloF4/80+ cells. Cardiolipin induces PPARγ SUMOylation, which causes recruitment of a repressive NCOR/HDAC3 complex to the IL-10 promoter, but not the TNF promoter, thereby tipping the balance towards inflammation rather than resolution. Inhibition of HDAC activity by sodium butyrate enhances recruitment of acetylated histone 3 to the IL-10 promoter and increases the concentration of IL-10 in the lungs. These findings identify a mechanism of persistent inflammation during pneumonia and indicate the potential of HDAC inhibition as a therapy. PMID:28074841

  15. Vacuum stability and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an SO(10) dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambrini, Yann; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum stability in the Standard Model is problematic as the Higgs quartic self-coupling runs negative at a renormalization scale of about 1010 GeV . We consider a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model for which gauge coupling unification is made possible through an intermediate scale gauge group, Gint=SU (3 )C⊗SU (2 )L⊗SU (2 )R⊗U (1 )B -L . Gint is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a 126 of SO(10) which not only provides for neutrino masses through the seesaw mechanism but also preserves a discrete Z2 that can account for the stability of a dark matter candidate, here taken to be the Standard Model singlet component of a bosonic 16 . We show that in addition to these features the model insures the positivity of the Higgs quartic coupling through its interactions to the dark matter multiplet and 126 . We also show that the Higgs mass squared runs negative, triggering electroweak symmetry breaking. Thus, the vacuum stability is achieved along with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and captures two more important elements of supersymmetric models without low-energy supersymmetry. The conditions for perturbativity of quartic couplings and for radiative electroweak symmetry breaking lead to tight upper and lower limits on the dark matter mass, respectively, and this dark matter mass region (1.35-2 TeV) can be probed in future direct detection experiments.

  16. How common is "common knowledge" about child witnesses among legal professionals? Comparing interviewers, public defenders, and forensic psychologists with laypeople.

    PubMed

    Buck, Julie A; Warren, Amye R; Bruck, Maggie; Kuehnle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the knowledge of jury-eligible college students (n = 192), investigative interviewers (n = 44), forensic psychologists (n = 39), and public defenders (n = 137) in regard to the research on interviewing children. These groups' knowledge was compared with the scientific research on the impact of interview techniques and practices on the accuracy of child witnesses. Jury-eligible students were the least knowledgeable, but their accuracy varied widely across items. Both interviewers and public defenders performed better than jury-eligible students, but they lacked substantial knowledge about the research on interviewing children on certain topics (e.g., using anatomically detailed dolls); forensic psychologists were the most knowledgeable. These findings suggest that professionals in the legal system need substantial professional development regarding the research on interviewing strategies with child witnesses. They also highlight the need for experts to provide case-relevant information to juries who lack basic information about the validity and reliability of children's reports.

  17. 24 CFR 236.750 - Form of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... jury trial. Authorization to the landlord's lawyer to appear in court on behalf of the tenant and waive.... Authorization to the landlord's lawyer to waive the tenant's right: (i) To appeal for judicial error in any...

  18. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONDUCT OF ATTORNEYS PRACTICING UNDER THE COGNIZANCE AND SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules... likely to have such an effect when it refers to a civil matter triable to a jury, a criminal matter,...

  19. A Short History of the International Physics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunfalvi, R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the International Physics Competition (IPC). IPC rules, aims, organization, participants, leaders, finance, language, duration, international jury, problems, evaluation, prizes, and organizers' responsibilities are discussed. Typical problems used and problem solving methods are also discussed. (JN)

  20. Environmental Response: Strawberry Hill Campus, Bar Harbor, Maine. The 21st Awards Program: A Year of Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Progressive Architecture Awards Jury gave citations to three projects grouped as "the response by architects to environmental problems." One citation was awarded to a college campus design utilizing solar energy, recycled materials, and wind power. (MF)

  1. Bornyl-diphosphate synthase from Lavandula angustifolia: A major monoterpene synthase involved in essential oil quality.

    PubMed

    Despinasse, Yolande; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Antonczak, Serge; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Jullien, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products. Molecular modeling of the enzyme's active site suggests that the carbocation intermediates are more stable in LaBPPS than in SoBPPS leading probably to a lower efficiency of LaBPPS to convert GPP into BPP. Quantitative RT-PCR performed from leaves and flowers at different development stages of L. angustifolia samples show a clear correlation between transcript level of LaBPPS and accumulation of borneol/camphor, suggesting that LaBPPS is mainly responsible of in vivo biosynthesis of borneol/camphor in fine lavender. A phylogenetic analysis of terpene synthases (TPS) pointed out the basal position of LaBPPS in the TPSb clade, suggesting that LaBPPS could be an ancestor of others lavender TPSb. Finally, borneol could be one of the first monoterpenes to be synthesized in the Lavandula subgenus. Knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies to improve the lavender oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding. Accession numbers: LaBPPS: KM015221.

  2. Journalists’ Privilege: Overview of the Law and Legislation in the 109th and 110th Congresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-18

    deterred from furnishing publishable information, all to the detriment of the free flow of information protected by the First Amendment . The Court held...nonetheless, that the First Amendment did not provide even a qualified privilege for journalists to refuse to appear and testify before state or federal...grand juries. The only situation it mentioned in which the First Amendment would allow a reporter to refuse to testify was in the case of grand jury

  3. Providing Greater Protection for Environmental Audits: A Proposal for a Self-Evaluative Privilege

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    manufacture any of its own drugs. Dotterweich and his company were both brought to trial for shipping misbranded and adulterated drugs in violation of the... misbranding or adulteration . The cases of both defendants * 36 went to the jury. The jury returned a guilty verdict only against . Dotterweich. The court...34can hardly be compared to . .the selling of adulterated drugs." ,175 43 D. Federal Environmental Laws Environmental laws are public welfare laws. They

  4. "Bad law" argument in Morgentaler v. The Queen.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, E M

    The issues raised by the Crown on appeal in Morgentaler v. The Queen from the acquittal of the accused were rendered moot when the Supreme Court of Canada declared the abortion statute (section 251 of the Criminal Code) to be unconstitutional. There was no need for the Court to discuss either the issue of the use of the "defence of necessity" or defence counsel's "bad law" argument. Nevertheless, Chief Justice Dickson found the "bad law" argument of defence counsel, Morris Manning, Q.C., "so troubling," he felt "compelled to comment" on it. Mr. Manning argued that, although the jury was to take its instructions in the law from the judge, it had a right not to apply the law in the case to the facts because the abortion statute was "bad law." In his decision, Chief Justice Dickson reiterated that it is the duty of the judge to instruct the jury in the law and the function of the jury to apply the facts to the law, and that Mr. Manning was wrong to tell the jury otherwise. Among other things, the Chief Justice used a "racist jury" example to demonstrate Mr. Manning's error. The author argues in this comment that the Chief Justice's example was ill-conceived and inapposite, and concludes that the jury and Mr. Manning should be commended for helping to rid Canada of an oppressive abortion law.

  5. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54 Section 21.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this...

  6. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P..., insecticides, fungicides, and other biocides. 430.Sterlizing and preserving solutions. 470.Theater...

  7. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P..., insecticides, fungicides, and other biocides. 430.Sterlizing and preserving solutions. 470.Theater...

  8. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P..., insecticides, fungicides, and other biocides. 430.Sterlizing and preserving solutions. 470.Theater...

  9. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P..., insecticides, fungicides, and other biocides. 430.Sterlizing and preserving solutions. 470.Theater...

  10. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P..., insecticides, fungicides, and other biocides. 430.Sterlizing and preserving solutions. 470.Theater...

  11. Ordered poly(p-phenylene)/layered double hydroxide ultrathin films with blue luminescence by layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongpeng; Lu, Jun; Wei, Min; Han, Jingbin; Ma, Jing; Li, Feng; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2009-01-01

    Lavender layers: A poly(p-phenylene) anionic derivate and exfoliated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide monolayers were assembled into ultrathin films with well-defined blue fluorescence (see picture; the numbers indicate the number of bilayers), long-range order, and high photostability. These films work as multiple quantum-well structures for valence electrons.

  12. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2013-12-01

    Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

  13. Thin section of rock brought back to earth by Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    An idea of the mineralogy and texture of a lunar sample can be achieved by use of color microphotos. This thin section is Apollo 12 lunar sample number 12057.27, under polarized light. The lavender minerals are pyrexene; the black mineral is ilmenite; the white and brown, feldspar; and the remainder, olivine.

  14. Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications.…

  15. What Would Liz and Larry Say? Performing Critical Approaches to Choreographic Mentorship in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that Liz Lerman's and Larry Lavender's approaches to mentoring student choreographers denote a shift in the philosophy of choreographic mentorship in higher education, because they reflect current concerns in critical pedagogy. My particular interest is in the relationship established between student artist and educator when a…

  16. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  17. Monet's Water Lilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroni, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Students love the colors of Monet prints. The sunny yellows, misty blues, soft lavenders, and outrageous oranges. Using this as inspiration, Michelle Maroni wanted her students to discover new painting techniques and ways of planning a composition with more spontaneity. In this article, she describes how she introduced Claude Monet to her students…

  18. Antioxidant and wound healing activity of Lavandula aspic L. ointment.

    PubMed

    Ben Djemaa, Ferdaous Ghrab; Bellassoued, Khaled; Zouari, Sami; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Ammar, Emna

    2016-11-01

    Lavandula aspic L. is a strongly aromatic shrub plant of the Lamiaceae family and traditionally used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several skin disorders, including wounds, burns, and ulcers. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of lavender essential oil. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the excision wound healing activity and antioxidant property of a Lavandula aspic L. essential oil formulated in ointment using a rat model. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. The test groups were topically treated with the vehicle, lavender ointment (4%) and a reference drug, while the control group was left untreated. Wound healing efficiency was determined by monitoring morphological and biochemical parameters and skin histological analysis. Wound contraction and protein synthesis were also determined. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the determination of MDA rates and antioxidant enzymes (GPx, catalase and superoxide dismutase). The treatment with lavender ointment was noted to significantly enhance wound contraction rate (98%) and protein synthesis. Overall, the results provided strong support for the effective wound healing activity of lavender ointment, making it a promising candidate for future application as a therapeutic agent in tissue repairing processes associated with skin injuries.

  19. Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and apoptotic activities of four plant species used in folk medicine in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Amira, Smain; Dade, Martin; Schinella, Guillemo; Ríos, José-Luis

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the potential anti-inflammatory activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis), sarsaparilla (Smilax aspera), Arabian or French lavender (Lavandula stoechas), and calamint (Calamintha nepeta) along with their apoptotic effects on the pro-inflammatory cells, and the correlation of these effects with the plants' potential anti-oxidant activity. Myrtle extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity in the paw oedema induced by carrageenan (60% at 3 h), whereas calamint, lavender, and sarsaparilla produced inhibitions of 49%, 38%, and 47%, respectively. None of them had an effect on the TPA-induced ear oedema. Moreover, all the extracts except sarsaparilla showed different degrees of anti-oxidant activity. Lavender and myrtle at 200 μg/mL decreased cell viability by 63% and 59%, respectively, after 3 h of incubation. Neutrophil elimination through apoptosis could be implicated in the resolution of acute inflammation in the case of lavender, whereas the reduction of reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils, such as the superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical, could be implicated in the overall reduction of inflammation. These results may support the traditional use of these plants.

  20. ESF (Exploratory Shaft Facility) impact evaluation report: Volume 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This document contains seven appendices to Volumes 1 and 2 of this series. Each appendix contains site location and design data for one of the seven potential sites (Deaf Smith County and Swisher County, Texas; Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon, Utah; Cypress Creek Dome and Richton Dome, Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome, Louisiana). (TEM)

  1. The repellent and persistent toxic effects of essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Nechita, I S; Poirel, M T; Cozma, V; Zenner, L

    2015-12-15

    The economic impact of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, the lack of new acaricides, the occurrence of resistance and tighter legislation have all led to the need to find new ways to control this pest. One promising alternative method of control focuses on employing repellent and/or toxic effects of selected plant essential oils against D. gallinae. Ten essential oils (basil, thyme, coriander, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, fir tree, oregano, mint, and juniper) were tested for the persistence of toxic and repellent effects. In filter-paper toxicity bioassays against D. gallinae, the best results were observed for lavender (more than 97% mortality after 48 and 72 h) and thyme (84% at 72 h) at a dose of 0.12 mg/cm(2). In addition, two oils showed significant persistent toxic effects 15 and 30 days post application to filter papers. Thyme was the most effective (100% mortality at 72 h), followed by lavender (nearly 80% mortality after 72 h). Out of the ten oils tested for their repellent effect, thyme was the strongest, with nearly 80% of the tested area avoided by mites; oregano caused a 60% avoidance and lavender exhibited an effect close to 40%. All other oils exhibited a repellent effect of less than 30%. None of the experiments showed a repellent effect for HM (commercial alimentary oil) or negative controls. We found that the thyme and lavender essential oils exhibited promising results when tested in vitro for toxic and repellent effects against D. gallinae; thus, we suggest that future experiments focus on in vivo tests using these oils in farm units.

  2. When domestic goes capital: Juror decision making in capital murder trials involving domestic homicide.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Fogel, Sondra J; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Prior research suggests that homicide cases involving familial offenders and victims are subject to a "domestic discount" that reduces sentencing severity. However, the operation of a domestic discount in regard to death penalty sentencing has been rarely examined. The current research uses a near-population of jury decisions in capital murder trials conducted in North Carolina from 1991 to 2009 (n = 800), and a series of logistic regression analyses to determine whether there is (a) a direct effect between offender-victim relationship (e.g., domestic, friend/acquaintance, and stranger) and jury decision making, and/or (b) whether domestic offender-victim relationship (as well as other offender-victim relationships) moderates the effect of legal and extralegal case characteristics on jury assessment of the death penalty. Our findings revealed no empirical support for a "domestic discount" whereby juries are less likely to impose death sentences in cases involving domestic homicides. However, substantial differences in predictors of death sentencing were found across offender-victim dyads; most notably, domestic homicide cases demonstrated the most legalistic model of jury decisions to impose death sentences.

  3. Revisiting the Decision of Death in Hurst v. Florida.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Brian K; Ginory, Almari; Zedalis, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The United States Supreme Court has considered the question of whether a judge or a jury must make the findings necessary to support imposition of the death penalty in several notable cases, including Spaziano v. Florida (1984), Hildwin v. Florida (1989), and Ring v. Arizona (2002). In 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hurst v. Florida Florida Statute § 921.141 allows the judge, after weighing aggravating and mitigating circumstances, to enter a sentence of life imprisonment or death. Before Hurst, Florida's bifurcated sentencing proceedings included an advisory sentence from jurors and a separate judicial hearing without juror involvement. In Hurst, the Court revisited the question of whether Florida's capital sentencing scheme violates the Sixth Amendment, which requires a jury, not a judge, to find each fact necessary to impose a sentence of death in light of Ring In an eight-to-one decision, the Court reversed the judgment of the Florida Supreme Court, holding that the Sixth Amendment requires a jury to find the aggravating factors necessary for imposing the death penalty. The role of Florida juries in capital sentencing proceedings was thereby elevated from advisory to determinative. We examine the Court's decision and offer commentary regarding this shift from judge to jury in the final imposition of the death penalty and the overall effect of this landmark case.

  4. Aptamer targeting EGFRvIII mutant hampers its constitutive autophosphorylation and affects migration, invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Camorani, Simona; Crescenzi, Elvira; Colecchia, David; Carpentieri, Andrea; Amoresano, Angela; Fedele, Monica; Chiariello, Mario; Cerchia, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor, associated with very poor survival despite surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) are hallmarks in GBM with driving roles in tumor progression. In approximately half of the tumors with amplified EGFR, the EGFRvIII truncated extracellular mutant is detected. EGFRvIII does not bind ligands, is highly oncogenic and its expression confers resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). It has been demonstrated that EGFRvIII-dependent cancers may escape targeted therapy by developing dependence on PDGFRβ signaling, thus providing a strong rationale for combination therapy aimed at blocking both EGFRvIII and PDGFRβ signaling. We have recently generated two nuclease resistant RNA aptamers, CL4 and Gint4.T, as high affinity ligands and inhibitors of the human wild-type EGFR (EGFRwt) and PDGFRβ, respectively. Herein, by different approaches, we demonstrate that CL4 aptamer binds to the EGFRvIII mutant even though it lacks most of the extracellular domain. As a consequence of binding, the aptamer inhibits EGFRvIII autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways, thus affecting migration, invasion and proliferation of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cell lines. Further, we show that targeting EGFRvIII by CL4, as well as by EGFR-TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, causes upregulation of PDGFRβ. Importantly, CL4 and gefitinib cooperate with the anti-PDGFRβ Gint4.T aptamer in inhibiting cell proliferation. The proposed aptamer-based strategy could have impact on targeted molecular cancer therapies and may result in progresses against GBMs. PMID:26461476

  5. General form of the color potential produced by color charges of the quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2013-03-01

    Constant electric charge e satisfies the continuity equation ∂ μ j μ ( x) = 0 where j μ ( x) is the current density of the electron. However, the Yang-Mills color current density j μa ( x) of the quark satisfies the equation D μ [ A] j μa ( x) = 0 which is not a continuity equation (∂ μ j μa ( x) = 0) which implies that a color charge q a ( t) of the quark is not constant but it is time dependent where a = 1 ,2 , . . .8 are color indices. In this paper we derive general form of color potential produced by color charges of the quark. We find that the general form of the color potential produced by the color charges of the quark at rest is given by {\\varPhi^a}(x)=A_0^a( {t,x} )={{q^b}( {t-{r/c} )}}{r}{{[ {{exp [ {gint {drfrac{{Q( {t-frac{r/c} )-1}}{r}} } ]}}{{gint {dr{Q( {t-frac{r/c} )}}{r}} }}} ]}_{ab }} where dr integration is an indefinite integration, {Q_{ab }}( {{tau_0}} )={f^{abd }}{q^d}( {{tau_0}} ),r=| {overrightarrow{x}-overrightarrow{X}( {{tau_0}} )} |,{tau_0}=t-r/c is the retarded time, c is the speed of light, overrightarrow{X}( {{tau_0}} ) is the position of the quark at the retarded time and the repeated color indices b, d(= 1 , 2 , . . . 8) are summed. For constant color charge q a we reproduce the Coulomb-like potential {\\varPhi^a}(x)={{q^a}}/r which is consistent with the Maxwell theory where constant electric charge e produces the Coulomb potential \\varPhi (x)=e/r.

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    less are invited to present their research and results as a paper, in the style typically published by scientific journals. The student is allowed to choose a topic within the broad scope of physics, including cross-over fields such as astro- or biophysics. In 2008 over 2000 papers were submitted and 25 awards were given. In line with 'First Step' is the International Conference for Young Scientists (ICYS) [7]. The conference started in 1994 in Viségrad, Hungary. Here too, the participants present the results of their research, not by submitting a research paper but by giving a presentation to an audience of peers and a jury of specialists. The subjects of the presentations are in physics, mathematics, computer science, environmental sciences, engineering or life sciences. The jury awards the presentations according to the level of the content and the presentation. The last three competitions presented here are younger and did not start within Eastern European countries. The International Olympics of Astrophysics and Astronomy (IOAA) was organized for the second time in Bandung, Indonesia in 2008 and 24 countries participated [8]. As the title of the competition indicates, problems are directed towards theoretical and experimental aspects of astronomy. A little bit older is the European Union Science Olympiad (EUSO) [9]. This started in 2001, but the first competition took place in Dublin, Ireland, in 2003. The last competition was organized in March-April 2009 in Murcia, Spain. This competition addresses younger students, aged 17 years or less. It tries to combine biology, chemistry and physics. Although the problems are formulated in an interdisciplinary way, the students remain specialists, one in physics and the others in biology and chemistry. For even younger students, there is the International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) [10]. This competition started in December 2004 on the initiative of Professor Masno Ginting from Indonesia. The last competition took

  7. Anchoring in the courtroom: the effects of caps on punitive damages.

    PubMed

    Robbennolt, J K; Studebaker, C A

    1999-06-01

    Responding to the perception that civil damage awards are out of control, courts and legislatures have pursued tort reform efforts largely aimed at reigning in damage awards by juries. One proposed method for reigning in civil juries is to limit, or cap, the amount that can be awarded for punitive damages. Despite significant controversy over damage awards and the civil litigation system, there has been little research focusing on the process by which juries determine damages. In particular, there is a paucity of research on the possible effects of placing caps on punitive damages. The present research examines punitive damage caps and reveals an anchoring effect of the caps on both compensatory and punitive damages. A second experiment replicates this effect and examines the moderating effect of bifurcating the compensatory and punitive damage decisions.

  8. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  9. Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-09

    concrete evidence that a grand jury is considering charges against Assange. Justin Elliot , Assange grand jury report “purely speculation”, WAR ROOM...i]f the offense is regarded by the requested State as a political offense or as an offense connected with a political offense.”). 120 Quinn v...Ireland, 60 MARQ. L. REV. 777, 780 (1977). 121 Quinn , 783 F.2d at 791 (internal citations omitted). 122 See, e.g., Quinn , 783 F.2d at 791 (citing

  10. Use of Hearsay in Military Commissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-20

    124 See Boumediene, 553 U.S. at 754-60. 125 Verdugo-Urquidez, 494 U.S. at 268 (citing Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298 (1922) (Sixth...Constitution inapplicable to Puerto Rico)). 126 Verdugo-Urquidez, 494 U.S. at 268 (citing Dorr, 195 U.S. at 148; Balzac , 258 U.S. at 312-13) 127 See... Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298 (1922) (Sixth Amendment right to jury trial); Ocampo v. United States, 234 U.S. 91 (1914) (Fifth Amendment grand jury

  11. Preliminary access routes and cost study analyses for seven potentially acceptable salt sites: Final report, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effects of inhaling the vapor of Lavandula burnatii super-derived essential oil and linalool on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), catecholamine and gonadotropin levels in experimental menopausal female rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kenji; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sashida, Yutaka

    2005-02-01

    The effects of inhaling the vapor of Lavandula burnatii super-derived essential oil and one of the main components of lavender oil, linalool on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), catecholamine and gonadotropin levels in menopausal model rats under ether-inhalation were studied. The increased plasma ACTH levels induced by ether-inhalation tended to decrease by pre-inhalation of Lavandula burnetii super and linalool vapor was induced the decrease of ACTH level. The decrease in adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine levels induced by ether-inhalation tended to recover, especially, the dopamine level significantly recovered to the normal level by the inhalation of Lavandula burnetii super and linalool vapor. However, the increased plasma gonadotropin levels in ovariectomized retired female rats (menopausal model rats) was significantly decreased by the inhalation of linalool. These results suggest that lavender oil or one of the main components, linalool may contribute to relieving tension and may be applicable to the treatment of menopausal disorders in human beings.

  13. Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.

    PubMed

    Magro, Ana; Carolino, Manuela; Bastos, Margarida; Mexia, António

    2006-09-01

    The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.

  14. Application of carbohydrate analysis to verify honey authenticity.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Chardon, S; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2003-12-22

    Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography have been used simultaneously to analyze sugars in honey. After statistical processing by principal components analysis, additions of exogenous sugars could be detected by the appropriate fingerprints of adulteration. Application to acacia, chestnut and lavender honeys enabled the detection of fraud resulting from 5 to 10% addition of sugar syrups. This method may be considered as a replacement of isotopic analysis, that has some limitations.

  15. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  16. Toyavita Piavuhuru Koroin ’Canyon of Mother Earth’ Ethnohistory and Native American Religious Concerns in the Fort Carson - Pinon Canyon Maneuver Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-10

    it flows from its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains to where it merges with the Arkansas River. This riverine oasis is located at the southern...traveled to Anadarko , Oklahoma. A joint meeting was to be held at the Kiowa Apache Tribal Office inasmuch as the Comanche and Kiowa Tribes are...watched nearly every major event in the3 winning of the Southwest (Lavender, 1954:14) The Purgatoire River and the canyon through which it flows afforded

  17. PileSort Module Usage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-25

    green turquoise blue yellow orange burnt orange brown bittersweet green blue melon aquamarine thistle mulberry lavender black apricot...violet red white yellow green yellow orange aquamarine blue gray burnt orange cadet blue copper forest green goldenrod chestnut...34 /> </node> - <node id=" aquamarine "> <property id="containing_pile" value="blues" /> <property id="meta_information" value="" /> <property

  18. Diplycosia platyphylla (Ericaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Peter W.; Amoroso, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diplycosia platyphylla P.W.Fritsch, a new species from Mindanao Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the Bornean Diplycosia urceolata but differs by its green or slightly flushed pink petioles 4–7 mm long, wider leaf blades, acute calyx lobe apices, and lavender mature fruiting calyx. The new species is known only from a single collection made from Mount Apo in North Cotabato Province, southern Mindanao. PMID:27698582

  19. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  20. Submission Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    portion " Post Transfusion Data" of Section III - Record of Transfusion, must be completed and signed. The first copy of the completed SF 518 must be placed...hemoglobinuria, hemoglobinemia; 2) one 7 ml lavender top tube and two 7 ml red top tubes; 3) one freshly voided post -reaction urine; 4) the blood container and...anaphylactic, septic or infectious and post -transfusion hepatitis. Simple urticarial reactions with no change in vital signs need not be reported. The details

  1. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    PubMed

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  2. Broken Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Therkleson, Tessa; Stronach, Shona

    2015-01-01

    This case describes a combination external treatment for “Broken Heart Syndrome” that includes a lavender footbath, massage using moor extract, and oxalis ointment to the abdomen applied by an Anthroposophic nurse for a specific personality type. Lavender footbaths have been used since ancient times for relaxation and calming, while moor extract has been used medicinally in Europe since the middle ages for warmth and environmental protection. Rhythmical massage using moor extract and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen are part of the tradition of Anthroposophic nursing when managing stress induced by emotional and physical trauma. An elderly lady with specific characteristics diagnosed as Broken Heart Syndrome received one treatment a week for 4 weeks given by an Anthroposophic nurse at an integrative medical center. Between treatments, education was given to enable self-treatment in the home. The nursing treatments, each using lavender footbaths, moor extract massage, and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen, proved very effect, and no negative effects were reported. External applications need to be considered by nurses caring for specific personality types with Broken Heart Syndrome. PMID:25673580

  3. Odor source identification by grounding linguistic descriptions in an artificial nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutfi, Amy; Coradeschi, Silvia; Duckett, Tom; Wide, Peter

    2001-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling autonomous agents (e.g., robots) to carry out human oriented tasks using an electronic nose. The nose consists of a combination of passive gas sensors with different selectivity, the outputs of which are fused together with an artificial neural network in order to recognize various human-determined odors. The basic idea is to ground human-provided linguistic descriptions of these odors in the actual sensory perceptions of the nose through a process of supervised learning. Analogous to the human nose, the paper explains a method by which an electronic nose can be used for substance identification. First, the receptors of the nose are exposed to a substance by means of inhalation with an electric pump. Then a chemical reaction takes place in the gas sensors over a period of time and an artificial neural network processes the resulting sensor patterns. This network was trained to recognize a basic set of pure substances such as vanilla, lavender and yogurt under controlled laboratory conditions. The complete system was then validated through a series of experiments on various combinations of the basic substances. First, we showed that the nose was able to consistently recognize unseen samples of the same substances on which it had been trained. In addition, we presented some first results where the nose was tested on novel combinations of substances on which it had not been trained by combining the learned descriptions - for example, it could distinguish lavender yogurt as a combination of lavender and yogurt.

  4. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  5. Bioactivity of essential oils in phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi control.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M P; Ibáñez, M D; Marqués, M; Roselló, J; Giménez, S; Blázquez, M A

    2017-02-09

    Commercial thyme and lavender essential oils were analysed by GC/MS. Sixty-six compounds accounting for 98.6-99.6% of total essential oil were identified. Thymol (52.14 ± 0.21%), followed by p-cymene (32.24 ± 0.16%), carvacrol (3.71 ± 0.01%) and γ-terpinene (3.34 ± 0.02%), were the main compounds in thyme essential oil, while large amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes linalool acetate (37.07 ± 0.24%) and linalool (30.16 ± 0.06%) were found in lavender one. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils was evaluated at 200 and 300 μg/mL against 10 phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi, which significantly affect agriculture. Micelial growth inhibition was calculated for each tested fungus and dose. Thyme essential oil showed satisfactory results with 90-100% growth inhibition in almost all the assayed fungi at 300 μg/mL, while lavender essential oil showed no noteworthy inhibition data at either dose, and its growth was even enhanced. Thyme essential oil represents a natural alternative to control harvest and post-harvest fungi, and to extend the shelf-life of agriculture products.

  6. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  7. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.

  8. Up-regulation of an N-terminal truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase enhances production of essential oils and sterols in transgenic Lavandula latifolia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Sales, Ester; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2007-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oil is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, modifications of yield and composition of this essential oil by genetic engineering should have important scientific and commercial applications. We generated transgenic spike lavender plants expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana HMG1 cDNA, encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR1S), a key enzyme of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Transgenic T0 plants accumulated significantly more essential oil constituents as compared to controls (up to 2.1- and 1.8-fold in leaves and flowers, respectively). Enhanced expression of HMGR1S also increased the amount of the end-product sterols, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (average differences of 1.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively), but did not affect the accumulation of carotenoids or chlorophylls. We also analysed T1 plants derived from self-pollinated seeds of T0 lines that flowered after growing for 2 years in the greenhouse. The increased levels of essential oil and sterols observed in the transgenic T0 plants were maintained in the progeny that inherited the HMG1 transgene. Our results demonstrate that genetic manipulation of the MVA pathway increases essential oil yield in spike lavender, suggesting a contribution for this cytosolic pathway to monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of the species.

  9. The Double Helix Takes the Witness Stand: Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Genetics in Court

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments—but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  10. Selected Papers from the International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (12th, Jacksonville, Florida, April 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    This collection contains the 20 best papers from a conference at which nearly 300 faculty members presented papers. Those that were selected by juried review include: (1) "Where Have You Been? A Case Study of Successful Implementation of Undergraduate Online Learning Communities" (John Barnett); (2) "A Strange Sense of Disquietude: Understanding…

  11. Research on Combat Selection and Special Forces Manpower Problems - Status Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-01-01

    c6aftellAtits ,of’" reactions which appeared to have potential for differentiating the pooe from the adequate fighter--malingering, lack of social ... responsibility , an attit:le of martyrdom, unauiti whdrawal, hostiity fear of •i.>Xni :.iJury., uzeasiness over the unknown, psychotic-like reactions

  12. Score Calculation in Informatics Contests Using Multiple Criteria Decision Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2011-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiad is a problem solving contest for high school students. The work of each contestant is evaluated in terms of several criteria, where each criterion is measured according to its own scale (but the same scale for each contestant). Several jury members are involved in the evaluation. This paper analyses the problem…

  13. Anti-Bullying Practices in American Schools: Perspectives of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Yiping C.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2010-01-01

    A random sample of 213 school psychologists working in a school setting completed a survey on their schools' current anti-bullying practices. Talking with bullies following bullying incidents, disciplinary consequences for bullies, and increasing adult supervision were the three most frequently used strategies. Peer juries/court, an anti-bullying…

  14. Congress’s Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-24

    that prosecution of Anne Gorsuch Burford, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, was not required following implementation of an...House of Representatives against the Then-Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Anne Gorsuch Burford, Hearing before the House Committee...not to present to the grand jury the contempt citation of Environmental Protection Agency Administration Anne Gorsuch Burford.157 CRS-27 157

  15. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... likely to have such an effect when it refers to a civil matter triable to a jury, a criminal matter, or... performance or results of any forensic examination or test or the refusal or failure of a person to submit to... involved and, except when prohibited by law or regulation, the identity of the persons involved; (iv)...

  16. 32 CFR 776.45 - Extra-tribunal statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... likely to have such an effect when it refers to a civil matter triable to a jury, a criminal matter, or... performance or results of any forensic examination or test or the refusal or failure of a person to submit to... involved and, except when prohibited by law or regulation, the identity of the persons involved; (iv)...

  17. Balancing Act: First and Sixth Amendment Rights in High-Profile Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James H.

    2005-01-01

    We often hear that democracy is not a spectator sport. This is certainly true of trial by jury, a cornerstone of our democracy, which depends on the willingness of Americans from all walks of life to devote themselves to the difficult work of determining another person's guilt or innocence of a crime. But the work of those citizens selected to…

  18. Federal Rule of Evidence 412 and Military Rule of Evidence 412: Are They Serving Their Purpose?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    victim’s prior extramarital, premarital or unconventional sexual activity distracts the jury to such a degree that the victim becomes the person on...asking witness who cohabited with complainant a general narrative question about a babysitting incident in which victim allegedly failed to carry out her

  19. John Peter Zenger and the Freedom of the Press: 250th Anniversary, 1735-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Library, Albany.

    This booklet accompanies the New York State Library exhibit of material related to the trial of John Peter Zenger. This 1735 trial established the legal precedent giving juries the power to decide libel suits. Labeled "the germ of American freedom," the trial was an important step in the development of American concepts of free speech…

  20. Exercises for Keeping Pianists' Hands in Top Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Some pianists have idiosyncratic ways of keeping their hands and fingers relaxed. Glenn Gould, for example, religiously soaked his digits in hot water before performing or recording. While the jury is still out on the effectiveness of Gould's routine, there are plenty of other exercises and practices that will keep a pianist's fingers limber.…

  1. Blackboard Wins Payment from Competitor in Patent Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    A federal jury in Texas awarded Blackboard Inc. $3.1-million last month, saying that a smaller Canadian competitor, Desire2Learn Inc., had infringed Blackboard's patent for a system of delivering course materials online. The case has been closely watched by campus-technology officials, many of whom feared that a Blackboard win could stifle…

  2. College Students' Conceptualizations of Deficits Involved in Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musso, Mandi W.; Barker, Alyse A.; Proto, Daniel A.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the…

  3. Examination of Capital Murder Jurors' Deliberations: Methods and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Keith; Coleman, Susan; Byrd, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    The study of capital juries remains a subject of critical interest for the public and for legislative and judicial policy makers as well as legal scholars and social scientists. Cowan, Thompson, and Ellsworth established one of the standard methodologies for examination of this topic in their 1984 seminal study by observing the subjects' debate…

  4. 28 CFR 0.40 - General functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... civil proceedings, of the Federal antitrust laws and other laws relating to the protection of... possible violations of antitrust laws, conduct of grand jury proceedings, issuance and enforcement of civil investigative demands, civil actions to obtain orders and injunctions, civil actions to recover forfeitures...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(h)(2)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., board, division, or bureau of such department (for example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the... personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration); (ii) Officers and... in Federal grand jury proceeding, or in preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(h)(2)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., board, division, or bureau of such department (for example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the... personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration); (ii) Officers and... in Federal grand jury proceeding, or in preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1... grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of...

  9. MOOCs for High School: Unlocking Opportunities or Substandard Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    If 2012 was the year of the MOOC--massive open online course--then 2013 was the year the MOOC hype returned to Earth. Largely lost in the coverage in both years, however, was the impact MOOCs might have in high schools. Although the jury is still out on that question, high schools around the country are experimenting with adding MOOCs to their…

  10. 77 FR 60382 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... proceeding, or in connection with criminal law proceedings; (8) A grand jury pursuant either to a federal or... information may be relevant to a potential violation of civil or criminal law, rule, regulation, order, policy... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Act''), Public Law 111-203, Title X, established the CFPB...

  11. Journal of College Reading and Learning, Volume XVIII, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hear, Michael F., Ed.; Knowles, Ramona, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Drawn from the proceedings of the 1985 Western College Reading and Learning Association, as well as articles submitted for juried selection, the papers in this journal issue focus on reading, learning assistance, developmental education, and tutorial services at the college level. Titles and authors of the papers include (1) "Reaching New Heights:…

  12. Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jack A., Ed.

    The papers in this collection are the 15 best papers from the thirteenth International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. They represent a cross-section of nearly 300 presentations, selected by juried review from 40 submitted for consideration. The papers are: (1) The Use of Hybrid Type Educational Digital Entities in University…

  13. The Wasps in Court: Argument and Audience in the Athenian Dikasteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    In an attempt to explain why Aristotle devotes a substantial part of Book Two of "The Rhetoric" to methods for arousing jurors' emotions, despite stating previously that such emotional appeal is nonessential and unethical, this paper examines the nature of the Athenian jury courts, or dikasteries. It first discusses the historical…

  14. The 1983 National Teacher Examinations Core Battery Louisiana Validation Study: Final Report. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvue, Robert; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery for use in teacher certification in Louisiana. This information was produced to assist in the recommendation and establishment of a required score on the NTE. The jury judgment approach was used. Panels of faculty members were drawn from…

  15. HeinOnline: An Online Archive of Law Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marisa, Richard J.

    Law is grounded in the past, in the decisions and reasoning of generations of lawyers, judges, juries, and professors. Ready access to this history is vital to solid legal research, and yet, until 2000, much of it was buried in vast collections of aging paper journals. HeinOnline is a new online archive of law journals. Development of HeinOnline…

  16. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  17. WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO SELL FEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBRACHT, JAMES J.

    TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NECESSARY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NINE ESSENTIAL SALES ACTIVITIES IN THE FEED INDUSTRY, A JURY OF 24 FEED DEALERS, SALES TRAINING DIRECTORS, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCHERS, AND BUSINESS EDUCATION RESEARCHERS MADE "YES" AND "NO" DETERMINATIONS FOR 40 COMPETENCIES. THE NUMBER OF COMPETENCIES CONSIDERED…

  18. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  19. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  20. Out of Sight, Out of Mind/Out of Mind, Out of Site: Schooling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a diagnostic term now indelibly scored on the public psyche. In some quarters, a diagnosis of ADHD is regarded with derision. In others it is welcomed with relief. Despite intense multidisciplinary research, the jury is still out with regard to the "truth" of ADHD. Not surprisingly, the…

  1. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  2. The Effect of Using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on Developing English Majors' Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of using a Multiple Intelligences-Based Training Programme on developing first-year English majors' oral communication skills. Based on literature review and related studies, a list of 20 oral communication skills was prepared and displayed over a panel of jury members to select…

  3. The Authority of Truth: Religion and the John Peter Zenger Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    An appreciation of the religious milieu of the John Peter Zenger libel case of 1735 can help explain the nature of the Zenger defense as prepared by Alexander Hamilton, the meaning of the jury's verdict, and the ambiguous legacy of the trial for freedom of expression in the United States. In essence, the case was a disputation on "truth"…

  4. Cutting Edge Books: The Impact of Digital Books on Public Library Acquisitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The book has made the transition to the digital age; that much is certain. However, the jury is still out on what form or forms the book of the future will take and how libraries will adapt. This article is a look at the impact of digital books on public library acquisitions, including available formats, purchasing considerations, functional…

  5. Curriculum Materials for Teaching Students the Competencies Needed for Employment in Nonfarm Agricultural Business. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; And Others

    Developed by means of a research project, this teaching guide includes five instructional modules in which competencies for agribusiness occupations are stressed. These competencies were identified from a review of the literature and evaluated by a jury of teachers and agribusinessmen in terms of qualifications needed for entry-level employment.…

  6. An Empirical Study of Post-Branzburg Cases Involving Newsmen's Privilege.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Achal

    Nine years after the 1972 Supreme Court ruling in *Branzburg v. Hayes" that journalists enjoy no constitutional privilege to withhold the names of sources and to conceal information from grand jury proceedings, a study was conducted to determine the courts' attitudes toward journalists' privilege and to test commonly held beliefs about its…

  7. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  8. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  9. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  10. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  11. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  12. The Importance of Statistical Power in Educational Research. Occasional Paper 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.; Knapp, Thomas R.

    The testing of research hypotheses is directly comparable to the dichotomous decision-making of medical diagnosis or jury trials--not ill/ill, or innocent/guilty decisions. There are costs in both kinds of error, type I errors of falsely rejecting a null hypothesis or type II errors of falsely rejecting an alternative hypothesis. It is important…

  13. The Effectiveness of Guided Induction versus Deductive Instruction on the Development of Complex Spanish "Gustar" Structures: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Luis; Caras, Allison; Leow, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic research suggests an edge of explicit over implicit instruction for the development of complex L2 grammatical structures, but the jury is still out as to which type of explicit instruction--"deductive" or "inductive," where rules are respectively provided or elicited--proves more effective. Avoiding this…

  14. 32 CFR 516.75 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Policy. 516.75 Section 516.75 National Defense... LITIGATION Soldiers Summoned To Serve on State and Local Juries § 516.75 Policy. (a) Active duty soldiers... the Virgin Islands. (4) Active duty soldiers in a training status. (5) Active duty soldiers...

  15. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  16. Agreement Between Franklin Pierce College and Rindge Faculty Federation (AFT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn Pierce Coll., Rindge, NH.

    This agreement was made on October 15, 1974 and is effective until September 1, 1975. Articles of the agreement cover: board-federation relationships; academic freedom; library collection; management rights; jury duty; union leave; temporary department chairman; teaching loads; faculty evaluation; grievance procedures; faculty appointment and…

  17. A Guide for Developing Comprehensive Community College Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlo, Frank P.

    Heretofore community colleges have adopted the facility standards of high schools or other colleges, or have devised their own. To establish flexible specifications especially for the junior college, based on the educational program, architectural feasibility, safety, student and faculty use, and possible future needs, a 6-man jury prepared a…

  18. National Dam Inspection Program. Elk Lake Dam (NDI ID Number PA-01102, DER ID Number 64-4), Delaware River Basin, Elk Lake Run, Wayne County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    about 3 feet of the surface of the water." According to the PWSC, the lake was acquired circa 1898 by the Lake Lodore Improvement Company, along with...lake was in dispute. The dispute was apparently settled by jury trial in 1962. As described by the present Owner, the Lake Lodore Improvement Company

  19. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  20. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  1. Law School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Law School is a winner in the AS&U 1977 College & University Architectural Competition. The jury commented on the strong recognition of energy conservation and the skillful integration of the building with the existing campus. (Author/MLF)

  2. 6 CFR 5.41 - Purpose and scope; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proceedings before courts, commissions, boards (including the Board of Appellate Review), grand juries, or... Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a, Executive Order 12958 on national security information (3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 333), the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b, the...

  3. 6 CFR 5.41 - Purpose and scope; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proceedings before courts, commissions, boards (including the Board of Appellate Review), grand juries, or... Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. 552, the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a, Executive Order 12958 on national security information (3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 333), the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b, the...

  4. A Cognitive Semiotic Study of Students' Reading a Textless Image versus a Verbal Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Roaa Hasan; Aslaadi, Shatha

    2016-01-01

    This study explores fourth year college students' content retrieval from reading textless versus verbal images. Furthermore, it examines the extent to which the respondents comprehend and understand them. The procedures include selecting an image from the internet, designing a written test with its rubrics and exposing it to jury members to…

  5. Forcible Rape: A Manual for Filing and Trial Prosecutors. Prosecutors' Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Seattle, WA. Law and Justice Study Center.

    The report begins with a discussion of rape and its victims. It proceeds to more technical information about the filing, preliminary hearings and grand juries, plea bargaining, trial preparation, trial and sentencing information which is geared towards the prosecutor. Finally, the report concludes with appendices presenting sample forms for…

  6. Beyond the Schoolhouse Door: Educating the Political Animal in Jefferson's Little Republics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotts, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Jefferson believed that citizenship must exhibit republican virtue. While education was necessary in a republican polity, it alone was insufficient in sustaining a revolutionary civic spirit. This paper examines Jefferson's expectations for citizen virtue, specifically related to militia and jury service in his "little republics."…

  7. Kentucky's Unified Court of Justice. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Program Development.

    Resource materials and learning activities to help secondary students in Kentucky learn about their state's court system are provided. The guide begins by providing a history of the Kentucky Court of Justice. Discussed are the qualification of judges, the Retirement and Removal Commission, the Judicial Nominating Commission, and juries. Background…

  8. Child Support Enforcement: A Framework for Evaluating Costs, Benefits, and Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Locator Services Domain Indicator Measure Program and Operating costs of providing SPLS service per case Operating and other overhead costs publicO ...cost of pretrial hearings and court hearings (may include a trial by jury) and expert testimony costs, and (4) transportation costs for witnesses

  9. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  10. New Materials for the New School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farwick, Diane; Terrell-Perkins, Faye E.

    1986-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of law-related education materials for grades K through 12. The annotations are divided into the following categories: (1) elementary law-related education, (2) juries, (3) opposing viewpoints, (4) practical law, and (5) supplementing law-related education. (JDH)

  11. An Analysis of the Elements of Collaboration Associated with Top Collaborative Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    correct but require the group to agree on a preferred answer. Quadrant 3, Negotiate, includes cognitive conflict and mixed motive tasks. Cognitive ... conflict tasks revolve around conflicting viewpoints are often seen in jury-related decision-type tasks. Mixed-motive tasks include mixed motive

  12. Response to Professor Sacken.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Mary Catherine

    1989-01-01

    Disagrees with Professor Donal M. Sacken's contention in Spring 1988 "Journal of Law and Education" that "Eckman" decision resulted in loss of school district autonomy. Agrees with jury that school board's dismissal of unmarried teacher, who became pregnant as a result of rape and chose to bear the child and raise him, was…

  13. Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Operations: Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    columns to eliminate photodegradation processes). Controlled tension (vacuum) was applied equally at the bottom of each soil column across the controlled...Environmental Science and Engineering; Gainesville, FL. (32) Ghodrati, M. and W.A. Jury. 1990. A field study using dyes to characterize preferential flow

  14. From Theory to Data: The Process of Refining Learning Progressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Nicole A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2013-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs) are theoretical models of how learners develop expertise in a domain over extended periods of time. Recent policy reports have touted LPs as a promising approach to aligning standards, curriculum, and assessment. However, the scholarship on LPs is relatively sparse, and the jury is still out on the theoretical and…

  15. A Study to Determine Competencies Needed by ABE/APL Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocker, Donald W.; Spear, George E.

    The research was conducted to identify competencies appropriate for adult basic education (ABE) teachers who use the adult performance level (APL) approach, and to determine which are critical for ABE/APL teachers. A jury of APL authorities was impaneled to: (1) validate that all ABE competencies established by Mocker in 1974 were appropriate for…

  16. 42 CFR 137.309 - How are NEPA and NHPA obligations typically enforced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may only be filed in Federal court under the provisions of the APA, 5 U.S.C. 701-706. Under the APA, a... the court's views for those of the agency. Jury trials and civil discovery are not permitted in APA... injunctive relief to the interested party. No money damages or fines are permitted in APA proceedings....

  17. Student Speech--The First Amendment and Qualified Immunity Under 42 U.S.C. Section 983: Conduct Implications for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araux, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the conduct implications of qualified immunity in allegations of deprivation of civil rights by public school administrators regarding the First Amendment-student speech. Methodology: Data were collected using the LexisNexis and JuriSearch online legal research systems, which…

  18. The Communitarian Function of Court-Martial Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    participation itself has inherent value. In Balzac v. Porto Rico,𔄂 1 the Court held that "(t)he jury system postulates a conscious duty of participation...One of the issues in Balzac was whether the Sixth Amendment right to ajury trial applied to those criminal prosecutions occurring in a territory

  19. Global Research in an Age of Export Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    When a jury convicted a Tennessee professor this month of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and a trip to China, it sent a message to colleges that they need to scrupulously monitor their faculty members' research and their compliance with the often confusing universe of export-control regulations. In…

  20. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  1. iMAGiNE! YELLOWSTONE: Art Education and the Reinhabitation of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Doug; Cowan, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes an art education program that connects children and youth to the historical and contemporary issues associated with Yellowstone National Park. Originally conceived as a one-year celebration, the project has grown into a juried exhibit showcasing student art and writing which responds to Yellowstone resource themes and issues. (MJP)

  2. 32 CFR 144.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 144.5 Section 144.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.5 Responsibilities. The Secretaries...

  3. Litigating Grades: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    2005-01-01

    This account of an academic lawsuit qualifies as a horror story. A mediocre minority student abuses civil rights and ADA protections to win a massive monetary award against his school on the flimsiest of evidence. Jaded lawyers for the state university represent powerless faculty defendants in court, torpidly allowing the jury to throw 50 years of…

  4. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  5. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  6. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  7. 42 CFR 137.311 - Are Self-Governance Tribes entitled to determine the nature and scope of the limited immunity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the nature and scope of the limited immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? 137... immunity waiver required under section 509(a)(2) of the Act ? (a) Yes, Section 509(a)(2) of the Act only... trial by jury or civil discovery, or to waive immunity for money damages, attorneys fees, or fines....

  8. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  9. Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

  10. Fait A La Main: A Source Book of Louisiana Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Maida, Ed.

    The Louisiana Crafts Program is an economic development program that strives to stimulate several markets for Louisiana craftsmen. This publication is a directory of juried Louisiana craftsmen of various types; it is intended as a source book for anyone interested in handmade crafts. It is divided into two sections: "Folk Craftsmen" and…

  11. The Florida High School Mock Trial Competition Case Materials, 1997. State of Florida v. Lee Appleman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Law Related Education Association, Tallahassee.

    This material provides students with information to prepare for a mock trial. The defendant in this case has been accused of the crime of driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages causing severe bodily injury. Case materials include stipulated facts, jury instructions, depositions, and other related materials. (EH)

  12. A Report on a Survey of Artists/Craftspersons' Attitudes Toward Competitive Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Robert L.; Arch, Adria B.

    Results of a survey to determine the attitudes of artists and craftspersons toward entering competitive juried exhibitions are reported. Questionnaires were sent to people entering the national Copper, Brass, and Bronze Exhibition for 1977 along with notices of acceptance or rejection. One hundred-ninety artists (38%) responded. The questionnaire…

  13. Adapted Verbal Feedback, Instructor Interaction and Student Emotions in the Landscape Architecture Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl A.; Boyer, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    In light of concerns with architectural students' emotional jeopardy during traditional desk and final-jury critiques, the authors pursue alternative approaches intended to provide more supportive and mentoring verbal assessment in landscape architecture studios. In addition to traditional studio-based critiques throughout a semester, we provide…

  14. By Unanimous Decision? A Second Look at Consensus in the Film Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Erwin; Popik, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    This article reports analyses of the verdicts of various film organizations that annually present awards to motion pictures and investigates whether they award/nominate the same movies in a given year. This research disputes previous findings that reported a high level of agreement between those juries, by the means of reliability analysis and the…

  15. Reading the Riot Act: Rhetoric, Psychology, and Counter-Revolutionary Discourse in Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In 1786, backcountry Massachusetts farmers, fed up with government policies favoring aristocratic elites, marched on courts to bar the entry of judges and juries. Enacting a long-standing tradition known to colonists as a "Regulation," the farmers' movement became known as Shays's Rebellion. Erupting in the turbulent days following the…

  16. Remembering Amadou Diallo: The Response of the New Teachers Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, S. Maxwell; Murphy, Maureen; Singer, Alan; Stacki, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes email excerpts of teachers' views about racial violence stimulated by the remembrance of a February 2002 jury verdict wherein four white New City police officers were acquitted of the wrongful death of Amadou Diallo, a black African immigrant. The exchanges occurred among members of the Hofstra University New Teachers Network. (PKP)

  17. An Application of the Poisson Race Model to Confidence Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    In tasks as diverse as stock market predictions and jury deliberations, a person's feelings of confidence in the appropriateness of different choices often impact that person's final choice. The current study examines the mathematical modeling of confidence calibration in a simple dual-choice task. Experiments are motivated by an accumulator…

  18. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  19. Employing a Mock Trial in a Criminology Course: An Applied Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepelak, Norma J.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a criminology class exercise that consisted of staging a mock trial using the murders from Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood" as source material. Students research the case and role play various lawyers, jury members, and witnesses. Identifies and discusses four educational objectives attainable through the staging of mock trials. (MJP)

  20. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  1. The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.

    Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…

  2. 41 CFR 105-60.601 - Purpose and scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the General Services Administration in response to subpoenas or similar demands issued in judicial or... instructions applies to responses to subpoenas or demands issued by the Congress or in Federal grand jury... by Present or Former General Services Administration Employees in Response to Subpoenas or...

  3. 41 CFR 105-60.602 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Services Administration Employees in Response to Subpoenas or Similar Demands in Judicial or... because of that person's official status. (c) Demand means any subpoena, order, or similar demand for the... subpoenas or demands in Federal grand jury proceedings, and served upon a present or former GSA employee....

  4. 32 CFR 144.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.3 Definitions. (a) Armed Forces. The Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps. (b) State. Includes the 50 United States, U.S... Forces. Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral...

  5. Effects of an Evidence-Based Text on Scepticism, Methodological Reasoning, Values and Juror Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshowitz, Barry; Okun, Morris

    2011-01-01

    Research in social cognition laboratories and in simulated legal settings demonstrates that people often do not understand the statistical properties of evidence and are unable to detect scientifically flawed studies. In a mock jury study, we examined the effects of an evidence-based transcript on scepticism towards evidence obtained in flawed…

  6. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases. PMID:24072981

  7. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH2PO4) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH2PO4. The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH2PO4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH2PO4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH2PO4. Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH2PO4, intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH2PO4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH2PO4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  8. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  9. The mito-DAMP cardiolipin blocks IL-10 production causing persistent inflammation during bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chen, Bill B; Morse, Christina; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Khare, Anupriya; Oriss, Timothy B; Huff, Rachael; Lee, Janet S; St Croix, Claudette M; Watkins, Simon; Mallampalli, Rama K; Kagan, Valerian E; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial pneumonia is a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Failure to resolve inflammation after infection precipitates lung injury and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are common in pneumonia and increased levels of the mito-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) cardiolipin can be detected in the lungs. Here we show that mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae develop lung injury with accumulation of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin inhibits resolution of inflammation by suppressing production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by lung CD11b(+)Ly6G(int)Ly6C(lo)F4/80(+) cells. Cardiolipin induces PPARγ SUMOylation, which causes recruitment of a repressive NCOR/HDAC3 complex to the IL-10 promoter, but not the TNF promoter, thereby tipping the balance towards inflammation rather than resolution. Inhibition of HDAC activity by sodium butyrate enhances recruitment of acetylated histone 3 to the IL-10 promoter and increases the concentration of IL-10 in the lungs. These findings identify a mechanism of persistent inflammation during pneumonia and indicate the potential of HDAC inhibition as a therapy.

  10. Immunosuppressive MDSCs induced by TLR signaling during infection and role in resolution of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anuradha; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Ray, Prabir

    2013-01-01

    Ligand-mediated activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) not only induces inflammation but also immune suppression, which is an emerging area of investigation. Multiple negative feedback intracellular mechanisms have been described that are brought into play to prevent uncontrolled TLR activation. However, the identification of TLR-induced regulatory myeloid cells is a relatively recent development that has ramifications in pathogen-induced disease state as well as in cancer. Our efforts to understand how a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand of TLR4, suppresses allergic airway inflammation led to the identification of myeloid cells that are CD11b+Griint(Ly6Gint)F4/80+ and are phenotypically and morphologically similar to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) which are best studied in the context of cancer. MDSCs have been also detected during infection by various bacteria, parasites and viruses, which can engage different TLRs. These TLR-induced myeloid cells produce different types of mediators to influence immune response and inflammation that can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. One beneficial function of TLR4/MyD88-triggered MDSCs in the lung is to efferocytose apoptotic neutrophils to help resolve inflammation elicited during bacterial pneumonia. A better understanding of the generation and function of these regulatory cells would be helpful to harness their potential or suppress their function for disease-specific immune regulation. PMID:24066282

  11. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  12. Audibility of locomotive horns inside highway vehicles near highway-railroad grade crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randorff, Jack E.

    2003-10-01

    Most states require that motorists yield the right-of-way to locomotives and their consists at highway-railroad grade crossings. One method of alerting motorists to the proximity of a train is to sound an audible warning using an air horn. In litigation, the effectiveness of a locomotive's air horn to alert the driver of a vehicle can be a crucial element that allows a jury to determine liability and award financial penalties. Locomotive air horn signal strength, acoustic propagation over distance, excess attenuation, sound isolation of vehicle shells, ambient sound level masking, signal detection ratios, and driver distraction must be considered, measured, and evaluated before the audibility of the air horn can be surmised from the driver's perspective. The final evaluation must then be presented to a jury through the process of direct and cross examination. Several case examples are discussed relating to this process.

  13. I like me if you like me: on the interpersonal modulation and regulation of preadolescents' state self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly judged by a jury consisting of popular and unpopular peers. Participants randomly received negative, neutral, or positive feedback from the jury. Next, they could examine the feedback that each individual judge gave them. As expected, peer disapproval decreased self-esteem, especially in children high in narcissism. In contrast, peer approval increased self-esteem. Moreover, disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges. These findings support sociometer theory.

  14. A mock juror investigation of blame attribution in the punishment of hate crime perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Clark, John W; Kehn, Andre; Burks, Alixandra C; Wechsler, Hayley J

    2014-01-01

    We examined blame attribution as a moderator of perceptions of hate crimes against gay, African American, and transgender victims. Participants were 510 Texas jury panel members. Results of vignette-based crime scenarios showed that victim blame displayed significant negative, and perpetrator blame significant positive, effects on sentencing recommendations. Also as hypothesized, victim and perpetrator blame moderated the effect of support for hate crime legislation. Interaction patterns suggested that both types of blame attribution influence sentencing recommendations, but only for participants disagreeing with hate crime legislation. Three-way interactions with victim type also emerged, indicating that the effects of both types of blame attribution show particular influences when the victim is gay, as opposed to transgender or African American. Implications for attribution theory, hate crime policy, and jury selection are discussed.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato grey mould disease agent Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Emine Mine; Kurt, Sener; Soylu, Soner

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants, which belong to the Lamiacea family such as origanum (Origanum syriacum L. var. bevanii), lavender (Lavandula stoechas L. var. stoechas) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), were investigated against B. cinerea. Contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. A volatile vapour of origanum oil at 0.2 μg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of lavender and rosemary was, however, observed at 1.6 μg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, origanum oil at 12.8 μg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea completely. Essential oils of rosemary and lavender were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (25.6 μg/ml). Spore germination and germ tube elongation were also inhibited by the essential oils tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the essential oils cause considerable morphological degenerations of the fungal hyphae such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, hyphal shrivelling and protoplast leakage and loss of conidiation. In vivo assays with the origanum essential oil, being the most efficient essential oil, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants resulted in good protection against grey mould severity especially as a curative treatment. This study has demonstrated that the essential oils are potential and

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 1, January-February 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-13

    countries, causing them huge financial financial resources. No less obvious also is the fact that losses. The profit and dividends which the TNC are the role...interest and dividends of $30 billion (21). national economic complex in the true meaning of this Thus in the 1970s the main states of this group had word...See REVUE ALGERIENNE DES SCIENCES JURI- owned corporations which figure in the lists of the DIQUES, ECONOMIQUES ET POLITIQUES No 4, biggest companies

  17. Environmental Impact to the Chemical Signature Emanating from Buried Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    from soil moisture content and precipitation/evaporation. The Behavior Assessment Model was modified for the case of buried chemicals (Jury et al...indicates that a Landmuir or Freundlich model probably better represents the sorption isotherm than a linear one. When fitted to a Freundlich , the DNT data...water partition coefficient must be modeled with a Freundlich isotherm rather than a linear one, and the soil- water partition coefficient must be

  18. The International Criminal Court as a Component of U.S. National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    Congress further objected to the ICC as not allowing for basic rights guaranteed U.S. citizens, including the right to a trial by jury.52 As well...Publishers 2005). 22 domestic courts exercising jurisdiction and conducting a trial . The United States favors national courts as the answer to this...mechanisms mitigate those possibilities. The review and oversight performed by the ICC Pre- Trial Chamber (PTC) diminishes the possibility of such an

  19. Evaluation and Treatment of Nuclear Casualties. Part 3. Management of Combined Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    drugs , beginning at 24 hours and penetrating wounds are all creased toxicity and sensitivity of postirradiation and continuing for significant causes...of abdominal in- compromised patients to .umerous 21 days. jury. Most of the research in this drugs . For example it states: "the The United States...Army plans to area has been performed by Soviet narcotic effects of barbiturates de- field a radioprotective drug within investigators. In one of those

  20. Robust Stability and Performance for Linear Systems with Structured and Unstructured Uncertainties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Pick Problem in Circuit and System Theory ," Circuir Theory and Appl., vol. 9, pp. 177-187, 1981. [59] E.I. Jury, "Inners and Stability of Dynamic Systems...unstructured uncertainty has been receiving attention much longer and has produced many interesting results, notably the H. theory and the LQG/LTR theory ...stability 6 robustness. It wilL be shown that the aforementioned synthesis task is closely related to singular perturbation theory . The next result

  1. Physicist falls foul of US export law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A retired US plasma physicist is seeking to overturn his conviction last month of offences under the American Arms Export Control Act, which prohibits the export, without a government licence, of technology and data to foreign nationals or nations. A jury in Knoxville, Tennessee, found JReece Roth, 70, guilty of illegally exporting technical information about a military project to develop plasma technology for guiding spyplanes that operate as weapons or surveillance devices.

  2. A Ticking Time Bomb: Counterterrorism Lessons From the U.S. Government’s Failure to Prevent the Fort Hood Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-03

    adequate coord inat ion across federal, state , and local juri sdictions 10 counter the evolving homegrown terrorist threat. The United States must also...September II , 200 I terrori st attacks. I n the past year alone the United States has seen affluenl suburban Americans and the progeny of hard-work ing... policies . State and local governments have the greatest knowledge of thei r communities by vi rtue of community policing and the provis ion of local

  3. Present State Iof Holography In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masane; Hayashi, Yuzo; Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-07-01

    In 1948,Dr. Dennis Gabor introduced the theory of holography as "the optical recording of the object wave formed by the resulting interference pattern of two mutually coherent, component light beams." Through the studies of enumerous practical applications, the theory of holography was further advanced to be used in conjunction with the laser beam to better serve a more practical minded industry. Such developments were introduced and engineered by Dr. Emmett Leith and Dr. Juris Upatnieks in 1962.

  4. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Party Administration (Editorial; THE GRENADIAN VOICE, 1 Juri 85-)’........... 118 MEXICO Business Openings Seen in U.S. Sanctions Against...dollars generated by the Rosario Dominicana are being sold for a better price. The 2,329,600,000 pesos of fiscal revenues includes 114 million pesos...toreign currencies, just like the foreign debt. The table shows that if the free market exchange rate is 3.20, 3.25 and 3.30 pesos, total fiscal

  5. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    equal to pay court costs, which shall include jury fees and expenses, court reporter fees, and reasonable per diem for the prosecuting attorneys for the...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED L.. Notoriety For Profit Legislation THE SIS /IY~fA§W/ / 6. PERFORMING O-4G. REPORT NUMBER * .AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR...I NOV GS IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ("~en Dae. Entered) NOTORIETY FOR PROFIT LEGISLATION Author: David Alan Hazelip Captain

  6. Proceedings of the Pacific Conference on Operations Research, Held April 23-28, 1979, Seoul, Korea. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    Ui Chong Choe. Dr. Man Suk Song, Mr. lice Myon Kwon, Mr. Kil Ito Chung, Prof. lyung Jae Oh, Mr. In Soo Kang, and Mr. Juri Toomepuu, whose selfless...the Nigerian Army Signal Training School ... ............. .... 571 Taiwo Abodunde and 0. Fayomi 6. A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Evaluating...Defns. & Initial Values ~~es Base Flow Vectors Transformation, Modulation, Delay, and Cycles Matrices Report Heading & Reporting Freq. Model Run

  7. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  8. Could the gunshot be heard?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Witnesses, friends and family of a man chased through a field by the police, said they heard gunshots. The man chased says that the police shot at him. The police say that no shots were fired. Could the witnesses have heard the gunshots? The main technical issues are source strength and directivity, weather effects on sound propagation, attenuation by forests, sound transmissions through walls, and signal detectability. This paper lays out the material much as the jury heard it.

  9. Alcohol in Head-Injured Aircrew Evaluated by the Aeromedical Consult Service, 1982-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    Intoxication 15 Frequency of Alcohol Use Screening 16 Alcohol Treatment Program Referrals 16 Screening Recommendations 17 HEAD IN JURIES 18 Traumatic...46 xi BASELINE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION 47 ALCOHOL USE AT THE TIME OF INJURY 48 Frequency of Alcohol Assessment by Date of Evaluation 49 BLOOD ALCOHOL... frequency /amount survey had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 82% for identifying individuals with alcohol dependence. In the same study, the

  10. Use of Tourniquets and their Effects on Limb Function in the Modern Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    hemorrhage. Perhaps genetics may affect tolerance to tourniquet ischemia -reperfusion, which is also widely variable. Also, environmental factors, such as...hemorrhage control possibly shortening ischemia time, one factor in decreasing tourniquet risk. Successful placement of a pressure dressing was common...jury medical history or peripheral vascular status of the casualty may be unknown. The ischemia -reperfusion effects on the injured limb caused by

  11. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  12. Winning the War by Winning the Peace: Strategy for Conflict and Post-Conflict in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Bosnia, Sierra Leone , Congo, and Haiti, as well as upcoming ones like Sudan, such interventions are overwhelming our national security apparatus. Unless...civilian counterparts is not a long-termstrategy for success." Mr. Jaque Grinberg . The UN, according to Mr. Grinberg , "has a crucial role to play in...leaders, a changing regional dynamic, and international commitment. Mr. Grinberg concludes, nonetheless, that "the jury is still out." The UN presence has

  13. Characterization of honey amino acid profiles using high-pressure liquid chromatography to control authenticity.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Giroud, B; Albert, M; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2004-03-01

    Amino acid analysis of honey by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used first to discriminate different botanical origins and then to combat adulteration. Pure honeys of seven selected floral varieties were examined. A principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on the results after selection of the most discriminating parameters. Lavender honeys were thus perfectly characterized, but complete satisfaction was not obtained with the six other varieties. This method (analysis by HPLC and statistical processing by PCA) enabled us to detect the addition of sugar syrup to rape and fir honeys.

  14. Preliminary study of Lake Pontchartrain and vicinity using remotely sensed data from the ERTS-A satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, J. U. (Principal Investigator); Smalley, A. E.; Faller, K. H.; Irvin, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the summer of 1972, huge mats of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) appeared on Lake Pontchartrain, a shallow estuary in southeastern Louisiana. In color infrared photography, duckweeds show a characteristic light lavender color, unlike algal mats or water hyacinth, as observed in low level aerial photography. Although at least five species are present in the area, most water coverage is by Lemna minor and Spirodela oligorrhiza. ERTS-1 imagery shows many areas of bayous, swamps, and marginal waters of Lake Pontchartrain covered with duckweeds. Subsequent passes show a seasonal decreases in duckweeds.

  15. Raman and infrared spectroscopic study of turquoise minerals.

    PubMed

    Čejka, Jiří; Sejkora, Jiří; Macek, Ivo; Malíková, Radana; Wang, Lina; Scholz, Ricardo; Xi, Yunfei; Frost, Ray L

    2015-10-05

    Raman and infrared spectra of three well-defined turquoise samples, CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O, from Lavender Pit, Bisbee, Cochise county, Arizona; Kouroudaiko mine, Faleme river, Senegal and Lynch Station, Virginia were studied, interpreted and compared. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of phosphate tetrahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. Approximate O-H⋯O hydrogen bond lengths were inferred from the Raman and infrared spectra. No Raman and infrared bands attributable to the stretching and bending vibrations of (PO3OH)(2-) units were observed.

  16. Raman and infrared spectroscopic study of turquoise minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čejka, Jiří; Sejkora, Jiří; Macek, Ivo; Malíková, Radana; Wang, Lina; Scholz, Ricardo; Xi, Yunfei; Frost, Ray L.

    2015-10-01

    Raman and infrared spectra of three well-defined turquoise samples, CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O, from Lavender Pit, Bisbee, Cochise county, Arizona; Kouroudaiko mine, Faleme river, Senegal and Lynch Station, Virginia were studied, interpreted and compared. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of phosphate tetrahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. Approximate O-H⋯O hydrogen bond lengths were inferred from the Raman and infrared spectra. No Raman and infrared bands attributable to the stretching and bending vibrations of (PO3OH)2- units were observed.

  17. Health care providers and facilities: medical malpractice and tort reform--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Andrew

    2005-12-31

    As health care professionals continue to feel the crunch of rising malpractice insurance rates and increased jury awards, medical malpractice remains a priority for acute care professionals. Medical associations claim that rapidly increasing premiums and the declining number of insurers often lead physicians to stop practicing medicine or to relocate. This may lead to a shortage of physicians, particularly physicians who practice high-risk specialties such as neurology. The pressure to retain an adequate supply of health care professionals is particularly acute in rural areas. It is difficult to pinpoint the origins of the escalating cost of medical malpractice coverage. Insurers and physicians claim excessive litigation and overly generous jury awards have hardened the market. Trial lawyers and consumer advocacy groups assert insurance premium rates have not reflected increasing medical inflation or the payouts of jury awards during the last 30 years. The majority of states have some form of basic coverage requirement that medical malpractice insurers must offer. However, because of the complexities and variety of coverage plans, physicians often are unaware that gaps in coverage exist. As of May 2005, the American Medical Association (AMA) has declared a state

  18. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  19. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts.

  20. Innocent until Primed: Mock Jurors' Racially Biased Response to the Presumption of Innocence

    PubMed Central

    Young, Danielle M.; Levinson, Justin D.; Sinnett, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Research has shown that crime concepts can activate attentional bias to Black faces. This study investigates the possibility that some legal concepts hold similar implicit racial cues. Presumption of innocence instructions, a core legal principle specifically designed to eliminate bias, may instead serve as an implicit racial cue resulting in attentional bias. Methodology/Principal findings The experiment was conducted in a courtroom with participants seated in the jury box. Participants first watched a video of a federal judge reading jury instructions that contained presumption of innocence instructions, or matched length alternative instructions. Immediately following this video a dot-probe task was administered to assess the priming effect of the jury instructions. Presumption of innocence instructions, but not the alternative instructions, led to significantly faster response times to Black faces when compared with White faces. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the core principle designed to ensure fairness in the legal system actually primes attention for Black faces, indicating that this supposedly fundamental protection could trigger racial stereotypes. PMID:24643050

  1. Intelligent Systems Approaches to Product Sound Quality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietila, Glenn M.

    As a product market becomes more competitive, consumers become more discriminating in the way in which they differentiate between engineered products. The consumer often makes a purchasing decision based on the sound emitted from the product during operation by using the sound to judge quality or annoyance. Therefore, in recent years, many sound quality analysis tools have been developed to evaluate the consumer preference as it relates to a product sound and to quantify this preference based on objective measurements. This understanding can be used to direct a product design process in order to help differentiate the product from competitive products or to establish an impression on consumers regarding a product's quality or robustness. The sound quality process is typically a statistical tool that is used to model subjective preference, or merit score, based on objective measurements, or metrics. In this way, new product developments can be evaluated in an objective manner without the laborious process of gathering a sample population of consumers for subjective studies each time. The most common model used today is the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), although recently non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches are gaining popularity. This dissertation will review publicly available published literature and present additional intelligent systems approaches that can be used to improve on the current sound quality process. The focus of this work is to address shortcomings in the current paired comparison approach to sound quality analysis. This research will propose a framework for an adaptive jury analysis approach as an alternative to the current Bradley-Terry model. The adaptive jury framework uses statistical hypothesis testing to focus on sound pairings that are most interesting and is expected to address some of the restrictions required by the Bradley-Terry model. It will also provide a more amicable framework for an intelligent systems approach

  2. Role of expectations and pleasantness of essential oils in their acute effects.

    PubMed

    Köteles, F; Babulka, P

    2014-09-01

    Effects of inhaled essential oils (EOs) cannot be explained by pharmacological mechanisms alone. The study aimed to investigate the effects of pleasantness of and expectancies evoked by EOs. A double-blind experiment with a within-subject design was carried out with the participation of 33 volunteering adults (15.2% male; mean age 37.7 ± 10.90 years). Participants were exposed to three EOs (rosemary, lavender, and eucalyptus) for three minutes in a quasi-random order, expectations were simply assessed prior to exposure. Subjective (perceived) changes in alertness, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP), and objective changes in HR, BP, and indices of heart rate variability were recorded. Significant group-level differences in changes in alertness and no differences for the cardiovascular variables were found. Participants' expectations predicted changes in alertness in the case of rosemary and lavender oils but had no impact on cardiovascular variables. EOs' pleasantness had no effect on any assessed variable. Perceived changes in BP and HR were not related to the respective objective changes but were connected to perceived changes in alertness. Expectancies play an important role in the subjective effects of inhaled EOs. Perceived subjective changes are used to estimate changes in non-conscious (e.g., visceral) states.

  3. Growth inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565 by four essential oils.

    PubMed

    Cvek, Domagoj; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Landeka Dragicević, Tibela; Majica, Matea; Delas, Frane

    2010-06-01

    Fungi produce a large variety of extracellular proteins, organic acids, and other metabolites and can adapt to several environmental conditions. Mycotoxin-producing moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are common food contaminants. One of the natural ways to protect food from mould contamination is to use essential oils. In this study, we evaluated the effect of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender, rosemary, and sage at 1 % (v/v) concentration in yeast media inoculated with spores (final concentration 106 mL-1 media) of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565, alone or in combination, on fungal biomass. Cinnamon showed the best inhibitory effect (100 %). Lavender oil best inhibited the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus (nearly 100 %), and was less successful with Penicillium expansum (having dropped to 57 % on day 28). With cultivation time the inhibitory effect of sage and rosemary oil grew for Aspergillus ochraceus and dropped for Penicillium expansum.These results suggest that fungi can be controlled with essential oils, especially with cinnamon oil.

  4. The Effects of Inhalation Aromatherapy on Anxiety in Patients With Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481

  5. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  6. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsukasa; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception.

  7. The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula

    PubMed Central

    Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

    2013-01-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 μm and 0.1 s−1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

  8. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B.; Barbosa, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  9. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.

    PubMed

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  10. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R; Beckius, Miriam L; Floyd, Karon L; Horvath, Lynn L; Murray, Clinton K

    2006-01-01

    Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC) species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium. PMID:16390552

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  13. [Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.

  14. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  15. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  16. Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Jürgen; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20% and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1% additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Thosar, Nilima; Basak, Silpi; Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Rajurkar, Monali

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens and to find out the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of five essential oils against oral pathogens. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activities by detecting MIC and MBC/MFC of five essential oils such as tea tree oil, lavender oil, thyme oil, peppermint oil and eugenol oil were evaluated against four common oral pathogens by broth dilution method. The strains used for the study were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Results: Out of five essential oils, eugenol oil, peppermint oil, tea tree oil exhibited significant inhibitory effect with mean MIC of 0.62 ± 0.45, 9.00 ± 15.34, 17.12 ± 31.25 subsequently. Mean MBC/MFC for tea tree oil was 17.12 ± 31.25, for lavender oil 151.00 ± 241.82, for thyme oil 22.00 ± 12.00, for peppermint oil 9.75 ± 14.88 and for eugenol oil 0.62 ± 0.45. E. fecalis exhibited low degree of sensitivity compared with all essential oils. Conclusion: Peppermint, tea tree and thyme oil can act as an effective intracanal antiseptic solution against oral pathogens. PMID:24966732

  18. The biosynthetic origin of irregular monoterpenes in Lavandula: isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase gene, lavandulyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zerihun A; Erland, Lauren A E; Rheault, Mark R; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-03-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 μm and 0.1 s(-1), respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering.

  19. Technical note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2014-11-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued, not only about their contribution to the global methane budget, but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify in vivo formation of methane and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C-positionally labelled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labelled methionine clearly identified the sulphur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  20. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  1. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases.

  2. Technical Note: Methionine, a precursor of methane in living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, K.; Althoff, F.; Greule, M.; Keppler, F.

    2015-03-01

    When terrestrial plants were identified as producers of the greenhouse gas methane, much discussion and debate ensued not only about their contribution to the global methane budget but also with regard to the validity of the observation itself. Although the phenomenon has now become more accepted for both living and dead plants, the mechanism of methane formation in living plants remains to be elucidated and its precursor compounds to be identified. We made use of stable isotope techniques to verify the in vivo formation of methane, and, in order to identify the carbon precursor, 13C positionally labeled organic compounds were employed. Here we show that the amino acid L-methionine acts as a methane precursor in living plants. Employing 13C-labeled methionine clearly identified the sulfur-bound methyl group of methionine as a carbon precursor of methane released from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Furthermore, when lavender plants were stressed physically, methane release rates and the stable carbon isotope values of the emitted methane greatly increased. Our results provide additional support that plants possess a mechanism for methane production and suggest that methionine might play an important role in the formation of methane in living plants, particularly under stress conditions.

  3. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts.

  4. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation.

  5. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  6. Case for the establishment of a code of ethics to govern the frivolous use of forensic biomechanical testimony to resolve legal issues involving alleged work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Schneck, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    If the legal system is to be an effective means for resolving issues of medical causation, then it is imperative that scientific evidence be presented ethically, fairly, and objectively. This is especially true for cases involving alleged occupational illness and injury. In particular, for a number of years, the railroad industry has been plagued by such allegations, being forced to defend numerous baseless lawsuits claiming work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). These cases are litigated pursuant to the Federal Employers' Liability Act-a congressional act passed in 1908, long before today's workers' compensation statutes were enacted. Because the FELA has no compensatory damages cap, plaintiffs' lawyers, relying on the testimony of their expert witnesses, often roll the dice with poorly substantiated (or even unsubstantiated) scientific hypotheses, in hopes of convincing juries to award significant damages. Although good science does not support these causation hypotheses, all too often the science itself is not argued properly; or even worse, it is argued unethically (using junk science), such that juries are either deliberately misled or are certainly not provided with the information they need to make the right decisions. That is to say, expert witnesses are knowingly and unethically giving false (or at least naive) testimony on issues related to medical causation; and juries are being influenced by such testimony because of misleading presumptions of guilt unless innocence can be proven. In turn, these presumptions are derived from rather convincing default settings that are not challenged effectively, either in depositions or at trial. Contributing to this dilemma is the conspicuous absence of an enforceable code of ethics to govern the frivolous use of forensic biomechanical testimony in resolving legal issues involving alleged WMSDs.

  7. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  8. How lawyers view psychiatric experts.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H; Skip Simpson, J D

    2012-11-01

    Good lawyers look for integrity in their expert consultants and expert witnesses. They need truthful, accurate information to help them assess and frame cases, win or settle them favorably, and/or withdraw when the case has little merit. Experts should be well qualified to review, interpret, and eventually testify credibly about their portions of the case. They should be able to work with lawyers in the lawyers' own arenas (e.g., courts, hearings) and to convey their opinions to others, such as juries, clearly and without unnecessary distractions.

  9. Observational Studies on Association between Eastward Equatorial Jet and Indian Ocean Dipole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    School sponsored this re- search. References Chang, P., T. Yamagata, P. Schopf, S. K. Behera , J. Carton, W. S. Kessler, G. Meyers, T. Qu, F. Schott...J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 688–701. Rao, A. S., S. K. Behera , Y. Masumoto and T. Yamagata (2002): Interannual variability in the subsurface...T., S. K. Behera , J.-J. Luo, S. Masson, M. Jury and S. A. Rao (2004): Coupled ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Indian Ocean. p. 189–212

  10. Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-24

    considering charges against Assange. Justin Elliot , Assange grand jury report “purely speculation”, WAR ROOM (December 14, 2010), http://www.salon.com/news...i]f the offense is regarded by the requested State as a political offense or as an offense connected with a political offense.”). 118 Quinn v...Ireland, 60 MARQ. L. REV. 777, 780 (1977). 119 Quinn , 783 F.2d at 791 (internal citations omitted). 120 See, e.g., Quinn , 783 F.2d at 791 (citing

  11. The expert witness. Neither Frye nor Daubert solved the problem: what can be done?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H H

    2001-01-01

    Flawed expert scientific testimony has compromised truth finding in American litigation, including in medical malpractice and in product liability cases. The Federal Rules of Evidence and the Supreme Court in Daubert and other cases have established standards for testimony that include reliability and relevance, and established judges as gatekeepers. However, because of lack of understanding of scientific issues, judges have problems with this role, and juries have difficulties with scientific evidence. Professionals and the judiciary have made some advances, but a better system involving the court's use of neutral experts and a mechanism to hold experts accountable for improprieties is needed.

  12. Development of an Interactive Control Engineering Computer Analysis Package (ICECAP) for Discrete and Continuous Systems. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    and Full-State Feedback Controller Design via Pole-Placement Methods (3) 2.3.1.26 Z-Domain Stability Analysis (2) 2.3.1.26.1 Jury- Blanchard Test (2...0 0 C) tn EM- ’-I- raz E rzru I-iIV 0 4.1 0 02 Uz0 󈧭 $0 4 94a 00 E-4’ U 0LIII-4 C,0 M STRUCTURE CHARTS 0 H I 044 z 0 E-40 :0. 1.4 A-14 STRUCTURE...featuring AC analysis, transient analysis, DC, noise, sensitivity, driving point impedance, Fourier, temperature , distortion, transfer characteristics

  13. Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute?

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-02-01

    A recent decision in the United States by the New Jersey Supreme Court has led to improved jury instructions that incorporate psychological research showing that memory does not operate like a video recording. Here we consider how cognitive neuroscience could contribute to addressing memory in the courtroom. We discuss conditions in which neuroimaging can distinguish true and false memories in the laboratory and note reasons to be skeptical about its use in courtroom cases. We also discuss neuroscience research concerning false and imagined memories, misinformation effects and reconsolidation phenomena that may enhance understanding of why memory does not operate like a video recording.

  14. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  15. Perceptions of interpersonal versus intergroup violence: the case of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Droogendyk, Lisa; Wright, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The social identity approach makes a distinction between behavior motivated by intergroup versus interpersonal identities, which may be relevant to victim blaming in the case of rape. Using a mock jury paradigm, we examined the impact of defining rape as an act of interpersonal violence (personal assault) versus intergroup violence (a "hate crime"), crossed with a manipulation describing the attacker as either an acquaintance or stranger. Defining rape in intergroup terms led to less victim blame than when it was defined in interpersonal terms, and participants blamed the victim more when she was assaulted by an acquaintance than a stranger.

  16. Homicidal traumatic asphyxia associated with pebble impaction of the upper airway.

    PubMed

    Taff, M L; Boglioli, L R

    1992-09-01

    The news media tend to sensationalize murders involving multiple methods because of their inherent brutality. Similarly, when addressing a jury, prosecutors often emphasize the most grisly part of a murder to ensure a speedy conviction. This paper reports a case of a teenage boy who was murdered by the use of multiple methods of asphyxia. The methods of asphyxial death and the reconstruction of the sequence of events by the medical experts during the murder trial played an important role in the conviction and ultimate sentencing of the perpetrators.

  17. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society].

    PubMed

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R

    1997-01-01

    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  18. Do cranberries help prevent urinary tract infections?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janet

    Cranberries are widely used in the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and for those at risk of such infections. With the growing resistance to antibiotics, cranberries can be viewed as a useful non-pharmaceutical remedy (Lavender, 2000). The initial studies that looked at the effects of cranberries on urine showed that the excretion of hippuric acid from the berries helped the urine to remain acidic, which could explain why they could be used to treat and prevent infection (Harkin, 2000). Recent studies argue that cranberries prevent Escherichia coli (E. coli) from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the bladder (Howell and Foxman, 2002). Cranberries contain a group of compounds, called proanthocyanidins, which are condensed tannins (Gray, 2002; Lowe and Fagelman, 2001; Kuzminski, 1996). These are thought to be the key factors in inhibiting E. coli adherence.

  19. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  20. The use of aromasticks to help with sleep problems: A patient experience survey.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeannie; Cleary, Lise; McNeill, Sara; Ragsdale-Lowe, Maxine; Osland, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    To document the use of aromasticks to facilitate sleep in a cancer centre in the UK. Sleep disturbance is a common problem amongst patients diagnosed with cancer. Essential oils may be inhaled by means of an aromastick (a personal inhaler device containing essential oils) as a means of improving sleep. A prospective audit of aromasticks given to help facilitate sleep. Sixty-five aromasticks were given out over a 13 week period. 94% of patients reported that they did use their aromastick to help them sleep and 92% reported that they would continue to do so. An improvement of at least one point on a Likert scale measuring sleep quality was shown by 64% of patients following the use of an aromastick. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) and sandalwood (Santalum austrocaladonicum); and frankincense (Boswellia carterii), mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) were the essential oils used in the two blends chosen by patients.

  1. Microbiology and potential virulence of Sporothrix cyanescens, a fungus rarely isolated from blood and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, L; Harris, J L; Dixon, D M; Flis, A L; Salkin, I F; Kemna, M; Duncan, R A

    1990-01-01

    Sporothrix cyanescens has been recovered from blood and a finger lesion at several medical centers in the United States. The morphology and physiology of these and three additional isolates were studied. S. cyanescens was distinguished from S. schenckii and S. fungorum by white to lavender colonial pigmentation and from S. schenckii also by the formation of secondary conidia. All isolates of S. cyanescens grew well at 37 degrees C, were cycloheximide susceptible, strongly urease positive, and benomyl resistant, failed to hydrolyze starch, and were inhibited by sodium chloride in vitro at a concentration of greater than or equal to 12%. Study of S. cyanescens in a murine model by using intravenous inoculation failed to demonstrate an invasive pathogenic potential. The validity of the transfer of S. cyanescens to the new genus Cerinosterus Moore is discussed. Images PMID:2351719

  2. [Acquired methemoglobinemia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Benini, D; Vino, L; Fanos, V

    1998-01-01

    When an infant presents severe cyanosis which is not associated with respiratory distress, methaemoglobinemia should always be suspected. In children its main inducers are contaminated water or vegetable broths with high nitrate levels (especially spinach and carrots) used to prepare powdered formula or soups. Children affected with methaemoglobinemia have a peculiar lavender colour. Blood from the heel sticks is chocolate-brown and does not become pink when exposed to room air. Diagnosis can be confirmed by excluding other causes of cyanosis and by spectrophotometric analysis of blood for methaemoglobin. When methaemoglobin's levels reach 60% or more, the patient will collapse and become comatose and may die. Therapy with methylene blue results in prompt relief. In this article we report a case of methaemoglobinemia due to the administration of powdered formula mixed with vegetable broths to a newborn aged 16 days. Furthermore we will present a short review of literature regarding methaemoglobinemia caused by toxic agents over the last 10 years.

  3. Odour-induced analgesia mediated by hypothalamic orexin neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Ran; Ishikawa, Sodemi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Kajiya, Katsuko; Kanmura, Yuichi; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Kashiwadani, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Various folk remedies employ certain odorous compounds with analgesic effects. In fact, linalool, a monoterpene alcohol found in lavender extracts, has been found to attenuate pain responses via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and oral administration. However, the analgesic effects of odorous compounds mediated by olfaction have not been thoroughly examined. We performed behavioural pain tests under odourant vapour exposure in mice. Among six odourant molecules examined, linalool significantly increased the pain threshold and attenuated pain behaviours. Olfactory bulb or epithelium lesion removed these effects, indicating that olfactory sensory input triggered the effects. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that linalool activated hypothalamic orexin neurons, one of the key mediators for pain processing. Formalin tests in orexin neuron-ablated and orexin peptide-deficient mice showed orexinergic transmission was essential for linalool odour-induced analgesia. Together, these findings reveal central analgesic circuits triggered by olfactory input in the mammalian brain and support a potential therapeutic approach for treating pain with linalool odour stimulation. PMID:27845440

  4. Study of organic honey from the Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-06-27

    Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.

  5. "The Madness of the Carnival": Representations of Latin America and the Caribbean in the U.S. Homophile Press.

    PubMed

    Gleibman, Shlomo

    2017-01-17

    This essay examines representations of Latin America and the Caribbean in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. The 120 items in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder that referenced this region depicted Latin America and the Caribbean as different from the United States in a number of ways, in particular as more sexually repressive or more sexually liberal. These representations typically conformed to the general homophile movement tendency to challenge U.S. anti-homosexual campaigns during the "Lavender Scare," while arguing for acceptance based on rights claims. The representations also were based on Cold War, colonial, racist, nationalist, and imperialist frameworks. The essay argues that while the magazines generally affirmed the dominant homophile discourses of respectability and domesticity, they also challenged these discourses by presenting Latin American and Caribbean cultures as gender-nonconforming and sexually promiscuous.

  6. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  7. All-natural composite wound dressing films of essential oils encapsulated in sodium alginate with antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Scurr, David J; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2014-03-25

    We present natural polymeric composite films made of essential oils (EOs) dispersed in sodium alginate (NaAlg) matrix, with remarkable anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. Namely, elicriso italic, chamomile blue, cinnamon, lavender, tea tree, peppermint, eucalyptus, lemongrass and lemon oils were encapsulated in the films as potential active substances. Glycerol was used to induce plasticity and surfactants were added to improve the dispersion of EOs in the NaAlg matrix. The topography, chemical composition, mechanical properties, and humidity resistance of the films are presented analytically. Antimicrobial tests were conducted on films containing different percentages of EOs against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi, and the films were characterized as effective or not. Such diverse types of essential oil-fortified alginate films can find many applications mainly as disposable wound dressings but also in food packaging, medical device protection and disinfection, and indoor air quality improvement materials, to name a few.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-10-14

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  9. Odors enhance visual attention to congruent objects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Roidl, Ernst; Müller, Friedrich; Negoias, Simona

    2010-06-01

    Although it is well known that visual stimuli affect olfactory performance, little is known about the reverse case: the influence of odor on visual performance. This study aimed to determine whether odors can enhance attention towards visually presented objects congruent with the odors. Sixty healthy participants were presented with four odors (orange, lavender, coffee, and liquorice) before and during the presentation of photographic slides containing one congruent and three incongruent objects with the presented odors. The participants' visual attention was assessed as the total number and time of eye fixations by using an eye tracking system. When the participants smelled an odor, they looked more frequently and longer at a corresponding object as compared to the odorless condition. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time an olfactory priming effect on visual selective attention: odor can increase attention towards a congruent visual object as compared to a non-odor condition.

  10. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials.

  11. A large foodborne outbreak of norovirus in diners at a restaurant in England between January and February 2009.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; McCarthy, N; Saldana, L; Ihekweazu, C; McPhedran, K; Adak, G K; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Bickler, G; O'Moore, É

    2012-09-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected at least 240 persons who had eaten at a gourmet restaurant over a period of 7 weeks in 2009 in England. Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental studies were conducted. The case-control study demonstrated increased risk of illness in those who ate from a special 'tasting menu' and in particular an oyster, passion fruit jelly and lavender dish (odds ratio 7·0, 95% confidence interval 1·1-45·2). Ten diners and six staff members had laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection. Diners were infected with multiple norovirus strains belonging to genogroups I and II, a pattern characteristic of molluscan shellfish-associated outbreaks. The ongoing risk from dining at the restaurant may have been due to persistent contamination of the oyster supply alone or in combination with further spread via infected food handlers or the restaurant environment. Delayed notification of the outbreak to public health authorities may have contributed to outbreak size and duration.

  12. Impacts of a proposed nuclear waste facility on the night sky in Canyonlands National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Yocke, M.A.; Hogo, H.; Henderson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Systems Applications Inc. was retained by the National Park Service to study the potential impact of light pollution from the proposed repository sites in Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon. In this study night sky glow resulting from nightime operation of the proposed nuclear waste repository was calculated, and the potential for human perception of these effects was estimated. The study involved the following steps: development of a mathematical model of atmospheric optics to predict the nighttime sky-glow impacts of the proposed facility; verification of the model's prediction performance to the extent possible with existing data; Application of the model to the area surrounding the proposed facility, calculating results from several viewpoints within the park; (only the Upper Davis Canyon viewpoint is discussed in this paper). Estimation of the potential for human perception of the calculated night sky glow and the potential of the night sky glow to obscure starlight.

  13. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Jasmine absolute (Jasminum grandiflora L.) and its mode of action on guinea-pig ileum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S; Wan Hang Lo, B

    2002-08-01

    Jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum L.) is used in aromatherapy as a holistic treatment for apathy, hysteria, uterine disorders and childbirth, muscle relaxation and coughs. Its stimulant nature, on inhalation, has been shown both in animals and man. Jasmine has a spasmolytic activity on guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus in vitro. The mechanism of action of the spasmolytic activity, studied in vitro using a guinea-pig ileum smooth muscle preparation, was postsynaptic and not atropine-like. The spasmolytic effect of jasmine absolute was most likely to be mediated through cAMP, and not through cGMP. The mode of action in vitro resembled that of geranium, lavender and peppermint oils. The contradictory effect in vitro and in vivo is probably due to the solely physiological effects of jasmine absolute in vitro (producing a relaxation) compared with that in vivo, where it has a strong psychological input, producing a stimulant effect in man and enhanced movement in animals.

  15. Transdermal absorption of (-)-linalool induces autonomic deactivation but has no impact on ratings of well-being in humans.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Eva; Redhammer, Sandra; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2004-10-01

    Essential lavender oil has a long tradition as a mild sedative in herbal medicine. Relaxing effects after inhalation have also been demonstrated for one of its main constituents, (-)-linalool. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this monoterpenoid alcohol on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen saturation, breathing rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, surface electromyogram as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and assessments of subjective well-being. (-)-Linalool was applied to 14 healthy subjects by percutaneous administration. Inhalation of the fragrance was prevented by means of breathing masks. (-)-Linalool induced deactivation with respect to physiology, that is, a decrease of systolic blood pressure and a smaller decrease of skin temperature, compared to a corresponding control group receiving a placebo, but had no effects on subjective evaluation of well-being.

  16. On the mid-depth circulation in the Labrador and Irminger Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käse, R. H.; Biastoch, A.; Stammer, D. B.

    A numerical circulation model with 1/6° resolution and an accurate topography formulation explains details of the observed circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas that were recently revealed by Lavender et al. [2000]. We show that the recirculation pattern is established through a locally wind induced flow controlled by the bottom topography and enhanced through remote baroclinic forcing by the dense plume of Denmark Strait overflow water. The basic circulation is a robust feature in a hierarchy of model setups. It exists in the purely barotropic case driven by steady winds and is even maintained when realistic daily forcing is added. The narrow recirculation zone is manifested by a sea level depression spanning from the Denmark Strait across the Irminger into the Labrador Sea.

  17. STS-113 Endeavour rollout to Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A lavender, pink and yellow dawn sky silhouettes Space Shuttle Endeavour as it inches up the ramp toward the top of Launch Pad 39A. The Shuttle sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform and is transported by the crawler-transporter underneath. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  18. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    PubMed

    Lakusić, Branislava; Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Marcetić, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development.

  19. Composition and Variability of the Essential Oil of the Flowers of Lavandula stoechas from Various Geographical Sources.

    PubMed

    La Bella, Salvatore; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Potorti, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; D'Anna, Eleonora; Licata, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Samples of flowers of wild Lavandula stoechas L. spp. stoechas populations were collected in three areas of Sicily (Italy) and were characterized in agronomic and chemical terms. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses permitted identification of 89 compounds from the EO. The samples were separated into 3 groups using PCA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method, with reference to the chemical composition of the EO. All three Sicilian populations of lavender were identified as the fenchone chemotype with percentage content ranged between 52.8-71.1%. The population of Partinico showed the highest dry weight of flowers per plant (221.3 g), but the lowest EO yield (0.37%). The essential oils of the three wild Sicilian populations of L. stoechas L. spp. stoechas showed a greater chemical differentiation than those obtained from other Mediterranean areas.

  20. Orientational ordering and anisotropy in model polar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dongsheng; Singer, Sherwin J.

    1995-08-01

    Model polar clusters of Stockmayer (Lennard-Jones + point dipole) particles exhibit spontaneous breaking of orientational symmetry in a wide range of temperatures. The form of the orientational anisotropy best accommodates the tendency of polar particles to form chains of dipoles in head-to-tail arrangement. It persists through temperatures characteristic of solid-liquid coexistence for dipole strength μ*2=μ2/ɛσ3=1, and to about twice the range of solid-liquid coexistence temperatures for μ*2=3. These studies extend earlier work [H. B. Lavender, K. A. Iyer, and S. J. Singer, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 7856 (1994)] in which orientational order parameters for clusters are defined and the global orientational order was observed for much smaller clusters. In this work we also study orientational order with respect to the cluster liquid-vapor interface and find significant disagreement with density functional theory predictions.

  1. STS-113 Endeavour rollout to Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Against a lavender and pink dawn sky, Space Shuttle Endeavour inches up the ramp of Launch Pad 39A after its rollout from the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Shuttle sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform and is transported by the crawler-transporter underneath. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  2. STS-113 Endeavour rollout to Launch Complex 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Against a lavender and pink dawn sky, Space Shuttle Endeavour inches up the ramp of Launch Pad 39A after its rollout from the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Shuttle sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform and is transported by the crawler-transporter underneath. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on mission STS-113, the 16th assembly flight to the International Space Station. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth.

  3. Herbs as a food source in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Esiyok, Dursun; Otles, Semih; Akcicek, Eren

    2004-01-01

    Medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. Many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. These herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. The traditional Turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. The present paper provides a brief overview of some important herbs in the Turkish flora, including fennel, sage, rosemary, mallow, sweet basil, savory, chicory, nettle, thyme, flax, cumin, caper, coriander, milk thistle, spanish lavender, marjoram, dandelion, rocket, purslane, spanish salsify, amaranthus, wild radish, and wild mustard. Studies on these herbs have revealed that they contain powerful active components that might be effective for increasing human health and preventing cancer.

  4. [A review on pharmic effect of chicory research and development].

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanzhen; Cui, Jian

    2009-09-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L) is a bushy perennial herb with blue, lavender, or occasionally white flowers. It grows as a wild plant on roadsides in its native Europe, and in North America, where it has become naturalized. Common chicory is also known as blue sailors, succory, and coffeeweed. Chicory contains saccharides, organic acid, alkaloid, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, and so on. It has a function of lowering the blood glucose and lipid, decreasing uric acid, and hepatoprotection. Therefore, it is evacuant and appetitive with better cardiovascular effect. Furthermore, it can be sorbefacient calcium, enhancing immunity via antiallergic, antibacterial and antivirus. So, with research and development on the peculiar physiology function of chicory, it must have a bright prospect on discovering salubrious beverage, functional food and remedy with chicory at present and near future.

  5. Enantiomer distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in selected types of herbal honeys.

    PubMed

    Pažitná, Alexandra; Džúrová, Jana; Spánik, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    In this article, volatile organic compounds in 14 honey samples (rosemary, eucalyptus, orange, thyme, sage, and lavender) were identified. Volatile organic compounds were extracted using a solid phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry analysis. The studied honey samples were compared based on their volatile organic compounds composition. In total, more than 180 compounds were detected in the studied samples. The detected compounds belong to various chemical classes such as terpenes, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, norisoprenoids, benzene and furane derivatives, and organic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen heteroatom. Ten chiral compounds (linalool, trans-linalool oxide, cis-linalool oxide, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, hotrienol, and four stereoisomers of lilac aldehydes) were selected for further chiral separation.

  6. Evaluating in vitro dose-response effects of Lavandula officinalis essential oil on rumen fermentation characteristics, methane production and ruminal acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadeghari, Shahin; Malecky, Mostafa; Dehghan Banadaky, Mehdi; Navidshad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Four in vitro experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate lavender essential oil (LEO) effects at 0 (control), 250 (low dose), 500 (medium dose), 750 and 1000 µL per L (high doses) of incubation medium on rumen gas production kinetics (Exp.1), ruminal digestibility and fermentation (Exp.2), methane production (Exp.3) and rumen acidosis (Exp.4). The asymptote of gas production (A) increased quadratically (p < 0.001), but the lag phase (L) increased (p = 0.003), and gas production rate (µ) decreased linearly (p = 0.031) with increasing dose of LEO. A linear and quadratic effect (p < 0.01) was observed for the gas produced after 24 hr of incubation (GP24). In vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD) and in vitro true organic matter degradability (IVTOMD) both decreased linearly (p < 0.01), but microbial biomass (MB) and partitioning factor (PF) changed quadratically with increasing doses of LEO (p < 0.05). A cubic effect was observed for total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations (p < 0.05). Acetate molar percentage decreased (p = 0.004), whereas those of butyrate and valerate increased linearly (p < 0.05) with LEO dosage. The molar percentage of propionate increased by 10.60 and 12.00% at low and medium doses of LEO, respectively. Methane production decreased by 11.00 and 44.00 to 60.00% at medium and high doses of LEO (p < 0.05), respectively. Lavender essential oil decreased also ruminal pH at all included doses (p < 0.05), intensifying rumen acidosis. These results revealed a dose-dependent selective effect (stimulatory at low and medium, and inhibitory at high doses) of LEO on rumen fermentation. PMID:26973763

  7. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  8. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  9. The effect of early life experience, environment, and genetic factors on spontaneous home-cage aggression-related wounding in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Stottler, Aurora M; Garner, Joseph P; Winnicker, Christina W; Mulder, Guy B; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2017-03-22

    Aggression is a major welfare issue in mice, particularly when mice unfamiliar to each other are first placed in cages, as happens on receipt from a vendor, and following cage cleaning. Injuries from aggression are the second leading cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice, following ulcerative dermatitis. Commonly employed strategies for reducing aggression-related injury are largely anecdotal, and may even be counterproductive. Here we report a series of experiments testing potential explanations and interventions for post-shipping aggression-related injuries in C57BL/6 mice. First, we examined the effects of weaning: testing whether manipulating weaning age reduced aggression-related injuries, and if repeated mixing of weaned mice before shipping increased these injuries. Contrary to our predictions, repeated mixing did not increase post-shipping injurious aggression, and early weaning reduced aggression-related injuries. Second, we examined potential post-shipping interventions: testing whether lavender essential oil applied to the cage reduced aggression-related injuries, and whether a variety of enrichments decreased injurious aggression. Again, contrary to predictions, lavender increased wounding, and none of the enrichments reduced it. However, consistent with the effects of weaning age in the first experiment, cages with higher mean body weight showed elevated levels of aggression-related wounding. Finally, we tested whether C57BL/6 substrains and identification methods affected levels of intra-cage wounding from aggression. We found no effect of strain, but cages where mice were ear-notched for identification showed higher levels of wounding than cages where mice were tail-tattooed. Overall, these results emphasize the multifactorial nature of home-cage injurious aggression, and the importance of testing received wisdom when it comes to managing complex behavioral and welfare problems. In terms of practical recommendations to reduce aggressive wounding in

  10. Draft environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112). [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. Furthermore, the DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Davis Canyon site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Davis Canyon site is not one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization.

  11. Two lactones in the androconial scent of the lycaenid butterfly Celastrina argiolus ladonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ômura, Hisashi; Yakumaru, Kazuhisa; Honda, Keiichi; Itoh, Takao

    2013-04-01

    Male adult butterflies of many species have characteristic odors originating from the disseminating organs known as androconia. Despite the fact that androconia exist in several species, there have been few investigations on adult scents from the lycaenid species. Celastrina argiolus ladonides (Lycaenidae) is a common species in Eurasia. We have reported that male adults of this species emit a faint odor, and the major components causing this odor have been newly found in the Insecta. By using field-caught individuals, we determined the chemical nature and location of this odor in the butterfly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that two lactone compounds, lavender lactone and δ-decalactone, are present in the extracts of males but absent in those of the females. On an average, approximately 50 ng of each compound was found per male. Chiral GC analyses performed using enantiomerically pure standards revealed that the natural lavender lactone was a mixture of two enantiomers with an R/ S ratio of 32:68, whereas the natural δ-decalactone contained only the R-enantiomer. When the analyses were conducted using different parts—forewings, hindwings, and body—of three males, the lactones were more abundantly found on the forewings and hindwings than on the body. Microscopic observation of the wings demonstrated that battledore scales known as androconia are scattered on the upper surface of both the wings of C. argiolus ladonides males. These results indicate that the specialized scales on the wings of males serve as scent-disseminating organs.

  12. Lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus) control.

    PubMed

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2010-10-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of L. angustifolia essential oil (EO) against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari; Ixodidae) females. For this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w/v) of L. angustifolia EO were used. There was considerable mortality in concentrations more than 4.0% although there were no differences between 6.0 and 8.0% in all measured criteria. The mortality rate 24 h after inoculation was 73.26 and 100% in groups treated with 4.0 and 8.0% EO, respectively. Lavender EO also reduced tick egg weight in a concentration-dependent manner. The amount of eggs produced varied from 0.12 g (at 0.5% EO) to 0.00 g (at 8.0% EO) but did not differ statistically from the control. L. angustifolia EO caused 100% failure in egg laying at 6.0 and 8.0% whereas this value in the control group was zero. A positive correlation between L. angustifolia EO concentration and tick control, assessed by relative mortality rate and egg-laying weight, was observed by the EO LC/EC(50), which, when calculated using the Probit test, was 2.76-fold higher than the control. Lavender is a promising acaricidal against R. (B.) annulatus in vitro.

  13. Silexan, an essential oil from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia, is not recognized as benzodiazepine-like in rats trained to discriminate a diazepam cue.

    PubMed

    Silenieks, Leo B; Koch, Egon; Higgins, Guy A

    2013-01-15

    Recently, an essential oil of selected quality produced from the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. by steam distillation (Silexan) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of restlessness in case of anxious mood. Based on the observed clinical effects, it has been speculated that lavender oil may exert benzodiazepine-like action including the known dependence and abuse potential of this class of drugs. Although no evidence for such an activity was generated during the long-standing medicinal use of lavender oil, further preclinical investigations were now conducted to evaluate this potential side effect in more detail. Twelve adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate the benzodiazepine drug diazepam (2 mg/kg i.p.) from saline using a two-lever operant procedure. After approximately 40 training sessions the majority of rats learned the discrimination and pre-treatment with ascending doses of diazepam (0.3-2 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose related generalization to the diazepam cue. In these same animals Silexan was administered to see if animals recognized the drug as "diazepam-like" i.e. generalized to diazepam or "saline-like". Silexan tested at doses 3-30 mg/kg i.p. produced almost exclusively (>90%) saline-like responding. Also there was no effect of Silexan on response rate, i.e. rate of lever pressing, at any dose suggesting that the test article is well tolerated and does not exert a sedating effect. In sum, Silexan has no diazepam-like interoceptive property in adult, male rats. This suggests that Silexan does not share the potential of benzodiazepines to induce the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction.

  14. Space Radar Image of Pishan, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image is centered near the small town of Pishan in northwest China, about 280 km (174 miles) southeast of the city of Kashgar along the ancient Silk Route in the Taklamakan desert of the Xinjiang Province. Geologists are using this radar image as a map to study past climate changes and tectonics of the area. The irregular lavender branching patterns in the center of the image are the remains of ancient alluvial fans, gravel deposits that have accumulated at the base of the mountains during times of wetter climate. The subtle striped pattern cutting across the ancient fans are caused by thrusting of the Kun Lun Mountains north. This motion is caused by the continuing plate-tectonic collision of India with Asia. Modern fans show up as large lavender triangles above the ancient fan deposits. Yellow areas on the modern fans are vegetated oases. The gridded pattern results from the alignment of poplar trees that have been planted as wind breaks. The reservoir at the top of the image is part of a sophisticated irrigation system that supplies water to the oases. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. This image is centered at 37.4 degrees north latitude, 78.3 degrees east longitude and shows an area approximately 50 km by 100 km (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Development of a switchable multidimensional/comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic analytical system.

    PubMed

    Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Morrison, Paul D; Small, Darryl M; Marriott, Philip J

    2010-02-26

    In this study, a new system for analysis using a dual comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/targeted multidimensional gas chromatography (switchable GC x GC/targeted MDGC) analysis was developed. The configuration of this system not only permits the independent operation of GC, GC x GC and targeted MDGC analyses in separate analyses, but also allows the mode to be switched from GC x GC to targeted MDGC any number of times through a single analysis. By incorporating a Deans switch microfluidics transfer module prior to a cryotrapping device, the flow stream from the first dimension column can be directed to either one of two second dimension columns in a classical heart-cutting operation. Both second columns pass through the cryotrap to allow solute bands to be focused and then rapidly remobilized to the respective second columns. A short second column enables GC x GC operation, whilst a longer column is used for targeted MDGC. Validation of the system was performed using a standard mixture of compounds relevant to essential oil analysis, and then using compounds present at different abundances in lavender essential oil. Reproducibility of retention times and peak area responses demonstrated that there was negligible variation in the system over the course of multiple heart-cuts, and proved the reliable operation of the system. An application of the system to lavender oil, as a more complex sample, was carried out to affirm system feasibility, and demonstrate the ability of the system to target multiple components in the oil. The system was proposed to be useful for study of aroma-impact compounds where GC x GC can be incorporated with MDGC to permit precise identification of aroma-active compounds, where heart-cut multidimensional GC-olfactometry detection (MDGC-O) is a more appropriate technology for odour assessment.

  16. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  17. Health related management plans improve sleep disorders of patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunzi; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Yanbo; Zhang, Xiaoning; Sun, Yanyan; Zhou, Lin; Su, Beibei; Wang, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds: Sleep disorders (SDs) are commonly occurred in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and always bring with uncomfortable experience Lavender hot-bathing, foot-soaking, or progressive relaxation have been widely used to provide comfortable feeling for CLD patients and promote their sleep quality. Aims: Thus, the aim of present study is to investigate effective intervention from above mentioned in the managements of SD and promote sleep quality for CLD patients. Methods: This study was conducted in People's Liberation Army No. 302 Hospital. A total of 317 subjects joined in our research. Initially, 197 CLD patients were enrolled and divided randomly into four groups for receiving lavender hot-bathing and foot-soaking, progressive relaxation, or the combination of both methods, and controls. After that, all of enrolled subjects were given sleep state questionnaires to assess their sleep qualities and other associated factors. Self-rating scores of sleep (SRSS) was sued to assess sleep disorder. Furthermore, another cohort with 120 CLD patients were also investigated for further confirming related findings. Results: The SRSS scores were significantly higher in the patients with CLD (62.94%) than those of domestic common model and internal medicine inpatients. However, all three methods of intervention were effectively decreased SRSS scores. The four mostly influencing factors of sleep states were short sleep, difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep and early morning awakening. Besides, age was identified as one of associating with sleep states. 44.67% of patients suffered from polyuria, abdominal distention or itch of skin. And those factors contributed to major risk factors of sleep disorder. Furthermore, sleep states also influenced by environmental interference (37.06%). Conclusion: The health managements of health education could reduce risk factors and implement intervention strategies, effectively decreased occurrence of sleep disorder related

  18. The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism but Not Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Papailiou, Athan P; Yokum, David V; Robertson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, social scientists have shown that the reliability of eyewitness identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe. Although courts have only recently begun to react to this evidence, the New Jersey judiciary has reformed its jury instructions to notify jurors about the frailties of human memory, the potential for lineup administrators to nudge witnesses towards suspects that they police have already identified, and the advantages of alternative lineup procedures, including blinding of the administrator. This experiment tested the efficacy of New Jersey's jury instruction. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, mock jurors (N = 335) watched a 35-minute murder trial, wherein identification quality was either "weak" or "strong" and either the New Jersey or a "standard" instruction was delivered. Jurors were more than twice as likely to convict when the standard instruction was used (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.37-4.89, p < 0.001). The New Jersey instruction, however, did not improve juror's ability to discern quality; rather, jurors receiving those instructions indiscriminatingly discounted "weak" and "strong" testimony in equal measure.

  19. The emotional child witness: effects on juror decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Alexia; Quas, Jodi A; Cleveland, Kyndra C

    2014-01-01

    Despite wide variations in child witness behavior while on the stand, little research has focused on how that behavior influences jurors' perceptions of the child's credibility or the case itself. In the current study, the impact of a child's emotional displays on credibility judgments and verdict preferences was examined in jury-eligible college students and jurors released from jury duty. No significant differences emerged in perceptions or verdicts based on whether a child was shown as crying or not while participants read a transcript of the child's testimony. However, participants who rated the child as more emotional (regardless of whether the image showed a crying child) were more likely to render guilty verdicts, were more certain of guilt, and found the child more credible and the defendant less credible than participants who rated the child as less emotional. Also, when the child was perceived as low in emotion, older children were rated as less credible than younger children. The results have implications for understanding how children's emotional displays and jurors' perceptions of children's emotionality influence decisions in sexual abuse cases.

  20. Town vs. gown: a direct comparison of community residents and student mock jurors.

    PubMed

    Hosch, Harmon M; Culhane, Scott E; Tubb, V Anne; Granillo, Edgar A

    2011-01-01

    The use of students as mock jurors in the majority of legal psychology studies on jury behavior has been criticized (e.g., Bray & Kerr, 1979; Diamond, 1997). This study examined the degree to which student mock jurors' decisions were generalizable to those of real jurors. The participants of the study included 297 jury-eligible university students and 297 volunteers from the venire in the same community as that in which the students resided. All participants viewed one of six versions of a videotaped criminal trial. The defendant testified in English or in Spanish. In addition, the race of defendant was varied. Three bilingual individuals served as defendants with one appearing to be of northern European origin, one of Latino background, and one of African origin. Dependent variables included verdict and, for those who found the defendant guilty, the number of years to which he should be sentenced, and whether he should be fined. Student mock jurors differed reliably from their community counterparts on several demographic characteristics. However, the two groups had mixed results in relation to decision-making tasks. There was no difference in individual verdict preferences, but the students' sentence recommendations were more punitive. These results are interpreted in the context of the generalizability of mock juror studies.

  1. Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereš, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; Chastel, Serge; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugen A.; Morgan, Jeff S.; Price, Paul A.; Tonry, John L.; Waters, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a Monte Carlo technique to calculate the absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) of ∼240,000 asteroids observed by the Pan-STARRS1 telescope during the first 15 months of its 3-year all-sky survey mission. The system's exquisite photometry with photometric errors ≲ 0.04mag , and well-defined filter and photometric system, allowed us to derive accurate H and G even with a limited number of observations and restricted range in phase angles. Our Monte Carlo method simulates each asteroid's rotation period, amplitude and color to derive the most-likely H and G, but its major advantage is in estimating realistic statistical + systematic uncertainties and errors on each parameter. The method was tested by comparison with the well-established and accurate results for about 500 asteroids provided by Pravec et al. (Pravec, P. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 365-387) and then applied to determining H and G for the Pan-STARRS1 asteroids using both the Muinonen et al. (Muinonen, K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 209, 542-555) and Bowell et al. (Bowell, E. et al. [1989]. Asteroids III, Chapter Application of Photometric Models to Asteroids. University of Arizona Press, pp. 524-555) phase functions. Our results confirm the bias in MPC photometry discovered by Jurić et al. (Jurić, M. et al. [2002]. Astrophys. J. 124, 1776-1787).

  2. Roughness modelling based on human auditory perception for sound quality evaluation of vehicle interior noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Shen, G. Q.; Guo, H.; Tang, X. L.; Hamade, T.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a roughness model, which is based on human auditory perception (HAP) and known as HAP-RM, is developed for the sound quality evaluation (SQE) of vehicle noise. First, the interior noise signals are measured for a sample vehicle and prepared for roughness modelling. The HAP-RM model is based on the process of sound transfer and perception in the human auditory system by combining the structural filtering function and nonlinear perception characteristics of the ear. The HAP-RM model is applied to the measured vehicle interior noise signals by considering the factors that affect hearing, such as the modulation and carrier frequencies, the time and frequency maskings and the correlations of the critical bands. The HAP-RM model is validated by jury tests. An anchor-scaled scoring method (ASM) is used for subjective evaluations in the jury tests. The verification results show that the novel developed model can accurately calculate vehicle noise roughness below 0.6 asper. Further investigation shows that the total roughness of the vehicle interior noise can mainly be attributed to frequency components below 12 Bark. The time masking effects of the modelling procedure enable the application of the HAP-RM model to stationary and nonstationary vehicle noise signals and the SQE of other sound-related signals in engineering problems.

  3. Man with AIDS is awarded $1 million for abuse in jail.

    PubMed

    1996-03-22

    [Name removed], arrested for public intoxication, successfully sued the Jefferson County Department of Corrections and three prison guards. A Federal jury awarded [name removed] $1,180,000 for the abuse and mistreatment he endured during an overnight stay in the county jail. [Name removed], who is living with AIDS, was never given a sobriety test, and the charge of intoxication was later dismissed. However, [name removed] was strip-searched, denied the use of a toilet, shackled to his bed, kicked and threatened, and ridiculed about his homosexuality and HIV status. The suit charged that [name removed]'s Eighth Amendment protection against cruel and unusual punishment had been violated. The Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable strip-searches and the Americans with Disabilities Act's (ADA) protection against differential treatment based on disability were also cited. The jury found the Department of Corrections liable and the three guards responsible for actual and punitive damages. The county is still determining if it will appeal.

  4. The Novel New Jersey Eyewitness Instruction Induces Skepticism but Not Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, social scientists have shown that the reliability of eyewitness identifications is much worse than laypersons tend to believe. Although courts have only recently begun to react to this evidence, the New Jersey judiciary has reformed its jury instructions to notify jurors about the frailties of human memory, the potential for lineup administrators to nudge witnesses towards suspects that they police have already identified, and the advantages of alternative lineup procedures, including blinding of the administrator. This experiment tested the efficacy of New Jersey’s jury instruction. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, mock jurors (N = 335) watched a 35-minute murder trial, wherein identification quality was either “weak” or “strong” and either the New Jersey or a “standard” instruction was delivered. Jurors were more than twice as likely to convict when the standard instruction was used (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.37–4.89, p < 0.001). The New Jersey instruction, however, did not improve juror's ability to discern quality; rather, jurors receiving those instructions indiscriminatingly discounted “weak” and “strong” testimony in equal measure. PMID:26650237

  5. Sound transmission class (STC) is not a good predictor of performance of insulated wood frame gypsum walls used as interior partitions in most North American homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Richard D.; Alter, Harry; Berdan, Clarke

    2005-09-01

    Home owners say that insulating interior walls improves the acoustic environment. Based on STC alone, no perceptible difference is expected. To define ``improved,'' ethnographic and laboratory studies were conducted. Ethnographic studies in 33 homes, revealed owners want quieter, less reverberant environments, including rooms where added isolation is desired. Families lives are 24/7, leading to frustration that they cannot use their homes without disturbing others. Laboratory jury studies were conducted where 35 listeners rated the relative isolation of insulated and uninsulated walls. Noise sources included broadband and real home noises. Insulated walls were perceived to perform better than uninsulated walls in all cases. Noise control engineers know that STC is only a quick screening tool (actual sound transmission loss should be used to estimate noise reduction between rooms). This is what the jurors appeared to sense. Jury ratings and the midfrequency average SPL correlated reasonably well. The STC is determined by a structural resonance near 125 Hz. Above this band, insulation has a significant impact on transmission loss (perceptible, 6 dB average). A new rating system is needed that quantifies what actual listeners hear in quiet room environments. A model using some form of room criteria is suggested.

  6. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding.

  7. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  8. [Where it is shown that a quarrel about precedence can lead to the Holy Bible].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2006-11-01

    The custom to print a "synthesis", for the last part of the mastership examination, the "chef d'oeuvre" was established in most of French towns. Kind of printed programme, the "synthesis" was a sheet of paper, of poster size. It listed the practicals to perform and the members of the jury, etc. The listing of the apothecaries participating in the jury used to be accompanied by elogious formulations i.e. "celeberrimo coet-cui pharmacoporum". The physicians immeditely reacted. How was it possible? Such elogious terms should be used for medicine doctors only! Not for apothecaries! Various printed arguments were exchanged and a tumultuous process took place. A judgement occured on December 14 1656: Such terms of Honour should be avoided in the future. During this judiciary episode, Latin citations from "Ecclesistics, 38" were exchanged. This ridiculous quarell rised nevertheless some serious questions. Didn't the translation of the Bible in modern languages contain some indaquancies concerning the people in charge of preparing and dispensing the medicines? A study of original Greek texts showed that it was the case.

  9. Impact of Evidence Type and Judicial Warning on Juror Perceptions of Global and Specific Witness Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Keogan, Hannah

    2016-12-16

    The Court of Appeal in England and Wales held (R. v. Sardar, 2012) there had been no exceptional circumstances that justified a jury retiring with a transcript of the complainant's interview. This paper reports an investigation into the impact multiple evidence forms and use of a judicial warning has on juror evaluations of a witness. The warning focuses juror attention on placing disproportionate weight on the evidence as opposed to their general impression of it. Sixty jury-eligible participants were presented with witness evidence in transcript, video, or transcript plus video format. Half the participants in each condition received the warning. All mock jurors completed a questionnaire which assessed perceptions of witness and task. Outcomes showed that transcript plus video evidence, when accompanied by a warning, did impact on mock jurors' global assessments of the witness. The warning made the task less clear for jurors and, in the video condition, led to higher ratings of how satisfactory and reliable the witness was. Findings support the provision of a judicial warning to jurors and show some initial support for judiciary opposition to the provision of an additional transcript only when jurors are asked to make the more usual global witness assessments.

  10. Administrative "health courts" for medical injury claims: the federal constitutional issues.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E Donald; Narayan, Sanjay A; Nasmith, Moneen S

    2008-08-01

    Our article analyzes whether the federal government may constitutionally supplant a traditional system of common-law trials before state judges and juries with new federal institutions designed by statute for compensating victims of medical injuries. Specifically, this article examines the federal constitutional issues raised by various proposals to replace traditional medical malpractice litigation in state courts with a federal system of administrative "health courts." In doing so, we address the following constitutional issues: 1. Is there federal authority to preempt state law (the commerce clause and spending clause issues)? 2. May jurisdiction be created in non-article 3 tribunals, and may claims be decided without trial by jury (the separation of powers and Seventh Amendment issues)? 3. Would pilot programs that require some claims to be pursued in a federal administrative forum while other claimants are left to pursue traditional state tort law remedies be constitutional (the equal protection issue)? The article concludes that a federal compensation system through administrative health courts should be constitutional provided the statute is appropriately drafted and that appropriate factual findings are made concerning the benefits to patients and the public as well as to doctors and their insurers.

  11. A propensity score matching analysis of the relationship between victim sex and capital juror decision-making in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Smith, M Dwayne; Bjerregaard, Beth; Fogel, Sondra J

    2015-07-01

    A small body of prior research has examined the impact of victim sex on jury death penalty decision-making and the majority of this research has demonstrated some evidence of a "female victim effect" such that cases involving a female victim are more likely to receive the death penalty than similarly situated cases with a male victim. However, within this line of research studies have suggested that victim sex may work in conjunction with other case characteristics. In order to further explore this phenomenon, the current study examines a near-population of death penalty cases from North Carolina (n=1069) from 1977-2009 using propensity score matching. Results demonstrate that once cases are matched on more than 50 legal and extralegal case characteristics, there is no statistically significant or substantive link between victim sex and death penalty decision-making. Findings suggest that it is concrete differences in the legal and extralegal factors observed in cases with female victims compared to male victims that shape jury death sentence decisions rather than a direct effect of victim sex (before matching: OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.20-1.95; p<.001/after matching: OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.66-1.24; p=.52). Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  12. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  13. Don't Ask a Neuroscientist about Phases of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Shats, Katherine; Brindley, Timothy; Giordano, James

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing developments in neuroscientific techniques and technologies-such as neuroimaging-offer potential for greater insight into human behavior and have fostered temptation to use these approaches in legal contexts. Neuroscientists are increasingly called on to provide expert testimony, interpret brain images, and thereby inform judges and juries who are tasked with determining the guilt or innocence of an individual. In this essay, we draw attention to the actual capabilities and limitations of currently available assessment neurotechnologies and examine whether neuroscientific evidence presents unique challenges to existing frameworks of evidence law. In particular, we focus on (1) fundamental questions of relevance and admissibility that can and should be posed before the tests afforded in Daubert v. Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals or Frye v. U.S. are applied and (2) how these considerations fit into the broader contexts of criminal law. We contend that neuroscientific evidence must first be scrutinized more heavily for its relevance, within Daubert and Federal Rule of Evidence 702, to ensure that the right questions are asked of neuroscientists, so as to enable expert interpretation of neuroscientific evidence within the limits of their knowledge and discipline that allows the judge or jury to determine the facts at issue in the case. We use the analogy provided by the Daubert court of an expert on the phases of the moon testifying to an individual's behavior on a particular night to ensure that we are, in fact, asking the neuroscientific expert the appropriate question.

  14. A quantum probability account of order effects in inference.

    PubMed

    Trueblood, Jennifer S; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2011-01-01

    Order of information plays a crucial role in the process of updating beliefs across time. In fact, the presence of order effects makes a classical or Bayesian approach to inference difficult. As a result, the existing models of inference, such as the belief-adjustment model, merely provide an ad hoc explanation for these effects. We postulate a quantum inference model for order effects based on the axiomatic principles of quantum probability theory. The quantum inference model explains order effects by transforming a state vector with different sequences of operators for different orderings of information. We demonstrate this process by fitting the quantum model to data collected in a medical diagnostic task and a jury decision-making task. To further test the quantum inference model, a new jury decision-making experiment is developed. Using the results of this experiment, we compare the quantum inference model with two versions of the belief-adjustment model, the adding model and the averaging model. We show that both the quantum model and the adding model provide good fits to the data. To distinguish the quantum model from the adding model, we develop a new experiment involving extreme evidence. The results from this new experiment suggest that the adding model faces limitations when accounting for tasks involving extreme evidence, whereas the quantum inference model does not. Ultimately, we argue that the quantum model provides a more coherent account for order effects that was not possible before.

  15. Measuring knowledge of the insanity defense: scale construction and validation.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Groscup, Jennifer L; O'Connor, Maureen; Coffaro, Frank; Galietta, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Given the influence of social conformity and prejudice, defendants pleading not guilty by reason of insanity face the significant challenges of securing fair and impartial juries. Attitudes and knowledge of the insanity defense are factors that may influence levels of impartiality. In the light of this, we set out to develop a scale to examine knowledge levels of the insanity defense and their influence on decision-making. Two studies were conducted to construct a scale designed to assess laypersons' knowledge of the insanity defense. Items measuring knowledge of the insanity defense were based on Perlin's (1995) insanity defense myths. The first study identified particular items in need of revision and subscales that required the development of additional items in order to improve reliability and construct validity in the second study. The second study used the revised scale, demonstrating improved validity and reliability. The scale also had acceptable predictive validity with reference to insanity defense verdicts.

  16. Expert testimony and the effects of a biological approach, psychopathy, and juror attitudes in cases of insanity.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Jariel A; Huss, Matthew T; Jensen, Maren L

    2010-01-01

    Amid growing psychological controversy and legal interest surrounding the uses of PCL-R and biological evidence in the legal system, this mock jury study assessed the effects of PCL-R and biological evidence on outcomes in an insanity defense case. A sample of 428 undergraduates read a trial transcript of an insanity defense murder case. Three variables of interest were manipulated: rebuttal illness (no mental illness, personality disorder, or psychopathy), evidentiary basis (biological or psychological), and evidentiary strength (moderately strong or moderately weak). Consistent with the hypotheses, biological evidence was more persuasive than psychological evidence, and the rebuttal was slightly more successful when the prosecution labeled the defendant as a "psychopath" than when they described him simply as "not mentally ill."

  17. Searching for Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2010-09-01

    Is space-time only brought into being by its energy content? The jury is still out, but other questions that have been with me for much of my life—giant black holes in galactic nuclei, the formation of the Galaxy, the connection between first-order phase transitions and negative specific heats, the cause of the large-scale flow of galaxies relative to the cosmic microwave background—have all received reasonable answers. I have found great fun in understanding the dynamical mechanisms underlying such phenomena as magnetohydrodynamic jets, relativistic disks, and the bars, spirals, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The great challenges for future astronomers will be the exploration of the 96% of the Universe now believed to be neither atomic nor baryonic but perhaps partially leptonic. However, most advances do not come via frontal attack but from “bread-and-butter” investigations in related areas where observation is possible today!

  18. “Everyone knew but no one had proof”: tobacco industry use of medical history expertise in US courts, 1990–2002

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Robert N

    2006-01-01

    Historians have played an important role in recent tobacco litigation, helping the industry with its defence of “common knowledge” and “open controversy”. Historians re‐narrate the past, creating an account for judges and juries that makes it appear that “everyone has always known” that cigarettes are harmful, meaning that smokers have only themselves to blame for their illnesses. Medical historians are also employed to argue that “honest doubts” persisted in the medical community long past the 1950s, justifying as responsible the industry's longstanding claim of “no proof” of hazards. The industry's experts emphasise the “good science” supported by the industry, and ignore the industry's role in spreading doubts about the reality of tobacco hazards. PMID:17130619

  19. Appeals court says FBI erred in terminating doctor's services. Federal Bureau of Investigations.

    PubMed

    1995-09-22

    The late Dr. [name removed] of San Francisco had a four-year contract to perform physical exams on local FBI agents and job applicants. When the FBI learned that Dr. [name removed] had AIDS, the San Francisco field office stopped using his services. An initial non-jury trial found that Dr. [name removed] did not have private right of action to sue the Federal government, and that his evasive answers as to his state of health and risk of transmission had prevented the FBI from learning the extent of risk. Upon appeal by Dr. [name removed]'s estate, however, a Federal court determined that the FBI had terminated Dr. [name removed] based on his HIV status, not on the quality of his work. The FBI's actions violated the 1973 Rehabilitation Act barring government-funded programs from discrimination based on disability.

  20. Rethinking argumentation-teaching strategies and indigenous knowledge in South African science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Òtúlàjà, Fẹ´Mi S.; Cameron, Ann; Msimanga, Audrey

    2011-09-01

    Our response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper focuses, on the one hand, on some of the underlying tensions associated with alinging indigenous knowledge systems with westernized science in South African science classrooms, as suggested by the new, post-apartheid, curriculum. On the other hand, the use of argumentation as a vehicle to accomplish the alignment when the jury is still out on the appropriateness of argumentation as a pedagogical and research tool heightens the tension. We argue that the need for education stakeholders from indigenous heritages to value, know and document their own indigenous knowledge becomes paramount. The textualizing of indigenous knowledge, as has been done in western science, will create repositories for teachers to access and may help with the argumentation strategies such as advocated by the authors.